## File: options.tex

package info (click to toggle)
imagemagick 6:6.0.6.2-2.9
 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527528529530531532533534535536537538539540541542543544545546547548549550551552553554555556557558559560561562563564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585586587588589590591592593594595596597598599600601602603604605606607608609610611612613614615616617618619620621622623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667668669670671672673674675676677678679680681682683684685686687688689690691692693694695696697698699700701702703704705706707708709710711712713714715716717718719720721722723724725726727728729730731732733734735736737738739740741742743744745746747748749750751752753754755756757758759760761762763764765766767768769770771772773774775776777778779780781782783784785786787788789790791792793794795796797798799800801802803804805806807808809810811812813814815816817818819820821822823824825826827828829830831832833834835836837838839840841842843844845846847848849850851852853854855856857858859860861862863864865866867868869870871872873874875876877878879880881882883884885886887888889890891892893894895896897898899900901902903904905906907908909910911912913914915916917918919920921922923924925926927928929930931932933934935936937938939940941942943944945946947948949950951952953954955956957958959960961962963964965966967968969970971972973974975976977978979980981982983984985986987988989990991992993994995996997998999100010011002100310041005100610071008100910101011101210131014101510161017101810191020102110221023102410251026102710281029103010311032103310341035103610371038103910401041104210431044104510461047104810491050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701071107210731074107510761077107810791080108110821083108410851086108710881089109010911092109310941095109610971098109911001101110211031104110511061107110811091110111111121113111411151116111711181119112011211122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311541155115611571158115911601161116211631164116511661167116811691170117111721173117411751176117711781179118011811182118311841185118611871188118911901191119211931194119511961197119811991200120112021203120412051206120712081209121012111212121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245124612471248124912501251125212531254125512561257125812591260126112621263126412651266126712681269127012711272127312741275127612771278127912801281128212831284128512861287128812891290129112921293129412951296129712981299130013011302130313041305130613071308130913101311131213131314131513161317131813191320132113221323132413251326132713281329133013311332133313341335133613371338133913401341134213431344134513461347134813491350135113521353135413551356135713581359136013611362136313641365136613671368136913701371137213731374137513761377137813791380138113821383138413851386138713881389139013911392139313941395139613971398139914001401140214031404140514061407140814091410141114121413141414151416141714181419142014211422142314241425142614271428142914301431143214331434143514361437143814391440144114421443144414451446144714481449145014511452145314541455145614571458145914601461146214631464146514661467146814691470147114721473147414751476147714781479148014811482148314841485148614871488148914901491149214931494149514961497149814991500150115021503150415051506150715081509151015111512151315141515151615171518151915201521152215231524152515261527152815291530153115321533153415351536153715381539154015411542154315441545154615471548154915501551155215531554155515561557155815591560156115621563156415651566156715681569157015711572157315741575157615771578157915801581158215831584158515861587158815891590159115921593159415951596159715981599160016011602160316041605160616071608160916101611161216131614161516161617161816191620162116221623162416251626162716281629163016311632163316341635163616371638163916401641164216431644164516461647164816491650165116521653165416551656165716581659166016611662166316641665166616671668166916701671167216731674167516761677167816791680168116821683168416851686168716881689169016911692169316941695169616971698169917001701170217031704170517061707170817091710171117121713171417151716171717181719172017211722172317241725172617271728172917301731173217331734173517361737173817391740174117421743174417451746174717481749175017511752175317541755175617571758175917601761176217631764176517661767176817691770177117721773177417751776177717781779178017811782178317841785178617871788178917901791179217931794179517961797179817991800180118021803180418051806180718081809181018111812181318141815181618171818181918201821182218231824182518261827182818291830183118321833183418351836183718381839184018411842184318441845184618471848184918501851185218531854185518561857185818591860186118621863186418651866186718681869187018711872187318741875187618771878187918801881188218831884188518861887188818891890189118921893189418951896189718981899190019011902190319041905190619071908190919101911191219131914191519161917191819191920192119221923192419251926192719281929193019311932193319341935193619371938193919401941194219431944194519461947194819491950195119521953195419551956195719581959196019611962196319641965196619671968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022202320242025202620272028202920302031203220332034203520362037203820392040204120422043204420452046204720482049205020512052205320542055205620572058205920602061206220632064206520662067206820692070207120722073207420752076207720782079208020812082208320842085208620872088208920902091209220932094209520962097209820992100210121022103210421052106210721082109211021112112211321142115211621172118211921202121212221232124212521262127212821292130213121322133213421352136213721382139214021412142214321442145214621472148214921502151215221532154215521562157215821592160216121622163216421652166216721682169217021712172217321742175217621772178217921802181218221832184218521862187218821892190219121922193219421952196219721982199220022012202220322042205220622072208220922102211221222132214221522162217221822192220222122222223222422252226222722282229223022312232223322342235223622372238223922402241224222432244224522462247224822492250225122522253225422552256225722582259226022612262226322642265226622672268226922702271227222732274227522762277227822792280228122822283228422852286228722882289229022912292229322942295229622972298229923002301230223032304230523062307230823092310231123122313231423152316231723182319232023212322232323242325232623272328232923302331233223332334233523362337233823392340234123422343234423452346234723482349235023512352235323542355235623572358235923602361236223632364236523662367236823692370237123722373237423752376237723782379238023812382238323842385238623872388238923902391239223932394239523962397239823992400240124022403240424052406240724082409241024112412241324142415241624172418241924202421242224232424242524262427242824292430243124322433243424352436243724382439244024412442244324442445244624472448244924502451245224532454245524562457245824592460246124622463246424652466246724682469247024712472247324742475247624772478247924802481248224832484248524862487248824892490249124922493249424952496249724982499250025012502250325042505250625072508250925102511251225132514251525162517251825192520252125222523252425252526252725282529253025312532253325342535253625372538253925402541254225432544254525462547254825492550255125522553255425552556255725582559256025612562256325642565256625672568256925702571257225732574257525762577257825792580258125822583258425852586258725882589259025912592259325942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826092610261126122613261426152616261726182619262026212622262326242625262626272628262926302631263226332634263526362637263826392640264126422643264426452646264726482649265026512652265326542655265626572658265926602661266226632664266526662667266826692670267126722673267426752676267726782679268026812682268326842685268626872688268926902691269226932694269526962697  \title{Commandline Options} \toctitle{Commandline Options} \titlerunning{Commandline Options} \maketitle\label{Commandline Options} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=all This is a combined list of the commandline options used by the ImageMagick utilities ({\it animate, composite, convert, display, identify, import, mogrify\/} and {\it montage\/}). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage In this document, angle brackets ($<$$>$'') enclose variables and curly brackets (\{\}'') enclose optional parameters. For example, {\bf -fuzz $<$distance$>$\{\%\}}'' means you can use the option {\tt "-fuzz 10"} or {\tt "-fuzz 2\%"}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,montage \subsubsection{-adjoin} join images into a single multi-image file By default, all images of an image sequence are stored in the same file. However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support more than one image and are saved to separate files. Use {\bf +adjoin} to force this behavior. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-affine $<$matrix$>$} drawing transformation matrix This option provides a transformation matrix {\tt \{sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty\}} for use by subsequent {\bf -draw} or {\bf -transform} options. The transformation matrix has 3x3 elements, but three of them are omitted from the input because they are constant. The complete matrix is \begin{verbatim} sx rx 0 ry sy 0 tx ty 1 \end{verbatim} Scaling by the factor {\tt s} is accomplished with the matrix \begin{verbatim} {s,0,0,s,0,0} \end{verbatim} Translation by a displacement {\tt \{dx,dy\}} is accomplished with the matrix \begin{verbatim} {1,0,0,1,dx,dy} \end{verbatim} Rotation counterclockwise about the origin by an angle {\tt a} is accomplished with the matrix \begin{verbatim} {cos(a),sin(a),-sin(a),cos(a),0,0} \end{verbatim} A series of operations can be accomplished by using a matrix that is the multiple of the matrices for each operation. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,montage \subsubsection{-annotate $<$x-rotate$>$x$<$y-rotate$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>} annotate the image with text. This is a convenience option for annotating your image with text. For more precise control over your text annotations, use {\bf -draw}. {\it X-rotate\/} and {\it y-rotate\/} give the angle of the text and {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} are offsets that give the location of the text relative to the upper left corner of the image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-antialias} remove pixel aliasing By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects (e.g. lines) or rendering vector formats (e.g. WMF and Postscript). Use +antialias to disable use of antialiasing algorithms. Reasons to disable antialiasing include avoiding increasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-append} append a set of images This option creates a single image where the images in the original set are stacked top-to-bottom. If they are not of the same width, any narrow images will be expanded to fit using the background color. Use {\bf +append} to stack images left-to-right. The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -append} option appears after all of the input images, all images are appended. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-authenticate$<$string$>$} decrypt image with this password Use this option to supply a password for decrypting an image or an image sequence, if it is being read from a format such as PDF that supports encryption. Encrypting images being written is not supported. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-average} average a set of images The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -average} option appears after all of the input images, all images are averaged. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-backdrop$<$color$>$} display the image centered on a backdrop. This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful for hiding other X window activity while viewing the image. The color of the backdrop is specified as the background color. The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. Refer to X Resources'' in the manual page for {\it display\/} for details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-background$<$color$>$} the background color The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-blue-primary$<$x$>$,$<$y$>$} blue chromaticity primary point % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-blur$<$radius$>$\{x$<$sigma$>$\}} blur the image with a Gaussian operator Blur with the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-border$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$} surround the image with a border of color See {\bf -geometry} for details about the geometry specification. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-bordercolor$<$color$>$} the border color The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display,montage \subsubsection{-borderwidth$<$geometry$>$} the border width % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-box$<$color$>$} set the color of the annotation bounding box The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. See {\bf -draw} for further details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-channel$<$type$>$} the type of channel Choose from: {\bf Red}, {\bf Green}, {\bf Blue}, {\bf Alpha}, {\bf Cyan}, {\bf Magenta}, {\bf Yellow}, {\bf Black}, or All. Use this option to apply an image-processing option to a particular {\it channel\/} from the image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-charcoal$<$factor$>$} simulate a charcoal drawing % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,montage \subsubsection{-chop$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$\{\%\}} remove pixels from the interior of an image {\it Width\/} and {\it height\/} give the number of columns and rows to remove, and {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} are offsets that give the location of the leftmost column and topmost row to remove. The {\it x\/} offset normally specifies the leftmost column to remove. If the {\bf -gravity} option is present with {\it NorthEast, East,\/} or {\it SouthEast\/} gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the rightmost column to remove. Similarly, the {\it y\/} offset normally specifies the topmost row to remove, but if the {\bf -gravity} option is present with {\it SouthWest, South,\/} or {\it SouthEast\/} gravity, it specifies the distance upward from the bottom edge of the image to the bottom row to remove. The {\bf -chop} option removes entire rows and columns, and moves the remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-clip} apply the clipping path, if one is present If a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent operations. For example, if you type the following command: \begin{verbatim} convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif \end{verbatim} only the pixels within the clipping path are negated. The {\bf -clip} feature requires the XML library. If the XML library is not present, the option is ignored. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-coalesce} merge a sequence of images Each image N in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with the image created by flattening images 0 through N. The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -coalesce} option appears after all of the input images, all images are coalesced. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-colorize$<$value$>$} colorize the image with the pen color Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage. You can apply separate colorization values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a colorization value list delimited with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-colormap$<$type$>$} define the colormap type Choose between {\bf shared} or {\bf private}. This option only applies when the default X server visual is {\it PseudoColor\/} or {\it GRAYScale\/}. Refer to {\bf -visual} for more details. By default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors with other X clients. Some image colors could be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended. Choose {\bf Private} and the image colors appear exactly as they are defined. However, other clients may go {\it technicolor\/} when the image colormap is installed. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-colors$<$value$>$} preferred number of colors in the image The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your request, but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option. Images with less unique colors than specified with this option will have any duplicate or unused colors removed. Refer to quantize for more details. Note, options {\bf -dither}, {\bf -colorspace}, and {\bf -treedepth} affect the color reduction algorithm. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-colorspace$<$value$>$} the type of colorspace Choices are: {\bf GRAY}, {\bf OHTA}, {\bf RGB}, {\bf Transparent}, {\bf XYZ}, {\bf YCbCr}, {\bf YIQ}, {\bf YPbPr}, {\bf YUV}, or {\bf CMYK}. Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space. Empirical evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such as YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual color differences more closely than do distances in RGB space. These color spaces may give better results when color reducing an image. Refer to quantize for more details. The {\bf Transparent} color space behaves uniquely in that it preserves the matte channel of the image if it exists. The {\bf -colors} or {\bf -monochrome} option is required for this option to take effect. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-combine} combines one or more images into a single image. The grayscale value of the pixels of each image in the sequence is assigned in order to the specified hannels of the combined image. The typical ordering would be image 1 => Red, 2 => Green, 3 => Blue, etc. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-comment$<$string$>$} annotate an image with a comment Use this option to assign a specific comment to the image, when writing to an image format that supports comments. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format characters listed under the {\bf -format} option. The comment is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via a Comment'' tag or similar mechanism. If you want the comment to be visible on the image itself, use the {\bf -draw} option. For example, \begin{verbatim} -comment "%m:%f %wx%h" \end{verbatim} produces an image comment of {\bf MIFF:bird.miff 512x480} for an image titled {\bf bird.miff} and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of {\it string\/} is {\it @\/}, the image comment is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-compose$<$operator$>$} the type of image composition By default, each of the composite image pixels are replaced by the corresponding image tile pixel. You can choose an alternate composite operation: \begin{verbatim} Over In Out Atop Xor Plus Minus Add Subtract Difference Multiply Bumpmap Copy CopyRed CopyGreen CopyBlue CopyOpacity \end{verbatim} How each operator behaves is described below. \begin{description} \item{Over} The result will be the union of the two image shapes, with opaque areas of {\it composite image\/} obscuring {\it image\/} in the region of overlap. \item{In} The result is simply {\it composite image\/} cut by the shape of {\it image\/}. None of the image data of {\it image\/} will be in the result. \item{Out} The resulting image is {\it composite image\/} with the shape of {\it image\/} cut out. \item{Atop} The result is the same shape as image {\it image\/}, with {\it composite image\/} obscuring {\it image\/} where the image shapes overlap. Note this differs from {\bf over} because the portion of {\it composite image\/} outside {\it image\/}'s shape does not appear in the result. \item{Xor} The result is the image data from both {\it composite image\/} and {\it image\/} that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region will be blank. \item{Plus} The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are cropped to MaxRGB (no overflow). \item{Minus} The result of {\it composite image\/} - {\it image\/}, with underflow cropped to zero. \item{Add} The result of {\it composite image\/} + {\it image\/}, with overflow wrapping around ({\it mod\/} (MaxRGB+1)). \item{Subtract} The result of {\it composite image\/} - {\it image\/}, with underflow wrapping around ({\it mod\/} (MaxRGB+1)). The {\bf add} and {\bf subtract} operators can be used to perform reversible transformations. \item{Difference} The result of abs({\it composite image\/} - {\it image\/}). This is useful for comparing two very similar images. \item{Multiply} The result of {\it composite image\/} * {\it image\/}. This is useful for the creation of drop-shadows. \item{Bumpmap} The result {\it image\/} shaded by {\it composite image\/}. \item{Copy} The resulting image is {\it image\/} replaced with {\it composite image\/}. Here the matte information is ignored. \item{CopyRed} The resulting image is the red layer in {\it image\/} replaced with the red layer in {\it composite image\/}. The other layers are copied untouched. \item{CopyGreen} The resulting image is the green layer in {\it image\/} replaced with the green layer in {\it composite image\/}. The other layers are copied untouched. \item{CopyBlue} The resulting image is the blue layer in {\it image\/} replaced with the blue layer in {\it composite image\/}. The other layers are copied untouched. \item{CopyOpacity} The resulting image is the matte layer in {\it image\/} replaced with the matte layer in {\it composite image\/}. The other layers are copied untouched. \end{description} The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the image for some operations. This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when matte is opaque (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape, zero outside, and between 0 and MaxRGB on the boundary. For certain operations, if {\it image\/} does not have a matte channel, it is initialized with 0 for any pixel matching in color to pixel location (0,0), otherwise MaxRGB (to work properly {\bf borderwidth} must be 0). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-compress$<$type$>$} the type of image compression Choices are: {\it None\/}, {\it BZip\/}, {\it Fax\/}, {\it Group4\/}, {\it JPEG\/}, {\it Lossless\/}, {\it LZW\/}, {\it RLE\/} or {\it Zip\/}. Specify {\bf +compress} to store the binary image in an uncompressed format. The default is the compression type of the specified image file. If {\it LZW\/} compression is specified but LZW compression has not been enabled, the image data will be written in an uncompressed LZW format that can be read by LZW decoders. This may result in larger-than-expected GIF files. {\it Lossless''\/} refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if the JPEG library has been patched to support it. Use the {\bf -quality} option to set the compression level to be used by JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders. Use the {\bf -sampling-factor} option to set the sampling factor to be used by JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma channels. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-contrast} enhance or reduce the image contrast This option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter and darker elements of the image. Use {\bf -contrast} to enhance the image or {\bf +contrast} to reduce the image contrast. For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option: \begin{verbatim} convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-convolve$<$kernel$>$} convolve image with the specified convolution kernel The kernel is specified as a comma-separated list of integers, ordered left-to right, starting with the top row. The order of the kernel is determined by the square root of the number of entries. Presently only square kernels are supported. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-crop$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$\{\%\}} preferred size and location of the cropped image See {\bf -geometry} for details about the geometry specification. The width and height give the size of the image that remains after cropping, and {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} are offsets that give the location of the top left corner of the cropped image with respect to the original image. To specify the amount to be removed, use {\bf -shave} instead. If the {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} offsets are present, a single image is generated, consisting of the pixels from the cropping region. The offsets specify the location of the upper left corner of the cropping region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper left corner of the image. If the {\bf -gravity} option is present with {\it NorthEast, East,\/} or {\it SouthEast\/} gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. Similarly, if the {\bf -gravity} option is present with {\it SouthWest, South,\/} or {\it SouthEast\/} gravity, the distance is measured upward between the bottom edges. If the {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the specified geometry, covering the entire input image, is generated. The rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller if the specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the input image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-cycle$<$amount$>$} displace image colormap by amount {\it Amount\/} defines the number of positions each colormap entry is shifted. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,conjure,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-debug$<$events$>$} enable debug printout The {\tt events} parameter specifies which events are to be logged. It can be either {\tt None}, {\tt All}, or a comma-separated list consisting of one or more of the following domains: {\tt Annotate}, {\tt Blob}, {\tt Cache}, {\tt Coder}, {\tt Configure}, {\tt Locale}, {\tt Render}, {\tt Resource}, {\tt Transform}, {\tt X11}, or {\tt User}. For example, to log cache and blob events, use \begin{verbatim} convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png \end{verbatim} The User" domain is normally empty, but developers can log "User'' events in their private copy of ImageMagick. Use the {\bf -log} option to specify the format for debugging output. Use {\bf +debug} to turn off all logging. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,animate,montage \subsubsection{-delete$<$index$>$} delete image from the image sequence. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-deconstruct} break down an image sequence into constituent parts This option compares each image with the next in a sequence and returns the maximum bounding region of any pixel differences it discovers. This method can undo a coalesced sequence returned by the {\bf -coalesce} option, and is useful for removing redundant information from a GIF or MNG animation. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -deconstruct} option appears after all of the input images, all images are deconstructed. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,display,import,mogrify \subsubsection{-delay$<$1/100ths of a second$>$} display the next image after pausing This option is useful for regulating the animation of image sequences {\it Delay/100\/} seconds must expire before the display of the next image. The default is no delay between each showing of the image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535. You can specify a delay range (e.g. {\it -delay 10-500\/}) which sets the minimum and maximum delay. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-density$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$} vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image This option specifies an image density when decoding a {\it PostScript\/} or Portable Document page. The default is 72 dots per inch in the horizontal and vertical direction. This option is used in concert with {\bf -page}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-depth$<$value$>$} depth of the image This is the number of bits in a color sample within a pixel. The only acceptable values are 8 or 16. Use this option to specify the depth of raw images whose depth is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it has been read. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import \subsubsection{-descend} obtain image by descending window hierarchy % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-despeckle} reduce the speckles within an image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite \subsubsection{-displace$<$horizontal scale$>$x$<$vertical scale$>$} shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map With this option, {\it composite image\/} is used as a displacement map. Black, within the displacement map, is a maximum positive displacement. White is a maximum negative displacement and middle gray is neutral. The displacement is scaled to determine the pixel shift. By default, the displacement applies in both the horizontal and vertical directions. However, if you specify {\it mask\/}, {\it composite image\/} is the horizontal X displacement and {\it mask\/} the vertical Y displacement. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-display$<$host:display[.screen]$>$} specifies the X server to contact % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert This option is used with convert for obtaining image or font from this X server. See {\it X(1)\/}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-dispose$<$method$>$} GIF disposal method The Disposal Method indicates the way in which the graphic is to be treated after being displayed. Here are the valid methods: \begin{verbatim} Undefined No disposal specified. None Do not dispose between frames. Background Overwrite the image area with the background color. Previous Overwrite the image area with what was there prior to rendering the image. \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite \subsubsection{-dissolve$<$percent$>$} dissolve an image into another by the given percent The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent, then it is composited over the main image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-dither} apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution for spatial resolution by averaging the intensities of several neighboring pixels. Images which suffer from severe contouring when reducing colors can be improved with this option. The {\bf -colors} or {\bf -monochrome} option is required for this option to take effect. Use {\bf +dither} to turn off dithering and to render PostScript without text or graphic aliasing. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-draw$<$string$>$} annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives Use this option to annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives. The primitives include shapes, text, transformations, and pixel operations. The shape primitives are \begin{verbatim} point x,y line x0,y0 x1,y1 rectangle x0,y0 x1,y1 roundRectangle x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc arc x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1 ellipse x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1 circle x0,y0 x1,y1 polyline x0,y0 ... xn,yn polygon x0,y0 ... xn,yn Bezier x0,y0 ... xn,yn path path specification image operator x0,y0 w,h filename \end{verbatim} The text primitive is \begin{verbatim} text x0,y0 string \end{verbatim} The text gravity primitive is \begin{verbatim} gravity NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast \end{verbatim} The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and does not interact with the other primitives. It is equivalent to using the {\bf -gravity} commandline option, except that it is limited in scope to the {\bf -draw} option in which it appears. The transformation primitives are \begin{verbatim} rotate degrees translate dx,dy scale sx,sy skewX degrees skewY degrees \end{verbatim} The pixel operation primitives are \begin{verbatim} color x0,y0 method matte x0,y0 method \end{verbatim} The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified in the preceding {\bf -stroke} option. Except for the {\bf line} and {\bf point} primitives, they are filled with the color specified in the preceding {\bf -fill} option. For unfilled shapes, use {\tt -fill none}. {\bf Point} requires a single coordinate. {\bf Line} requires a start and end coordinate. {\bf Rectangle} expects an upper left and lower right coordinate. {\bf RoundRectangle} has the upper left and lower right coordinates and the width and height of the corners. {\bf Circle} has a center coordinate and a coordinate for the outer edge. Use {\bf Arc} to inscribe an elliptical arc within a rectangle. Arcs require a start and end point as well as the degree of rotation (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90). Use {\bf Ellipse} to draw a partial ellipse centered at the given point with the x-axis and y-axis radius and start and end of arc in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360). Finally, {\bf polyline} and {\bf polygon} require three or more coordinates to define its boundaries. Coordinates are integers separated by an optional comma. For example, to define a circle centered at 100,100 that extends to 150,150 use: \begin{verbatim} -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150' \end{verbatim} {\bf Paths} (See Paths) represent an outline of an object which is defined in terms of moveto (set a new current point), lineto (draw a straight line), curveto (draw a curve using a cubic Bezier), arc (elliptical or circular arc) and closepath (close the current shape by drawing a line to the last moveto) elements. Compound paths (i.e., a path with subpaths, each consisting of a single moveto followed by one or more line or curve operations) are possible to allow effects such as donut holes'' in objects. Use {\bf image} to composite an image with another image. Follow the image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image size, and filename: \begin{verbatim} -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg' \end{verbatim} You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it will be scaled to the given dimensions. See {\bf -compose} for a description of the composite operators. Use {\bf text} to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it in double quotes. Optionally you can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character. See {\bf -comment} for details. For example, \begin{verbatim} -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"' \end{verbatim} annotates the image with {\tt MIFF:bird.miff 512x480} for an image titled {\tt bird.miff} and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of {\it string\/} is {\it @\/}, the text is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. {\bf Rotate} rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about the origen of the main image. If the {\bf -region} option precedes the {\bf -draw} option, the origen for transformations is the upper left corner of the region. {\bf Translate} translates them. {\bf Scale} scales them. {\bf SkewX} and {\bf SkewY} skew them with respect to the origen of the main image or the region. The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is initialized from the initial affine matrix defined by the {\bf -affine} option. Transformations are cumulative within the {\bf -draw} option. The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix is only changed by the appearance of another {\bf -affine} option. If another {\bf -draw} option appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized from the initial affine matrix. Use {\bf color} to change the color of a pixel to the fill color (see {\bf -fill}). Follow the pixel coordinate with a method: \begin{verbatim} point replace floodfill filltoborder reset \end{verbatim} Consider the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate. The {\bf point} method recolors the target pixel. The {\bf replace} method recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. {\bf Floodfill} recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas {\bf filltoborder} recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally, {\bf reset} recolors all pixels. Use {\bf matte} to the change the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method (see the {\bf color} primitive for a description of methods). The {\bf point} method changes the matte value of the target pixel. The {\bf replace} method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. {\bf Floodfill} changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas {\bf filltoborder} changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color ({\bf -bordercolor}). Finally {\bf reset} changes the matte value of all pixels. You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box color with {\bf -fill}, {\bf -font}, and {\bf -box} respectively. Options are processed in command line order so be sure to use these options {\it before\/} the {\bf -draw} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-edge$<$radius$>$} detect edges within an image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-emboss$<$radius$>$} emboss an image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-encoding$<$type$>$} specify the text encoding Choose from {\it AdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman, BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.\/} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-endian$<$type$>$} specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image Use {\bf +endian} to revert to unspecified endianness. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-enhance} apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-equalize} perform histogram equalization to the image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-evaluate} evaluate an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-extract$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$\{\%\}\{@\} \{{!}\}\{$<$\}\{$>$\}} extract an area from the image while decoding % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-fill$<$color$>$} color to use when filling a graphic primitive Colors are represented in ImageMagick in the same form used by SVG: \begin{verbatim} name ("convert -list color" to see names) #RGB (R,G,B are hex numbers, 4 bits each) #RRGGBB (8 bits each) #RRRGGGBBB (12 bits each) #RRRRGGGGBBBB (16 bits each) #RGBA (4 bits each) #RRGGBBAA (8 bits each) #RRRGGGBBBAAA (12 bits each) #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA (16 bits each) rgb(r,g,b) (r,g,b are decimal numbers) rgba(r,g,b,a) (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers) \end{verbatim} Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the \#'' or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell. For example, \begin{verbatim} convert -fill blue ... convert -fill "#ddddff" ... convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ... \end{verbatim} The shorter forms are scaled up, if necessary by replication. For example, \#3af, \#33aaff, and \#3333aaaaffff are all equivalent. See {\bf -draw} for further details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-filter$<$type$>$} use this type of filter when resizing an image Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image (see {\bf -geometry}). Choose from these filters: \begin{verbatim} Point Box Triangle Hermite Hanning Hamming Blackman Gaussian Quadratic Cubic Catrom Mitchell Lanczos Bessel Sinc \end{verbatim} The default filter is {\bf Lanczos} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-flatten} flatten a sequence of images The sequence of images is replaced by a single image created by composing each image after the first over the first image. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -flatten} option appears after all of the input images, all images are flattened. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-flip} create a mirror image'' reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-flop} create a mirror image'' reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-font$<$name$>$} use this font when annotating the image with text You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript, TrueType, or OPTION1 font. For example, {\tt Arial.ttf} is a TrueType font, {\tt ps:helvetica} is PostScript, and {\tt x:fixed} is OPTION1. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-foreground$<$color$>$} define the foreground color The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=mogrify \subsubsection{-format$<$type$>$} the image format type When used with the {\bf mogrify} utility, this option will convert any image to the image format you specify. See {\it ImageMagick(1)\/} for a list of image format types supported by {\bf ImageMagick}. By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image format type specified with {\bf -format}. For example, if you specify {\it tiff\/} as the format type and the input image filename is {\it image.gif\/}, the output image filename becomes {\it image.tiff\/}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=identify \subsubsection{-format$<$string$>$} output formatted image characteristics When used with the {\bf identify} utility, use this option to print information about the image in a format of your choosing. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif data, or other image attributes by embedding special format characters: \begin{verbatim} %b file size %c comment %d directory %e filename extension %f filename %g page geometry %h height %i input filename %k number of unique colors %l label %m magick %n number of scenes %o output filename %p page number %q quantum depth %s scene number %t top of filename %u unique temporary filename %w width %x x resolution %y y resolution %z image depth %@ bounding box %# signature \n newline \r carriage return \end{verbatim} For example, \begin{verbatim} -format "%m:%f %wx%h" \end{verbatim} displays {\bf MIFF:bird.miff 512x480} for an image titled {\bf bird.miff} and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of {\it string\/} is {\bf @}, the format is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. You can also use the following special formatting syntax to print Exif information contained in the file: \begin{verbatim} %[EXIF:] \end{verbatim} Where $<$tag$>$'' can be one of the following: \begin{verbatim} * (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format) ! (print all Exif tags, in tag_number data format) #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh) ImageWidth ImageLength BitsPerSample Compression PhotometricInterpretation FillOrder DocumentName ImageDescription Make Model StripOffsets Orientation SamplesPerPixel RowsPerStrip StripByteCounts XResolution YResolution PlanarConfiguration ResolutionUnit TransferFunction Software DateTime Artist WhitePoint PrimaryChromaticities TransferRange JPEGProc JPEGInterchangeFormat JPEGInterchangeFormatLength YCbCrCoefficients YCbCrSubSampling YCbCrPositioning ReferenceBlackWhite CFARepeatPatternDim CFAPattern BatteryLevel Copyright ExposureTime FNumber IPTC/NAA ExifOffset InterColorProfile ExposureProgram SpectralSensitivity GPSInfo ISOSpeedRatings OECF ExifVersion DateTimeOriginal DateTimeDigitized ComponentsConfiguration CompressedBitsPerPixel ShutterSpeedValue ApertureValue BrightnessValue ExposureBiasValue MaxApertureValue SubjectDistance MeteringMode LightSource Flash FocalLength MakerNote UserComment SubSecTime SubSecTimeOriginal SubSecTimeDigitized FlashPixVersion ColorSpace ExifImageWidth ExifImageLength InteroperabilityOffset FlashEnergy SpatialFrequencyResponse FocalPlaneXResolution FocalPlaneYResolution FocalPlaneResolutionUnit SubjectLocation ExposureIndex SensingMethod FileSource SceneType \end{verbatim} Surround the format specification with quotation marks to prevent your shell from misinterpreting any spaces and square brackets. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-frame$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$+$<$outer bevel width$>$+$<$inner bevel width$>$} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-fx$<$expression$>$} apply the mathematical expression an image or image channels. For example, to extract the matte channel of the image (this is the negative to what is commonly thought of as the alpha channel mask of the image), use: convert drawn.png -fx 'a' +matte matte.png Mathematic operators include constants MaxRGB, Opaque, Transparent, Pi standard operators: +, -, *, etc. math function name: abs(), acos(), asin(), atan(), cos(), exp(), log(), ln(), max(), min(), rand(), sin(), sqrt(), tan() color names: red, cyan, black, etc symbols: u = first image in sequence v = second image in sequence i = the current column j = the current row p = pixel to use (absolute or relative to current pixel) w = width of this image h = height of this image r = red value (from RGBA), of a specific or current pixel g = green '' b = blue '' a = alpha '' c = cyan value of CMYK color of pixel y = yellow '' m = magenta '' k = black '' intensity = grayscale value Specify the image source using an image index represented by u', starting at zero for the first image, (eg: u[3]' is the fourth image in the image sequence). A negative image index counts images from the end of the current image sequence, therefore u[-1]' refers to the last image in the sequence. Without an index u' or v' represent the first and second image of the sequence. If no image is specified, the u' image is used. For example to reduce the intensity of the red channel by 50%, use convert image.png -channel red -fx 'u/2.0' image.jpg The pixels are processed one at a time, but a different pixel of a image can be specified with a pixel index represented by p'. For example, p[-1].g Green value of pixel to the immediate left of current p[-1,-1].r Red value, diagonally left and up from current pixel To specify an absolute position, use braces, rather than brackets p{12,34}.b is the blue pixel at image location 12,34 The other symbols specify the value you wish to retrieve. A pixel outside the boundary of the image has a value dictated by the -virtual-pixel option setting. The -channel setting can be used to specify the output channel of the result. If no output channel is given the result is set over all RGBA channels. For example, suppose you want to replace the red channel of alpha.png with the average of the green channels from the images alpha.png and beta.png, use: convert alpha.png beta.png -channel red \\ -fx '(u.g+v.g)/2' gamma.png Note that all the original images in the current image sequence are replaced by the updated alpha.png' image. surround the image with an ornamental border See {\bf -geometry} for details about the geometry specification. The {\bf -frame} option is not affected by the {\bf -gravity} option. The color of the border is specified with the {\bf -mattecolor} command line option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import \subsubsection{-frame} include the X window frame in the imported image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-fuzz$<$distance$>$\{\%\}} colors within this distance are considered equal A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close to the target color in RGB space. For example, if you want to automatically trim the edges of an image with {\bf -trim} but the image was scanned and the target background color may differ by a small amount. This option can account for these differences. The {\it distance\/} can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending {\it \%''\/}, as a percentage of the maximum possible intensity (255 or 65535). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-fx$<$fx-image$><$expression$>$} Rapplies a mathematical expression to the specified image channel(s). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-gamma$<$value$>$} level of gamma correction The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values extend from {\bf 0.8} to {\bf 2.3}. Gamma less than 1.0 darkens the image and gamma greater than 1.0 lightens it. You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a gamma value list delimited with slashes (e.g., {\bf 1.7}/{\bf 2.3}/{\bf 1.2}). Use {\bf +gamma} {\it value\/} to set the image gamma level without actually adjusting the image pixels. This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute (e.g. PNG images). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-Gaussian$<$radius$>$\{x$<$sigma$>$\}} blur the image with a Gaussian operator Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-geometry$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$\{\%\}\{@\} \{{!}\}\{$<$\}\{$>$\}} preferred size and location of the Image window. By default, the window size is the image size and the location is chosen by you when it is mapped. By default, the width and height are maximum values. That is, the image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height value while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image. {\it Append an exclamation point to the geometry to force the image size to exactly the size you specify\/}. For example, if you specify {\tt 640x480{!}} the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480. If only the width is specified, the width assumes the value and the height is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image. Similarly, if only the height is specified (e.g., {\tt -geometry x256}), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio. To specify a percentage width or height instead, append \%. The image size is multiplied by the width and height percentages to obtain the final image dimensions. To increase the size of an image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g. 125\%). To decrease an image's size, use a percentage less than 100. Use {\tt @} to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image. Use {\tt$>$} to change the dimensions of the image {\it only\/} if its width or height exceeds the geometry specification. {\tt$<$} resizes the image {\it only\/} if both of its dimensions are less than the geometry specification. For example, if you specify {\tt '640x480$>$'} and the image size is 256x256, the image size does not change. However, if the image is 512x512 or 1024x1024, it is resized to 480x480. Enclose the geometry specification in quotation marks to prevent the {\tt$<$} or {\tt$>$} from being interpreted by your shell as a file redirection. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display When used with {\it animate\/} and {\it display\/}, offsets are handled in the same manner as in {\it X(1)\/} and the {\bf -gravity} option is not used. If the {\it x\/} is negative, the offset is measured leftward from the right edge of the screen to the right edge of the image being displayed. Similarly, negative {\it y\/} is measured between the bottom edges. The offsets are not affected by \%''; they are always measured in pixels. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite When used as a {\it composite\/} option, {\bf -geometry} gives the dimensions of the image and its location with respect to the composite image. If the {\bf -gravity} option is present with {\it NorthEast, East,\/} or {\it SouthEast\/} gravity, the {\it x\/} represents the distance from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the composite image. Similarly, if the {\bf -gravity} option is present with {\it SouthWest, South,\/} or {\it SouthEast\/} gravity, {\it y\/} is measured between the bottom edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will never point in the direction outside of the image. The offsets are not affected by \%''; they are always measured in pixels. To specify the dimensions of the composite image, use the {\bf -resize} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import,convert,mogrify When used as a {\it convert\/}, {\it import\/} or {\it mogrify\/} option, {\bf -geometry} is synonymous with {\bf -resize} and specifies the size of the output image. The offsets, if present, are ignored. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=montage When used as a {\it montage\/} option, {\bf -geometry} specifies the image size and border size for each tile; default is 256x256+0+0. Negative offsets (border dimensions) are meaningless. The {\bf -gravity} option affects the placement of the image within the tile; the default gravity for this purpose is {\it Center\/}. If the \%'' sign appears in the geometry specification, the tile size is the specified percentage of the original dimensions of the first tile. To specify the dimensions of the montage, use the {\bf -resize} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-gravity$<$type$>$} direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image. Choices are: NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, SouthEast. The direction you choose specifies where to position the text when annotating the image. For example {\it Center\/} gravity forces the text to be centered within the image. By default, the image gravity is {\it NorthWest\/}. See {\bf -draw} for more details about graphic primitives. Only the text primitive is affected by the {\bf -gravity} option. The {\bf -gravity} option is also used in concert with the {\bf -geometry} option and other options that take {\bf$<$geometry$>$} as a parameter, such as the {\bf -crop} option. See {\bf -geometry} for details of how the {\bf -gravity} option interacts with the {\bf$<$x$>$} and {\bf$<$y$>$} parameters of a geometry specification. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite When used as an option to {\it composite\/}, {\bf -gravity} gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=montage When used as an option to {\it montage\/}, {\bf -gravity} gives the direction that an image gravitates within a tile. The default gravity is {\it Center\/} for this purpose. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-green-primary$<$x$>$,$<$y$>$} green chromaticity primary point % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,conjure,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-help} print usage instructions % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-iconGeometry$<$geometry$>$} specify the icon geometry Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner as the {\bf -geometry} option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-iconic} iconic animation % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=display \subsubsection{-immutable} make image immutable % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-implode$<$factor$>$} implode image pixels about the center % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-intent$<$type$>$} use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color Use this option to affect the the color management operation of an image (see {\bf -profile}). Choose from these intents: {\bf Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation} The default intent is undefined. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-interlace$<$type$>$} the type of interlacing scheme Choices are: {\bf None, Line, Plane,} or {\bf Partition}. The default is {\bf None}. This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for raw image formats such as {\bf RGB} or {\bf YUV}. {\bf None} means do not interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...), {\bf Line} uses scanline interlacing (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and {\bf Plane} uses plane interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...). {\bf Partition} is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage Use {\bf Line} or {\bf Plane} to create an {\bf interlaced PNG} or {\bf GIF} or {\bf progressive JPEG} image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-label$<$name$>$} assign a label to an image Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, when writing to an image format that supports labels, such as TIFF, PNG, MIFF, or PostScript. You can include the the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character. A label is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via a Label'' tag or similar mechanism. If you want the label to be visible on the image itself, use the {\bf -draw} option. See {\bf -comment} for details. For example, \begin{verbatim} -label "%m:%f %wx%h" \end{verbatim} produces an image label of {\bf MIFF:bird.miff 512x480} for an image titled {\bf bird.miff} and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of {\it string\/} is {\it @\/}, the image label is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. When converting to {\it PostScript\/}, use this option to specify a header string to print above the image. Specify the label font with {\bf -font}. When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an image is displayed with the corresponding tile in the montage. Use the {\bf +label} option to suppress this behavior. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-lat$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$offset$>$\{\%\}} perform local adaptive thresholding Perform local adaptive thresholding using the specified width, height, and offset. The offset is a distance in sample space from the mean, as an absolute integer ranging from 0 to the maximum sample value or as a percentage. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-level$<$black\_point$>$\{,$<$white\_point$>$\}\{\%\}\{,$<$gamma$>$\}} adjust the level of image contrast Give one, two or three values delimited with commas: black, white, and gamma (e.g. 10,65000,1.0 or 2\%,98\%,0.5). The black and white points range from 0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100\%; if the white point is omitted it is set to MaxRGB-black\_point. If a \%'' sign is present anywhere in the string, the black and white points are percentages of MaxRGB. Gamma is an exponent that ranges from 0.1 to 10.; if it is omitted, the default of 1.0 (no gamma correction) is assumed. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-limit$<$type$><$value$>$} Area, Disk, Map, or Memory resource limit The value for Area is in number of Megabytes and the values for the other resources are in Megabytes. By default the limits are 64 Megabytes area, 512MB memory, 1024MB map, and unlimited disk, but these are adjusted at startup time on platforms that can provide information about available resources. When the limit is reached, ImageMagick will fail in some fashion, or take compensating actions if possible. For example, {\tt -limit memory 32 -limit map 64} limits memory When the pixel cache reaches the memory limit it uses memory mapping. When that limit is reached it goes to disk. If disk has a hard limit, the program will fail. You can use the option {\tt -list resource} to find out the limits. This will also show the number of files available, which is not changeable via the -limit option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=mogrify \subsubsection{-linewidth} the line width for subsequent draw operations % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,identify,mogrify \subsubsection{-list$<$type$>$} the type of list Choices are: {\bf Coder}, {\bf Color}, {\bf Delegate}, {\bf Format}, {\bf Magic}, {\bf Module}, {\bf Resource}, or {\bf Type}. This option lists information about the ImageMagick configuration. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,conjure,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-log$<$string$>$} This option specifies the format for the log printed when the {\bf -debug} option is active. You can display the following components by embedding special format characters: \begin{verbatim} %d domain %e event %f function %l line %m module %p process ID %r real CPU time %t wall clock time %u user CPU time %% percent sign \n newline \r carriage return \end{verbatim} For example: \begin{verbatim} convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png \end{verbatim} The default behavior is to print all of the components. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-loop$<$iterations$>$} add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation A value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up to {\it iterations\/} times. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=display \subsubsection{-magnify$<$factor$>$} magnify the image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-map$<$filename$>$} choose a particular set of colors from this image [{\it convert\/} or {\it mogrify\/}] By default, color reduction chooses an optimal set of colors that best represent the original image. Alternatively, you can choose a particular set of colors from an image file with this option. Use {\bf +map} to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows to a single optimal set of colors that best represent all the images. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf +map} option appears after all of the input images, all images are mapped. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-map$<$type$>$} display image using this type. [{\it animate\/} or {\it display\/}] Choose from these {\it Standard Colormap\/} types: \begin{verbatim} best default gray red green blue \end{verbatim} The {\it X server\/} must support the {\it Standard Colormap\/} you choose, otherwise an error occurs. Use {\bf list} as the type and {\bf display} searches the list of colormap types in {\bf top-to-bottom} order until one is located. See {\it xstdcmap(1)\/} for one way of creating Standard Colormaps. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-mask$<$filename$>$} Specify a clipping mask The image read from the file is used as a clipping mask. It must have the same dimensions as the image being masked. If the mask image contains an alpha channel, the opacity of each pixel is used to define the mask. Otherwise, the intensity (gray level) of each pixel is used. Use {\bf +mask} to remove the clipping mask. It is not necessary to use {\bf -clip} to activate the mask; {\bf -clip} is implied by {\bf -mask}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-matte} store matte channel if the image has one If the image does not have a matte channel, create an opaque one. Use {\bf +matte} to ignore the matte channel and to avoid writing a matte channel in the output file. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-mattecolor$<$color$>$} specify the color to be used with the {\bf -frame} option The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-median$<$radius$>$} apply a median filter to the image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=montage \subsubsection{-mode$<$value$>$} mode of operation % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-modulate$<$value$>$} vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image Specify the percent change in brightness, the color saturation, and the hue separated by commas. For example, to increase the color brightness by 20\% and decrease the color saturation by 10\% and leave the hue unchanged, use: {\bf -modulate 120,90}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-monochrome} transform the image to black and white % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-morph$<$frames$>$} morphs an image sequence Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give the appearance of a meta-morphosis from one image to the next. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -morph} option appears after all of the input images, all images are morphed. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-mosaic} create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence The {\bf -page} option can be used to establish the dimensions of the mosaic and to locate the images within the mosaic. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -mosaic} option appears after all of the input images, all images are included in the mosaic. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-name} name an image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify \subsubsection{-negate} replace every pixel with its complementary color The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated. White becomes black, yellow becomes blue, etc. Use {\bf +negate} to only negate the grayscale pixels of the image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-noise$<$radius$|$type$>$} add or reduce noise in an image The principal function of noise peak elimination filter is to smooth the objects within an image without losing edge information and without creating undesired structures. The central idea of the algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next neighbor in value within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be noise. A pixel is defined as noise if and only if this pixel is a maximum or minimum within the pixel window. Use {\bf radius} to specify the width of the neighborhood. Use {\bf +noise} followed by a noise type to add noise to an image. Choose from these noise types: \begin{verbatim} Uniform Gaussian Multiplicative Impulse Laplacian Poisson \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-noop} NOOP (no option) The {\bf -noop} option can be used to terminate a group of images and reset all options to their default values, when no other option is desired. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-normalize} transform image to span the full range of color values This is a contrast enhancement technique. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-opaque$<$color$>$} change this color to the pen color within the image The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. See {\bf -fill} for more details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-page$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$\{\%\}\{{!}\}\{$<$\}\{$>$\}} size and location of an image canvas Use this option to specify the dimensions of the {\it PostScript\/} page in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a PostScript page are: \begin{verbatim} 11x17 792 1224 Ledger 1224 792 Legal 612 1008 Letter 612 792 LetterSmall 612 792 ArchE 2592 3456 ArchD 1728 2592 ArchC 1296 1728 ArchB 864 1296 ArchA 648 864 A0 2380 3368 A1 1684 2380 A2 1190 1684 A3 842 1190 A4 595 842 A4Small 595 842 A5 421 595 A6 297 421 A7 210 297 A8 148 210 A9 105 148 A10 74 105 B0 2836 4008 B1 2004 2836 B2 1418 2004 B3 1002 1418 B4 709 1002 B5 501 709 C0 2600 3677 C1 1837 2600 C2 1298 1837 C3 918 1298 C4 649 918 C5 459 649 C6 323 459 Flsa 612 936 Flse 612 936 HalfLetter 396 612 \end{verbatim} For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4, Ledger, etc.). Otherwise, {\bf -page} behaves much like {\bf -geometry} (e.g. {\tt -page letter+43+43$>$}). This option is also used to place subimages when writing to a multi-image format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG. When used for this purpose the offsets are always measured from the top left corner of the canvas and are not affected by the {\bf -gravity} option. To position a GIF or MNG image, use {\bf -page}{\it \{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$\/} (e.g. -page +100+200). When writing to a MNG file, a {\bf -page} option appearing ahead of the first image in the sequence with nonzero width and height defines the width and height values that are written in the {\bf MHDR} chunk. Otherwise, the MNG width and height are computed from the bounding box that contains all images in the sequence. When writing a GIF89 file, only the bounding box method is used to determine its dimensions. For a PostScript page, the image is sized as in {\bf -geometry} and positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by \{+-\}$<${\bf x}{\it offset\/}$>$\{+-\}$<${\bf y} {\it offset$>$\/}. Use {\tt -page 612x792$>$}, for example, to center the image within the page. If the image size exceeds the PostScript page, it is reduced to fit the page. The default gravity for the {\bf -page} option is {\it NorthWest\/}, i.e., positive {\bf x} and {\bf y} {\it offset\/} are measured rightward and downward from the top left corner of the page, unless the {\bf -gravity} option is present with a value other than {\it NorthWest\/}. The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792. This option is used in concert with {\bf -density}. Use {\bf +page} to remove the page settings for an image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-paint$<$radius$>$} simulate an oil painting Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular neighborhood whose width is specified with {\it radius\/}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate \subsubsection{-pause$<$seconds$>$} pause between animation loops [animate] Pause for the specified number of seconds before repeating the animation. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import \subsubsection{-pause$<$seconds$>$} pause between snapshots [import] Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next snapshot. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-pen$<$color$>$} (This option has been replaced by the -fill option) % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,identify,import \subsubsection{-ping} efficiently determine image characteristics % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-pointsize$<$value$>$} pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType font % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-preview$<$type$>$} image preview type Use this option to affect the preview operation of an image (e.g. {\tt convert file.png -preview Gamma Preview:gamma.png}). Choose from these previews: \begin{verbatim} Rotate Shear Roll Hue Saturation Brightness Gamma Spiff Dull Grayscale Quantize Despeckle ReduceNoise Add Noise Sharpen Blur Threshold EdgeDetect Spread Shade Raise Segment Solarize Swirl Implode Wave OilPaint CharcoalDrawing JPEG \end{verbatim} The default preview is {\bf JPEG}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert \subsubsection{-process$<$command$>$} process a sequence of images using a process module The command argument has the form {\tt module=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN} where {\tt module}> is the name of the module to invoke (e.g. "analyze") and arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN are an arbitrary number of arguments to pass to the process module. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the {\bf -process} option appears after all of the input images, all images are processed. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-profile$<$filename$>$} add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile to image {\tt -profile filename} adds an ICM (ICC color management), IPTC (newswire information), or a generic profile to the image. Use {\tt +profile icm}, {\tt +profile iptc}, or {\tt +profile profile\_name} to remove the respective profile. Use {\tt identify -verbose} to find out what profiles are in the image file. Use {\tt +profile "*"} to remove all profiles. To extract a profile, the {\bf -profile} option is not used. Instead, simply write the file to an image format such as {\it APP1, 8BIM, ICM,\/} or {\it IPTC\/}. For example, to extract the Exif data (which is stored in JPEG files in the {\it APP1\/} profile), use \begin{verbatim} convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1 \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-quality$<$value$>$} JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image quality and highest compression) to 100 (best quality but least effective compression). The default quality is 75. Use the {\bf -sampling-factor} option to specify the factors for chroma downsampling. For the MIFF image format, quality/10 is the zlib compression level, which is 0 (worst but fastest compression) to 9 (best but slowest). It has no effect on the image appearance, since the compression is always lossless. For the MNG and PNG image formats, the quality value sets the zlib compression level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality \% 10). Compression levels range from 0 (fastest compression) to 100 (best but slowest). For compression level 0, the Huffman-only strategy is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the worst compression. If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used for all scanlines: \begin{verbatim} 0: none 1: sub 2: up 3: average 4: Paeth \end{verbatim} If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map, otherwise no filtering is used. If filter-type is 6, adaptive filtering with {\it minimum-sum-of-absolute-values\/} is used. Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the LOCO color transformation and adaptive filtering with {\it minimum-sum-of-absolute-values\/} are used. The default is quality is 75, which means nearly the best compression with adaptive filtering. The quality setting has no effect on the appearance of PNG and MNG images, since the compression is always lossless. For further information, see the PNG specification. When writing a JNG image with transparency, two quality values are required, one for the main image and one for the grayscale image that conveys the alpha channel. These are written as a single integer equal to the main image quality plus 1000 times the opacity quality. For example, if you want to use quality 75 for the main image and quality 90 to compress the opacity data, use {\tt -quality 90075}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-raise$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$} lighten or darken image edges This will create a 3-D effect. See {\bf -geometry} for details details about the geometry specification. Offsets are not used. Use {\bf -raise} to create a raised effect, otherwise use {\bf +raise}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-red-primary$<$x$>$,$<$y$>$} red chromaticity primary point % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-region$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$} apply options to a portion of the image The {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} offsets are treated in the same manner as in {\bf -crop}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-remote} perform a remote operation The only command recognized at this time is the name of an image file to load. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-render} render vector operations Use {\bf +render} to turn off rendering vector operations. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-resize$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{\%\}\{@\}\{{!}\}\{$<$\}\{$>$\}} resize an image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,import,mogrify This is an alias for the {\bf -geometry} option and it behaves in the same manner. If the {\bf -filter} option precedes the {\bf -resize} option, the specified filter is used. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=all There are some exceptions: % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite When used as a {\it composite\/} option, {\bf -resize} conveys the preferred size of the output image, while {\bf -geometry} conveys the size and placement of the {\it composite image\/} within the main image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=montage When used as a {\it montage\/} option, {\bf -resize} conveys the preferred size of the montage, while {\bf -geometry} conveys information about the tiles. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-roll \{+-\}$<$x$>$\{+-\}$<$y$>$} roll an image vertically or horizontally See {\bf -geometry} for details the geometry specification. The {\it x\/} and {\it y\/} offsets are not affected by the {\bf -gravity} option. A negative {\it x\/} offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative {\it y\/} offset rolls the image top-to-bottom. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-rotate$<$degrees$>$\{$<$\}\{$>$\}} apply Paeth image rotation to the image Use {\tt$>$} to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the height. {\tt$<$} rotates the image {\it only\/} if its width is less than the height. For example, if you specify {\tt -rotate "-90$>$"} and the image size is 480x640, the image is not rotated. However, if the image is 640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees. If you use {\tt$>$} or {\tt$<$}, enclose it in quotation marks to prevent it from being misinterpreted as a file redirection. Empty triangles left over from rotating the image are filled with the color defined as {\bf background} (class {\bf backgroundColor}). The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-sample$<$geometry$>$} scale image with pixel sampling See {\bf -geometry} for details about the geometry specification. {\bf -sample} ignores the {\bf -filter} selection if the {\bf -filter} option is present. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and the {\bf -gravity} option has no effect. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-sampling-factor$<$horizontal\_factor$>$x$<$vertical\_factor$>$} sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and YUV decoder/encoder. This option specifies the sampling factors to be used by the JPEG encoder for chroma downsampling. If this option is omitted, the JPEG library will use its own default values. When reading or writing the YUV format and when writing the M2V (MPEG-2) format, use {\bf -sampling-factor 2x1} to specify the 4:2:2 downsampling method. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-scale$<$geometry$>$} scale the image. See {\bf -geometry} for details about the geometry specification. {\bf -scale} uses a simpler, faster algorithm, and it ignores the {\bf -filter} selection if the {\bf -filter} option is present. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and the {\bf -gravity} option has no effect. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,import,mogrify \subsubsection{-scene$<$value$>$} set scene number This option sets the scene number of an image or the first image in an image sequence. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display,montage \subsubsection{-scenes$<$value-value$>$} range of image scene numbers to read Each image in the range is read with the filename followed by a period ({\bf .}) and the decimal scene number. You can change this behavior by embedding a {\bf \%d, \%0Nd, \%o, \%0No, \%x, or \%0Nx printf} format specification in the file name. For example, \begin{verbatim} montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff \end{verbatim} makes a montage of files image.miff.5, image.miff.6, and image.miff.7, and \begin{verbatim} animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff \end{verbatim} animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import \subsubsection{-screen} specify the screen to capture This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain the image should be done on the root window, rather than directly on the specified window. In this way, you can obtain pieces of other windows that overlap the specified window, and more importantly, you can capture menus or other popups that are independent windows but appear over the specified window. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-seed$<$value$>$} pseudo-random number generator seed value The value can be any integer in the range 1 to 2**31-1. Successive runs with a particular seed will generate the same sequence of pseudo-random numbers. If the {\bf -seed} option is not present, ImageMagick will generate a random seed from system timers, clocks, etc., so that successive runs will generate different sequences. The pseudo-random numbers are used by options such as {\bf -noise}, {\bf -spread}, and the {\bf plasma} format. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify \subsubsection{-segment$<$cluster threshold$>$x$<$smoothing threshold$>$} segment an image Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color components and identifying units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique. Specify {\it cluster threshold\/} as the number of pixels in each cluster must exceed the the cluster threshold to be considered valid. {\it Smoothing threshold\/} eliminates noise in the second derivative of the histogram. As the value is increased, you can expect a smoother second derivative. The default is 1.5. See Image Segmentation'' in the manual page for {\it display\/} for details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-shade$<$azimuth$>$x$<$elevation$>$} shade the image using a distant light source Specify {\it azimuth\/} and {\it elevation\/} as the position of the light source. Use {\bf +shade} to return the shading results as a grayscale image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=montage \subsubsection{-shadow} shadow the montage % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-shared-memory} use shared memory This option specifies whether the utility should attempt use shared memory for pixmaps. ImageMagick must be compiled with shared memory support, and the display must support the {\it MIT-SHM\/} extension. Otherwise, this option is ignored. The default is {\bf True}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,display,montage,mogrify \subsubsection{-sharpen$<$radius$>$\{x$<$sigma$>$\}} sharpen the image Use a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-shave$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{\%\}} shave pixels from the image edges Specify the width of the region to be removed from both sides of the image and the height of the regions to be removed from top and bottom. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-shear$<$x degrees$>$x$<$y degrees$>$} shear the image along the X or Y axis Use the specified positive or negative shear angle. Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis, creating a parallelogram. An X direction shear slides an edge along the X axis, while a Y direction shear slides an edge along the Y axis. The amount of the shear is controlled by a shear angle. For X direction shears, {\it x degrees\/} is measured relative to the Y axis, and similarly, for Y direction shears {\it y degrees\/} is measured relative to the X axis. Empty triangles left over from shearing the image are filled with the color defined as {\bf background} (class {\bf backgroundColor}). The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import \subsubsection{-silent} operate silently % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,identify,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-size$<$width$>$x$<$height$>$\{+offset\}} width and height of the image Use this option to specify the width and height of raw images whose dimensions are unknown such as {\bf GRAY}, {\bf RGB}, or {\bf CMYK}. In addition to width and height, use {\bf -size} with an offset to skip any header information in the image or tell the number of colors in a {\bf MAP} image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256). For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes: \begin{verbatim} 192x128 384x256 768x512 1536x1024 3072x2048 \end{verbatim} Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer of a JBIG or JPEG image (e.g. -size 1024x768). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=import \subsubsection{-snaps$<$value$>$} number of screen snapshots Use this option to grab more than one image from the X server screen, to create an animation sequence. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-solarize$<$factor$>$} negate all pixels above the threshold level Specify {\it factor\/} as the percent threshold of the intensity (0 - 99.9\%). This option produces a {\it solarization\/} effect seen when exposing a photographic film to light during the development process. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-spread$<$amount$>$} displace image pixels by a random amount {\it Amount\/} defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to choose a candidate pixel to swap. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite \subsubsection{-stegano$<$offset$>$} hide watermark within an image Use an offset to start the image hiding some number of pixels from the beginning of the image. Note this offset and the image size. You will need this information to recover the steganographic image (e.g. display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png). % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite \subsubsection{-stereo} composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel of the output image. The right side is saved as the green channel. Red-green stereo glasses are required to properly view the stereo image. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-stroke$<$color$>$} color to use when stroking a graphic primitive The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. See {\bf -draw} for further details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-strokewidth$<$value$>$} set the stroke width See {\bf -draw} for further details. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,animate,montage \subsubsection{-swap$<$index,index$>$} swap two images in the image sequence. Image index are as per -fx operator. +swap will swap the last two images. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-swirl$<$degrees$>$} swirl image pixels about the center {\it Degrees\/} defines the tightness of the swirl. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-text-font$<$name$>$} font for writing fixed-width text Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style) formatted text. The default is 14 point {\it Courier\/}. You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript, TrueType, or OPTION1 font. For example, {\tt Courier.ttf} is a TrueType font and {\tt x:fixed} is OPTION1. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-texture$<$filename$>$} name of texture to tile onto the image background % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-threshold$<$value$>$\{$<$green$>$,$<$blue$>$,$<$opacity$>$\}\{\%\}} threshold the image Create an image such that any pixel sample that is equal or exceeds the threshold is reassigned the maximum intensity otherwise the minimum intensity. If the green or blue value is omitted, these channels use the same value as the first one provided. If all three color values are the same, the result is a bi-level image. If the opacity threshold is omitted, OpaqueOpacity will be used and any partially transparent pixel will become fully transparent. If only a single 0 is provided, auto-thresholding will be performed. To generate an all-black or all-white image with the same dimensions as the input image, you can use \begin{verbatim} convert -threshold 100% in.png black.png convert -threshold -1 in.png white.png \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-tile$<$filename$>$} tile image when filling a graphic primitive % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=montage \subsubsection{-tile$<$geometry$>$} layout of images [{\it montage\/}] % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-tint$<$value$>$} tint the image with the fill color Specify the amount of tinting as a percentage. Pure colors like black, white red, yellow, will not be affected by -tint. Only mid-range colors such as the various shades of grey. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display,montage \subsubsection{-title$<$string$>$} assign title to displayed image [{\it animate, display, montage\/}] Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is assigned to the image window and is typically displayed in the window title bar. Optionally you can include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif data, or other image attribute by embedding special format characters described under the {\bf -format} option. For example, \begin{verbatim} -title "%m:%f %wx%h" \end{verbatim} produces an image title of {\tt MIFF:bird.miff 512x480} for an image titled {\tt bird.miff} and whose width is 512 and height is 480. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,animate,montage \subsubsection{-swap$<$index,index$>$} swap two images in the image sequence. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-thumbnail} create a thumbnail of the image This is exactly like -resize, except that any image profiles present are also removed as they are of little importance to small image thumbnails. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-transform} transform the image This option applies the transformation matrix from a previous {\bf -affine} option. \begin{verbatim} convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-transparent$<$color$>$} make this color transparent within the image The color is specified using the format described under the {\bf -fill} option. The color to use for image transparency in colormap image formats, such as GIF. As a side effect, fully-opaque colors of this value may also become transparent, depending on the format. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,convert,display,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-treedepth$<$value$>$} tree depth for the color reduction algorithm Normally, this integer value is zero or one. A zero or one tells display to choose an optimal tree depth for the color reduction algorithm An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the source image with the fastest computational speed and the least amount of memory. However, the default depth is inappropriate for some images. To assure the best representation, try values between 2 and 8 for this parameter. Refer to quantize for more details. The {\bf -colors} or {\bf -monochrome} option is required for this option to take effect. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,convert,composite,display,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-trim} trim an image This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as the corner pixels. Use {\bf -fuzz} to make {\bf -trim} remove edges that are nearly the same color as the corner pixels. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-type$<$type$>$} the image type Choose from: {\bf Bilevel}, {\bf Grayscale}, {\bf Palette}, {\bf PaletteMatte}, {\bf TrueColor}, {\bf TrueColorMatte}, {\bf ColorSeparation}, {\bf ColorSeparationMatte}, or {\bf Optimize}. Normally, when a format supports different subformats such as grayscale and truecolor, the encoder will try to choose an efficient subformat. The {\bf -type} option can be used to overrride this behavior. For example, to prevent a JPEG from being written in grayscale format even though only gray pixels are present, use \begin{verbatim} convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg \end{verbatim} Similarly, using {\tt -type TrueColorMatte} will force the encoder to write an alpha channel even though the image is opaque, if the output format supports transparency. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=display \subsubsection{-update$<$seconds$>$} detect when image file is modified and redisplay. Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that is currently displayed is over-written. {\bf display} will automatically detect that the input file has been changed and update the displayed image accordingly. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-units$<$type$>$} the type of image resolution Choose from: {\bf Undefined}, {\bf PixelsPerInch}, or {\bf PixelsPerCentimeter}. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-unsharp$<$radius$>$\{x$<$sigma$>$\}\{+$<$amount$>$\}\{+$<$threshold$>$\}} sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator The {\bf -unsharp} option sharpens an image. We convolve the image with a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). For reasonable results, radius should be larger than sigma. Use a radius of 0 to have the method select a suitable radius. The parameters are: \begin{verbatim} radius: The radius of the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the center pixel (default 0). sigma: The standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default 1.0). amount: The percentage of the difference between the original and the blur image that is added back into the original (default 1.0). threshold: The threshold, as a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply the difference amount (default 0.05). \end{verbatim} % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=display,convert \subsubsection{-use-pixmap} use the pixmap % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,conjure,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-verbose} print detailed information about the image % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=identify This information is printed: image scene number; image name; image size; the image class ({\it DirectClass\/} or {\it PseudoClass\/}); the total number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read and transform the image. Refer to miff for a description of the image class. If {\bf -colors} is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduction error values are printed. Refer to quantize for a description of these values. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,composite,conjure,convert,display,identify,import,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-version} print ImageMagick version string % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-view$<$string$>$} FlashPix viewing parameters % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-virtual-pixel$<$method$>$} specify contents of virtual pixels'' This option defines virtual pixels'' for use in operations that can access pixels outside the boundaries of an image. Choose from these methods: \begin{verbatim} Constant: Use the image background color. Edge: Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default). Mirror: Mirror the image. Tile: Tile the image. \end{verbatim} This option affects operations that use virtual pixels such as {\bf -blur}, {\bf -sharpen}, {\bf -wave}, etc. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-visual$<$type$>$} animate images using this X visual type Choose from these visual classes: \begin{verbatim} StaticGray GrayScale StaticColor PseudoColor TrueColor DirectColor default visual id \end{verbatim} The X server must support the visual you choose, otherwise an error occurs. If a visual is not specified, the visual class that can display the most simultaneous colors on the default screen is chosen. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite \subsubsection{-watermark$<$brightness$>$} percent brightness of a watermark % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=convert,mogrify \subsubsection{-wave$<$amplitude$>$x$<$wavelength$>$} alter an image along a sine wave Specify {\it amplitude\/} and {\it wavelength\/} of the wave. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert,mogrify,montage \subsubsection{-white-point$<$x$>$,$<$y$>$} chromaticity white point % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=animate,display \subsubsection{-window$<$id$>$} make image the background of a window {\it id\/} can be a window id or name. Specify {\bf root} to select X's root window as the target window. By default the image is tiled onto the background of the target window. If {\bf backdrop} or {\bf -geometry} are specified, the image is surrounded by the background color. Refer to {\bf X RESOURCES} for details. The image will not display on the root window if the image has more unique colors than the target window colormap allows. Use {\bf -colors} to reduce the number of colors. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=display \subsubsection{-window-group} specify the window group % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=composite,convert \subsubsection{-write$<$filename$>$} write an image sequence [{\it convert, composite\/}] The image sequence following the {\bf -write} {\it filename\/}option is written out, and then processing continues with the same image in its current state if there are additional options. To restore the image to its original state after writing it, use the {\bf +write} {\it filename\/} option. % Utilities: ImageMagick apps=display \subsubsection{-write$<$filename$>$} write the image to a file [{\it display\/}] If {\it filename\/} already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should be overwritten. By default, the image is written in the format that it was read in as. To specify a particular image format, prefix {\it filename\/} with the image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify the image type as the filename suffix (e.g., image.ps). See convert(1) for a list of valid image formats. Specify file as - for standard output. If file has the extension {\bf .Z} or {\bf .gz}, the file size is {\bf compressed} using compress or {\bf gzip} respectively. Precede the image file name with$|\$ to pipe to a system command. Use {\bf -compress} to specify the type of image compression. The equivalent X resource for this option is {\bf writeFilename} (class {\bf WriteFilename}). See X Resources'' in the manual page for {\it display\/} for details.