File: Install-unix.txt

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UNIX/Cygwin/MinGW COMPILATION

Note:

  Platform specific notes regarding specific operating systems may be found
  in the Platforms.txt file.  This document  provides generic instructions
  which work in most common cases.  Additional notes regarding Cygwin &
  MinGW are provided later in this file.

Type:

    gzip -dc ImageMagick-6.0.5.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    cd ImageMagick-6.0.5

If you do not have gzip(1), the source for the gzip package is available
as a shell archive at

    ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.2.4a.shar

or as a tar archive at

    ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.2.4a.tar

Use the 'configure' script to automatically configure, build, and install
ImageMagick.  The configure script may be executed from the ImageMagick source
directory (e.g ./configure) or from a seperate build directory by specifying
the full path to configure (e.g.  /src/ImageMagick-6.0.5/configure).  The
advantage of using a seperate build directory is that multiple ImageMagick
builds may share the same ImageMagick source directory while allowing each
build to use a unique set of options.

If you are willing to accept configure's default options, and build from
within the source directory, type:

    ./configure

and watch the configure script output to verify that it finds everything
that you think it should.  If it does not, then adjust your environment
so that it does.

By default,

    make install

will install the package's files in `/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/lib', etc..
You can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
`configure' the option `--prefix=PATH'.  This is valuable in case you don't
have privileges to install under the default paths or if you want to install
in the system directories instead.

If you are not happy with configure's choice of compiler, compilation flags,
or libraries, you can give `configure' initial values for variables by
specifying them on the configure command line, e.g.:

    ./configure CC=c89 CFLAGS=-O2 LIBS=-lposix

Options which should be common to packages installed under the same directory
heirarchy may be supplied via a 'config.site' file located under the
installation prefix via the path ${prefix}/share/config.site where ${prefix} is
the installation prefix.  This file is used for all packages installed under
that prefix.  This is an example config.site file:

    # Configuration values for all packages installed under this prefix
    CC=gcc
    CXX=c++
    CPPFLAGS='-I/usr/local/include'
    LDFLAGS='-L/usr/local/lib -R/usr/local/lib'

When the 'config.site' file is being used to supply configuration options,
configure will issue a message similar to:

    configure: loading site script /usr/local/share/config.site

The configure variables you should be aware of are:

    CC          Name of C compiler (e.g. 'cc -Xa') to use
    CXX         Name of C++ compiler to use (e.g. 'CC')
    CFLAGS      Compiler flags (e.g. '-g -O2') to compile C code
    CXXFLAGS    Compiler flags (e.g. '-g -O2') to compile C++ code
    CPPFLAGS    Include paths (-I/somedir) to look for header files
    LDFLAGS     Library paths (-L/somedir) to look for libraries
                Systems that support the notion of a library run-path
                may require an additional argument in order to find
                shared libraries at run time. For example, the Solaris
                linker requires an argument of the form '-R/somedir',
                some Linux systems will work with '-rpath /somedir',
                while some other Linux systems who's gcc does not pass
                -rpath to the linker require an argument of the form
                '-Wl,-rpath,/somedir'.
    LIBS        Extra libraries (-lsomelib) required to link

Any variable (e.g. CPPFLAGS or LDFLAGS) which requires a directory path must
specify an absolute path rather than a relative path.

Configure can usually find the X include and library files automatically, but
if it doesn't, you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
`--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.

The configure script provides a number of ImageMagick specific options.  When
disabling an option --disable-something is equivalent to specifying
--enable-something=no and --without-something is equivalent to
--with-something=no.  The configure options are as follows (execute 'configure
--help' to see all options).

Optional Features:
 --enable-ccmalloc       enable 'ccmalloc' memory debug support (default disabled)
 --enable-prof           enable 'prof' profiling support (default disabled)
 --enable-gprof          enable 'gprof' profiling support (default disabled)
 --enable-gcov           enable 'gcov' profiling support (default disabled)
 --disable-installed     disable building an installed ImageMagick
                         (default enabled)
 --disable-largefile     disable support for large (64 bit) file offsets

Optional Packages/Options:
 --with-quantum-depth    number of bits in a pixel quantum (default 8)
 --with-modules          enable support for dynamically loadable modules
 --with-cache            set pixel cache threshhold (defaults to available memory)
 --without-threads       disable threads support
 --with-frozenpaths      enable frozen delegate paths
 --without-magick-plus-plus disable build/install of Magick++
 --without-perl          disable build/install of PerlMagick
      or
 --with-perl=PERL        use specified Perl binary to configure PerlMagick
 --with-perl-options=OPTIONS  options to pass on command-line when
                         generating PerlMagick's Makefile from Makefile.PL
 --without-bzlib         disable BZLIB support
 --without-dps           disable Display Postscript support
 --without-fpx           disable FlashPIX support
 --with-gslib            enable Ghostscript library support
 --without-jbig          disable JBIG support
 --without-jpeg          disable JPEG support
 --without-jp2           disable JPEG v2 support
 --without-lcms          disable LCMS support
 --without-png           disable PNG support
 --without-tiff          disable TIFF support
 --without-ttf           disable TrueType support
 --without-wmf           disable WMF support
 --with-fontpath         prepend to default font search path
 --with-gs-font-dir      directory containing Ghostscript fonts
 --with-windows-font-dir directory containing MS-Windows fonts
 --without-xml           disable XML support
 --without-zlib          disable ZLIB support
 --with-x                use the X Window System
 --with-share-path=DIR   Alternate path to share directory
                         (default share/ImageMagick)
 --with-libstdc=DIR      use libstdc++ in DIR (for GNU C++)

ImageMagick options represent either features to be enabled, disabled, or
packages to be included in the build.  When a feature is enabled (via
--enable-something), it enables code already present in ImageMagick.  When a
package is enabled (via --with-something), the configure script will search for
it, and if is is properly installed and ready to use (headers and built
libraries are found by compiler) it will be included in the build.  The
configure script is delivered with all features disabled and all packages
enabled. In general, the only reason to disable a package is if a package
exists but it is unsuitable for the build (perhaps an old version or not
compiled with the right compilation flags).

Several configure options require special note:

  * --enable-shared: the shared libraries are built and support for
    loading coder and process modules is enabled. Shared libraries are
    preferred because they allow programs to share common code, making
    the individual programs much smaller. In addition shared libraries
    are required in order for PerlMagick to be dynamically loaded by an
    installed PERL (otherwise an additional PERL (PerlMagick) must be
    installed.

    ImageMagick built with delegates (see MAGICK PLUG-INS below) can pose
    additional challenges. If ImageMagick is built using static libraries (the
    default without --enable-shared) then delegate libraries may be built as
    either static libraries or shared libraries. However, if ImageMagick is
    built using shared libraries, then all delegate libraries must also be
    built as shared libraries.  Static libraries usually have the extension
    .a, while shared libraries typically have extensions like .so, .sa, or
    .dll. Code in shared libraries normally must compiled using a special
    compiler option to produce Position Independent Code (PIC). The only time
    this is not necessary is if the platform compiles code as PIC by default.

    PIC compilation flags differ from vendor to vendor (gcc's is
    -fPIC). However, you must compile all shared library source with the
    same flag (for gcc use -fPIC rather than -fpic). While static libraries
    are normally created using an archive tool like 'ar', shared libraries
    are built using special linker or compiler options (e.g. -shared for gcc).

    Building shared libraries often requires subtantial hand-editing of
    Makefiles and is only recommended for those who know what they are doing.

    If --enable-shared is not specified, a new PERL interpreter (PerlMagick)
    is built which is statically linked against the PerlMagick extension. This
    new interpreter is installed into the same directory as the ImageMagick
    utilities. If --enable-shared is specified, the PerlMagick extension is
    built as a dynamically loadable object which is loaded into your current
    PERL interpreter at run-time. Use of dynamically-loaded extensions is
    preferable over statically linked extensions so --enable-shared should
    be specified if possible (note that all libraries used with ImageMagick
    must be shared libraries!).

  * --disable-static: static archive libraries (with extension .a)
    are not built.  If you are building shared libraries, there is little
    value to building static libraries. Reasons to build static libraries
    include: 1) they can be easier to debug; 2) the clients do not have
    external dependencies (i.e. libMagick.so); 3) building PIC versions
    of the delegate libraries may take additional expertise and effort; 4)
    you are unable to build shared libraries.

  * --disable-installed: By default the ImageMagick build is
    configured to formally install into a directory tree.  This is the
    most secure and reliable way to install ImageMagick.  Specifying
    --disable-installed configures ImageMagick so that it doesn't use
    hard-coded paths and locates support files by computing an offset path
    from the executable (or from the location specified by the MAGICK_HOME
    environment variable. The uninstalled configuration is ideal for binary
    distributions which are expected to extract and run in any location.

  * --with-modules: image coders and process modules are built as
    loadable modules which are installed under the directory
    [prefix]/lib/ImageMagick-X.X.X/modules-QN (where 'N' equals 8, 16,
    or 32 depending on the quantum depth) in the subdirectories 'coders'
    and 'filters' respectively. The modules build option is only available
    in conjunction with --enable-shared. If --enable-shared is not also
    specified, then support for building modules is disabled.  Note that
    if --enable-shared is specified, the module loader is active (allowing
    extending an installed ImageMagick by simply copying a module into place)
    but ImageMagick itself is not built using modules.

  * --with-quantum-depth: This option allows the user to specify the
    number of bits to use per pixel quantum (the size of the red, green,
    blue, and alpha pixel components. For example, "--with-quantum-depth=8"
    builds ImageMagick using 8-bit quantums.  Most computer display adaptors
    use 8-bit quantums. Currently supported arguments are 8, 16, or 32. The
    default is 8. This option is the most important option in determining
    the overall run-time performance of ImageMagick.

    The number of bits in a quantum determines how many values it may
    contain. Each quantum level supports 256 times as many values as the
    previous level. The following table shows the range available for
    various quantum sizes.

        QuantumDepth  Valid Range (Decimal)  Valid Range (Hex)
              8            0-255                   00-FF
             16           0-65535                0000-FFFF
             32         0-4294967295         00000000-FFFFFFFF

    Larger pixel quantums cause ImageMagick to run more slowly and to
    require more memory. For example, using sixteen-bit pixel quantums
    causes ImageMagick to run 15% to 50% slower (and take twice as much
    memory) than when it is built to support eight-bit pixel quantums.

    The amount of virtual memory consumed by an image can be computed by
    the equation (QuantumDepth*Rows*Columns*5)/8. This is an important
    consideration when resources are limited, particularly since processing
    an image may require several images to be in memory at one time. The
    following table shows memory consumption values for a 1024x768 image:

        QuantumDepth  Virtual Memory
            8              3MB
           16              8MB
           32             15MB

  * --without-magick-plus-plus: Disable building Magick++, the C++
    application programming interface to ImageMagick. A suitable C++
    compiler is required in order to build Magick++. Specify the CXX
    configure variable to select the C++ compiler to use (default "g++"),
    and CXXFLAGS to select the desired compiler opimization and debug flags
    (default "-g -O2"). Antique C++ compilers will normally be rejected by
    configure tests so specifying this option should only be necessary if
    Magick++ fails to compile.

  * --with-frozenpaths: Normally external program names are substituted
    into the delegates.mgk file without full paths. Specify this option
    to enable saving full paths to programs using locations determined by
    configure. This is useful for environments where programs are stored
    under multiple paths, and users may use different PATH settings than
    the person who builds ImageMagick.

  * --without-threads: By default, the ImageMagick library is compiled
    with multi-thread support.  If this is undesireable, then specify
    --without-threads.

  * --with-cache: Specify a different image pixel cache threshold
    using the --with-cache option. This sets the maximum amount of heap
    memory that ImageMagick is allowed to consume before switching to using
    memory-mapped temporary files to store raw pixel data.

  * --disable-largefile: By default, ImageMagick is compiled with
    support for large (> 2GB on a 32-bit CPU) files if the operating system
    supports large files.  All applications which use the ImageMagick library
    must then also include support for large files. By disabling support for
    large files via --disable-largefile, dependent applications do not require
    special compilation options for large files in order to use the library.

  * --without-perl: By default, PerlMagick is conveniently compiled
    and installed as part of ImageMagick's normal "configure", "make",
    "make install" process.. When --without-perl is specified, you must
    first install ImageMagick, change to the PerlMagick subdirectory, build,
    and finally install PerlMagick. Note, PerlMagick is configured even if
    --without-perl is specified. If the argument --with-perl=/path/to/perl
    is supplied, then /path/to/perl will be taken as the PERL interpreter
    to use. This is important in case the 'perl' executable in your PATH
    is not PERL5, or is not the PERL you want to use.

  * --with-perl-options: The PerlMagick module is normally installed
    using the Perl interpreter's installation PREFIX, rather than
    ImageMagick's. If ImageMagick's installation prefix is not the same
    as PERL's PREFIX, then you may find that PerlMagick's 'make install'
    step tries to install into a directory tree that you don't have write
    permissions to. This is common when PERL is delivered with the operating
    system or on Internet Service Provider (ISP) web servers. If you want
    PerlMagick to install elsewhere, then provide a PREFIX option to PERL's
    configuration step via "--with-perl-options=PREFIX=/some/place". Other
    options accepted by MakeMaker are 'LIB', 'LIBPERL_A', 'LINKTYPE',
    and 'OPTIMIZE'. See the ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3) manual page for more
    information on configuring PERL extensions.

  * --without-x: By default, ImageMagick will use X11 libraries if
    they are available. When --without-x is specified, use of X11 is
    disabled. The display, animate, and import programs are not built or
    installed. The remaining programs have reduced functionality such as no
    access to X11 fonts (consider using Postscript or TrueType fonts instead).

  * --with-gs-font-dir: Specify the directory containing the
    Ghostscript Postscript Type 1 font files (e.g. "n022003l.pfb") so
    that they can be rendered using the FreeType library. If the font
    files are installed using the default Ghostscript installation paths
    (${prefix}/share/ghostscript/fonts), they should be discovered
    automatically by configure and specifying this option is not
    necessary. Specify this option if the Ghostscript fonts fail to be
    located automatically, or the location needs to be overridden.

  * --with-windows-font-dir: Specify the directory containing
    MS-Windows-compatible fonts. This is not necessary when ImageMagick is
    running under MS-Windows.

----

Building under Cygwin

  ImageMagick may be built under the Windows '95-XP Cygwin Unix-emulation
  environment available for free from

    http://www.cygwin.com/

  X11R6 for Cygwin is available from

    http://xfree86.cygwin.com/

  It is strongly recommended that the X11R6 package be installed since
  this enables ImageMagick's X11 support (animate, display, and import will
  work) and it includes the Freetype v2 DLL required to support TrueType and
  Postscript Type 1 fonts. Make sure that /usr/X11R6/bin is in your PATH prior
  to running configure. If you are using Cygwin version 1.3.9 or later, you
  may specify the configure option '--enable-shared' to build Cygwin DLLs.
  Specifying '--enable-shared' is required if you want to build PerlMagick
  under Cygwin because Cygwin does not provide the libperl.a static library
  required to create a static PerlMagick.

----

Building under MinGW & MSYS

  ImageMagick may be built using the free MinGW ("Minimalistic GNU for
  Windows") package version 1.1, available from

    http://www.mingw.org

  which consists of a GNU-based (e.g. gcc) compilation toolset plus headers
  and libraries required to build programs which are entirely based on
  standard Microsoft Windows DLLs. MSYS provides a Unix-like console shell
  window with sufficient functionality to run the ImageMagick configure
  script and execute make.

  Unlike the Cygwin build which creates programs based on a Unix-emulation
  DLL, and which uses Unix-style paths to access Windows files, the MinGW
  build creates native Windows console applications similar to the Visual
  C++ build.

  Please note that since the MinGW build is very new, some aspects of the
  installation may vary from Windows user's expectations, and that only a
  static build (no DLLs or modules) is currently supported.

  Once MinGW & MSYS have been installed, start the MSYS console (via the
  MSYS icon on the Windows desktop) and follow the Unix configure and build
  instructions. Note that the default installation prefix is "/usr/local"
  which installs the package into a MSYS directory. To install outside
  of the MSYS directory tree, you may specify an installation prefix like
  "/c/ImageMagick" which causes the package to be installed under the Windows
  directory "C:\ImageMagick". The installation directory structure will look
  very much like the Unix installation layout (e.g. "C:\ImageMagick\bin",
  "C:\ImageMagick\lib", "C:\ImageMagick\share", etc.). Any additional
  delegate libraries (e.g. libpng) will need to be built under MinGW in
  order to be used.

----

Dealing with configuration failures:

  While configure is designed to ease installation of ImageMagick, it often
  discovers problems that would otherwise be encountered later when compiling
  ImageMagick. The configure script tests for headers and libraries by
  executing the compiler (CC) with the specified compilation flags (CFLAGS),
  pre-processor flags (CPPFLAGS), and linker flags (LDFLAGS). Any errors are
  logged to the file 'config.log'. If configure fails to discover a header
  or library please review this log file to determine why, however, please
  be aware that *errors in the config.log are normal* because configure
  works by trying something and seeing if it fails. An error in config.log
  is only a problem if the test should have passed on your system. After
  taking corrective action, be sure to remove the 'config.cache' file before
  running configure so that configure will re-inspect the environment rather
  than using cached values.

  Common causes of configure failures are: 1) a delegate header is not in the
  header include path (CPPFLAGS -I option); 2) a delegate library is not in
  the linker search/run path (LDFLAGS -L/-R option); 3) a delegate library
  is missing a function (old version?); 4) compilation environment is faulty.

  If all reasonable corrective actions have been tried and the problem appears
  be due to a flaw in the configure script, please send a bug report to the
  ImageMagick Defect Support Forum at
	http://studio.imagemagick.org/magick/viewforum.php?f=3.  All bug reports
  should contain the operating system type (as reported by 'uname -a') and the
  compiler/compiler-version. A copy of the configure script output and/or the
  config.log file may be valuable in order to find the problem.  If you send a
  config.log, please also send a script of the configure output and a
  description of what you expected to see (and why) so the failure you are
  observing can be identified and resolved.

----

Makefile Build Targets

  Once ImageMagick is configured, these standard build targets are
  available from the generated Makefiles:

  * Build the package

        make

  * Install the package

        make install

  * Run tests using the installed ImageMagick ('make install' must be done
    first!).

        make check

  * Remove everything in the build directory created by 'make'.

        make clean

  * Remove everything in the build directory created by 'configure' and 'make'.
    This is useful if you want to start over from scratch.

        make distclean

  * Remove all files from the system which are (or would be) installed by
    'make install' using the current configuration.  Note that this target is
    imperfect for PerlMagick since Perl no longer supports an 'uninstall' target.

        make uninstall

----

Build & Install:

  Now that ImageMagick is configured, type

     make

  to build the package and

     make install

  to install it.

----

Verifying The Build:

  To confirm your installation of the ImageMagick distribution was
  successful, type:

    ./utilities/display

  The ImageMagick logo is displayed.

  If the image colors are not correct use this command:

    ./utilities/display -visual default

  For a more serious test, you may run the ImageMagick test suite by
  typing

    make check

  Note that due to differences between the developer's environment and
  your own it is possible that some tests may be indicated as failed even
  though the results are ok. Differences between the developer's environment
  environment and your own may include the compiler, the CPU type, and the
  library versions used. The ImageMagick developers use the current release
  of all dependent libraries.