File: string_util.cc

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/* -*- Mode: C++; tab-width: 8; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 2 -*- */
/* vim: set ts=8 sts=2 et sw=2 tw=80: */
// Copyright (c) 2006-2008 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include "base/string_util.h"

#include "build/build_config.h"

#include <ctype.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <wctype.h>

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

#include "base/basictypes.h"
#include "base/logging.h"
#include "base/singleton.h"

namespace {

// Force the singleton used by Empty[W]String[16] to be a unique type. This
// prevents other code that might accidentally use Singleton<string> from
// getting our internal one.
struct EmptyStrings {
  EmptyStrings() {}
  const std::string s;
  const std::wstring ws;
  const string16 s16;
};

// Hack to convert any char-like type to its unsigned counterpart.
// For example, it will convert char, signed char and unsigned char to unsigned
// char.
template<typename T>
struct ToUnsigned {
  typedef T Unsigned;
};

template<>
struct ToUnsigned<char> {
  typedef unsigned char Unsigned;
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<signed char> {
  typedef unsigned char Unsigned;
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<wchar_t> {
#if defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF16)
  typedef unsigned short Unsigned;
#elif defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF32)
  typedef uint32_t Unsigned;
#endif
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<short> {
  typedef unsigned short Unsigned;
};

// Generalized string-to-number conversion.
//
// StringToNumberTraits should provide:
//  - a typedef for string_type, the STL string type used as input.
//  - a typedef for value_type, the target numeric type.
//  - a static function, convert_func, which dispatches to an appropriate
//    strtol-like function and returns type value_type.
//  - a static function, valid_func, which validates |input| and returns a bool
//    indicating whether it is in proper form.  This is used to check for
//    conditions that convert_func tolerates but should result in
//    StringToNumber returning false.  For strtol-like funtions, valid_func
//    should check for leading whitespace.
template<typename StringToNumberTraits>
bool StringToNumber(const typename StringToNumberTraits::string_type& input,
                    typename StringToNumberTraits::value_type* output) {
  typedef StringToNumberTraits traits;

  errno = 0;  // Thread-safe?  It is on at least Mac, Linux, and Windows.
  typename traits::string_type::value_type* endptr = NULL;
  typename traits::value_type value = traits::convert_func(input.c_str(),
                                                           &endptr);
  *output = value;

  // Cases to return false:
  //  - If errno is ERANGE, there was an overflow or underflow.
  //  - If the input string is empty, there was nothing to parse.
  //  - If endptr does not point to the end of the string, there are either
  //    characters remaining in the string after a parsed number, or the string
  //    does not begin with a parseable number.  endptr is compared to the
  //    expected end given the string's stated length to correctly catch cases
  //    where the string contains embedded NUL characters.
  //  - valid_func determines that the input is not in preferred form.
  return errno == 0 &&
         !input.empty() &&
         input.c_str() + input.length() == endptr &&
         traits::valid_func(input);
}

class StringToLongTraits {
 public:
  typedef std::string string_type;
  typedef long value_type;
  static const int kBase = 10;
  static inline value_type convert_func(const string_type::value_type* str,
                                        string_type::value_type** endptr) {
    return strtol(str, endptr, kBase);
  }
  static inline bool valid_func(const string_type& str) {
    return !str.empty() && !isspace(str[0]);
  }
};

class String16ToLongTraits {
 public:
  typedef string16 string_type;
  typedef long value_type;
  static const int kBase = 10;
  static inline value_type convert_func(const string_type::value_type* str,
                                        string_type::value_type** endptr) {
#if defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF16)
    return wcstol(str, endptr, kBase);
#elif defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF32)
    std::string ascii_string = UTF16ToASCII(string16(str));
    char* ascii_end = NULL;
    value_type ret = strtol(ascii_string.c_str(), &ascii_end, kBase);
    if (ascii_string.c_str() + ascii_string.length() == ascii_end) {
      *endptr =
          const_cast<string_type::value_type*>(str) + ascii_string.length();
    }
    return ret;
#endif
  }
  static inline bool valid_func(const string_type& str) {
    return !str.empty() && !iswspace(str[0]);
  }
};

class StringToInt64Traits {
 public:
  typedef std::string string_type;
  typedef int64_t value_type;
  static const int kBase = 10;
  static inline value_type convert_func(const string_type::value_type* str,
                                        string_type::value_type** endptr) {
#ifdef OS_WIN
    return _strtoi64(str, endptr, kBase);
#else  // assume OS_POSIX
    return strtoll(str, endptr, kBase);
#endif
  }
  static inline bool valid_func(const string_type& str) {
    return !str.empty() && !isspace(str[0]);
  }
};

class String16ToInt64Traits {
 public:
  typedef string16 string_type;
  typedef int64_t value_type;
  static const int kBase = 10;
  static inline value_type convert_func(const string_type::value_type* str,
                                        string_type::value_type** endptr) {
#ifdef OS_WIN
    return _wcstoi64(str, endptr, kBase);
#else  // assume OS_POSIX
    std::string ascii_string = UTF16ToASCII(string16(str));
    char* ascii_end = NULL;
    value_type ret = strtoll(ascii_string.c_str(), &ascii_end, kBase);
    if (ascii_string.c_str() + ascii_string.length() == ascii_end) {
      *endptr =
          const_cast<string_type::value_type*>(str) + ascii_string.length();
    }
    return ret;
#endif
  }
  static inline bool valid_func(const string_type& str) {
    return !str.empty() && !iswspace(str[0]);
  }
};

}  // namespace


namespace base {

bool IsWprintfFormatPortable(const wchar_t* format) {
  for (const wchar_t* position = format; *position != '\0'; ++position) {

    if (*position == '%') {
      bool in_specification = true;
      bool modifier_l = false;
      while (in_specification) {
        // Eat up characters until reaching a known specifier.
        if (*++position == '\0') {
          // The format string ended in the middle of a specification.  Call
          // it portable because no unportable specifications were found.  The
          // string is equally broken on all platforms.
          return true;
        }

        if (*position == 'l') {
          // 'l' is the only thing that can save the 's' and 'c' specifiers.
          modifier_l = true;
        } else if (((*position == 's' || *position == 'c') && !modifier_l) ||
                   *position == 'S' || *position == 'C' || *position == 'F' ||
                   *position == 'D' || *position == 'O' || *position == 'U') {
          // Not portable.
          return false;
        }

        if (wcschr(L"diouxXeEfgGaAcspn%", *position)) {
          // Portable, keep scanning the rest of the format string.
          in_specification = false;
        }
      }
    }

  }

  return true;
}


}  // namespace base

static const wchar_t kWhitespaceWide[] = {
  0x0009,  // <control-0009> to <control-000D>
  0x000A,
  0x000B,
  0x000C,
  0x000D,
  0x0020,  // Space
  0x0085,  // <control-0085>
  0x00A0,  // No-Break Space
  0x1680,  // Ogham Space Mark
  0x180E,  // Mongolian Vowel Separator
  0x2000,  // En Quad to Hair Space
  0x2001,
  0x2002,
  0x2003,
  0x2004,
  0x2005,
  0x2006,
  0x2007,
  0x2008,
  0x2009,
  0x200A,
  0x200C,  // Zero Width Non-Joiner
  0x2028,  // Line Separator
  0x2029,  // Paragraph Separator
  0x202F,  // Narrow No-Break Space
  0x205F,  // Medium Mathematical Space
  0x3000,  // Ideographic Space
  0
};
static const char kWhitespaceASCII[] = {
  0x09,    // <control-0009> to <control-000D>
  0x0A,
  0x0B,
  0x0C,
  0x0D,
  0x20,    // Space
  0
};

template<typename STR>
TrimPositions TrimStringT(const STR& input,
                          const typename STR::value_type trim_chars[],
                          TrimPositions positions,
                          STR* output) {
  // Find the edges of leading/trailing whitespace as desired.
  const typename STR::size_type last_char = input.length() - 1;
  const typename STR::size_type first_good_char = (positions & TRIM_LEADING) ?
      input.find_first_not_of(trim_chars) : 0;
  const typename STR::size_type last_good_char = (positions & TRIM_TRAILING) ?
      input.find_last_not_of(trim_chars) : last_char;

  // When the string was all whitespace, report that we stripped off whitespace
  // from whichever position the caller was interested in.  For empty input, we
  // stripped no whitespace, but we still need to clear |output|.
  if (input.empty() ||
      (first_good_char == STR::npos) || (last_good_char == STR::npos)) {
    bool input_was_empty = input.empty();  // in case output == &input
    output->clear();
    return input_was_empty ? TRIM_NONE : positions;
  }

  // Trim the whitespace.
  *output =
      input.substr(first_good_char, last_good_char - first_good_char + 1);

  // Return where we trimmed from.
  return static_cast<TrimPositions>(
      ((first_good_char == 0) ? TRIM_NONE : TRIM_LEADING) |
      ((last_good_char == last_char) ? TRIM_NONE : TRIM_TRAILING));
}

TrimPositions TrimWhitespace(const std::wstring& input,
                             TrimPositions positions,
                             std::wstring* output) {
  return TrimStringT(input, kWhitespaceWide, positions, output);
}

TrimPositions TrimWhitespaceASCII(const std::string& input,
                                  TrimPositions positions,
                                  std::string* output) {
  return TrimStringT(input, kWhitespaceASCII, positions, output);
}

// This function is only for backward-compatibility.
// To be removed when all callers are updated.
TrimPositions TrimWhitespace(const std::string& input,
                             TrimPositions positions,
                             std::string* output) {
  return TrimWhitespaceASCII(input, positions, output);
}

std::string WideToASCII(const std::wstring& wide) {
  DCHECK(IsStringASCII(wide));
  return std::string(wide.begin(), wide.end());
}

std::wstring ASCIIToWide(const std::string& ascii) {
  DCHECK(IsStringASCII(ascii));
  return std::wstring(ascii.begin(), ascii.end());
}

std::string UTF16ToASCII(const string16& utf16) {
  DCHECK(IsStringASCII(utf16));
  return std::string(utf16.begin(), utf16.end());
}

string16 ASCIIToUTF16(const std::string& ascii) {
  DCHECK(IsStringASCII(ascii));
  return string16(ascii.begin(), ascii.end());
}

template<class STR>
static bool DoIsStringASCII(const STR& str) {
  for (size_t i = 0; i < str.length(); i++) {
    typename ToUnsigned<typename STR::value_type>::Unsigned c = str[i];
    if (c > 0x7F)
      return false;
  }
  return true;
}

bool IsStringASCII(const std::wstring& str) {
  return DoIsStringASCII(str);
}

#if !defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF16)
bool IsStringASCII(const string16& str) {
  return DoIsStringASCII(str);
}
#endif

bool IsStringASCII(const std::string& str) {
  return DoIsStringASCII(str);
}

// Overloaded wrappers around vsnprintf and vswprintf. The buf_size parameter
// is the size of the buffer. These return the number of characters in the
// formatted string excluding the NUL terminator. If the buffer is not
// large enough to accommodate the formatted string without truncation, they
// return the number of characters that would be in the fully-formatted string
// (vsnprintf, and vswprintf on Windows), or -1 (vswprintf on POSIX platforms).
inline int vsnprintfT(char* buffer,
                      size_t buf_size,
                      const char* format,
                      va_list argptr) {
  return base::vsnprintf(buffer, buf_size, format, argptr);
}

inline int vsnprintfT(wchar_t* buffer,
                      size_t buf_size,
                      const wchar_t* format,
                      va_list argptr) {
  return base::vswprintf(buffer, buf_size, format, argptr);
}

// Templatized backend for StringPrintF/StringAppendF. This does not finalize
// the va_list, the caller is expected to do that.
template <class StringType>
static void StringAppendVT(StringType* dst,
                           const typename StringType::value_type* format,
                           va_list ap) {
  // First try with a small fixed size buffer.
  // This buffer size should be kept in sync with StringUtilTest.GrowBoundary
  // and StringUtilTest.StringPrintfBounds.
  typename StringType::value_type stack_buf[1024];

  va_list backup_ap;
  base_va_copy(backup_ap, ap);

#if !defined(OS_WIN)
  errno = 0;
#endif
  int result = vsnprintfT(stack_buf, arraysize(stack_buf), format, backup_ap);
  va_end(backup_ap);

  if (result >= 0 && result < static_cast<int>(arraysize(stack_buf))) {
    // It fit.
    dst->append(stack_buf, result);
    return;
  }

  // Repeatedly increase buffer size until it fits.
  int mem_length = arraysize(stack_buf);
  while (true) {
    if (result < 0) {
#if !defined(OS_WIN)
      // On Windows, vsnprintfT always returns the number of characters in a
      // fully-formatted string, so if we reach this point, something else is
      // wrong and no amount of buffer-doubling is going to fix it.
      if (errno != 0 && errno != EOVERFLOW)
#endif
      {
        // If an error other than overflow occurred, it's never going to work.
        DLOG(WARNING) << "Unable to printf the requested string due to error.";
        return;
      }
      // Try doubling the buffer size.
      mem_length *= 2;
    } else {
      // We need exactly "result + 1" characters.
      mem_length = result + 1;
    }

    if (mem_length > 32 * 1024 * 1024) {
      // That should be plenty, don't try anything larger.  This protects
      // against huge allocations when using vsnprintfT implementations that
      // return -1 for reasons other than overflow without setting errno.
      DLOG(WARNING) << "Unable to printf the requested string due to size.";
      return;
    }

    std::vector<typename StringType::value_type> mem_buf(mem_length);

    // Restore the va_list before we use it again.
    base_va_copy(backup_ap, ap);

    result = vsnprintfT(&mem_buf[0], mem_length, format, ap);
    va_end(backup_ap);

    if ((result >= 0) && (result < mem_length)) {
      // It fit.
      dst->append(&mem_buf[0], result);
      return;
    }
  }
}

namespace {

template <typename STR, typename INT, typename UINT, bool NEG>
struct IntToStringT {

  // This is to avoid a compiler warning about unary minus on unsigned type.
  // For example, say you had the following code:
  //   template <typename INT>
  //   INT abs(INT value) { return value < 0 ? -value : value; }
  // Even though if INT is unsigned, it's impossible for value < 0, so the
  // unary minus will never be taken, the compiler will still generate a
  // warning.  We do a little specialization dance...
  template <typename INT2, typename UINT2, bool NEG2>
  struct ToUnsignedT { };

  template <typename INT2, typename UINT2>
  struct ToUnsignedT<INT2, UINT2, false> {
    static UINT2 ToUnsigned(INT2 value) {
      return static_cast<UINT2>(value);
    }
  };

  template <typename INT2, typename UINT2>
  struct ToUnsignedT<INT2, UINT2, true> {
    static UINT2 ToUnsigned(INT2 value) {
      return static_cast<UINT2>(value < 0 ? -value : value);
    }
  };

  // This set of templates is very similar to the above templates, but
  // for testing whether an integer is negative.
  template <typename INT2, bool NEG2>
  struct TestNegT {};
  template <typename INT2>
  struct TestNegT<INT2, false> {
    static bool TestNeg(INT2 value) {
      // value is unsigned, and can never be negative.
      return false;
    }
  };
  template <typename INT2>
  struct TestNegT<INT2, true> {
    static bool TestNeg(INT2 value) {
      return value < 0;
    }
  };

  static STR IntToString(INT value) {
    // log10(2) ~= 0.3 bytes needed per bit or per byte log10(2**8) ~= 2.4.
    // So round up to allocate 3 output characters per byte, plus 1 for '-'.
    const int kOutputBufSize = 3 * sizeof(INT) + 1;

    // Allocate the whole string right away, we will right back to front, and
    // then return the substr of what we ended up using.
    STR outbuf(kOutputBufSize, 0);

    bool is_neg = TestNegT<INT, NEG>::TestNeg(value);
    // Even though is_neg will never be true when INT is parameterized as
    // unsigned, even the presence of the unary operation causes a warning.
    UINT res = ToUnsignedT<INT, UINT, NEG>::ToUnsigned(value);

    for (typename STR::iterator it = outbuf.end();;) {
      --it;
      DCHECK(it != outbuf.begin());
      *it = static_cast<typename STR::value_type>((res % 10) + '0');
      res /= 10;

      // We're done..
      if (res == 0) {
        if (is_neg) {
          --it;
          DCHECK(it != outbuf.begin());
          *it = static_cast<typename STR::value_type>('-');
        }
        return STR(it, outbuf.end());
      }
    }
    NOTREACHED();
    return STR();
  }
};

}

std::string IntToString(int value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::string, int, unsigned int, true>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::wstring IntToWString(int value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::wstring, int, unsigned int, true>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::string UintToString(unsigned int value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::string, unsigned int, unsigned int, false>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::wstring UintToWString(unsigned int value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::wstring, unsigned int, unsigned int, false>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::string Int64ToString(int64_t value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::string, int64_t, uint64_t, true>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::wstring Int64ToWString(int64_t value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::wstring, int64_t, uint64_t, true>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::string Uint64ToString(uint64_t value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::string, uint64_t, uint64_t, false>::
      IntToString(value);
}
std::wstring Uint64ToWString(uint64_t value) {
  return IntToStringT<std::wstring, uint64_t, uint64_t, false>::
      IntToString(value);
}

// Lower-level routine that takes a va_list and appends to a specified
// string.  All other routines are just convenience wrappers around it.
static void StringAppendV(std::string* dst, const char* format, va_list ap) {
  StringAppendVT(dst, format, ap);
}

static void StringAppendV(std::wstring* dst, const wchar_t* format, va_list ap) {
  StringAppendVT(dst, format, ap);
}

std::string StringPrintf(const char* format, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  std::string result;
  StringAppendV(&result, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return result;
}

std::wstring StringPrintf(const wchar_t* format, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  std::wstring result;
  StringAppendV(&result, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return result;
}

const std::string& SStringPrintf(std::string* dst, const char* format, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  dst->clear();
  StringAppendV(dst, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return *dst;
}

const std::wstring& SStringPrintf(std::wstring* dst,
                                  const wchar_t* format, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  dst->clear();
  StringAppendV(dst, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return *dst;
}

void StringAppendF(std::string* dst, const char* format, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  StringAppendV(dst, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}

void StringAppendF(std::wstring* dst, const wchar_t* format, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  StringAppendV(dst, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}

template<typename STR>
static void SplitStringT(const STR& str,
                         const typename STR::value_type s,
                         bool trim_whitespace,
                         std::vector<STR>* r) {
  size_t last = 0;
  size_t i;
  size_t c = str.size();
  for (i = 0; i <= c; ++i) {
    if (i == c || str[i] == s) {
      size_t len = i - last;
      STR tmp = str.substr(last, len);
      if (trim_whitespace) {
        STR t_tmp;
        TrimWhitespace(tmp, TRIM_ALL, &t_tmp);
        r->push_back(t_tmp);
      } else {
        r->push_back(tmp);
      }
      last = i + 1;
    }
  }
}

void SplitString(const std::wstring& str,
                 wchar_t s,
                 std::vector<std::wstring>* r) {
  SplitStringT(str, s, true, r);
}

void SplitString(const std::string& str,
                 char s,
                 std::vector<std::string>* r) {
  SplitStringT(str, s, true, r);
}

// For the various *ToInt conversions, there are no *ToIntTraits classes to use
// because there's no such thing as strtoi.  Use *ToLongTraits through a cast
// instead, requiring that long and int are compatible and equal-width.  They
// are on our target platforms.

// XXX Sigh.

#if !defined(ARCH_CPU_64_BITS)
bool StringToInt(const std::string& input, int* output) {
  COMPILE_ASSERT(sizeof(int) == sizeof(long), cannot_strtol_to_int);
  return StringToNumber<StringToLongTraits>(input,
                                            reinterpret_cast<long*>(output));
}

bool StringToInt(const string16& input, int* output) {
  COMPILE_ASSERT(sizeof(int) == sizeof(long), cannot_wcstol_to_int);
  return StringToNumber<String16ToLongTraits>(input,
                                              reinterpret_cast<long*>(output));
}

#else
bool StringToInt(const std::string& input, int* output) {
  long tmp;
  bool ok = StringToNumber<StringToLongTraits>(input, &tmp);
  if (!ok || tmp > kint32max) {
    return false;
  }
  *output = static_cast<int>(tmp);
  return true;
}

bool StringToInt(const string16& input, int* output) {
  long tmp;
  bool ok = StringToNumber<String16ToLongTraits>(input, &tmp);
  if (!ok || tmp > kint32max) {
    return false;
  }
  *output = static_cast<int>(tmp);
  return true;
}
#endif //  !defined(ARCH_CPU_64_BITS)

bool StringToInt64(const std::string& input, int64_t* output) {
  return StringToNumber<StringToInt64Traits>(input, output);
}

bool StringToInt64(const string16& input, int64_t* output) {
  return StringToNumber<String16ToInt64Traits>(input, output);
}

int StringToInt(const std::string& value) {
  int result;
  StringToInt(value, &result);
  return result;
}

int StringToInt(const string16& value) {
  int result;
  StringToInt(value, &result);
  return result;
}

int64_t StringToInt64(const std::string& value) {
  int64_t result;
  StringToInt64(value, &result);
  return result;
}

int64_t StringToInt64(const string16& value) {
  int64_t result;
  StringToInt64(value, &result);
  return result;
}

// The following code is compatible with the OpenBSD lcpy interface.  See:
//   http://www.gratisoft.us/todd/papers/strlcpy.html
//   ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/src/lib/libc/string/{wcs,str}lcpy.c

namespace {

template <typename CHAR>
size_t lcpyT(CHAR* dst, const CHAR* src, size_t dst_size) {
  for (size_t i = 0; i < dst_size; ++i) {
    if ((dst[i] = src[i]) == 0)  // We hit and copied the terminating NULL.
      return i;
  }

  // We were left off at dst_size.  We over copied 1 byte.  Null terminate.
  if (dst_size != 0)
    dst[dst_size - 1] = 0;

  // Count the rest of the |src|, and return it's length in characters.
  while (src[dst_size]) ++dst_size;
  return dst_size;
}

}  // namespace

size_t base::strlcpy(char* dst, const char* src, size_t dst_size) {
  return lcpyT<char>(dst, src, dst_size);
}
size_t base::wcslcpy(wchar_t* dst, const wchar_t* src, size_t dst_size) {
  return lcpyT<wchar_t>(dst, src, dst_size);
}