File: less.man

package info (click to toggle)
jless 382-iso262-2
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: squeeze
  • size: 1,808 kB
  • ctags: 1,332
  • sloc: sh: 18,019; ansic: 15,553; makefile: 81; awk: 7
file content (2046 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 80,665 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (5)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046



LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


NNAAMMEE
       less - opposite of more

SSYYNNOOPPSSIISS
       lleessss --??
       lleessss ----hheellpp
       lleessss --VV
       lleessss ----vveerrssiioonn
       lleessss [[--[[++]]aaBBccCCddeeEEffFFggGGiiIIJJLLmmMMnnNNqqQQrrRRssSSuuUUVVwwWWXX~~]]
            [[--bb _s_p_a_c_e]] [[--hh _l_i_n_e_s]] [[--jj _l_i_n_e]] [[--kk _k_e_y_f_i_l_e]]
            [[--{{ooOO}} _l_o_g_f_i_l_e]] [[--pp _p_a_t_t_e_r_n]] [[--PP _p_r_o_m_p_t]] [[--tt _t_a_g]]
            [[--TT _t_a_g_s_f_i_l_e]] [[--xx _t_a_b,,......]] [[--yy _l_i_n_e_s]] [[--[[zz]] _l_i_n_e_s]]
            [[--## _s_h_i_f_t]] [[++[[++]]_c_m_d]] [[----]] [[_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e]]......
       (See  the OPTIONS section for alternate option syntax with
       long option names.)


DDEESSCCRRIIPPTTIIOONN
       _L_e_s_s is a program similar to _m_o_r_e (1),  but  which  allows
       backward movement in the file as well as forward movement.
       Also, _l_e_s_s does not have to read  the  entire  input  file
       before  starting,  so  with large input files it starts up
       faster than text editors like _v_i (1).  _L_e_s_s  uses  termcap
       (or  terminfo on some systems), so it can run on a variety
       of terminals.  There is even limited support for  hardcopy
       terminals.  (On a hardcopy terminal, lines which should be
       printed at the top of  the  screen  are  prefixed  with  a
       caret.)

       Commands  are  based on both _m_o_r_e and _v_i_.  Commands may be
       preceded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions
       below.  The number is used by some commands, as indicated.


CCOOMMMMAANNDDSS
       In the following descriptions, ^X  means  control-X.   ESC
       stands for the ESCAPE key; for example ESC-v means the two
       character sequence "ESCAPE", then "v".

       h or H Help: display a summary of these commands.  If  you
              forget all the other commands, remember this one.

       SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
              Scroll  forward  N  lines,  default one window (see
              option -z below).  If N is  more  than  the  screen
              size, only the final screenful is displayed.  Warn
              ing: some systems use ^V as a  special  literaliza
              tion character.

       z      Like  SPACE,  but if N is specified, it becomes the
              new window size.

       ESC-SPACE
              Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful,  even  if



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   1





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              it reaches end-of-file in the process.

       RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
              Scroll  forward  N  lines, default 1.  The entire N
              lines are displayed, even if N  is  more  than  the
              screen size.

       d or ^D
              Scroll  forward  N  lines,  default one half of the
              screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new
              default for subsequent d and u commands.

       b or ^B or ESC-v
              Scroll  backward  N  lines, default one window (see
              option -z below).  If N is  more  than  the  screen
              size, only the final screenful is displayed.

       w      Like  ESC-v,  but if N is specified, it becomes the
              new window size.

       y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
              Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The  entire  N
              lines  are  displayed,  even  if N is more than the
              screen size.  Warning: some systems  use  ^Y  as  a
              special job control character.

       u or ^U
              Scroll  backward  N  lines, default one half of the
              screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new
              default for subsequent d and u commands.

       ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
              Scroll  horizontally  right  N  characters, default
              half the screen width (see the -#  option).   If  a
              number  N  is specified, it becomes the default for
              future RIGHTARROW and  LEFTARROW  commands.   While
              the  text  is  scrolled,  it  acts as though the -S
              option (chop lines) were in effect.

       ESC-( or LEFTARROW
              Scroll horizontally left N characters, default half
              the  screen width (see the -# option).  If a number
              N is specified, it becomes the default  for  future
              RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.

       r or ^R or ^L
              Repaint the screen.

       R      Repaint  the screen, discarding any buffered input.
              Useful if the file is changing while  it  is  being
              viewed.

       F      Scroll  forward,  and  keep trying to read when the
              end of file  is  reached.   Normally  this  command



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   2





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              would  be used when already at the end of the file.
              It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which  is
              growing while it is being viewed.  (The behavior is
              similar to the "tail -f" command.)

       g or < or ESC-<
              Go to line N in the file, default 1  (beginning  of
              file).   (Warning: this may be slow if N is large.)

       G or > or ESC->
              Go to line N in the file, default the  end  of  the
              file.  (Warning: this may be slow if N is large, or
              if N is not specified and  standard  input,  rather
              than a file, is being read.)

       p or % Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should
              be between 0 and 100.

       {      If a left curly bracket appears  in  the  top  line
              displayed  on  the screen, the { command will go to
              the matching right  curly  bracket.   The  matching
              right  curly  bracket  is  positioned on the bottom
              line of the screen.  If there is more than one left
              curly  bracket  on  the top line, a number N may be
              used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.

       }      If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line
              displayed  on  the screen, the } command will go to
              the matching left curly bracket.  The matching left
              curly  bracket is positioned on the top line of the
              screen.  If there is  more  than  one  right  curly
              bracket  on the top line, a number N may be used to
              specify the N-th bracket on the line.

       (      Like {, but  applies  to  parentheses  rather  than
              curly brackets.

       )      Like  },  but  applies  to  parentheses rather than
              curly brackets.

       [      Like {, but applies to square brackets rather  than
              curly brackets.

       ]      Like  }, but applies to square brackets rather than
              curly brackets.

       ESC-^F Followed by two characters, acts like {,  but  uses
              the  two  characters  as  open  and close brackets,
              respectively.  For example, "ESC ^F < >"  could  be
              used  to go forward to the > which matches the < in
              the top displayed line.

       ESC-^B Followed by two characters, acts like },  but  uses
              the  two  characters  as  open  and close brackets,



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   3





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              respectively.  For example, "ESC ^B < >"  could  be
              used to go backward to the < which matches the > in
              the bottom displayed line.

       m      Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current
              position with that letter.

       '      (Single  quote.)  Followed by any lowercase letter,
              returns to the position which was previously marked
              with  that  letter.   Followed  by  another  single
              quote, returns to the position at  which  the  last
              "large" movement command was executed.  Followed by
              a ^ or $, jumps to the beginning or end of the file
              respectively.   Marks are preserved when a new file
              is examined, so the ' command can be used to switch
              between input files.

       ^X^X   Same as single quote.

       /pattern
              Search  forward  in the file for the N-th line con
              taining the pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern
              is  a regular expression, as recognized by _e_d_.  The
              search starts at the second line displayed (but see
              the -a and -j options, which change this).

              Certain  characters  are  special if entered at the
              beginning of the pattern; they modify the  type  of
              search rather than become part of the pattern:

              ^N or !
                     Search for lines which do NOT match the pat
                     tern.

              ^E or *
                     Search multiple  files.   That  is,  if  the
                     search  reaches  the END of the current file
                     without finding a match, the search  contin
                     ues  in  the  next  file in the command line
                     list.

              ^F or @
                     Begin the search at the first  line  of  the
                     FIRST file in the command line list, regard
                     less of what is currently displayed  on  the
                     screen  or  the  settings  of  the  -a or -j
                     options.

              ^K     Highlight any text which matches the pattern
                     on the current screen, but don't move to the
                     first match (KEEP current position).

              ^R     Don't interpret regular expression metachar
                     acters;   that   is,  do  a  simple  textual



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   4





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


                     comparison.

       ?pattern
              Search backward in the file for the N-th line  con
              taining the pattern.  The search starts at the line
              immediately before the top line displayed.

              Certain characters are special as in the / command:

              ^N or !
                     Search for lines which do NOT match the pat
                     tern.

              ^E or *
                     Search multiple  files.   That  is,  if  the
                     search  reaches the beginning of the current
                     file without finding  a  match,  the  search
                     continues  in  the previous file in the com
                     mand line list.

              ^F or @
                     Begin the search at the  last  line  of  the
                     last  file in the command line list, regard
                     less of what is currently displayed  on  the
                     screen  or  the  settings  of  the  -a or -j
                     options.

              ^K     As in forward searches.

              ^R     As in forward searches.

       ESC-/pattern
              Same as "/*".

       ESC-?pattern
              Same as "?*".

       n      Repeat previous search, for  N-th  line  containing
              the last pattern.  If the previous search was modi
              fied by ^N, the search is made for  the  N-th  line
              NOT containing the pattern.  If the previous search
              was modified by ^E, the  search  continues  in  the
              next  (or  previous)  file  if not satisfied in the
              current file.  If the previous search was  modified
              by  ^R,  the  search  is done without using regular
              expressions.  There is no effect  if  the  previous
              search was modified by ^F or ^K.

       N      Repeat  previous  search, but in the reverse direc
              tion.

       ESC-n  Repeat previous search, but  crossing  file  bound
              aries.   The  effect  is  as if the previous search
              were modified by *.



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   5





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       ESC-N  Repeat previous search, but in the  reverse  direc
              tion and crossing file boundaries.

       ESC-u  Undo search highlighting.  Turn off highlighting of
              strings matching the current  search  pattern.   If
              highlighting  is  already off because of a previous
              ESC-u command,  turn  highlighting  back  on.   Any
              search command will also turn highlighting back on.
              (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling  the
              -G option; in that case search commands do not turn
              highlighting back on.)

       :e [filename]
              Examine a new file.  If the  filename  is  missing,
              the  "current"  file  (see  the  :n and :p commands
              below) from the list of files in the  command  line
              is re-examined.  A percent sign (%) in the filename
              is replaced by the name of  the  current  file.   A
              pound  sign (#) is replaced by the name of the pre
              viously examined file.   However,  two  consecutive
              percent  signs  are  simply  replaced with a single
              percent sign.  This allows you to enter a  filename
              that  contains  a  percent sign in the name.  Simi
              larly, two consecutive  pound  signs  are  replaced
              with a single pound sign.  The filename is inserted
              into the command line list of files so that it  can
              be  seen  by subsequent :n and :p commands.  If the
              filename consists of several files,  they  are  all
              inserted  into  the list of files and the first one
              is examined.  If the filename contains one or  more
              spaces,  the  entire filename should be enclosed in
              double quotes (also see the -" option).

       ^X^V or E
              Same as :e.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a spe
              cial  literalization  character.   On such systems,
              you may not be able to use ^V.

       :n     Examine the next file (from the list of files given
              in  the command line).  If a number N is specified,
              the N-th next file is examined.

       :p     Examine the previous file in the command line list.
              If  a number N is specified, the N-th previous file
              is examined.

       :x     Examine the first file in the  command  line  list.
              If  a  number  N is specified, the N-th file in the
              list is examined.

       :d     Remove the current file from the list of files.

       t      Go to the next tag, if there  were  more  than  one
              matches for the current tag.  See the -t option for



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   6





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              more details about tags.

       T      Go to the previous tag, if there were more than one
              matches for the current tag.

       = or ^G or :f
              Prints   some  information  about  the  file  being
              viewed, including its name and the line number  and
              byte offset of the bottom line being displayed.  If
              possible, it also prints the length  of  the  file,
              the  number of lines in the file and the percent of
              the file above the last displayed line.

       -      Followed by one of the command line option  letters
              (see  OPTIONS  below), this will change the setting
              of that option and print a message  describing  the
              new  setting.  If a ^P (CONTROL-P) is entered imme
              diately after the dash, the setting of  the  option
              is  changed  but  no  message  is  printed.  If the
              option letter has a numeric value (such  as  -b  or
              -h),  or  a  string value (such as -P or -t), a new
              value may be entered after the option  letter.   If
              no  new  value is entered, a message describing the
              current setting is printed and nothing is  changed.

       --     Like  the  -  command, but takes a long option name
              (see OPTIONS below) rather  than  a  single  option
              letter.   You  must  press  RETURN after typing the
              option name.  A ^P  immediately  after  the  second
              dash  suppresses  printing  of a message describing
              the new setting, as in the - command.

       -+     Followed by one of the command line option  letters
              this  will  reset the option to its default setting
              and print a message  describing  the  new  setting.
              (The  "-+_X" command does the same thing as "-+_X" on
              the command line.)  This does not work for  string-
              valued options.

       --+    Like  the  -+ command, but takes a long option name
              rather than a single option letter.

       -!     Followed by one of the command line option letters,
              this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its
              default setting and print a message describing  the
              new  setting.   This  does  not work for numeric or
              string-valued options.

       --!    Like the -! command, but takes a long  option  name
              rather than a single option letter.

       _      (Underscore.)   Followed by one of the command line
              option letters, this will print a message  describ
              ing  the  current  setting  of  that  option.   The



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   7





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              setting of the option is not changed.

       __     (Double underscore.)  Like the _ (underscore)  com
              mand,  but  takes  a long option name rather than a
              single option letter.  You must press RETURN  after
              typing the option name.

       +cmd   Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a
              new file is examined.  For example, +G causes  _l_e_s_s
              to  initially display each file starting at the end
              rather than the beginning.

       V      Prints the version number of _l_e_s_s being run.

       q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
              Exits _l_e_s_s_.

       The following four commands  may  or  may  not  be  valid,
       depending on your particular installation.


       v      Invokes  an  editor  to edit the current file being
              viewed.  The editor is taken from  the  environment
              variable  VISUAL if defined, or EDITOR if VISUAL is
              not defined, or defaults to "vi" if neither  VISUAL
              nor  EDITOR is defined.  See also the discussion of
              LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below.

       ! shell-command
              Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given.   A
              percent  sign (%) in the command is replaced by the
              name of the current file.   A  pound  sign  (#)  is
              replaced  by  the  name  of the previously examined
              file.  "!!" repeats the last  shell  command.   "!"
              with  no  shell command simply invokes a shell.  On
              Unix systems, the shell is taken from the  environ
              ment  variable  SHELL, or defaults to "sh".  On MS-
              DOS and OS/2 systems, the shell is the normal  com
              mand processor.

       | <m> shell-command
              <m> represents any mark letter.  Pipes a section of
              the input file to the  given  shell  command.   The
              section  of  the  file  to  be piped is between the
              first line on the current screen and  the  position
              marked  by  the  letter.  <m> may also be ^ or $ to
              indicate beginning or end of file respectively.  If
              <m> is . or newline, the current screen is piped.

       s filename
              Save  the  input to a file.  This only works if the
              input is a pipe, not an ordinary file.





                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   8





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


OOPPTTIIOONNSS
       Command line options are described  below.   Most  options
       may be changed while _l_e_s_s is running, via the "-" command.

       Most options may be given in one of two  forms:  either  a
       dash  followed  by a single letter, or two dashes followed
       by a long option name.  A long option name may be abbrevi
       ated  as  long  as  the  abbreviation is unambiguous.  For
       example, --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit, but  not
       --qui,  since  both  --quit-at-eof  and --quiet begin with
       --qui.  Some long option names are in uppercase,  such  as
       --QUIT-AT-EOF,   as  distinct  from  --quit-at-eof.   Such
       option names need only have their  first  letter  capital
       ized;  the  remainder  of  the name may be in either case.
       For example, --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.

       Options  are  also  taken  from  the  environment variable
       "LESS".  For example, to avoid typing "less -options  ..."
       each time _l_e_s_s is invoked, you might tell _c_s_h_:

       setenv LESS "-options"

       or if you use _s_h_:

       LESS="-options"; export LESS

       On  MS-DOS,  you  don't  need  the  quotes, but you should
       replace any percent signs in the options string by  double
       percent signs.

       The  environment  variable  is  parsed  before the command
       line, so command line options override the  LESS  environ
       ment variable.  If an option appears in the LESS variable,
       it can be reset to its default value on the  command  line
       by beginning the command line option with "-+".

       For options like -P or -D which take a following string, a
       dollar sign ($) must be used to  signal  the  end  of  the
       string.  For example, to set two -D options on MS-DOS, you
       must have a dollar sign between them, like this:

       LESS="-Dn9.1$-Ds4.1"


       -? or --help
              This option displays  a  summary  of  the  commands
              accepted  by  _l_e_s_s  (the  same  as  the h command).
              (Depending on how your shell interprets  the  ques
              tion  mark,  it may be necessary to quote the ques
              tion mark, thus: "-\?".)

       -a or --search-skip-screen
              Causes searches to start after the last  line  dis
              played  on  the  screen,  thus  skipping  all lines



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                   9





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              displayed on  the  screen.   By  default,  searches
              start  at  the  second line on the screen (or after
              the last found line; see the -j option).

       -b_n or --buffers=_n
              Specifies the amount of buffer space _l_e_s_s will  use
              for  each file, in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes).
              By default 64K of buffer space  is  used  for  each
              file  (unless  the  file  is  a  pipe;  see  the -B
              option).  The -b option specifies  instead  that  _n
              kilobytes  of  buffer space should be used for each
              file.  If _n is -1, buffer space is unlimited;  that
              is, the entire file is read into memory.

       -B or --auto-buffers
              By  default, when data is read from a pipe, buffers
              are allocated automatically as needed.  If a  large
              amount  of  data  is  read  from the pipe, this can
              cause a large amount of  memory  to  be  allocated.
              The -B option disables this automatic allocation of
              buffers for pipes, so that only 64K (or the  amount
              of  space  specified  by the -b option) is used for
              the pipe.  Warning: use of -B can result  in  erro
              neous  display, since only the most recently viewed
              part of the file is kept  in  memory;  any  earlier
              data is lost.

       -c or --clear-screen
              Causes  full screen repaints to be painted from the
              top line down.  By default,  full  screen  repaints
              are  done  by  scrolling  from  the  bottom  of the
              screen.

       -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
              The -C option is like -c, but the screen is cleared
              before it is repainted.

       -d or --dumb
              The -d option suppresses the error message normally
              displayed if the terminal is dumb; that  is,  lacks
              some  important  capability, such as the ability to
              clear the screen or scroll backward.  The -d option
              does not otherwise change the behavior of _l_e_s_s on a
              dumb terminal.

       -Dxx_c_o_l_o_r or --color=xx_c_o_l_o_r
              [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed.
              xx  is  a single character which selects the type of
              text whose color is being set:  n=normal,  s=stand
              out,  d=bold,  u=underlined,  k=blink.   _c_o_l_o_r is a
              pair of numbers separated by a period.   The  first
              number  selects the foreground color and the second
              selects the background color of the text.  A single
              number _N is the same as _N_._0.



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  10





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       -e or --quit-at-eof
              Causes  _l_e_s_s  to automatically exit the second time
              it reaches end-of-file.  By default, the  only  way
              to exit _l_e_s_s is via the "q" command.

       -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
              Causes _l_e_s_s to automatically exit the first time it
              reaches end-of-file.

       -f or --force
              Forces non-regular files to be opened.  (A non-reg
              ular file is a directory or a device special file.)
              Also suppresses the warning message when  a  binary
              file  is  opened.   By default, _l_e_s_s will refuse to
              open non-regular files.

       -F or --quit-if-one-screen
              Causes _l_e_s_s to automatically  exit  if  the  entire
              file can be displayed on the first screen.

       -g or --hilite-search
              Normally,  _l_e_s_s  will  highlight  ALL strings which
              match the  last  search  command.   The  -g  option
              changes this behavior to highlight only the partic
              ular string which was found by the last search com
              mand.   This  can cause _l_e_s_s to run somewhat faster
              than the default.

       -G or --HILITE-SEARCH
              The  -G  option  suppresses  all  highlighting   of
              strings found by search commands.

       -h_n or ---max-back-scroll=_n
              Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll back
              ward.  If it is necessary to scroll  backward  more
              than  _n lines, the screen is repainted in a forward
              direction instead.  (If the terminal does not  have
              the ability to scroll backward, -h0 is implied.)

       -i or --ignore-case
              Causes  searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase
              and  lowercase  are  considered  identical.    This
              option  is  ignored if any uppercase letters appear
              in the search pattern; in other words, if a pattern
              contains  uppercase  letters, then that search does
              not ignore case.

       -I or --IGNORE-CASE
              Like -i, but searches ignore case even if the  pat
              tern contains uppercase letters.

       -j_n or --jump-target=_n
              Specifies  a  line on the screen where the "target"
              line is to be positioned.  A  target  line  is  the



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  11





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              object of a text search, tag search, jump to a line
              number, jump to a file percentage,  or  jump  to  a
              marked position.  The screen line is specified by a
              number: the top line on the screen is 1,  the  next
              is  2,  and  so  on.  The number may be negative to
              specify a  line  relative  to  the  bottom  of  the
              screen:  the  bottom  line on the screen is -1, the
              second to the bottom is -2, and so on.  If  the  -j
              option  is used, searches begin at the line immedi
              ately after the target line.  For example, if "-j4"
              is  used, the target line is the fourth line on the
              screen, so searches begin at the fifth line on  the
              screen.

       -J or --status-column
              Displays  a  status  column at the left edge of the
              screen.  The status column  shows  the  lines  that
              matched  the  current search.  The status column is
              also used if the -w or -W option is in effect.

       -k_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e or --lesskey-file=_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e
              Causes _l_e_s_s to open and interpret the named file as
              a  _l_e_s_s_k_e_y  (1)  file.   Multiple -k options may be
              specified.  If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM  envi
              ronment  variable  is  set, or if a lesskey file is
              found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS), it is
              also used as a _l_e_s_s_k_e_y file.

       -L or --no-lessopen
              Ignore  the  LESSOPEN environment variable (see the
              INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below).  This option can
              be  set from within _l_e_s_s, but it will apply only to
              files opened subsequently, not to the file which is
              currently open.

       -m or --long-prompt
              Causes  _l_e_s_s  to prompt verbosely (like _m_o_r_e), with
              the  percent  into  the  file.   By  default,  _l_e_s_s
              prompts with a colon.

       -M or --LONG-PROMPT
              Causes  _l_e_s_s  to  prompt  even  more verbosely than
              _m_o_r_e_.

       -n or --line-numbers
              Suppresses line numbers.  The default (to use  line
              numbers)  may cause _l_e_s_s to run more slowly in some
              cases, especially with a  very  large  input  file.
              Suppressing  line  numbers  with the -n option will
              avoid this problem.  Using line numbers means:  the
              line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt
              and in the = command, and the v command  will  pass
              the current line number to the editor (see also the
              discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below).



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  12





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
              Causes a line number to be displayed at the  begin
              ning of each line in the display.

       -o_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e or --log-file=_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e
              Causes  _l_e_s_s to copy its input to the named file as
              it is being viewed.  This  applies  only  when  the
              input file is a pipe, not an ordinary file.  If the
              file already exists, _l_e_s_s will ask for confirmation
              before overwriting it.

       -O_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e or --LOG-FILE=_f_i_l_e_n_a_m_e
              The  -O option is like -o, but it will overwrite an
              existing file without asking for confirmation.

              If no log file has been specified, the  -o  and  -O
              options  can  be used from within _l_e_s_s to specify a
              log file.  Without a file name,  they  will  simply
              report  the  name of the log file.  The "s" command
              is equivalent to specifying -o from within _l_e_s_s_.

       -p_p_a_t_t_e_r_n or --pattern=_p_a_t_t_e_r_n
              The -p option on the command line is equivalent  to
              specifying  +/_p_a_t_t_e_r_n;  that  is,  it tells _l_e_s_s to
              start at the first occurrence  of  _p_a_t_t_e_r_n  in  the
              file.

       -P_p_r_o_m_p_t or --prompt=_p_r_o_m_p_t
              Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to
              your own preference.  This option would normally be
              put  in  the LESS environment variable, rather than
              being typed in with each  _l_e_s_s  command.   Such  an
              option  must  either be the last option in the LESS
              variable, or be terminated by a dollar  sign.   -Ps
              followed  by  a  string changes the default (short)
              prompt to that string.  -Pm changes the medium (-m)
              prompt.   -PM  changes  the  long (-M) prompt.  -Ph
              changes  the  prompt  for  the  help  screen.   -P=
              changes  the message printed by the = command.  -Pw
              changes the message printed while waiting for  data
              (in  the F command).  All prompt strings consist of
              a sequence of letters and special escape sequences.
              See the section on PROMPTS for more details.

       -q or --quiet or --silent
              Causes  moderately  "quiet" operation: the terminal
              bell is not rung if an attempt is  made  to  scroll
              past the end of the file or before the beginning of
              the file.  If the terminal has a "visual bell",  it
              is  used instead.  The bell will be rung on certain
              other errors, such as typing an invalid  character.
              The  default  is  to  ring the terminal bell in all
              such cases.




                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  13





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       -Q or --QUIET or --SILENT
              Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell
              is never rung.

       -r or --raw-control-chars
              Causes  "raw"  control  characters to be displayed.
              The default is to display control characters  using
              the caret notation; for example, a control-A (octal
              001) is displayed as "^A".  Warning:  when  the  -r
              option  is  used,  _l_e_s_s  cannot  keep  track of the
              actual appearance of the screen (since this depends
              on  how the screen responds to each type of control
              character).  Thus,  various  display  problems  may
              result, such as long lines being split in the wrong
              place.

       -R or --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
              Like -r, but tries to  keep  track  of  the  screen
              appearance  where possible.  This works only if the
              input consists of normal  text  and  possibly  some
              ANSI  "color" escape sequences, which are sequences
              of the form:

                   ESC [ ... m

              where the "..." is zero or  more  characters  other
              than  "m".   For  the  purpose  of keeping track of
              screen appearance, all control characters  and  all
              ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move
              the cursor.  You can make _l_e_s_s think  that  charac
              ters  other  than  "m"  can  end  ANSI color escape
              sequences  by  setting  the  environment   variable
              LESSANSIENDCHARS  to  the  list of characters which
              can end a color escape sequence.

       -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
              Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed  into
              a  single  blank line.  This is useful when viewing
              _n_r_o_f_f output.

       -S or --chop-long-lines
              Causes lines longer than the  screen  width  to  be
              chopped  rather  than folded.  That is, the portion
              of a long line that does  not  fit  in  the  screen
              width  is  not  shown.  The default is to fold long
              lines; that is, display the remainder on  the  next
              line.

       -t_t_a_g or --tag=_t_a_g
              The  -t option, followed immediately by a TAG, will
              edit the file containing that  tag.   For  this  to
              work,  tag information must be available; for exam
              ple, there may be a file in the  current  directory
              called  "tags", which was previously built by _c_t_a_g_s



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  14





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              (1) or an equivalent command.  If  the  environment
              variable  LESSGLOBALTAGS  is set, it is taken to be
              the name of a command compatible with  _g_l_o_b_a_l  (1),
              and that command is executed to find the tag.  (See
              http://www.gnu.org/software/global/global.html).
              The  -t  option  may  also be specified from within
              _l_e_s_s (using the - command) as a way of examining  a
              new file.  The command ":t" is equivalent to speci
              fying -t from within _l_e_s_s_.

       -T_t_a_g_s_f_i_l_e or --tag-file=_t_a_g_s_f_i_l_e
              Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".

       -u or --underline-special
              Causes   backspaces  and  carriage  returns  to  be
              treated as printable characters; that is, they  are
              sent to the terminal when they appear in the input.

       -U or --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
              Causes backspaces, tabs and carriage returns to  be
              treated  as  control  characters; that is, they are
              handled as specified by the -r option.

              By  default,  if  neither  -u  nor  -U  is   given,
              backspaces  which  appear adjacent to an underscore
              character are  treated  specially:  the  underlined
              text  is  displayed  using  the terminal's hardware
              underlining  capability.   Also,  backspaces  which
              appear between two identical characters are treated
              specially: the overstruck text is printed using the
              terminal's  hardware  boldface  capability.   Other
              backspaces are deleted, along  with  the  preceding
              character.   Carriage  returns immediately followed
              by a newline are deleted.  other  carriage  returns
              are  handled  as  specified by the -r option.  Text
              which is overstruck or underlined can  be  searched
              for if neither -u nor -U is in effect.

       -V or --version
              Displays the version number of _l_e_s_s_.

       -w or --hilite-unread
              Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a
              forward movement of a full page.  The  first  "new"
              line  is  the  line  immediately following the line
              previously at the bottom of the screen.  Also high
              lights the target line after a g or p command.  The
              highlight is removed  at  the  next  command  which
              causes  movement.   The entire line is highlighted,
              unless the -J option is in effect,  in  which  case
              only the status column is highlighted.

       -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
              Like  -w,  but temporarily highlights the first new



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  15





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              line after any forward movement command larger than
              one line.

       -x_n,... or --tabs=_n,...
              Sets  tab  stops.   If only one _n is specified, tab
              stops are set at multiples of _n.  If multiple  val
              ues  separated  by  commas are specified, tab stops
              are set at those positions, and then continue  with
              the  same  spacing  as  the last two.  For example,
              _-_x_9_,_1_7 will set tabs at positions 9,  17,  25,  33,
              etc.  The default for _n is 8.

       -X or --no-init
              Disables  sending  the  termcap  initialization and
              deinitialization strings to the terminal.  This  is
              sometimes  desirable if the deinitialization string
              does  something  unnecessary,  like  clearing   the
              screen.

       --no-keypad
              Disables  sending  the  keypad  initialization  and
              deinitialization strings to the terminal.  This  is
              sometimes  useful  if  the  keypad strings make the
              numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner.

       -y_n or --max-forw-scroll=_n
              Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll  for
              ward.   If  it  is necessary to scroll forward more
              than _n lines, the screen is repainted instead.  The
              -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top
              of the screen if desired.  By default, any  forward
              movement causes scrolling.

       -[z]_n or --window=_n
              Changes  the  default  scrolling  window  size to _n
              lines.  The default is one screenful.  The z and  w
              commands  can  also  be  used  to change the window
              size.  The "z" may  be  omitted  for  compatibility
              with  _m_o_r_e_.   If the number _n is negative, it indi
              cates _n lines less than the  current  screen  size.
              For  example,  if the screen is 24 lines, _-_z_-_4 sets
              the scrolling window to 20 lines.  If the screen is
              resized to 40 lines, the scrolling window automati
              cally changes to 36 lines.

       -_"_c_c or --quotes=_c_c
              Changes the filename quoting character.   This  may
              be necessary if you are trying to name a file which
              contains both spaces and  quote  characters.   Fol
              lowed by a single character, this changes the quote
              character to that character.  Filenames  containing
              a space should then be surrounded by that character
              rather than by  double  quotes.   Followed  by  two
              characters,  changes  the  open  quote to the first



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  16





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              character, and the close quote to the second  char
              acter.  Filenames containing a space should then be
              preceded by the open quote character  and  followed
              by the close quote character.  Note that even after
              the  quote  characters  are  changed,  this  option
              remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote).

       -~ or --tilde
              Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a
              single tilde (~).  This option causes  lines  after
              end of file to be displayed as blank lines.

       -# or --shift
              Specifies the default number of positions to scroll
              horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and  LEFTARROW  com
              mands.   If  the  number specified is zero, it sets
              the default number of positions to one half of  the
              screen width.

       --     A  command  line  argument of "--" marks the end of
              option arguments.  Any arguments following this are
              interpreted  as filenames.  This can be useful when
              viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+".

       +      If a command line option begins with ++, the remain
              der of that option is taken to be an  initial  com
              mand  to _l_e_s_s_.  For example, +G tells _l_e_s_s to start
              at the end of the file rather than  the  beginning,
              and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence
              of "xyz" in the file.  As a special case, +<number>
              acts  like  +<number>g; that is, it starts the dis
              play at the specified line number (however, see the
              caveat under the "g" command above).  If the option
              starts with ++,  the  initial  command  applies  to
              every  file  being  viewed, not just the first one.
              The + command described previously may also be used
              to  set  (or  change)  an initial command for every
              file.


LLIINNEE EEDDIITTIINNGG
       When entering command line at the  bottom  of  the  screen
       (for  example,  a filename for the :e command, or the pat
       tern for a search command), certain keys can  be  used  to
       manipulate the command line.  Most commands have an alter
       nate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key  does
       not  exist on a particular keyboard.  (The bracketed forms
       do not work in the MS-DOS version.)  Any of these  special
       keys  may  be  entered  literally by preceding it with the
       "literal" character, either ^V or ^A.  A backslash  itself
       may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes.

       LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
              Move the cursor one space to the left.



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  17





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
              Move the cursor one space to the right.

       ^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
              (That is, CONTROL  and  LEFTARROW  simultaneously.)
              Move the cursor one word to the left.

       ^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
              (That  is,  CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.)
              Move the cursor one word to the right.

       HOME [ ESC-0 ]
              Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.

       END [ ESC-$ ]
              Move the cursor to the end of the line.

       BACKSPACE
              Delete the character to the left of the cursor,  or
              cancel the command if the command line is empty.

       DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       ^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
              (That  is,  CONTROL  and BACKSPACE simultaneously.)
              Delete the word to the left of the cursor.

       ^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
              (That  is,  CONTROL  and  DELETE   simultaneously.)
              Delete the word under the cursor.

       UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
              Retrieve the previous command line.

       DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
              Retrieve the next command line.

       TAB    Complete  the  partial  filename to the left of the
              cursor.  If it matches more than one filename,  the
              first  match  is  entered  into  the  command line.
              Repeated TABs will cycle thru  the  other  matching
              filenames.   If  the completed filename is a direc
              tory, a "/" is appended to the filename.   (On  MS-
              DOS  systems,  a "\" is appended.)  The environment
              variable LESSSEPARATOR can be  used  to  specify  a
              different  character to append to a directory name.

       BACKTAB [ ESC-TAB ]
              Like, TAB, but cycles in the reverse direction thru
              the matching filenames.

       ^L     Complete  the  partial  filename to the left of the
              cursor.  If it matches more than one filename,  all



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  18





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              matches  are entered into the command line (if they
              fit).

       ^U (Unix and OS/2) or ESC (MS-DOS)
              Delete the entire command line, or cancel the  com
              mand  if  the  command  line is empty.  If you have
              changed your line-kill character in Unix  to  some
              thing other than ^U, that character is used instead
              of ^U.


KKEEYY BBIINNDDIINNGGSS
       You may define your own _l_e_s_s commands by using the program
       _l_e_s_s_k_e_y (1) to create a lesskey file.  This file specifies
       a set of command keys and an action associated  with  each
       key.   You may also use _l_e_s_s_k_e_y to change the line-editing
       keys (see LINE EDITING), and to set environment variables.
       If the environment variable LESSKEY is set, _l_e_s_s uses that
       as the name of the lesskey file.  Otherwise, _l_e_s_s looks in
       a  standard  place  for the lesskey file: On Unix systems,
       _l_e_s_s looks for a lesskey file  called  "$HOME/.less".   On
       MS-DOS  and Windows systems, _l_e_s_s looks for a lesskey file
       called "$HOME/_less", and if it is not found  there,  then
       looks  for  a lesskey file called "_less" in any directory
       specified in the PATH environment variable.  On OS/2  sys
       tems,    _l_e_s_s    looks   for   a   lesskey   file   called
       "$HOME/less.ini", and if it is not found, then looks for a
       lesskey  file called "less.ini" in any directory specified
       in the INIT environment variable,  and  if  it  not  found
       there,  then looks for a lesskey file called "less.ini" in
       any directory specified in the PATH environment  variable.
       See the _l_e_s_s_k_e_y manual page for more details.

       A  system-wide  lesskey file may also be set up to provide
       key bindings.  If a key is defined in both a local lesskey
       file  and  in  the  system-wide  file, key bindings in the
       local file take precedence over those in  the  system-wide
       file.   If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set,
       _l_e_s_s uses that as the  name  of  the  system-wide  lesskey
       file.   Otherwise,  _l_e_s_s looks in a standard place for the
       system-wide lesskey file: On Unix systems, the system-wide
       lesskey file is /usr/local/etc/sysless.  (However, if _l_e_s_s
       was  built  with  a  different  sysconf   directory   than
       /usr/local/etc,  that  directory is where the sysless file
       is found.)  On MS-DOS and Windows systems, the system-wide
       lesskey file is c:\_sysless.  On OS/2 systems, the system-
       wide lesskey file is c:\sysless.ini.


IINNPPUUTT PPRREEPPRROOCCEESSSSOORR
       You may define an "input preprocessor" for  _l_e_s_s_.   Before
       _l_e_s_s  opens a file, it first gives your input preprocessor
       a chance to modify the way the contents of  the  file  are
       displayed.   An input preprocessor is simply an executable



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  19





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       program (or shell script), which writes  the  contents  of
       the file to a different file, called the replacement file.
       The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in
       place  of  the contents of the original file.  However, it
       will appear to the user as if the original file is opened;
       that  is,  _l_e_s_s  will display the original filename as the
       name of the current file.

       An input preprocessor receives one command line  argument,
       the  original filename, as entered by the user.  It should
       create the replacement file, and when finished, print  the
       name  of  the replacement file to its standard output.  If
       the input preprocessor does not output a replacement file
       name,  _l_e_s_s  uses the original file, as normal.  The input
       preprocessor is not called when  viewing  standard  input.
       To set up an input preprocessor, set the LESSOPEN environ
       ment variable to a command line  which  will  invoke  your
       input  preprocessor.  This command line should include one
       occurrence of the string "%s", which will be  replaced  by
       the  filename  when  the  input  preprocessor  command  is
       invoked.

       When _l_e_s_s closes a file opened in such a way, it will call
       another program, called the input postprocessor, which may
       perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting  the
       replacement  file  created  by  LESSOPEN).   This  program
       receives two command line arguments, the original filename
       as  entered  by  the user, and the name of the replacement
       file.  To set up an input postprocessor, set the LESSCLOSE
       environment  variable  to a command line which will invoke
       your input postprocessor.  It may include two  occurrences
       of  the string "%s"; the first is replaced with the origi
       nal name of the file and the second with the name  of  the
       replacement file, which was output by LESSOPEN.

       For  example, on many Unix systems, these two scripts will
       allow you to keep files in compressed  format,  but  still
       let _l_e_s_s view them directly:

       lessopen.sh:
            #! /bin/sh
            case "$1" in
            *.Z) uncompress -c $1  >/tmp/less.$$  2>/dev/null
                 if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ ]; then
                      echo /tmp/less.$$
                 else
                      rm -f /tmp/less.$$
                 fi
                 ;;
            esac

       lessclose.sh:
            #! /bin/sh
            rm $2



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  20





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       To use these scripts, put them both where they can be exe
       cuted    and    set     LESSOPEN="lessopen.sh %s",     and
       LESSCLOSE="lessclose.sh %s %s".  More complex LESSOPEN and
       LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types  of
       compressed files, and so on.

       It  is  also  possible  to set up an input preprocessor to
       pipe the file data directly to _l_e_s_s_, rather  than  putting
       the data into a replacement file.  This avoids the need to
       decompress the entire file before starting to view it.  An
       input  preprocessor that works this way is called an input
       pipe.  An input pipe, instead of writing  the  name  of  a
       replacement file on its standard output, writes the entire
       contents of the replacement file on its  standard  output.
       If  the  input  pipe  does not write any characters on its
       standard output, then there is  no  replacement  file  and
       _l_e_s_s  uses  the original file, as normal.  To use an input
       pipe, make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment
       variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input pre
       processor is an input pipe.

       For example, on many Unix systems, this script  will  work
       like the previous example scripts:

       lesspipe.sh:
            #! /bin/sh
            case "$1" in
            *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/dev/null
                 ;;
            esac

       To  use  this  script, put it where it can be executed and
       set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe.sh %s".  When  an  input  pipe  is
       used,  a  LESSCLOSE  postprocessor  can be used, but it is
       usually not necessary since there is no  replacement  file
       to  clean  up.   In  this  case, the replacement file name
       passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".


NNAATTIIOONNAALL CCHHAARRAACCTTEERR SSEETTSS
       There are three types of characters in the input file:

       normal characters
              can be displayed directly to the screen.

       control characters
              should not be displayed directly, but are  expected
              to  be  found  in  ordinary  text  files  (such  as
              backspace and tab).

       binary characters
              should  not  be  displayed  directly  and  are  not
              expected to be found in text files.




                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  21





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       A "character set" is simply a description of which charac
       ters are to be considered  normal,  control,  and  binary.
       The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select
       a character set.  Possible values for LESSCHARSET are:

       ascii  BS, TAB, NL, CR, and formfeed are  control  charac
              ters,  all chars with values between 32 and 126 are
              normal, and all others are binary.

       iso8859
              Selects an ISO 8859 character  set.   This  is  the
              same  as  ASCII,  except characters between 160 and
              255 are treated as normal characters.

       latin1 Same as iso8859.

       latin9 Same as iso8859.

       dos    Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.

       ebcdic Selects an EBCDIC character set.

       IBM-1047
              Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix
              Services.   This  is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1.
              You get similar results  by  setting  either  LESS
              CHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environ
              ment.

       koi8-r Selects a Russian character set.

       next   Selects a character set appropriate for  NeXT  com
              puters.

       utf-8  Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 charac
              ter set.

       In special cases, it may be desired to tailor _l_e_s_s to  use
       a  character  set  other  than the ones definable by LESS
       CHARSET.  In this case,  the  environment  variable  LESS
       CHARDEF  can be used to define a character set.  It should
       be set to a string where each character in the string rep
       resents one character in the character set.  The character
       "." is used for a normal character, "c" for  control,  and
       "b"  for binary.  A decimal number may be used for repeti
       tion.  For example, "bccc4b." would mean  character  0  is
       binary,  1, 2 and 3 are control, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are binary,
       and 8 is normal.  All characters after the last are  taken
       to  be  the  same as the last, so characters 9 through 255
       would be normal.  (This is an example, and does not neces
       sarily represent any real character set.)

       This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equiva
       lent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  22





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


            ascii     8bcccbcc18b95.b
            dos       8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
            ebcdic    5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
                      9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
            IBM-1047  4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc
                      191.b
            iso8859   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
            koi8-r    8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
            latin1    8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
            next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb

       If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF  is  set,  but  the
       string  "UTF-8"  is  found  in the LC_ALL, LC_TYPE or LANG
       environment variables, then the default character  set  is
       utf-8.

       If  that string is not found, but your system supports the
       _s_e_t_l_o_c_a_l_e interface, _l_e_s_s will use setlocale to  determine
       the character set.  setlocale is controlled by setting the
       LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.

       Finally, if the _s_e_t_l_o_c_a_l_e interface is also not available,
       the default character set is latin1.

       Control  and  binary  characters are displayed in standout
       (reverse video).  Each  such  character  is  displayed  in
       caret notation if possible (e.g. ^A for control-A).  Caret
       notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in
       a normal printable character.  Otherwise, the character is
       displayed as a hex number in angle brackets.  This  format
       can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment vari
       able.  LESSBINFMT may begin with a "*" and  one  character
       to select the display attribute: "*k" is blinking, "*d" is
       bold, "*u" is underlined, "*s" is standout,  and  "*n"  is
       normal.   If  LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "*", normal
       attribute is assumed.  The remainder of  LESSBINFMT  is  a
       string  which may include one printf-style escape sequence
       (a % followed by x, X, o, d, etc.).  For example, if LESS
       BINFMT  is  "*u[%x]",  binary  characters are displayed in
       underlined  hexadecimal  surrounded  by   brackets.    The
       default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "*s<%X>".


PPRROOMMPPTTSS
       The  -P  option  allows  you  to tailor the prompt to your
       preference.  The string given to the  -P  option  replaces
       the  specified  prompt  string.  Certain characters in the
       string are interpreted specially.  The prompt mechanism is
       rather  complicated  to provide flexibility, but the ordi
       nary user need not understand the details of  constructing
       personalized prompt strings.

       A  percent sign followed by a single character is expanded
       according to what the following character is:



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  23





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       %b_X    Replaced by the byte offset into the current  input
              file.   The  b  is  followed  by a single character
              (shown as _X above) which specifies the  line  whose
              byte  offset  is to be used.  If the character is a
              "t", the byte offset of the top line in the display
              is  used,  an  "m" means use the middle line, a "b"
              means use the bottom line, a "B" means use the line
              just after the bottom line, and a "j" means use the
              "target" line, as specified by the -j option.

       %B     Replaced by the size of the current input file.

       %c     Replaced by the column number of the text appearing
              in the first column of the screen.

       %d_X    Replaced  by the page number of a line in the input
              file.  The line to be used is determined by the  _X,
              as with the %b option.

       %D     Replaced  by the number of pages in the input file,
              or equivalently, the page number of the  last  line
              in the input file.

       %E     Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL
              environment variable,  or  the  EDITOR  environment
              variable  if  VISUAL is not defined).  See the dis
              cussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.

       %f     Replaced by the name of the current input file.

       %i     Replaced by the index of the current  file  in  the
              list of input files.

       %l_X    Replaced  by the line number of a line in the input
              file.  The line to be used is determined by the  _X,
              as with the %b option.

       %L     Replaced by the line number of the last line in the
              input file.

       %m     Replaced by the total number of input files.

       %p_X    Replaced by the  percent  into  the  current  input
              file,  based  on  byte  offsets.   The line used is
              determined by the _X as with the %b option.

       %P_X    Replaced by the  percent  into  the  current  input
              file,  based  on  line  numbers.   The line used is
              determined by the _X as with the %b option.

       %s     Same as %B.

       %t     Causes any trailing spaces to be removed.   Usually
              used  at  the  end  of  the  string, but may appear



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  24





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              anywhere.

       %x     Replaced by the name of the next input file in  the
              list.

       If  any  item  is  unknown  (for example, the file size if
       input is a pipe), a question mark is printed instead.

       The format of the prompt string can be  changed  depending
       on certain conditions.  A question mark followed by a sin
       gle character acts like an "IF": depending on the  follow
       ing character, a condition is evaluated.  If the condition
       is true, any characters following the  question  mark  and
       condition  character,  up to a period, are included in the
       prompt.  If the condition is false,  such  characters  are
       not included.  A colon appearing between the question mark
       and the period can be used to  establish  an  "ELSE":  any
       characters  between  the colon and the period are included
       in the string if and only if the IF  condition  is  false.
       Condition  characters  (which  follow a question mark) may
       be:

       ?a     True if any characters have been  included  in  the
              prompt so far.

       ?b_X    True  if  the  byte offset of the specified line is
              known.

       ?B     True if the size of current input file is known.

       ?c     True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not
              zero).

       ?d_X    True  if  the  page number of the specified line is
              known.

       ?e     True if at end-of-file.

       ?f     True if there is an input  filename  (that  is,  if
              input is not a pipe).

       ?l_X    True  if  the  line number of the specified line is
              known.

       ?L     True if the line number of the  last  line  in  the
              file is known.

       ?m     True if there is more than one input file.

       ?n     True  if  this  is  the first prompt in a new input
              file.

       ?p_X    True if the percent into the  current  input  file,
              based  on  byte  offsets,  of the specified line is



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  25





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


              known.

       ?P_X    True if the percent into the  current  input  file,
              based  on  line  numbers,  of the specified line is
              known.

       ?s     Same as "?B".

       ?x     True if there is a next input file (that is, if the
              current input file is not the last one).

       Any characters other than the special ones (question mark,
       colon, period, percent, and  backslash)  become  literally
       part  of the prompt.  Any of the special characters may be
       included in the prompt literally by preceding  it  with  a
       backslash.

       Some examples:

       ?f%f:Standard input.

       This  prompt  prints the filename, if known; otherwise the
       string "Standard input".

       ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-...

       This prompt would print the filename, if known.  The file
       name  is  followed by the line number, if known, otherwise
       the percent if known, otherwise the byte offset if  known.
       Otherwise,  a  dash  is printed.  Notice how each question
       mark has a matching period, and how the % after the %pt is
       included literally by escaping it with a backslash.

       ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x..%t

       This  prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a
       file, followed by the "file N of N" message  if  there  is
       more than one input file.  Then, if we are at end-of-file,
       the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of  the
       next  file, if there is one.  Finally, any trailing spaces
       are truncated.  This is the default  prompt.   For  refer
       ence,  here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m
       and -M respectively).  Each is broken into two lines  here
       for readability only.

       ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
            ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s...%t

       ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. :
            byte %bB?s/%s. .?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%..%t

       And here is the default message produced by the = command:

       ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. .



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  26





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


            byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..%t

       The prompt expansion features are also  used  for  another
       purpose:  if  an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined,
       it is used as the command to be executed when the  v  com
       mand  is  invoked.  The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the
       same way as the prompt strings.   The  default  value  for
       LESSEDIT is:

            %E ?lm+%lm. %f

       Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by a +
       and the line number, followed by the file name.   If  your
       editor  does  not  accept the "+linenumber" syntax, or has
       other differences in invocation syntax, the LESSEDIT vari
       able can be changed to modify this default.


SSEECCUURRIITTYY
       When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1, _l_e_s_s
       runs in a "secure" mode.  This means  these  features  are
       disabled:

              !      the shell command

              |      the pipe command

              :e     the examine command.

              v      the editing command

              s  -o  log files

              -k     use of lesskey files

              -t     use of tags files

                     metacharacters in filenames, such as *

                     filename completion (TAB, ^L)

       Less  can  also  be compiled to be permanently in "secure"
       mode.


EENNVVIIRROONNMMEENNTT VVAARRIIAABBLLEESS
       Environment variables may be specified either in the  sys
       tem  environment  as  usual, or in a _l_e_s_s_k_e_y (1) file.  If
       environment variables are defined in more than one  place,
       variables  defined in a local lesskey file take precedence
       over variables defined in the  system  environment,  which
       take  precedence over variables defined in the system-wide
       lesskey file.




                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  27





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       COLUMNS
              Sets the number of columns on  the  screen.   Takes
              precedence  over the number of columns specified by
              the TERM variable.  (But if you  have  a  windowing
              system  which  supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD, the
              window system's  idea  of  the  screen  size  takes
              precedence  over  the LINES and COLUMNS environment
              variables.)

       EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command).

       HOME   Name of the user's home directory (used to  find  a
              lesskey file on Unix and OS/2 systems).

       HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH
              Concatenation  of  the HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH envi
              ronment variables is the name of  the  user's  home
              directory  if the HOME variable is not set (only in
              the Windows version).

       INIT   Name of the user's init directory (used to  find  a
              lesskey file on OS/2 systems).

       LANG   Language for determining the character set.

       LC_CTYPE
              Language for determining the character set.

       LESS   Options which are passed to _l_e_s_s automatically.

       LESSANSIENDCHARS
              Characters  which  are assumed to end an ANSI color
              escape sequence (default "m").

       LESSBINFMT
              Format for  displaying  non-printable,  non-control
              characters.

       LESSCHARDEF
              Defines a character set.

       LESSCHARSET
              Selects a predefined character set.

       LESSCLOSE
              Command  line  to invoke the (optional) input-post
              processor.

       LESSECHO
              Name of the lessecho program (default  "lessecho").
              The  lessecho program is needed to expand metachar
              acters, such as * and ?, in filenames on Unix  sys
              tems.




                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  28





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       LESSEDIT
              Editor  prototype  string (used for the v command).
              See discussion under PROMPTS.

       LESSGLOBALTAGS
              Name of the command used by the -t option  to  find
              global tags.  Normally should be set to "global" if
              your system has the _g_l_o_b_a_l  (1)  command.   If  not
              set, global tags are not used.

       LESSKEY
              Name of the default lesskey(1) file.

       LESSKEY_SYSTEM
              Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.

       LESSMETACHARS
              List  of characters which are considered "metachar
              acters" by the shell.

       LESSMETAESCAPE
              Prefix which less will add before each  metacharac
              ter  in  a  command  sent  to  the shell.  If LESS
              METAESCAPE is an empty string, commands  containing
              metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.

       LESSOPEN
              Command line to invoke the (optional) input-prepro
              cessor.

       LESSSECURE
              Runs less in "secure" mode.  See  discussion  under
              SECURITY.

       LESSSEPARATOR
              String  to be appended to a directory name in file
              name completion.

       LINES  Sets the number of  lines  on  the  screen.   Takes
              precedence  over  the  number of lines specified by
              the TERM variable.  (But if you  have  a  windowing
              system  which  supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD, the
              window system's  idea  of  the  screen  size  takes
              precedence  over  the LINES and COLUMNS environment
              variables.)

       PATH   User's search path (used to find a lesskey file  on
              MS-DOS and OS/2 systems).

       SHELL  The shell used to execute the ! command, as well as
              to expand filenames.

       TERM   The type of terminal on which _l_e_s_s is being run.




                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  29





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).


SSEEEE AALLSSOO
       lesskey(1)


WWAARRNNIINNGGSS
       The = command and prompts (unless changed  by  -P)  report
       the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the
       screen, but the byte and percent of the line after the one
       at the bottom of the screen.

       If  the :e command is used to name more than one file, and
       one of the named files has been viewed previously, the new
       files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order.

       On certain older terminals (the so-called  "magic  cookie"
       terminals),  search  highlighting  will cause an erroneous
       display.  On such terminals, search highlighting  is  dis
       abled by default to avoid possible problems.

       In  certain cases, when search highlighting is enabled and
       a search pattern begins with  a  ^,  more  text  than  the
       matching  string  may  be highlighted.  (This problem does
       not occur when less is compiled to use the  POSIX  regular
       expression package.)

       When  viewing  text containing ANSI color escape sequences
       using the -R option, searching will not find text contain
       ing  an embedded escape sequence.  Also, search highlight
       ing may change the color of some of the text which follows
       the highlighted text.

       On  some systems, _s_e_t_l_o_c_a_l_e claims that ASCII characters 0
       thru 31 are control characters rather than binary  charac
       ters.   This  causes  _l_e_s_s  to  treat some binary files as
       ordinary, non-binary files.  To workaround  this  problem,
       set  the  environment  variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or
       whatever character set is appropriate).

       See http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less for  the  latest
       list of known bugs in this version of less.


CCOOPPYYRRIIGGHHTT
       Copyright (C) 2002  Mark Nudelman

       less is part of the GNU project and is free software.  You
       can redistribute it and/or modify it under  the  terms  of
       either  (1) the GNU General Public License as published by
       the Free Software Foundation; or  (2)  the  Less  License.
       See  the  file  README  in  the less distribution for more
       details  regarding  redistribution.    You   should   have



                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  30





LESS(1)                                                   LESS(1)


       received  a  copy  of the GNU General Public License along
       with the source for less; see the file COPYING.   If  not,
       write  to  the  Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place,
       Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.  You  should  also
       have  received  a  copy  of the Less License; see the file
       LICENSE.

       less is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,
       but  WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY; without even the implied war
       ranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PUR
       POSE.   See  the  GNU  General  Public  License  for  more
       details.


AAUUTTHHOORR
       Mark Nudelman <markn@greenwoodsoftware.com>
       Send bug reports or comments to the above  address  or  to
       bug-less@gnu.org.
       For   more   information,   see   the   less  homepage  at
       http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less.





































                     Version 382: 03 Feb 2004                  31