File: joe.txt

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JOE(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               JOE(1)

Name
     joe - Joe's Own Editor

Syntax
     joe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jstar [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jmacs [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     rjoe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jpico [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jupp32 [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

Description
     JOE is a powerful ASCII-text screen editor.  It has a
     "mode-less" user interface which is similar to many user-
     friendly PC editors.  Users of Micro-Pro's WordStar or
     Borland's "Turbo" languages will feel at home.  JOE is a
     full featured UNIX screen-editor though, and has many
     features for editing programs and text.

     JOE also emulates several other editors.  JSTAR is a close
     imitation of WordStar with many "JOE" extensions.  JPICO is
     a close imitation of the Pine mailing system's PICO editor,
     but with many extensions and improvements.  JMACS is a GNU-
     EMACS imitation.  RJOE is a restricted version of JOE, which
     allows you to edit only the files specified on the command
     line.

     Although JOE is actually six different editors, it still
     requires only one executable, but one with six different
     names.  The name of the editor with an "rc" appended gives
     the name of JOE's initialisation file, which determines the
     personality of the editor.

     JUPP is free software; you can distribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License, Ver-
     sion 1, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
     (main.c contains more detailed exceptions.) I have no plans
     for turning JOE into a commercial or share-ware product. See
     the source code for exact authorship and licencing informa-
     tion. JOE is available over the Internet from http://joe-
     editor.sf.net/. JUPP is available at http://mirbsd.de/jupp.

Usage
     To start the editor, type joe followed by zero or more names
     of files you want to edit.  Each file name may be preceded
     by a local option setting (see the local options table which
     follows).  Other global options, which apply to the editor
     as a whole, may also be placed on the command line (see the
     global options table which follows).  If you are editing a
     new file, you can either give the name of the new file when
     you invoke the editor, or in the editor when you save the
     new file.  A modified syntax for file names is provided to
     allow you to edit program output, standard input/output, or
     sections of files or devices.  See the section Filenames
     below for details.

     On cygwin32 systems, the special option -CYGhack is replaced
     by anything that comes past it (and separating whitespace)
     on the command line as one option (to work around a Cygwin
     bug as it cannot correctly be passed a UNC pathname with
     spaces as one argument from Explorer at all).

     Once you are in the editor, you can type in text and use
     special control-character sequences to perform other editing
     tasks.  To find out what the control-character sequences
     are, read the rest of this man page or type ^K H for help in
     the editor.

     Now for some obscure computer-lore:

     The ^ means that you hold down the Control key while press-
     ing the following key (the same way the Shift key works for
     uppercase letters).  A number of control-key sequences are
     duplicated on other keys, so that you don't need to press
     the control key: ESC will work in place of ^[, Del will work
     in place of ^?, Backspace will work in place of ^H, Tab will
     work in place of ^I, Return or Enter will work in place of
     ^M and Linefeed will work in place of ^J.  Some keyboards
     may give you trouble with some control keys.  ^_, ^^ and ^@
     can usually be entered without pressing shift (I.E., try ^-,
     ^6 and ^2).  Other keyboards may reassign these to other
     keys.  Try: ^., ^, and ^/.  ^SPACE can usually be used in
     place of ^@.  ^\ and ^] are interpreted by many communica-
     tion programs, including telnet and kermit.  Usually you
     just hit the key twice to get it to pass through the commun-
     ication program.

     Once you have typed ^K H, the first help window appears at
     the top of the screen.  You can continue to enter and edit
     text while the help window is on.  To page through other
     topics, hit ^[, and ^[. (that is, ESC , and ESC .).  Use ^K
     H to dismiss the help window.

     You can customise the keyboard layout, the help screens and
     a number of behavior defaults by copying JOE's initialisa-
     tion file (joerc in the same directory as the binary resides
     in) to .joerc in your home directory and then by modifying
     it. See the section joerc below. The filename is actually
     .namerc where name is the argv[0] the editor is called with.

     Custom syntax files are loaded from .jupp/syntax/name.jsf in
     your home directory and .jupp/charmaps/name holds custom
     charmaps (name here is the name of the syntax or charmap).

     To have JOE used as your default editor for e-mail and News,
     you need to set the EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables
     in your shell initialisation file (.cshrc or .profile) to
     refer to JOE (the joe binary usually resides as
     C:\Programme\jupp32\joe.exe).

     There are a number of other obscure invocation parameters
     which may have to be set, particularly if your terminal
     screen is not updating as you think it should.  See the sec-
     tion Environment variables below.

Command Line Options
     The following global options may be specified on the command
     line:

     -asis
          Characters with codes above 127 will be sent to the
          terminal as-is, instead of as inverse of the
          corresponding character below 128.  If this does not
          work, check your terminal server.

     -backpath path
          If this option is given, backup files will be stored in
          the specified directory instead of in each file's ori-
          ginal directory.

     -baud nnn
          Set the baud rate for the purposes of terminal screen
          optimisation.  Joe inserts delays for baud rates below
          19200, which bypasses tty buffering so that typeahead
          will interrupt the screen output.  Scrolling commands
          will not be used for 38400 baud.  This is useful for
          X-terms and other console ttys which really aren't
          going over a serial line.

     -beep
          Joe will beep on command errors and when the cursor
          goes past extremes.

     -columns nnn
          Sets the number of screen columns.

     -csmode
          Continued search mode: a search immediately following a
          search will repeat the previous search instead of
          prompting for new string.  This is useful for the the
          ^[S and ^[R commands and for when joe is trying to be
          emacs.

     -dopadding
          Joe usually assumes that there is some kind of flow
          control between it and the tty.  If there isn't, this
          option will make joe output extra ^@s to the tty as
          specified by the termcap entry.  The extra ^@s allow
          the terminal to catch up after long terminal commands.

     -exask
          This option makes ^KX verify the file name that it's
          about to write.

     -force
          This option makes sure that the last line of the file
          has a line-feed which it's saved.

     -help
          The editor will start with the help screen on if this
          option is given.

     -keepup
          Normally the column number and control-key prefix
          fields of the status lines are on a one second delay to
          reduce CPU consumption, but with this option they are
          updated after each key-stroke.

     -lightoff
          The block highlighting will go away after any block
          command if this option is given.

     -lines nnn
          Sets the number of screen lines.

     -marking
          Text between ^KB and the cursor is highlighted (use
          with -lightoff and a modified joerc file to have drop-
          anchor style block selection).

     -mid If this option is set and the cursor moves off the win-
          dow, the window will be scrolled so that the cursor is
          in the center.  This option is forced on slow terminals
          which don't have scrolling commands.

     -nobackups
          This option prevents backup files.

     -nonotice
          This option prevent the copyright notice from being
          displayed when the editor starts.

     -nosta
          This option eliminates the top-most status line.  It's
          nice for when you only want to see your text on the
          screen or if you're using a vt52.

     -noxon
          Attempt to turn off ^S/^Q processing.  This is useful
          for when joe is trying to be WordStar or EMACS.

     -orphan
          When this option is active, extra files on the command
          line will be placed in orphaned buffers instead of in
          extra windows.  This is useful for when joe is trying
          to be emacs.

     -pg nnn
          This specifies the number of lines to keep after
          PgUp/PgDn (^U/^V).  If -1 is given, half the window is
          kept.

     -skiptop nnn
          Don't use the top nnn lines of the screen.  Useful for
          when joe is used as a BBS editor.

     Each of these options may be specified in the joerc file as
     well.  In addition, the NOXON, BAUD, LINES, COLUMNS and
     DOPADDING options may be specified with environment vari-
     ables. See the section Environment variables below.
     The following options may be specified before each filename
     on the command line:

     +nnn The cursor starts on the specified line.

     -crlf
          Joe uses CR-LF as the end of line sequence instead of
          just LF.  This is for editing MS-DOS or VMS files.

     -hex Sets the buffer to hex edit mode.

     -wordwrap
          Joe wraps the previous word when you type past the
          right margin.

     -autoindent
          When you hit Return on an indented line, the indenta-
          tion is duplicated onto the new line.

     -overwrite
          Typing overwrites existing characters instead of
          inserting before them.

     -lmargin nnn
          Sets the left margin.

     -rmargin nnn
          Sets the right margin.

     -tab nnn
          Sets the tab width.

     -indentc nnn
          Sets the indentation character for ^K, and ^K. (32 for
          SPACE, 9 for TAB).

     -istep nnn
          Sets the indentation step for ^K, and ^K..

     -linums
          Line numbers are displayed before each line.

     -rdonly
          The file is read only.

     -keymap name
          Use an alternate section of the joerc file for the key
          sequence bindings. For example, joe, jstar, rjoe and
          jupp support -keymap cua to make ^Z, ^X, ^C and ^V do
          the same thing as in contemporary GUI editors.

     These options can also be specified in the joerc file.  They
     can be set depending on the file-name extension.  Programs
     (.c, .h or .p extension) usually have autoindent enabled.
     Wordwrap is enabled on other files, but rc files have it
     disabled.

Editing Tasks
     Basic Editing

     When you type characters into the editor, they are normally
     inserted into the file being edited (or appended to the file
     if the cursor is at the end of the file).  This is the nor-
     mal operating mode of the editor.  If you want to replace
     some existing text, you have to delete the old text before
     or after you type in the replacement text.  The Backspace
     key can be used for deleting text: move the cursor to right
     after the text you want to delete and hit Backspace a number
     of times.

     Hit the Enter or Return key to insert a line-break.  For
     example, if the cursor was in the middle of a line and you
     hit Return, the line would be split into two lines with the
     cursor appearing at the beginning of the second line.  Hit
     Backspace at the beginning of a line to eliminate a line-
     break.

     Use the arrow keys to move around the file.  If your key-
     board doesn't have arrow keys (or if they don't work for
     some reason), use ^F to move forwards (right), ^B to move
     backwards (left), ^P to move to the previous line (up), and
     ^N to move to the next line (down).  The right and left
     arrow keys simply move forwards or backwards one character
     at a time through the text: if you're at the beginning of a
     line and you press left-arrow, you will end up at the end of
     the previous line.  The up and down arrow keys move forwards
     and backwards by enough characters so that the cursor
     appears in the same column that it was in on the original
     line.

     If you want to indent the text you enter, you can use the
     TAB key. This inserts a special control character which
     makes the characters which follow it begin at the next TAB
     STOP.  TAB STOPS normally occur every 8 columns, but this
     can be changed with the ^T D command.  Python programmers
     often set TAB STOPS on every 4 columns.

     If for some reason your terminal screen gets messed up (for
     example, if you receive a mail notice from biff), you can
     have the editor refresh the screen by hitting ^R.

     There are many other keys for deleting text and moving
     around the file.  For example, hit ^D to delete the charac-
     ter the cursor is on instead of deleting backwards like
     Backspace.  ^D will also delete a line-break if the cursor
     is at the end of a line.  Type ^Y to delete the entire line
     the cursor is on or ^J to delete just from the cursor to the
     end of the line.

     Hit ^A to move the cursor to the beginning of the line it's
     on.  Hit ^E to move the cursor to the end of the line.  Hit
     ^U or ^V for scrolling the cursor up or down 1/2 a screen's
     worth. "Scrolling" means that the text on the screen moves,
     but the cursor stays at the same place relative to the
     screen.  Hit ^K U or ^K V to move the cursor to the begin-
     ning or the end of the file.  Look at the help screens in
     the editor to find even more delete and movement commands.

     If you make a mistake, you can hit ^_ to "undo" it.  On most
     keyboards you hit just ^- to get ^_, but on some you might
     have to hold both the Shift and Control keys down at the
     same time to get it. If you "undo" too much, you can "redo"
     the changes back into existence by hitting ^^ (type this
     with just ^6 on most keyboards).

     If you were editing in one place within the file, and you
     then temporarily had to look or edit some other place within
     the file, you can get back to the original place by hitting
     ^K -.  This command actually returns you to the last place
     you made a change in the file.  You can step through a his-
     tory of places with ^K - and ^K =, in the same way you can
     step through the history of changes with the "undo" and
     "redo" commands.

     When you are done editing the file, hit ^K X to exit the
     editor.  You will be prompted for a file name if you hadn't
     already named the file you were editing.

     When you edit a file, you actually edit only a copy of the
     file.  So if you decide that you don't want the changes you
     made to a file during a particular edit session, you can hit
     ^C to exit the editor without saving them.

     If you edit a file and save the changes, a "backup" copy of
     that file is created in the current directory, with a ~
     appended to the name, which contains the original version of
     the file.

     Word wrap and formatting

     If you type past the right edge of the screen in a C
     language or PASCAL file, the screen will scroll to the right
     to follow the cursor.  If you type past the right edge of
     the screen in a normal file (one whose name doesn't end in
     .c, .h or .p), JOE will automatically wrap the last word
     onto the next line so that you don't have to hit Return.
     This is called word-wrap mode.  Word-wrap can be turned on
     or off with the ^T W command.  JOE's initialisation file is
     usually set up so that this mode is automatically turned on
     for all non-program files.  See the section below on the
     joerc file to change this and other defaults.

     Aside for Word-wrap mode, JOE does not automatically keep
     paragraphs formatted like some word-processors.  Instead, if
     you need a paragraph to be reformatted, hit ^K J.  This com-
     mand "fills in" the paragraph that the cursor is in, fitting
     as many words in a line as is possible.  A paragraph, in
     this case, is a block of text separated above and below by a
     blank line.

     The margins which JOE uses for paragraph formatting and
     word-wrap can be set with the ^T L and ^T R commands.  If
     the left margin is set to a value other than 1, then when
     you start typing at the beginning of a line, the cursor will
     immediately jump to the left margin.

     If you want to center a line within the margins, use the ^K
     A command.

     Over-type mode

     Sometimes it's tiresome to have to delete old text before or
     after you insert new text.  This happens, for example, when
     you are changing a table and you want to maintain the column
     position of the right side of the table. When this occurs,
     you can put the editor in over-type mode with ^T T. When the
     editor is in this mode, the characters you type in replace
     existing characters, in the way an idealised typewriter
     would.  Also, Backspace simply moves left instead of delet-
     ing the character to the left, when it's not at the end or
     beginning of a line.  Over-type mode is not the natural way
     of dealing with text electronically, so you should go back
     to insert-mode as soon as possible by typing ^T T again.

     If you need to insert while you're in over-type mode, hit
     ^@.  This inserts a single SPACE into the text.

     Control and Meta characters

     Each character is represented by a number.  For example, the
     number for 'A' is 65 and the number for '1' is 49.  All of
     the characters which you normally see have numbers in the
     range of 32 - 126 (this particular arbitrary assignment
     between characters and numbers is called the ASCII character
     set).  The numbers outside of this range, from 0 to 255,
     aren't usually displayed, but sometimes have other special
     meanings.  The number 10, for example, is used for the
     line-breaks.  You can enter these special, non-displayed
     control characters by first hitting ` and then hitting a
     character in the range @ A B C ... X Y Z [ ^ ] \ _ to get
     the number 0 - 31, and ? to get 127.  For example, if you
     hit ` J, you'll insert a line-break character, or if you hit
     ` I, you'll insert a TAB character (which does the same
     thing the TAB key does).  A useful control character to
     enter is 12 (` L), which causes most printers to advance to
     the top of the page.  You'll notice that JOE displays this
     character as an underlined L.  You can enter the characters
     above 127, the meta characters, by first hitting ^\.  This
     adds 128 to the next (possibly control) character entered.
     JOE displays characters above 128 in inverse-video.  Some
     foreign languages, which have more letters than English, use
     the meta characters for the rest of their alphabet.  You
     have to put the editor in ASIS mode (described later) to
     have these passed untranslated to the terminal.

     Prompts
     If you hit TAB at any file name prompt, joe will attempt to
     complete the name you entered as much as possible.  If it
     couldn't complete the entire name, because there are more
     than one possible completions, joe beeps.  If you hit TAB
     again, joe list the completions.  You can use the arrow keys
     to move around this directory menu and press RETURN or SPACE
     to select an item.  If you press the first letter of one of
     the directory entries, it will be selected, or if more than
     one entry has the same first letter, the cursor will jump
     between those entries.  If you select a subdirectory or ..,
     the directory name is appended to the prompt and the new
     directory is loaded into the menu.  You can hit Backspace to
     go back to the previous directory.

     Most prompts record a history of the responses you give
     them.  You can hit up and down arrow to step through these
     histories.

     Prompts are actually single line windows with no status
     line, so you can use any editing command that you normally
     use on text within the prompts.  The prompt history is actu-
     ally just other lines of the same "prompt file".  Thus you
     can can search backwards though the prompt history with the
     normal ^K F command if you want.

     Since prompts are windows, you can also switch out of them
     with ^K P and ^K N.

     Where am I?

     Hit ^K SPACE to have JOE report the line number, column
     number, and byte number on the last line of the screen.  The
     number associated with the character the cursor is on (its
     ASCII code) is also shown.  You can have the line number
     and/or column number always displayed on the status line by
     setting placing the appropriate escape sequences in the
     status line setup strings.  Edit the joerc file for details.

     File operations

     You can hit ^K D to save the current file (possibly under a
     different name from what the file was called originally).
     After the file is saved, you can hit ^K E to edit a dif-
     ferent file.

     If you want to save only a selected section of the file, see
     the section on Blocks below.

     If you want to include another file in the file you're edit-
     ing, use ^K R to insert it.

     Temporarily suspending the editor

     If you need to temporarily stop the editor and go back to
     the shell, hit ^K Z.  You might want to do this to stop
     whatever you're editing and answer an e-mail message or read
     this man page, for example.  You have to type fg or exit
     (you'll be told which when you hit ^K Z) to return to the
     editor.

     Searching for text

     Hit ^K F to have the editor search forwards or backwards for
     a text fragment (string) for you.  You will be prompted for
     the text to search for.  After you hit Return, you are
     prompted to enter options. You can just hit Return again to
     have the editor immediately search forwards for the text, or
     you can enter one or more of these options:

     b    Search backwards instead of forwards.

     i    Treat uppercase and lower case letters as the same when
          searching.  Normally uppercase and lowercase letters
          are considered to be different.

     nnn  (where nnn is a number) If you enter a number, JOE
          searches for the Nth occurrence of the text.  This is
          useful for going to specific places in files structured
          in some regular manner.

     r    Replace text.  If you enter the r option, then you will
          be further prompted for replacement text.  Each time
          the editor finds the search text, you will be prompted
          as to whether you want to replace the found search text
          with the replacement text.  You hit: y to replace the
          text and then find the next occurrence, n to not
          replace this text, but to then find the next
          occurrence, l to replace the text and then stop search-
          ing, r to replace all of the remaining occurrences of
          the search text in the remainder of the file without
          asking for confirmation (subject to the nnn option
          above), or ^C to stop searching and replacing.

     You can hit ^L to repeat the previous search.

     Regular Expressions

     A number of special character sequences may be entered as
     search text:

     \*   This finds zero or more characters.  For example, if
          you give A\*B as the search text, JOE will try to find
          an A followed by any number of characters and then a B.

     \?   This finds exactly one character.  For example, if you
          give A\?B as the search text, JOE will find AXB, but
          not AB or AXXB.

     \^ \$
          These match the beginning and end of a line.  For exam-
          ple, if you give \^test\$, then JOE with find test on a
          line by itself.

     \< \>
          These match the beginning and end of a word.  For exam-
          ple, if you give \<\*is\*\>, then joe will find whole
          words which have the sub-string is within them.

     \[...]
          This matches any single character which appears within
          the brackets.  For example, if \[Tt]his is entered as
          the search string, then JOE finds both This and this.
          Ranges of characters can be entered within the brack-
          ets.  For example, \[A-Z] finds any uppercase letter.
          If the first character given in the brackets is ^, then
          JOE tries to find any character not given in the the
          brackets.

     \c   This works like \*, but matches a balanced C-language
          expression. For example, if you search for malloc(\c),
          then JOE will find all function calls to malloc, even
          if there was a ) within the parenthesis.

     \+   This finds zero or more of the character which immedi-
          ately follows the \+.  For example, if you give \[
          ]\+\[ ], where the characters within the brackets are
          both SPACE and TAB, then JOE will find whitespace.

     \\   Matches a single \.

     \n   This finds the special end-of-line or line-break char-
          acter.

     A number of special character sequences may also be given in
     the replacement string:

     \&   This gets replaced by the text which matched the search
          string.  For example, if the search string was \<\*\>,
          which matches words, and you give "\&", then joe will
          put quote marks around words.

     \0 - \9
          These get replaced with the text which matched the Nth
          \*, \?, \+, \c, \+, or \[...] in the search string.

     \\   Use this if you need to put a \ in the replacement
          string.

     \n   Use this if you need to put a line-break in the
          replacement string.

     Some examples:

     Suppose you have a list of addresses, each on a separate
     line, which starts with "Address:" and has each element
     separated by commas.  Like so:

     Address: S. Holmes, 221b Baker St., London, England

     If you wanted to rearrange the list, to get the country
     first, then the city, then the person's name, and then the
     address, you could do this:

     Type ^K F to start the search, and type:

     Address:\*,\*,\*,\*\$

     to match "Address:", the four comma-separated elements, and
     then the end of the line.  When asked for options, you would
     type r to replace the string, and then type:

     Address:\3,\2,\0,\1

     To shuffle the information the way you want it. After hit-
     ting return, the search would begin, and the sample line
     would be changed to:

     Address: England, London, S. Holmes, 221b Baker St.

     Blocks

     If you want to move, copy, save or delete a specific section
     of text, you can do it with highlighted blocks.  First, move
     the cursor to the start of the section of text you want to
     work on, and press ^K B.  Then move the cursor to the char-
     acter just after the end of the text you want to affect and
     press ^K K.  The text between the ^K B and ^K K should
     become highlighted.  Now you can move your cursor to some-
     place else in your document and press ^K M to move the
     highlighted text there. You can press ^K C to make a copy of
     the highlighted text and insert it to where the cursor is
     positioned.  ^K Y to deletes the highlighted text.  ^K W,
     writes the highlighted text to a file.

     A very useful command is ^K /, which filters a block of text
     through a unix command.  For example, if you select a list
     of words with ^K B and ^K K, and then type ^K / sort, the
     list of words will be sorted.  Another useful unix command
     for ^K /, is tr.  If you type ^K / tr a-z A-Z, then all of
     the letters in the highlighted block will be converted to
     uppercase.

     After you are finished with some block operations, you can
     just leave the highlighting on if you don't mind it (of
     course, if you accidentally hit ^K Y without noticing...).
     If it really bothers you, however, just hit ^K B ^K K, to
     turn the highlighting off.

     Indenting program blocks
     Auto-indent mode toggled with the ^T I command.  The joerc
     is normally set up so that files with names ending with .p,
     .c or .h have auto-indent mode enabled.  When auto-indent
     mode is enabled and you hit Return, the cursor will be
     placed in the same column that the first non-SPACE/TAB char-
     acter was in on the original line.

     You can use the ^K , and ^K . commands to shift a block of
     text to the left or right.  If no highlighting is set when
     you give these commands, the program block the cursor is
     located in will be selected, and will be moved by subsequent
     ^K , and ^K . commands.  The number of columns these com-
     mands shift by can be set through a ^T option.

     Windows
     You can edit more than one file at the same time or edit two
     or more different places of the same file.  To do this, hit
     ^K O, to split the screen into two windows.  Use ^K P or ^K
     N to move the cursor into the top window or the lower win-
     dow.  Use ^K E to edit a new file in one of the windows.  A
     window will go away when you save the file with ^K X or
     abort the file with ^C.  If you abort a file which exists in
     two windows, one of the window goes away, not the file.

     You can hit ^K O within a window to create even more win-
     dows.  If you have too many windows on the screen, but you
     don't want to eliminate them, you can hit ^K I.  This will
     show only the window the cursor is in, or if there was only
     one window on the screen to begin with, try to fit all hid-
     den windows on the screen.  If there are more windows than
     can fit on the screen, you can hit ^K N on the bottom-most
     window or ^K P on the top-most window to get to them.

     If you gave more than one file name to JOE on the command
     line, each file will be placed in a different window.

     You can change the height of the windows with the ^K G and
     ^K T commands.

     Keyboard macros

     Macros allow you to record a series of keystrokes and replay
     them with the press of two keys.  This is useful to automate
     repetitive tasks.  To start a macro recording, hit ^K [ fol-
     lowed by a number from 0 to 9.  The status line will display
     (Macro n recording...).  Now, type in the series of keys-
     trokes that you want to be able to repeat.  The commands you
     type will have their usual effect. Hit ^K ] to stop record-
     ing the macro.  Hit ^K followed by the number you recorded
     the macro in to execute one iteration of the key-strokes.

     For example, if you want to put "**" in front of a number of
     lines, you can type:

     ^K [ ^A ** <down arrow> ^K ]

     Which starts the macro recording, moves the cursor to the
     beginning of the line, inserts "**", moves the cursor down
     one line, and then ends the recording. Since we included the
     key-strokes needed to position the cursor on the next line,
     we can repeatedly use this macro without having to move the
     cursor ourselves, something you should always keep in mind
     when recording a macro.

     If you find that the macro you are recording itself has a
     repeated set of key-strokes in it, you can record a macro
     within the macro, as long as you use a different macro
     number.  Also you can execute previously recorded macros
     from within new macros.

     Repeat
     You can use the repeat command, ^K \, to repeat a macro, or
     any other edit command or even a normal character, a speci-
     fied number of times.  Hit ^K \, type in the number of times
     you want the command repeated and press Return.  The next
     edit command you now give will be repeated that many times.
     For example, to delete the next 20 lines of text, type:

     ^K  20<return>^Y

     Rectangle mode
     Type ^T X to have ^K B and ^K K select rectangular blocks
     instead of stream-of-text blocks.  This mode is useful for
     moving, copying, deleting or saving columns of text.  You
     can also filter columns of text with the ^K / command- if
     you want to sort a column, for example.  The insert file
     command, ^K R is also effected.

     When rectangle mode is selected, over-type mode is also use-
     ful (^T T).  When over-type mode is selected, rectangles
     will replace existing text instead of getting inserted
     before it.  Also the delete block command (^K Y) will clear
     the selected rectangle with SPACEs and TABs instead of
     deleting it.  Over-type mode is especially useful for the
     filter block command (^K /), since it will maintain the ori-
     ginal width of the selected column.

     Tag search
     If you are editing a large C program with many source files,
     you can use the ctags program to generate a tags file.  This
     file contains a list of program symbols and the files and
     positions where the symbols are defined.  The ^K ; command
     can be used to lookup a symbol (functions, defined con-
     stants, etc.), load the file where the symbol is defined
     into the current window and position the cursor to where the
     symbol is defined. ^K ; prompts you for the symbol you want,
     but uses the symbol the cursor was on as a default.  Since
     ^K ; loads the definition file into the current window, you
     probably want to split the window first with ^K O, to have
     both the original file and the definition file loaded.

     Shell windows
     Hit ^K ' to run a command shell in one of JOE's windows.
     When the cursor is at the end of a shell window (use ^K V if
     it's not), whatever you type is passed to the shell instead
     of the window.  Any output from the shell or from commands
     executed in the shell is appended to the shell window (the
     cursor will follow this output if it's at the end of the
     shell window).  This command is useful for recording the
     results of shell commands- for example the output of make,
     the result of grepping a set of files for a string, or
     directory listings from FTP sessions. Besides typeable char-
     acters, the keys ^C, Backspace, DEL, Return and ^D are
     passed to the shell.  Type the shell exit command to stop
     recording shell output.  If you press ^C in a shell window,
     when the cursor is not at the end of the window, the shell
     is killed.

Environment variables
     For JOE to operate correctly, a number of other environment
     settings must be correct.  The throughput (baud rate) of the
     connection between the computer and your terminal must be
     set correctly for JOE to update the screen smoothly and
     allow typeahead to defer the screen update.  Use the stty
     nnn command to set this.  You want to set it as close as
     possible to actual throughput of the connection.  For exam-
     ple, if you are connected via a 1200 baud modem, you want to
     use this value for stty.  If you are connected via 14.4k
     modem, but the terminal server you are connected to connects
     to the computer a 9600 baud, you want to set your speed as
     9600 baud.  The special baud rate of 38400 or extb is used
     to indicate that you have a very-high speed connection, such
     as a memory mapped console or an X-window terminal emulator.
     If you can't use stty to set the actual throughput (perhaps
     because of a modem communicating with the computer at a dif-
     ferent rate than it's communicating over the phone line),
     you can put a numeric value in the BAUD environment variable
     instead (use setenv BAUD 9600 for csh or BAUD=9600; export
     BAUD for sh).

     The SHELL or EXECSHELL environment variable must be set to
     the full pathname of a shell executable that accepts the -i
     (interactive) and -c (run a command) arguments of the Korn
     Shell; otherwise, /bin/sh is used.

     The TERM environment variable must be set to the type of
     terminal you're using.  If the size (number of
     lines/columns) of your terminal is different from what is
     reported in the TERMCAP or TERMINFO entry, you can set this
     with the stty rows nn cols nn command, or by setting the
     LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.

     The xterm-xfree86 terminal allows automatic entering and
     leaving of the bracketed paste mode.

     The JOETERM environment variable may be set to override the
     regular TERM environment variable for specifying your termi-
     nal type.

     JOE uses two character maps for its operation: the terminal
     I/O character map, which determines how characters are sent
     to the terminal and whether the %a/%A message specifiers use
     UCS, and the file encoding, which can be specified per file
     using the -encoding option and changed with the ^T E com-
     mand, and which defaults to the terminal I/O character map,
     which, in turn, is determined from the current locale, if
     the system supports such, otherwise the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and
     LANG environment variables (if they contain a period, only
     the part after it and before an optional "at sign" is used);
     on cygwin32 before 1.7.2, the codepage is used instead if
     the POSIX locale environment variables are empty; the
     environment variable JOECHARMAP can be used to manually
     force one overriding all methods described above, and can be
     used together with -encoding to specify a different default
     file character map.

     JOE normally expects that flow control between the computer
     and your terminal to use ^S/^Q handshaking (I.E., if the
     computer is sending characters too fast for your terminal,
     your terminal sends ^S to stop the output and ^Q to restart
     it).  If the flow control uses out-of-band or hardware
     handshaking or if your terminal is fast enough to always
     keep up with the computer output and you wish to map ^S/^Q
     to edit commands, you can set the environment variable NOXON
     to have JOE attempt to turn off ^S/^Q handshaking.  If the
     connection between the computer and your terminal uses no
     handshaking and your terminal is not fast enough to keep up
     with the output of the computer, you can set the environment
     variable DOPADDING to have JOE slow down the output by
     interspersing PAD characters between the terminal screen
     update sequences.

Filenames
     Wherever JOE expects you to enter a file name, whether on
     the command line or in prompts within the editor, you may
     also type:

     !command
          Read or write data to or from a shell command.  For
          example, use joe '!ls' to get a copy of your directory
          listing to edit or from within the editor use ^K D
          !mail jhallen@world.std.com to send the file being
          edited to me.

     >>filename
          Use this to have JOE append the edited text to the end
          of the file "filename."

     filename,START,SIZE
          Use this to access a fixed section of a file or device.
          START and SIZE may be entered in decimal (ex.: 123)
          octal (ex.: 0777) or hexadecimal (ex.: 0xFF).  For
          example, use joe /dev/fd0,508,2 to edit bytes 508 and
          509 of the first floppy drive in Linux.
     -    Use this to get input from the standard input or to
          write output to the standard output.  For example, you
          can put joe in a pipe of commands: quota -v | joe - |
          mail root, if you want to complain about your low
          quota.

The joerc file
     ^T options, the help screens and the key-sequence to editor
     command bindings are all defined in JOE's initialisation
     file. If you make a copy of this file (which resides in the
     same directory as the binary) to $HOME/.joerc, you can cus-
     tomise these settings to your liking. The syntax of the ini-
     tialisation file should be fairly obvious, and there are
     further instruction in it.

Acknowledgments
     JOE was written by Joseph H. Allen. If you have bug reports
     or questions, e-mail them to jhallen@world.std.com. Larry
     Foard (entropy@world.std.com) and Gary Gray
     (ggray@world.std.com) also helped with the creation of JOE.
     Thorsten "mirabilos" Glaser (tg@mirbsd.org) created JUPP,
     and the 16-bit MS-DOS version of JUPP 2.8 was compiled by
     Andreas Totlis (atotlis@t-online.de).

Bugs
     This manual page describes only the JOE flavour; documenta-
     tion for JUPP is especially missing.