File: sh.1

package info (click to toggle)
ksh 93u+20120801-1
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: jessie, jessie-kfreebsd
  • size: 14,024 kB
  • ctags: 16,568
  • sloc: ansic: 174,389; sh: 31,795; makefile: 1,038; cpp: 10
file content (8187 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 177,563 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785
4786
4787
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742
5743
5744
5745
5746
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5763
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777
5778
5779
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811
5812
5813
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836
5837
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842
5843
5844
5845
5846
5847
5848
5849
5850
5851
5852
5853
5854
5855
5856
5857
5858
5859
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5913
5914
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924
5925
5926
5927
5928
5929
5930
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940
5941
5942
5943
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950
5951
5952
5953
5954
5955
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964
5965
5966
5967
5968
5969
5970
5971
5972
5973
5974
5975
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980
5981
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993
5994
5995
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041
6042
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054
6055
6056
6057
6058
6059
6060
6061
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6072
6073
6074
6075
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081
6082
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6165
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180
6181
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229
6230
6231
6232
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237
6238
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246
6247
6248
6249
6250
6251
6252
6253
6254
6255
6256
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285
6286
6287
6288
6289
6290
6291
6292
6293
6294
6295
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6307
6308
6309
6310
6311
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322
6323
6324
6325
6326
6327
6328
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338
6339
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344
6345
6346
6347
6348
6349
6350
6351
6352
6353
6354
6355
6356
6357
6358
6359
6360
6361
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372
6373
6374
6375
6376
6377
6378
6379
6380
6381
6382
6383
6384
6385
6386
6387
6388
6389
6390
6391
6392
6393
6394
6395
6396
6397
6398
6399
6400
6401
6402
6403
6404
6405
6406
6407
6408
6409
6410
6411
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420
6421
6422
6423
6424
6425
6426
6427
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447
6448
6449
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455
6456
6457
6458
6459
6460
6461
6462
6463
6464
6465
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471
6472
6473
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6479
6480
6481
6482
6483
6484
6485
6486
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493
6494
6495
6496
6497
6498
6499
6500
6501
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506
6507
6508
6509
6510
6511
6512
6513
6514
6515
6516
6517
6518
6519
6520
6521
6522
6523
6524
6525
6526
6527
6528
6529
6530
6531
6532
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577
6578
6579
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584
6585
6586
6587
6588
6589
6590
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6597
6598
6599
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605
6606
6607
6608
6609
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614
6615
6616
6617
6618
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631
6632
6633
6634
6635
6636
6637
6638
6639
6640
6641
6642
6643
6644
6645
6646
6647
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6653
6654
6655
6656
6657
6658
6659
6660
6661
6662
6663
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675
6676
6677
6678
6679
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6713
6714
6715
6716
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6729
6730
6731
6732
6733
6734
6735
6736
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748
6749
6750
6751
6752
6753
6754
6755
6756
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761
6762
6763
6764
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775
6776
6777
6778
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783
6784
6785
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790
6791
6792
6793
6794
6795
6796
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801
6802
6803
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808
6809
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814
6815
6816
6817
6818
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823
6824
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834
6835
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847
6848
6849
6850
6851
6852
6853
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877
6878
6879
6880
6881
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902
6903
6904
6905
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916
6917
6918
6919
6920
6921
6922
6923
6924
6925
6926
6927
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936
6937
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952
6953
6954
6955
6956
6957
6958
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975
6976
6977
6978
6979
6980
6981
6982
6983
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991
6992
6993
6994
6995
6996
6997
6998
6999
7000
7001
7002
7003
7004
7005
7006
7007
7008
7009
7010
7011
7012
7013
7014
7015
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021
7022
7023
7024
7025
7026
7027
7028
7029
7030
7031
7032
7033
7034
7035
7036
7037
7038
7039
7040
7041
7042
7043
7044
7045
7046
7047
7048
7049
7050
7051
7052
7053
7054
7055
7056
7057
7058
7059
7060
7061
7062
7063
7064
7065
7066
7067
7068
7069
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074
7075
7076
7077
7078
7079
7080
7081
7082
7083
7084
7085
7086
7087
7088
7089
7090
7091
7092
7093
7094
7095
7096
7097
7098
7099
7100
7101
7102
7103
7104
7105
7106
7107
7108
7109
7110
7111
7112
7113
7114
7115
7116
7117
7118
7119
7120
7121
7122
7123
7124
7125
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135
7136
7137
7138
7139
7140
7141
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146
7147
7148
7149
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154
7155
7156
7157
7158
7159
7160
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
7168
7169
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174
7175
7176
7177
7178
7179
7180
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185
7186
7187
7188
7189
7190
7191
7192
7193
7194
7195
7196
7197
7198
7199
7200
7201
7202
7203
7204
7205
7206
7207
7208
7209
7210
7211
7212
7213
7214
7215
7216
7217
7218
7219
7220
7221
7222
7223
7224
7225
7226
7227
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232
7233
7234
7235
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240
7241
7242
7243
7244
7245
7246
7247
7248
7249
7250
7251
7252
7253
7254
7255
7256
7257
7258
7259
7260
7261
7262
7263
7264
7265
7266
7267
7268
7269
7270
7271
7272
7273
7274
7275
7276
7277
7278
7279
7280
7281
7282
7283
7284
7285
7286
7287
7288
7289
7290
7291
7292
7293
7294
7295
7296
7297
7298
7299
7300
7301
7302
7303
7304
7305
7306
7307
7308
7309
7310
7311
7312
7313
7314
7315
7316
7317
7318
7319
7320
7321
7322
7323
7324
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329
7330
7331
7332
7333
7334
7335
7336
7337
7338
7339
7340
7341
7342
7343
7344
7345
7346
7347
7348
7349
7350
7351
7352
7353
7354
7355
7356
7357
7358
7359
7360
7361
7362
7363
7364
7365
7366
7367
7368
7369
7370
7371
7372
7373
7374
7375
7376
7377
7378
7379
7380
7381
7382
7383
7384
7385
7386
7387
7388
7389
7390
7391
7392
7393
7394
7395
7396
7397
7398
7399
7400
7401
7402
7403
7404
7405
7406
7407
7408
7409
7410
7411
7412
7413
7414
7415
7416
7417
7418
7419
7420
7421
7422
7423
7424
7425
7426
7427
7428
7429
7430
7431
7432
7433
7434
7435
7436
7437
7438
7439
7440
7441
7442
7443
7444
7445
7446
7447
7448
7449
7450
7451
7452
7453
7454
7455
7456
7457
7458
7459
7460
7461
7462
7463
7464
7465
7466
7467
7468
7469
7470
7471
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7477
7478
7479
7480
7481
7482
7483
7484
7485
7486
7487
7488
7489
7490
7491
7492
7493
7494
7495
7496
7497
7498
7499
7500
7501
7502
7503
7504
7505
7506
7507
7508
7509
7510
7511
7512
7513
7514
7515
7516
7517
7518
7519
7520
7521
7522
7523
7524
7525
7526
7527
7528
7529
7530
7531
7532
7533
7534
7535
7536
7537
7538
7539
7540
7541
7542
7543
7544
7545
7546
7547
7548
7549
7550
7551
7552
7553
7554
7555
7556
7557
7558
7559
7560
7561
7562
7563
7564
7565
7566
7567
7568
7569
7570
7571
7572
7573
7574
7575
7576
7577
7578
7579
7580
7581
7582
7583
7584
7585
7586
7587
7588
7589
7590
7591
7592
7593
7594
7595
7596
7597
7598
7599
7600
7601
7602
7603
7604
7605
7606
7607
7608
7609
7610
7611
7612
7613
7614
7615
7616
7617
7618
7619
7620
7621
7622
7623
7624
7625
7626
7627
7628
7629
7630
7631
7632
7633
7634
7635
7636
7637
7638
7639
7640
7641
7642
7643
7644
7645
7646
7647
7648
7649
7650
7651
7652
7653
7654
7655
7656
7657
7658
7659
7660
7661
7662
7663
7664
7665
7666
7667
7668
7669
7670
7671
7672
7673
7674
7675
7676
7677
7678
7679
7680
7681
7682
7683
7684
7685
7686
7687
7688
7689
7690
7691
7692
7693
7694
7695
7696
7697
7698
7699
7700
7701
7702
7703
7704
7705
7706
7707
7708
7709
7710
7711
7712
7713
7714
7715
7716
7717
7718
7719
7720
7721
7722
7723
7724
7725
7726
7727
7728
7729
7730
7731
7732
7733
7734
7735
7736
7737
7738
7739
7740
7741
7742
7743
7744
7745
7746
7747
7748
7749
7750
7751
7752
7753
7754
7755
7756
7757
7758
7759
7760
7761
7762
7763
7764
7765
7766
7767
7768
7769
7770
7771
7772
7773
7774
7775
7776
7777
7778
7779
7780
7781
7782
7783
7784
7785
7786
7787
7788
7789
7790
7791
7792
7793
7794
7795
7796
7797
7798
7799
7800
7801
7802
7803
7804
7805
7806
7807
7808
7809
7810
7811
7812
7813
7814
7815
7816
7817
7818
7819
7820
7821
7822
7823
7824
7825
7826
7827
7828
7829
7830
7831
7832
7833
7834
7835
7836
7837
7838
7839
7840
7841
7842
7843
7844
7845
7846
7847
7848
7849
7850
7851
7852
7853
7854
7855
7856
7857
7858
7859
7860
7861
7862
7863
7864
7865
7866
7867
7868
7869
7870
7871
7872
7873
7874
7875
7876
7877
7878
7879
7880
7881
7882
7883
7884
7885
7886
7887
7888
7889
7890
7891
7892
7893
7894
7895
7896
7897
7898
7899
7900
7901
7902
7903
7904
7905
7906
7907
7908
7909
7910
7911
7912
7913
7914
7915
7916
7917
7918
7919
7920
7921
7922
7923
7924
7925
7926
7927
7928
7929
7930
7931
7932
7933
7934
7935
7936
7937
7938
7939
7940
7941
7942
7943
7944
7945
7946
7947
7948
7949
7950
7951
7952
7953
7954
7955
7956
7957
7958
7959
7960
7961
7962
7963
7964
7965
7966
7967
7968
7969
7970
7971
7972
7973
7974
7975
7976
7977
7978
7979
7980
7981
7982
7983
7984
7985
7986
7987
7988
7989
7990
7991
7992
7993
7994
7995
7996
7997
7998
7999
8000
8001
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008
8009
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015
8016
8017
8018
8019
8020
8021
8022
8023
8024
8025
8026
8027
8028
8029
8030
8031
8032
8033
8034
8035
8036
8037
8038
8039
8040
8041
8042
8043
8044
8045
8046
8047
8048
8049
8050
8051
8052
8053
8054
8055
8056
8057
8058
8059
8060
8061
8062
8063
8064
8065
8066
8067
8068
8069
8070
8071
8072
8073
8074
8075
8076
8077
8078
8079
8080
8081
8082
8083
8084
8085
8086
8087
8088
8089
8090
8091
8092
8093
8094
8095
8096
8097
8098
8099
8100
8101
8102
8103
8104
8105
8106
8107
8108
8109
8110
8111
8112
8113
8114
8115
8116
8117
8118
8119
8120
8121
8122
8123
8124
8125
8126
8127
8128
8129
8130
8131
8132
8133
8134
8135
8136
8137
8138
8139
8140
8141
8142
8143
8144
8145
8146
8147
8148
8149
8150
8151
8152
8153
8154
8155
8156
8157
8158
8159
8160
8161
8162
8163
8164
8165
8166
8167
8168
8169
8170
8171
8172
8173
8174
8175
8176
8177
8178
8179
8180
8181
8182
8183
8184
8185
8186
8187
.\"
.\" David Korn
.\" AT&T Bell Laboratories
.\"
.\" @(#)sh.1 (dgk@research.att.com) 12/28/93
.\"
.nr Z 1 \" set to 1 when command name is ksh, 2 for ksh93
.ds OK [\|
.ds CK \|]
.ds ' \s+4\v@.3m@\'\v@-.3m@\s-4
.ds ` \s+4\v@.3m@\`\v@-.3m@\s-4
.if \nZ=0  \{\
.TH SH 1
.\}
.if \nZ=1 \{\
.TH KSH 1
.\}
.if \nZ=2 \{\
.TH KSH93 1
.\}
.SH NAME
ksh, ksh93 \- KornShell, a command and programming language
.SH SYNOPSIS
.if \nZ=0 \{\
.B sh
.\}
.if \nZ=1 \{\
.B ksh
.\}
.if \nZ=2 \{\
.B ksh93
.\}
[
.B \(+-abcefhikmnoprstuvxBCDP
] [
.B \-R
file ] [
.B \(+-o
option ] .\|.\|. [
.B \-
] [ arg .\|.\|. ]
.br
.if \nZ=0 \{\
.B rsh
.\}
.if \nZ=1 \{\
.B rksh
.\}
.if \nZ=2 \{\
.B rksh93
.\}
[
.B \(+-abcefhikmnoprstuvxBCD
] [
.B \-R
file ] [
.B \(+-o
option ] .\|.\|.  [
.B \-
] [ arg .\|.\|. ]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.if \nZ=0 .I Sh\^
.if \nZ=1 .I Ksh\^
.if \nZ=2 .I Ksh93\^
is a command and programming language
that executes commands read from a terminal
or a file.
.if \nZ=0 .I Rsh\^
.if \nZ=1 .I Rksh\^
.if \nZ=2 .I Rksh93\^
is a restricted version of the
.if \nZ=0 standard
command interpreter
.if \nZ=0 .IR sh ;
.if \nZ=1 .IR ksh ;
.if \nZ=2 .IR ksh93 ;
it is used to set up login names and execution environments whose
capabilities are more controlled than those of the standard shell.
.if \nZ=0 .I Rpfsh\^
.if \nZ=1 .I Rpfksh\^
.if \nZ=2 .I Rpfksh93\^
is a profile shell version of the
.if \nZ=0 standard
command interpreter
.if \nZ=0 .IR sh ;
.if \nZ=1 .IR ksh ;
.if \nZ=2 .IR ksh93 ;
it is used to to execute commands with the attributes specified by
the user's profiles (see
.IR pfexec (1)).
See
.I Invocation\^
below
for the meaning of arguments to the shell.
.SS Definitions.
A
.I metacharacter\^
is one of the following characters:
.PP
.RS
\f3;   &   (   )   \(bv   <   >   new-line   space   tab\fP
.RE
.PP
A
.I blank\^
is a
.B tab
or a
.BR space .
An
.I identifier\^
is a sequence of letters, digits, or underscores
starting with a letter or underscore.
Identifiers are used as components of
.I variable\^
names.
A
.I vname\^
is a sequence of one or more identifiers
separated by a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP and optionally preceded
by a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP.
Vnames are used as function and variable names.
A
.I word\^
is a sequence of
.I characters\^
from the character set defined by the current locale,
excluding non-quoted
.IR metacharacters .
.PP
A
.I command\^
is a sequence of characters in the syntax
of the shell language.
The shell reads each command and
carries out the desired action either directly or by invoking
separate utilities.
A built-in command is a command that is carried out by the
shell itself without creating a separate process.
Some commands are built-in purely for convenience
and are not documented here.
Built-ins that cause
side effects in the shell environment and
built-ins that are found before performing a
path search (see
.I Execution\^
below)
are documented here.
For historical reasons, some of
these built-ins behave differently than
other built-ins and are called
.IR "special built-ins" .
.SS Commands.
A
.I simple-command\^
is a list of variable assignments
(see
.I Variable Assignments\^
below)
or a sequence of
.I blank\^
separated words
which may be preceded by a list of variable assignments
(see
.I Environment\^
below).
The first word specifies the name of the command to
be executed.
Except as specified below,
the remaining words are passed as arguments
to the invoked command.
The command name is passed as argument 0
(see
.IR exec (2)).
The
.I value\^
of a simple-command is its exit status; 0-255
if it terminates normally; 256+\f2signum\^\fP if
it terminates abnormally (the name of the signal corresponding
to the exit status can be
obtained via the
.B \-l
option of the
.B kill\^
built-in utility).
.PP
A
.I pipeline\^
is a sequence of one or more
.I commands\^
separated by
.BR \(bv .
The standard output of each command but the last
is connected by a
.IR pipe (2)
to the standard input of the next command.
Each command,
except possibly the last,
is run as a separate process;
the shell waits for the last command to terminate.
The exit status of a pipeline is the exit
status of the last command unless the
.B pipefail
option is enabled.
Each pipeline can be preceded by the
.I "reserved word"
.B !
which causes the exit status of the pipeline to become
0 if the exit status of the last command is non-zero, and
1 if the exit status of the last command is 0.
.PP
A
.I list\^
is a sequence of one or more
pipelines
separated by
.BR ; ,
.BR & ,
.BR \(bv& ,
.BR && ,
or
.BR \(bv\|\(bv ,
and optionally terminated by
.BR ; ,
.BR & ,
or
.BR \(bv& .
Of these five symbols,
.BR ; ,
.BR & ,
and
.B \(bv&
have equal precedence,
which is lower than that of
.B &&
and
.BR \(bv\|\(bv .
The symbols
.B &&
and
.B \(bv\|\(bv
also have equal precedence.
A semicolon
.RB ( ; )
causes sequential execution of the preceding pipeline; an ampersand
.RB ( & )
causes asynchronous execution of the preceding pipeline (i.e., the shell does
.I not\^
wait for that pipeline to finish).
The symbol
.B \(bv&
causes asynchronous execution of the preceding pipeline
with a two-way pipe established to the parent shell;
the standard input and output of the spawned pipeline
can be written to and read from by the parent shell
by applying
the redirection operators
.B <&
and
.B >&
with arg
.B p
to commands and by using
.B \-p
option of
the built-in commands
.B read
and
.B print
described later.
The symbol
.B &&
.RB (\| \(bv\|\(bv \^)
causes the
.I list\^
following it to be executed only if the preceding
pipeline
returns a zero (non-zero) value.
One or more new-lines may appear in a
.I list\^
instead of a semicolon,
to delimit a command.
The first
.I item \^
of the first
.I pipeline\^
of a
.I list\^
that is a simple command not beginning
with a redirection, and not occurring within a
.BR while ,
.BR until ,
or
.B if
.IR list ,
can be preceded by a semicolon.
This semicolon
is ignored unless the
.B showme
option is enabled as described with
the
.B set
built-in below.
.PP
A
.I command\^
is either a simple-command
or one of the following.
Unless otherwise stated,
the value returned by a command is that of the
last simple-command executed in the command.
.TP
\f3for\fP \f2vname\^\fP \*(OK \f3in\fP \f2word\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK \f3;do\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;done\fP
Each time a
.B for
command is executed,
.I vname\^
is set to the next
.I word\^
taken from the
.B in
.I word\^
list.
If
.BI in " word\^"
\&.\|.\|.
is omitted, then
the
.B for
command executes the \f3do\fP \f2list\^\fP once for each positional parameter
that is set starting from
.B 1
(see
.I "Parameter Expansion\^"
below).
Execution ends when there are no more words in the list.
.TP
\f3for ((\fP \*(OK\f2expr1\^\fP\*(CK \f3;\fP \*(OK\f2expr2\^\fP\*(CK \f3;\fP \*(OK\f2expr3\^\fP\*(CK \f3))\fP \f3;do\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;done\fP
The arithmetic expression
.I expr1
is evaluated first
(see
.I "Arithmetic evaluation"
below).
The arithmetic expression
.I expr2
is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non-zero,
.I list
is executed and the arithmetic expression
.I expr3
evaluated.
If any expression
is omitted, then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1.
.TP
\f3select\fP \f2vname\^\fP \*(OK \f3in\fP \f2word\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK \f3;do\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;done\fP
A
.B select
command prints on standard error (file descriptor 2) the set of
.IR word s,
each preceded by a number.
If
.BI in " word\^"
\&.\|.\|.
is omitted, then
the
positional parameters starting from
.B 1
are used instead
(see
.I "Parameter Expansion\^"
below).
The
.SM
.B PS3
prompt is printed
and a line is read from the standard input.
If this line consists of the number
of one of the listed
.IR word s,
then the value of the variable
.I vname\^
is set to the
.I word\^
corresponding to this number.
If this line is empty, the selection list is
printed again.
Otherwise the value of the variable
.I vname\^
is set to
.IR null .
The contents of the line read from standard input is
saved in
the variable
.SM
.BR REPLY .
The
.I list\^
is executed for each selection until a
.B break\^
or
.I end-of-file\^
is encountered.
If the
.SM
.B REPLY
variable is set to
.I null\^
by the execution of
.IR list ,
then the selection list is printed before
displaying the
.SM
.B PS3
prompt for the next selection.
.TP
\f3case\fP \f2word\^\fP \f3in\fP \*(OK \*(OK\f3(\fP\*(CK\f2pattern\^\fP \*(OK \(bv \f2pattern\^\fP \*(CK .\|.\|. \f3)\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;;\fP \*(CK .\|.\|. \f3esac\fP
A
.B case
command executes the
.I list\^
associated with the first
.I pattern\^
that matches
.IR word .
The form of the patterns is
the same as that used for
file-name generation (see
.I "File Name Generation\^"
below).
The
.B ;;
operator causes execution of
.B case
to terminate.
If
.B ;&
is used in place of
.B ;;
the next subsequent list, if any,  is executed.
.TP
\f3if\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;then\fP \f2list\^\fP \*(OK \
\f3;elif\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;then\fP \f2list\^\fP \*(CK .\|.\|. \
\*(OK \f3;else\fP \f2list\^\fP \*(CK \f3;f\&i\fP
The
.I list\^
following \f3if\fP is executed and,
if it
returns a zero exit status, the
.I list\^
following
the first
.B then
is executed.
Otherwise, the
.I list\^
following \f3elif\fP
is executed and, if its value is zero,
the
.I list\^
following
the next
.B then
is executed.
Failing each successive
.B elif
.IR list\^ ,
the
.B else
.I list\^
is executed.
If the
.B if
.I list\^
has non-zero exit status
and there is no
.B else
.IR list ,
then the
.B if
command returns a zero exit status.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3while\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;do\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;done\fP
.TP
\f3until\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;do\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;done\fP
.PD
A
.B while
command repeatedly executes the
.B while
.I list\^
and, if the exit status of the last command in the list is zero, executes
the
.B do
.IR list ;
otherwise the loop terminates.
If no commands in the
.B do
.I list\^
are executed, then the
.B while
command returns a zero exit status;
.B until
may be used in place of
.B while
to negate
the loop termination test.
.TP
\f3((\fP\f2expression\^\fP\f3))\fP
.br
The
.I expression\^
is evaluated using the rules for arithmetic evaluation described below.
If the value of the arithmetic expression is non-zero, the exit
status is 0, otherwise the exit status is 1.
.TP
\f3(\fP\f2list\^\fP\f3)\fP
.br
Execute
.I list\^
in a separate environment.
Note, that if two adjacent open parentheses are
needed for nesting, a space must be inserted to avoid
evaluation as an arithmetic command as described above.
.TP
\f3{ \fP\f2list\^\fP\f3;}\fP
.br
.I list\^
is simply executed.
Note that unlike the metacharacters
.B (
and
.BR ) ,
.B {
and
.B }
are
.IR "reserved word" s
and must occur
at the beginning of a line or after a
.B ;
in order to be recognized.
.TP
\f3[[\fP\f2 expression \^\fP\f3]]\fP
.br
Evaluates
.I expression\^
and returns a zero exit status when
.I expression\^
is true.
See
.I "Conditional Expressions\^"
below, for a description of
.IR expression .
.TP
.PD 0
\f3function\fP \f2varname\^\fP \f3{\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;}\fP
.TP
\f2varname\^\fP \f3() {\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;}\fP
.PD
Define a function which is referenced by
.IR varname .
A function whose
.I varname\^
contains a
.B \s+2.\s-2
is called a discipline function and the portion
of the
.I varname\^
preceding the last
.B \s+2.\s-2
must refer to an existing variable.
The body of the function is the
.I list\^
of commands between
.B {
and
.BR } .
A function defined with the \f3function\fP \f2varname\^\fP
syntax can also be used as an argument to the \f3.\fP
special built-in command to get the equivalent behavior
as if the \f2varname\^\fP\f3()\fP syntax were used to define it.
(See
.I Functions\^
below.)
.TP
\f3namespace\fP \f2identifier\^\fP \f3{\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;}\fP
.br
Defines or uses the name space
.I identifier\^
and runs the commands in
.I list\^
in this name space.
(See
.I Name Spaces\^
below.)
.TP
\f3&\fP \*(OK \f2name\^\fP \*(OK \f2arg...\^\fP \*(CK  \*(CK
Causes subsequent
.I list\^
commands terminated by
.B &
to be placed in the background job pool
.IR name .
If
.I name\^
is omitted a default unnamed pool is used.
Commands in a named background pool may be executed remotely.
.TP
\f3time\fP \*(OK \f2pipeline\^\fP \*(CK
.br
If \f2pipeline\^\fP is omitted the user and system time for
the current shell and completed child processes is printed
on standard error.
Otherwise,
.I pipeline\^
is executed and the elapsed time as well as
the user and system time are printed on standard error.
The
.SM
.B TIMEFORMAT
variable may be set to a format string that specifies how the timing
information should be displayed.
See
.B "Shell Variables"
below
for a description of the
.SM
.B TIMEFORMAT
variable.
.PP
The following reserved words
are recognized as reserved only when they are the first word of a command
and are not quoted:
.PP
.if t .RS
.B
.if n if then else elif fi case esac for while until do done { } function select time [[ ]] !
.if t if   then   else   elif   fi   case   esac   for   while   until   do   done   {   }   function   select   time  [[  ]]   !
.if t .RE
.SS Variable Assignments.
One or more variable assignments can start a simple command
or can be arguments to the
.BR typeset ,
.BR enum ,
.BR export ,
or
.B readonly
special built-in commands as well as
to other declaration commands created as types.
The syntax for an \f2assignment\^\fP is of the form:
.TP
.PD 0
\f2varname\^\fP\f3=\fP\f2word\^\fP
.TP
\f2varname\^\fP\f3[\fP\f2word\^\fP\f3]\fP=\fP\f2word\^\fP
.PD
No space is permitted between \f2varname\^\fP and the \f3=\fP or
between \f3=\fP and \fIword\^\fP.
.TP
\f2varname\^\fP\f3=(\fP\f2assign_list\^\fP\f3)\fP
No space is permitted between \f2varname\^\fP and the \f3=\fP.
The variable
.I varname
is unset before the assignment.
An \f2assign_list\^\fP can be one of the following:
.RS 15
.PD 0
.TP
\f2word\^\fP ...
Indexed array assignment.
.TP
\f3[\fP\f2word\^\fP\f3]=\fP\f2word\^\fP .\|.\|.
Associative array assignment.
If preceded by
.B typeset \-a
this will create an indexed array instead.
.TP
\f2assignment\^\fP .\|.\|.
Compound variable assignment.
This creates a compound variable \f2varname\^\fP with
sub-variables of the form \f2varname\^\fP\f3.\fP\f2name\^\fP,
where \f2name\^\fP is the name portion of \f2assignment\^\fP.
The value of \f2varname\^\fP will contain all the assignment elements.
Additional assignments made to sub-variables of \f2varname\^\fP
will also be displayed as part of the value of \f2varname\^\fP.
If no \f2assignment\fPs are specified, \f2varname\^\fP will be
a compound variable allowing subsequence child elements to be defined.
.TP
\f3typeset\fP \*(OK\f2options\fP\*(CK \f2assignment\^\fP .\|.\|.
Nested variable assignment.  Multiple assignments
can be specified by separating each of them with a \f3;\fP.
The previous value is unset before the assignment.
Other declaration commands such as
.BR readonly,
.BR enum ,
and
other declaration commands can be used in place of
.BR typeset .
.TP
\f3\|.\fP \f2filename\^\fP
Include the assignment commands contained in
.IR filename .
.PD
.RE
.PP
In addition, a \f3+=\fP can be used in place of the \f3=\fP
to signify adding to or appending to the previous value.
When \f3+=\fP is applied to an arithmetic type, \f2word\^\fP
is evaluated as an arithmetic expression and added to the current value.
When applied to a string variable, the value defined by \f2word\^\fP
is appended to the value.  For compound assignments, the previous
value is not unset and the new values are appended to the
current ones provided that the types are compatible.
.PP
The right hand side of a variable assignment undergoes all the expansion
listed below except word splitting, brace expansion, and file name generation.
When the left hand side is an assignment is a compound variable and
the right hand is the name of a compound variable, the compound variable
on the right will be copied or appended to the compound variable on the left.
.SS Comments.
.PD 0
A word beginning with
.B #
causes that word and all the following characters up to a new-line
to be ignored.
.SS Aliasing.
The first word of each command is replaced by the text of an
.B alias
if an
.B alias
for this word has been defined.
An
.B alias
name consists of any number of characters excluding metacharacters,
quoting characters,
file expansion characters,
parameter expansion and command substitution
characters,
the characters
.B /
and
.BR = .
The replacement string can contain any
valid shell script
including the metacharacters listed above.
The first word of each command in the
replaced text,
other than
any that are in the process of being replaced,
will be tested for aliases.
If the last character of the alias value is a
.I blank\^
then the word following the alias will also be checked for alias
substitution.
Aliases can be used to redefine
built-in commands but cannot be used to redefine
the reserved words listed above.
Aliases can be created and listed with the
.B alias
command and can be removed with the
.B unalias
command.
.PP
.I Aliasing\^
is performed when
scripts are read,
not while they are executed.
Therefore,
for an alias to take effect,
the
.B
alias
definition command has to be executed before
the command which references the alias is read.
.PP
The following aliases
are compiled into the shell
but can be unset or redefined:
.RS 20
.PD 0
.TP
.B "autoload=\(fmtypeset \-fu\(fm"
.TP
.B "command=\(fmcommand  \(fm"
.TP
.B "compound=\(fmtypeset \-C\(fm"
.TP
.B "fc=hist"
.TP
.B "float=\(fmtypeset \-lE\(fm"
.TP
.B "functions=\(fmtypeset \-f\(fm"
.TP
.B "hash=\(fmalias \-t \-\^\-\(fm"
.TP
.B "history=\(fmhist \-l\(fm"
.TP
.B "integer=\(fmtypeset \-li\(fm"
.TP
.B "nameref=\(fmtypeset \-n\(fm"
.TP
.B "nohup=\(fmnohup  \(fm"
.TP
.B "r=\(fmhist \-s\(fm"
.TP
.B "redirect=\(fmcommand exec\(fm"
.TP
.B "source=\(fmcommand \s+2.\s-2\(fm"
.TP
.B "stop=\(fmkill \-s \s-1STOP\s+1\(fm"
.TP
.B "suspend=\(fmkill \-s \s-1STOP\s+1 $$\(fm"
.TP
.B "times=\(fm{ { time;} 2>&1;}\(fm"
.TP
.B "type=\(fmwhence \-v\(fm"
.PD
.RE
.SS Tilde Substitution.
After alias substitution is performed, each word
is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted
.BR \(ap .
For tilde substitution,
.I word\^
also refers to the
.I word\^
portion of parameter expansion
(see
.I "Parameter Expansion\^"
below).
If it does, then the word up to a
.B /
is checked to see if it matches a user name in the
password database (See
.IR getpwname (3).)
If a match is found, the
.B \(ap
and the matched login name are replaced by the
login directory of the matched user.
If no match is found, the original text is left unchanged.
A
.B \(ap
by itself, or in front of a
.BR / ,
is replaced by
.SM
.BR $HOME .
A
.B \(ap
followed by a
.B +
or
.B \-
is replaced by the value of
.B
.SM $PWD
and
.B
.SM $OLDPWD
respectively.
.PP
In addition,
when expanding a
.IR "variable assignment" ,
.I tilde
substitution is attempted when
the value of the assignment
begins with a
.BR \(ap ,
and when a
.B \(ap
appears after a
.BR : .
The
.B :
also terminates a
.B \(ap
login name.
.SS Command Substitution.
The standard output from a command list enclosed in
parentheses preceded by a dollar sign (
\f3$(\fP\f2list\^\fP\f3)\fP
),
or in a brace group preceded by a dollar sign (
\f3${ \fP\f2list\^\fP\f3;}\fP
), or in a pair of grave accents (\^\f3\*`\^\*`\fP\^)
may be used as part or all
of a word;
trailing new-lines are removed.
In the second case, the \f3{\fP and \f3}\fP are treated as a reserved words
so that \f3{\fP must be followed by a \f2blank\^\fP and \f3}\fP must
appear at the beginning of the line or follow a \f3;\fP.
In the third (obsolete) form, the string between the quotes is processed
for special quoting characters before the command is executed (see
.I Quoting\^
below).
The command substitution
\^\f3$(\^cat file\^)\fP\^
can be replaced by the equivalent but faster
\^\f3$(\^<file\^)\fP\^.
The command substitution
\^\f3$(\^\fP\f2n\^\fP\f3<#\^)\fP
will expand to the current byte offset for file descriptor
.IR n .
Except for the second form, the command list is run in a subshell so that no
side effects are possible.
For the second form, the final
.B }
will be recognized as a reserved word after any token.
.SS Arithmetic Substitution.
An arithmetic expression enclosed in double
parentheses preceded by a dollar sign (
.B $((\|))
)
is replaced by the value of the arithmetic expression
within the double parentheses.
.SS Process Substitution.
Each command argument of the form
\f3<(\fP\f2list\^\fP\f3)\fP
or
\f3>(\fP\f2list\^\fP\f3)\fP
will run process
.I list
asynchronously connected to some file in
.B /dev/fd
if this directory exists, or else a fifo a temporary directory.
The name of this file will become the argument to the command.
If the form with
.B >
is selected then writing on this file will provide input for
.IR list .
If
.B <
is used,
then the file passed as an argument will contain the output of the
.I list
process.
For example,
.PP
.RS
\f3paste <(cut \-f1\fP \f2file1\fP\f3) <(cut \-f3\fP \f2file2\f3) | tee >(\fP\f2process1\fP\f3) >(\fP\f2process2\fP\f3)\fP
.RE
.PP
.I cuts
fields 1 and 3 from
the files
.I file1
and
.I file2
respectively,
.I pastes
the results together, and
sends it
to the processes
.I process1
and
.IR process2 ,
as well as putting it onto the standard output.
Note that the file, which is passed as an argument to the command,
is a UNIX
.IR pipe (2)
so programs that expect to
.IR lseek (2)
on the file will not work.
.PP
Process substitution of the form
\f3<(\fP\f2list\^\fP\f3)\fP
can also be used with the
.B <
redirection operator which causes the output of
.I list\^
to be standard input or the input for whatever file descriptor is specified.
.SS Parameter Expansion.
A
.I parameter\^
is a
.IR variable ,
one or more digits,
or any of the characters
.BR \(** ,
.BR @ ,
.BR # ,
.BR ? ,
.BR \- ,
.BR $ ,
and
.BR !\\^ .
A
.I variable\^
is denoted by a \f2vname\fP.
To create a variable whose
.I vname\^
contains a \f3\s+2.\s-2\fP,
a variable whose
.I vname\^
consists of everything before the last \f3\s+2.\s-2\fP must already exist.
A
.I variable\^
has a
.I value\^
and zero or more
.IR attributes .
.I Variables\^
can be assigned
.I values\^
and
.I attributes
by using the
.B typeset\^
special built-in command.
The attributes supported by the shell are described
later with the
.B typeset\^
special built-in command.
Exported variables pass values and attributes to
the environment.
.PP
The shell supports both indexed and associative arrays.
An element of an array variable is referenced by a
.IR subscript .
A
.I subscript\^
for an indexed array is denoted by
an
.I arithmetic expression\^
(see
.I "Arithmetic evaluation"
below)
between a
.B [
and a
.BR ] .
To assign values to an indexed array, use
\f2vname\fP\f3=(\fP\f2value\fP .\|.\|.\f3)\fP or
\f3set \-A\fP \f2vname\fP  \f2value\fP .\|.\|. .
The value of all non-negative
subscripts must be in the
range of
0 through 4,194,303.
A negative subscript is treated as an offset from the maximum
current index +1 so that \-1 refers to the last element.
Indexed arrays can be declared with the
.B \-a
option to
.BR typeset.
Indexed arrays need not be declared.
Any reference to a variable
with a valid subscript is
legal and an array will be created if necessary.
.PP
An associative array is created with the
.B \-A
option to
.BR typeset.
A
.I subscript\^
for an associative array is denoted by
a string enclosed between
.B [
and
.BR ] .
.PP
Referencing any array without a subscript
is equivalent to referencing the array with subscript 0.
.PP
The
.I value\^
of a
.I variable\^
may be assigned by writing:
.PP
.RS
.IB vname = value\^\|
\*(OK
.IB vname = value\^
\*(CK .\|.\|.
.RE
.PP
.PD 0
or
.PP
.RS
.IB vname [ subscript ]= value\^\|
\*(OK
.IB vname [ subscript ]= value\^
\*(CK .\|.\|.
.sp .5
.RE
Note that no space is allowed before or after the
.BR = .
.sp .5
.PP
.PD 0
Attributes assigned by the
.I typeset\^
special built-in command apply to all elements of the array.
An array element can be a simple variable, a compound variable or an
array variable.  An element of an indexed array can be either an indexed
array or an associative array.  An element of an associative array can also
be either.  To refer to an array element that is part of an array
element, concatenate the subscript in brackets.  For example, to refer
to the
.I foobar\^
element of an associative array that is defined as the
third element of the indexed array, use
.BI ${ vname [ 3 ][ foobar ]}
.sp .5
.PP
.PD 0
A
.I nameref\^
is a variable that is a reference to another variable.
A nameref is created with the
.B \-n
attribute of
.BR typeset .
The value of the variable at the time of the
.B typeset
command becomes the variable that will be referenced whenever
the nameref variable is used.
The name of a nameref cannot contain a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP.
When a variable or function name contains a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP, and the portion
of the name up to the first \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP matches the
name of a nameref, the variable referred to is obtained by
replacing the nameref portion with the name of the variable
referenced by the nameref.
If a nameref is used as the index of a \fBfor\fP loop,
a name reference is established for each item in the list.
A nameref provides a convenient way to refer to the variable
inside a function whose name is passed as an argument to a function.
For example, if the name of a variable is passed as the first
argument to a function, the command
.PP
.RS
\fBtypeset \-n var=$1\fR
.RE
.PP
inside the function causes references and assignments to
.B var
to be references and assignments to the variable whose
name has been passed to the function.
.sp .5
.PP
If any of the floating point attributes,
.BR \-E ,
.BR \-F ,
or
.BR \-X ,
or the integer attribute,
.BR \-i ,
is set for
.IR vname ,
then the
.I value\^
is subject to arithmetic evaluation as described below.
.sp .5
.PP
Positional parameters,
parameters denoted by a number,
may be assigned values with the
.B set\^
special built-in command.
Parameter
.B $0
is set from argument zero when the shell
is invoked.
.sp .5
.PP
The character
.B $
is used to introduce substitutable
.IR parameters .
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3}\fP
The shell
reads all the characters from
.B ${
to the matching
.B }
as part of the same word even if it contains
braces or metacharacters.
The value, if any, of the parameter is substituted.
The braces are required when
.I parameter\^
is followed by a letter, digit, or underscore
that is not to be interpreted as part of its name,
when the variable name contains a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP.
The braces are also required when a variable is subscripted
unless it is part of an Arithmetic Expression
or a Conditional Expression.
If
.I parameter\^
is one or more digits then it is a positional parameter.
A positional parameter of more than one digit must be
enclosed in braces.
If
.I parameter\^
is
.B \(**
or
.BR @ ,
then all the positional
parameters, starting with
.BR $1 ,
are substituted
(separated by a field separator character).
If an array
.I vname\^
with last subscript
.B \(**
.BR @ ,
or for index arrays of the form
.I sub1\^
.B ..
.IR sub2 .
is used,
then the value
for each of the
elements between
.I sub1\^
and
.I sub2\^
inclusive (or all elements for
.B \(**
and
.BR @ )
is substituted,
separated by
the first character of
the value of
.SM
.BR IFS .
.TP
\f3${#\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3}\fP
If
.I parameter\^
is
.B \(**
or
.BR @ ,
the number of positional parameters is substituted.
Otherwise, the length of the value of the
.I parameter\^
is substituted.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3${#\fP\f2vname\fP\f3[*]}\fP
.TP
.PD
\f3${#\fP\f2vname\fP\f3[@]}\fP
The number of elements in the array
.I vname\^
is substituted.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3${@\fP\f2vname\^\fP\f3}\fP
Expands to the type name (See
.I "Type Variables"\^
below) or attributes of the variable referred to by
.IR vname .
.TP
\f3${!\fP\f2vname\^\fP\f3}\fP
Expands to the name of the variable referred to by
.IR vname .
This will be
.I vname\^
except when
.I vname\^
is a name reference.
.TP
\f3${!\fP\f2vname\^\fP\f3[\f2subscript\^\f3]}\fP
Expands to name of the subscript unless
.I subscript\^
is
.BR * ,
.BR @ .
or of the form
.I sub1\^
.B ..
.IR sub2 .
When
.I subscript\^
is
.BR * ,
the list of array subscripts for \f2vname\^\fP
is generated.
For a variable that is not an array, the value is 0 if the variable
is set.  Otherwise it is null.
When
.I subscript\^
is
.BR @ ,
same as above, except that when used in double quotes,
each array subscript yields a separate
argument.
When
.I subscript\^
is of the form
.I sub1\^
.B ..
.I sub2\^
it expands
to the list of subscripts between
.I sub1\^
and
.I sub2\^
inclusive using the same quoting rules as
.BR @ .
.TP
\f3${!\fP\f2prefix\^\fP\f3*}\fP
Expands to the names of the variables whose names begin with
.IR prefix .
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3:\-\fP\f2word\^\fP\f3}\fP
If
.I parameter\^
is set and is non-null then substitute its value;
otherwise substitute
.IR word .
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3:=\fP\f2word\^\fP\f3}\fP
If
.I parameter\^
is not set or is null then set it to
.IR word ;
the value of the parameter is then substituted.
Positional parameters may not be assigned to
in this way.
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3:?\fP\f2word\^\fP\f3}\fP
If
.I parameter\^
is set and is non-null then substitute its value;
otherwise, print
.I word\^
and exit from the shell (if not interactive).
If
.I word\^
is omitted then a standard message is printed.
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3:+\fP\f2word\^\fP\f3}\fP
If
.I parameter\^
is set and is non-null then substitute
.IR word ;
otherwise substitute nothing.
.PP
In the above,
.I word\^
is not evaluated unless it is
to be used as the substituted string,
so that, in the following example,
.B pwd
is executed only if
.B d
is not set or is null:
.PP
.RS
print \|${d:\-\^$(\^pwd\^)\^}
.RE
.PP
If the colon (
.B : )
is omitted from the above expressions,
then the shell only checks whether
.I parameter\^
is set or not.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3:\fP\f2offset\^\fP\f3:\fP\f2length\^\fP\f3}\fP
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3:\fP\f2offset\^\fP\f3}\fP
Expands to the portion of the value of
.I parameter\^
starting at the character (counting from
.BR 0\^ )
determined by expanding
.I offset\^
as an arithmetic expression and consisting of the
number of characters determined by the arithmetic expression
defined by
.IR length.
In the second form, the remainder of the value is used.
If
A negative
.I offset\^
counts backwards from the end of
.IR parameter .
Note that one or more
.IR blank s
is required in front of a minus sign
to prevent the shell from interpreting the operator as
.BR :\- .
If
.I parameter\^
is
.B \(**
or
.BR @ ,
or is an array name indexed by
.B \(**
or
.BR @ ,
then
.I offset\^
and
.I length\^
refer to the array index and number
of elements respectively.
A negative
.I offset\^
is taken relative to one greater than the highest subscript
for indexed arrays.
The order for associate arrays is unspecified.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3#\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3}\fP
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3##\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3}\fP
.PD
If
the shell
.I pattern\^
matches the beginning of the value of
.IR parameter ,
then the value of
this expansion is the value of the
.I parameter\^
with the matched portion deleted;
otherwise the value of this
.I parameter\^
is substituted.
In the first form the smallest matching pattern is deleted and in the
second form the largest matching pattern is deleted.
When
.I parameter\^
is
.BR @ ,
.BR * ,
or an array variable with subscript
.B @
or
.BR * ,
the substring operation is applied to each element in turn.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3%\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3}\fP
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3%%\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3}\fP
.PD
If
the shell
.I pattern\^
matches the end of the value of
.IR parameter ,
then the value of
this expansion is the value of the
.I parameter\^
with the matched part deleted;
otherwise substitute the value of
.IR parameter .
In the first form the smallest matching pattern is deleted and in the
second form the largest matching pattern is deleted.
When
.I parameter\^
is
.BR @ ,
.BR * ,
or an array variable with subscript
.B @
or
.BR * ,
the substring operation is applied to each element in turn.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3/\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3/\f2string\^\fP\f3}\fP
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3//\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3/\f2string\^\fP\f3}\fP
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3/#\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3/\f2string\^\fP\f3}\fP
.TP
\f3${\fP\f2parameter\^\fP\f3/%\fP\f2pattern\^\fP\f3/\f2string\^\fP\f3}\fP
.PD
Expands
.I parameter\^
and replaces the longest match of
.I pattern\^
with the given
.IR string.
Each occurrence of \f3\e\fP\f2n\^\fP in
.I string
is replaced by the portion of \f2parameter\^\fP
that matches the \f2n\^\fP-th sub-pattern.
In the first form,
only the first occurrence of
.I pattern\^
is replaced.
In the second form,
each match for
.I pattern\^
is replaced by the given
.IR string.
The third form restricts the pattern match to the beginning of the string
while the fourth form restricts the pattern match to the end of
the string.
When
.I string\^
is null, the
.I pattern\^
will be deleted and the
.B /
in front of
.I string\^
may be omitted.
When
.I parameter\^
is
.BR @ ,
.BR * ,
or an array variable with subscript
.B @
or
.BR * ,
the substitution operation is applied to each element in turn.
In this case, the
.I string\^
portion of
.I word\^
will be re-evaluated for each element.
.PP
The following
parameters
are automatically set by the shell:
.RS
.PD 0
.TP
.B #
The number of positional parameters in decimal.
.TP
.B \-
Options supplied to the shell on invocation or by
the
.B set
command.
.TP
.B ?
The decimal value returned by the last executed command.
.TP
.B $
The process number of this shell.
.TP
.B _
Initially, the value of
.B _
is an absolute pathname of the shell or script being executed
as passed in the
.IR environment .
Subsequently it is assigned the last argument of the previous command.
This parameter is not set for commands which are asynchronous.
This parameter is also used to hold the name of the matching
.B
.SM MAIL
file when checking for mail.
While defining a compound variable or a type,
.B _
is initialized as a reference to the compound variable or type.
When a discipline function is invoked,
.B _
is initialized as a reference to the variable associated with
the call to this function.
Finally when
.B _
is used as the name of the first variable of a type definition,
the new type is derived from the type of the first variable (See
.I "Type Variables"\^
below.).
.TP
.B !
The process id or the pool name and job number of the last background command
invoked or the most recent job put in the background with the
.B bg
built-in command.
Background jobs started in a named pool will be in the form
.IB pool . number
where
.I pool\^
is the pool name and
.I number\^
is the job number within that pool.
.TP
.B .sh.command
When processing a
.SM
.B DEBUG
trap, this variable contains the current command line
that is about to run.
.TP
.B .sh.edchar
This variable contains the value of the keyboard character
(or sequence of characters if the first character is an ESC, ascii
.BR 033\^ )
that has
been entered when processing a
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap
(see
.I "Key Bindings\^"
below).
If the value is changed as part of the trap action, then the new
value replaces the key (or key sequence) that caused the trap.
.TP
.B .sh.edcol
The character position of the cursor at the time of the most recent
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap.
.TP
.B .sh.edmode
The value is set to ESC when processing a
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap while in
.B vi
insert mode.  (See
.I "Vi Editing Mode"\^
below.)
Otherwise,
.B .sh.edmode
is null when processing a
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap.
.TP
.B .sh.edtext
The characters in the input buffer at the time of the most recent
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap.
The value is null when not processing a
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap.
.TP
.B .sh.file
The pathname of the file than contains the current command.
.TP
.B .sh.fun
The name of the current function that is being executed.
.TP
.B .sh.level
Set to the current function depth.  This can be changed
inside a DEBUG trap and will set the context to the specified
level.
.TP
.B .sh.lineno
Set during a DEBUG trap to the line number for the caller of
each function.
.TP
.B .sh.match
An indexed array which stores the most recent match and sub-pattern
matches after conditional pattern matches that match and after
variables expansions using the operators
.BR # ,
.BR % ,
or
.BR / .
The
.BR 0 -th
element stores the complete match and the
.IR i\^ -th.
element stores the
.IR i\^ -th
submatch.
The
.B .sh.match
variable
becomes unset when the variable that has expanded
is assigned a new value.
.TP
.B .sh.math
Used for defining arithmetic functions
(see
.I "Arithmetic evaluation"
below).
and stores the list of user defined arithmetic functions.
.TP
.B .sh.name
Set to the name of the variable at the time that a
discipline function is invoked.
.TP
.B .sh.subscript
Set to the name subscript of the variable at the time that a
discipline function is invoked.
.TP
.B .sh.subshell
The current depth for subshells and command substitution.
.TP
.B .sh.value
Set to the value of the variable at the time that the
.B set
or
.B append
discipline function is invoked.
When a user defined arithmetic function is invoked, the value
of
.B .sh.value
is saved and
.B .sh.value
is set to long double precision floating point.
.B .sh.value
is restored when the function returns.
.TP
.B .sh.version
Set to a value that identifies the version of this shell.
.TP
.B
.SM KSH_VERSION
A name reference to
.BR .sh.version .
.TP
.B
.SM LINENO
The current line number within the script or
function being executed.
.TP
.B
.SM OLDPWD
The previous working directory set by the
.B cd
command.
.TP
.B
.SM OPTARG
The value of the last option argument processed by the
.B getopts
built-in command.
.TP
.B
.SM OPTIND
The index of the last option argument processed by the
.B getopts
built-in command.
.TP
.B
.SM PPID
The process number of the parent of the shell.
.TP
.B
.SM PWD
The present working directory set by the
.B cd
command.
.TP
.B
.SM RANDOM
Each time this variable is referenced, a random integer,
uniformly distributed between 0 and 32767, is generated.
The sequence of random numbers can be initialized by assigning
a numeric value to
.SM
.BR RANDOM .
.TP
.B
.SM REPLY
This variable is set by the
.B select
statement and by
the
.B read
built-in command when no arguments are supplied.
.TP
.B
.SM SECONDS
Each time this variable is referenced, the number of
seconds since shell invocation is returned.
If this variable is
assigned a value, then the value returned upon reference will
be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment.
.TP
.SM
.B SHLVL
An integer variable the is incremented each time the shell
is invoked and is exported.
If
.SM
.B SHLVL
is not in the environment when the shell is invoked, it is set
to 1.
.PD
.RE
.PP
The following
variables
are used by the shell:
.RS
.PD 0
.TP
.B
.SM CDPATH
The search path for the
.B cd
command.
.TP
.B
.SM COLUMNS
If this variable is set,
the value is used to define the width of the edit window
for the shell edit modes and for printing
.B select
lists.
.TP
.B
.SM EDITOR
If the
.B
.SM VISUAL
variable is not set,
the value of this variable will be checked for the patterns
as described with
.B
.SM VISUAL
below and the corresponding editing option
(see Special Command
.B set
below)
will be turned on.
.TP
.SM
.B ENV
If this variable is set, then
parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution
are performed on
the value to generate
the pathname of the script that will be
executed when the shell
is invoked interactively
(see
.I Invocation\^
below).
This file is typically used for
.B alias
and
.B function
definitions.
The default value is \fB$HOME/.kshrc\fP.
On systems that support a system wide  \fB/etc/ksh.kshrc\fP initialization file,
if the filename generated by the expansion of
.SM
.B ENV
begins with
.B /./
or
.B .\^/.\^/
the system wide initialization file will not be executed.
.TP
.B
.SM FCEDIT
Obsolete name for
the default editor name for the
.B hist
command.
.B
.SM FCEDIT
is not used when
.B
.SM HISTEDIT
is set.
.TP
.SM
.B FIGNORE
A pattern that defines the set of filenames that will be
ignored when performing filename matching.
.TP
.SM
.B FPATH
The search path for function definitions.
The directories in this path are searched for a file with the same name
as the function or command when a function with the
.B \-u
attribute is referenced and when a command is not found.
If an executable file with the name of that command is found,
then it is read and executed
in the current environment.
Unlike
.SM
.BR PATH ,
the current directory must be represented
explicitly by
.B .
rather than by adjacent
.B :
characters or a beginning or ending
.BR : .
.TP
.B
.SM HISTCMD
Number of the current command in the history file.
.TP
.B
.SM HISTEDIT
Name for
the default editor name for the
.B hist
command.
.TP
.SM
.B HISTFILE
If this variable is set when the shell is invoked, then
the value is the pathname of the file that will be
used to store the command history (see
.I "Command Re-entry\^"
below).
.TP
.SM
.B HISTSIZE
If this variable is set when the shell is invoked, then
the number of previously entered commands that
are accessible by this shell
will be greater than or equal to this number.
The default is 512.
.TP
.B
.SM HOME
The default argument (home directory) for the
.B cd
command.
.TP
.SM
.B IFS
Internal field separators,
normally
.BR space ,
.BR tab ,
and
.B new-line
that are used to separate the results of
command substitution or parameter expansion
and to separate fields with the built-in command
.BR read .
The first character of the
.SM
.B IFS
variable is used to separate arguments for the
.B
"$\(**"
substitution (see
.I Quoting
below).
Each single occurrence of
an
.SM
.B IFS
character in the string to be split,
that is not in the \f2isspace\^\fP character class, and any
adjacent characters in
.SM
.B IFS
that are in the \f2isspace\^\fP character class, delimit a field.
One or more
characters in
.SM
.B IFS
that belong to the \f2isspace\^\fP character class,
delimit a field.
In addition, if the same \f2isspace\^\fP character appears
consecutively inside
.SM
.BR IFS ,
this character is treated as if it were not in the \f2isspace\^\fP
class, so that if
.SM
.BR IFS
consists of two
.B tab
characters,
then two adjacent
.B tab
characters delimit a null field.
.TP
.B
.SM JOBMAX
This variable defines the maximum number running background jobs
that can run at a time.  When this limit is reached, the
shell will wait for a job to complete before staring a new job.
.TP
.B
.SM LANG
This variable determines the locale category for any
category not specifically selected with a variable
starting with
.B
.SM LC_
or
.SM
.BR LANG .
.TP
.B
.SM LC_ALL
This variable overrides the value of the
.B
.SM LANG
variable and any other
.B
.SM LC_
variable.
.TP
.B
.SM LC_COLLATE
This variable determines the locale category for character
collation information.
.TP
.B
.SM LC_CTYPE
This variable determines the locale category for character
handling functions.
It determines the character classes for pattern matching (see
.I "File Name Generation\^"
below).
.TP
.B
.SM LC_NUMERIC
This variable determines the locale category for the
decimal point character.
.TP
.B
.SM LINES
If this variable is set,
the value is used to determine the column length for printing
.B select
lists.
Select lists will print vertically until about two-thirds of
.B
.SM LINES
lines are filled.
.TP
.B
.SM MAIL
If this variable is set to the name of a mail file
.I and\^
the
.B
.SM MAILPATH
variable is not set,
then the shell informs the user of arrival of mail
in the specified file.
.TP
.B
.SM MAILCHECK
This variable specifies how often (in seconds) the
shell will check for changes in the modification time
of any of the files specified by the
.B
.SM MAILPATH
or
.B
.SM MAIL
variables.
The default value is 600 seconds.
When the time has elapsed
the shell will check before issuing the next prompt.
.TP
.B
.SM MAILPATH
A colon (
.B :
)
separated list of file names.
If this variable is set,
then the shell informs the user of
any modifications to the specified files
that have occurred within the last
.B
.SM MAILCHECK
seconds.
Each file name can be followed by a
.B ?
and a message that will be printed.
The message will undergo parameter expansion, command substitution,
and arithmetic substitution
with the variable
.B $_
defined as the name of the file that has changed.
The default message is
.I you have mail in $_\^.
.TP
.B
.SM PATH
The search path for commands (see
.I Execution\^
below).
The user may not change
.B \s-1PATH\s+1
if executing under
.if \nZ=0 .B rsh
.if \nZ=1 .B rksh
.if \nZ=2 .B rksh93
(except in
.BR .profile\^).
.TP
.SM
.B PS1
The value of this variable is expanded for parameter
expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution to define the
primary prompt string which by default is
.RB `` "$\|\|\|" ''.
The character
.B !
in the primary prompt string is replaced by the
.I command\^
number (see
.I "Command Re-entry\^"
below).
Two successive occurrences of
.B !
will produce a single
.B !
when the prompt string is printed.
.TP
.SM
.B PS2
Secondary prompt string, by default
.RB `` "> \|" ''.
.TP
.SM
.B PS3
Selection prompt string
used within a
.B select
loop, by default
.RB `` "#? \|" ''.
.TP
.SM
.B PS4
The value of this variable is expanded for parameter evaluation,
command substitution, and arithmetic substitution
and precedes each line of an execution trace.
By default,
.SM
.B PS4
is
.RB `` "+ \|" ''.
In addition
when
.SM
.B PS4
is unset,
the execution trace prompt is also
.RB `` "+ \|" ''.
.TP
.SM
.B SHELL
The pathname of the
.I shell\^
is kept in the environment.
At invocation, if the basename of this variable is
.BR rsh ,
.BR rksh ,
or
.BR krsh ,
then the shell becomes restricted.
If it is
.BR pfsh
or
.BR pfksh ,
then the shell becomes a profile shell (see
.IR pfexec (1)).
.TP
.SM
.B TIMEFORMAT
The value of this parameter is used as a format string specifying
how the timing information for pipelines prefixed with the
.B time
reserved word should be displayed.
The \fB%\fP character introduces a format sequence that is
expanded to a time value or other information.
The format sequences and their meanings are as follows.
.sp .5
.RS
.PD 0
.TP 10
.B %%
A literal \fB%\fP.
.TP
.B %[\fIp\fP][l]R
The elapsed time in seconds.
.TP
.B %[\fIp\fP][l]U
The number of CPU seconds spent in user mode.
.TP
.B %[\fIp\fP][l]S
The number of CPU seconds spent in system mode.
.TP
.B %P
The CPU percentage, computed as (U + S) / R.
.PD
.RE
.IP
The brackets denote optional portions.
The optional \fIp\fP is a digit specifying the \fIprecision\fP,
the number of fractional digits after a decimal point.
A value of 0 causes no decimal point or fraction to be output.
At most three places after the decimal point can be displayed;
values of \fIp\fP greater than 3 are treated as 3.
If \fIp\fP is not specified, the value 3 is used.
.IP
The optional \fBl\fP specifies a longer format, including
hours if greater than zero,
minutes, and seconds of the form \fIHH\fPh\fIMM\fPm\fISS\fP.\fIFF\fPs.
The value of \fIp\fP determines whether or not the fraction is
included.
.IP
All other characters are output without change and a trailing
newline is added.
If unset, the default value, \fB$'\enreal\et%2lR\enuser\et%2lU\ensys\t%2lS'\fP,
is used.  If the value is null, no timing information is displayed.
.TP
.B
.SM TMOUT
If set to a value greater than zero,
.B
.SM TMOUT
will be the default timeout value for the
.B read
built-in command.
The
.B select
compound command terminates after
.B
.SM TMOUT
seconds when input is from a terminal.
Otherwise,
the shell will terminate if a line is not entered within
the prescribed number of seconds while reading from a terminal.
(Note that the shell can be compiled with a maximum bound
for this value which cannot be exceeded.)
.TP
.B
.SM VISUAL
If the value of this variable matches the pattern
.IR *[Vv][Ii]* ,
then the
.B vi
option
(see Special Command
.B set
below)
is turned on.
If the value matches the pattern
.I *gmacs* ,
the
.B gmacs
option is turned on.
If the value matches the pattern
.IR *macs* ,
then the
.B emacs
option
will be turned on.
The value of
.B
.SM VISUAL
overrides the value of
.B
.SM EDITOR.
.PD
.RE
.PP
The shell gives default values to
\f3\s-1PATH\s+1\fP, \f3\s-1PS1\s+1\fP, \f3\s-1PS2\s+1\fP,
\f3\s-1PS3\s+1\fP, \f3\s-1PS4\s+1\fP, \f3\s-1MAILCHECK\s+1\fP, \f3\s-1FCEDIT\s+1\fP,
\f3\s-1TMOUT\s+1\fP and \f3\s-1IFS\s+1\fP,
while
.SM
.BR HOME ,
.SM
.BR SHELL ,
.SM
.BR ENV ,
and
.SM
.B MAIL
are
not set at all by the shell (although
.SM
.B HOME
.I is\^
set by
.IR login (1)).
On some systems
.SM
.B MAIL
and
.SM
.B SHELL
are also
set by
.IR login (1).
.SS Field Splitting.
After parameter expansion and command substitution,
the results of substitutions are scanned for the field separator
characters (those found in
.SM
.B IFS\^\c
)
and split into distinct fields where such characters are found.
Explicit null fields (\^\f3"\^"\fP or \f3\(fm\^\(fm\fP\^) are retained.
Implicit null fields
(those resulting from
.I parameters\^
that have no values or command substitutions with no output) are removed.
.PP
If the
.B braceexpand
.RB ( \-B )
option is set then each of the fields resulting from
.SM
.B IFS
are checked to see if they contain one or more of the brace patterns
.BR {*,*} ,
.BI { l1 .. l2 }
,
.BI { n1 .. n2 }
,
.BI { n1 .. n2 %
.IB fmt }
,
.BI { n1 .. n2
.BI  .. n3 }
, or
.BI { n1 .. n2
.BI  .. n3 % fmt }
, where
.B *
represents any character,
.IR l1\^ , l2\^
are letters and
.IR n1\^ , n2\^ , n3\^
are signed numbers and
.I fmt\^
is a format specified as used by
.BR printf .
In each case, fields are created
by prepending the characters before the
.B {
and appending the characters after the
.B }
to each of the strings generated by the characters between
the
.B {
and
.BR } .
The resulting fields are checked to see if they have any
brace patterns.
.PP
In the first form, a field is created for each string between
.BR {
and
.BR , ,
between
.BR ,
and
.BR , ,
and between
.BR ,
and
.BR } .
The string represented by
.B *
can contain embedded matching
.B {
and
.B }
without quoting.
Otherwise, each
.B {
and
.B }
with
.B *
must be quoted.
.PP
In the seconds form,
.I l1\^
and
.I l2\^
must both be either upper case or both be lower case characters
in the C locale.  In this case a field is created for each character
from
.I l1\^
thru
.IR l2\^ .
.PP
In the remaining forms, a field is created for each number starting at
.I n1\^
and continuing until it reaches
.I n2\^
incrementing
.I n1\^
by
.IR n3\^ .
The cases where
.I n3\^
is not specified behave as if
.I n3\^
where
.B 1
if
.IB n1 <= n2
and
.B \-1
otherwise.
If forms which specify
.BI % fmt\^
any format flags, widths and precisions can be specified
and
.I fmt\^
can end in any of the specifiers
.BR cdiouxX .
For example,
.B {a,z}{1..5..3%02d}{b..c}x
expands to the 8 fields,
.BR a01bx ,
.BR a01cx ,
.BR a04bx ,
.BR a04cx ,
.BR z01bx ,
.BR z01cx ,
.B z04bx
and
.BR z4cx .
.SS File Name Generation.
Following splitting, each field is scanned for the characters
.BR \(** ,
.BR ? ,
.BR ( ,
and
.B \*(OK\^
unless the
.B \-f
option has been set.
If one of these characters appears,
then the word is regarded as a
.IR pattern .
Each file name component that contains any pattern character
is replaced with a lexicographically sorted set of names
that matches the pattern
from
that directory.
If no file name is found that matches the pattern, then
that component of the filename is left unchanged unless
the pattern is prefixed with
.B \(ap(N)\fP
in which case it is removed as described below.
If
.SM
.B FIGNORE
is set,
then each file name component
that matches the pattern defined by the value of
.SM
.B FIGNORE
is ignored when generating the matching filenames.
The names
.B .
and
.B ..
are also ignored.
If
.SM
.B FIGNORE
is not set,
the character
.B .
at the start of each file name component
will be ignored unless the first character of the pattern
corresponding to this component is the character
.BR .
itself.
Note, that for other
uses of pattern matching the
.B /
and
.B .
are not treated specially.
.PP
.PD 0
.RS
.TP
.B \(**
Matches any string, including the null string.
When used for filename expansion,
if the
.B globstar
option is on, two adjacent
.BR \(** 's
by itself
will match all files and zero or more directories
and subdirectories.
If followed by a
.B /
then only directories and subdirectories will match.
.TP
.B ?
Matches any single character.
.TP
.BR \*(OK \^.\|.\|.\^ \*(CK
Matches any one of the enclosed characters.
A pair of characters separated by
.B \-
matches any
character lexically between the pair, inclusive.
If the first character following the opening
.B \*(OK\^
is a
.B !
or
.B ^
then any character not enclosed is matched.
A
.B \-
can be included in the character set by putting it as the
first or last character.
.br
Within
.B \*(OK\^
and
.BR \*(CK\^ ,
character classes can be specified with the syntax
\f3[:\fP\f2class\fP\f3:]\fP
where class is one of the following classes defined in the ANSI-C standard:
(Note that \f3word\fP is equivalent to \f3alnum\fP plus the character \f3_\fP.)
.br
.B
.if n alnum alpha blank cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper word xdigit
.if t alnum   alpha   blank   cntrl   digit   graph   lower   print   punct   space   upper   word    xdigit
.br
Within
.B \*(OK\^
and
.BR \*(CK\^ ,
an equivalence class can be specified with the syntax
\f3[=\fP\f2c\fP\f3=]\fP
which matches all characters with the same primary
collation weight (as defined by the current locale) as
the character \f2c\fP.
Within
.B \*(OK\^
and
.BR \*(CK\^ ,
\f3[.\fP\f2symbol\fP\f3.]\fP
matches the collating symbol \f2symbol\fP.
.RE
.PD
A
.I pattern-list
is a list of one or more patterns separated from each other
with a
.B &
or
.BR \(bv .
A
.B &
signifies that all patterns must be matched whereas
.BR \(bv
requires that only one pattern be matched.
Composite patterns can be formed with one or more of the following sub-patterns:
.PD 0
.RS
.TP
\f3?(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Optionally matches any one of the given patterns.
.TP
\f3*(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Matches zero or more occurrences of the given patterns.
.TP
\f3+(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Matches one or more occurrences of the given patterns.
.TP
\f3{\fP\f2n\^\fP\f3}\fP(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Matches \f2n\^\fP occurrences of the given patterns.
.TP
\f3{\fP\f2m\^\fP\f3,\fP\f2n\^\fP\f3}\fP(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Matches from \f2m\^\fP to \f2n\^\fP occurrences of the given patterns.
If \f2m\^\fP is omitted, \f30\fP will be used.  If \f2n\^\fP
is omitted at least \f2m\^\fP occurrences will be matched.
.TP
\f3\&@\&(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Matches exactly one of the given patterns.
.br
.TP
\f3!(\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP
Matches anything except one of the given patterns.
.PD
.RE
By default, each pattern, or sub-pattern will match the
longest string possible consistent with generating
the longest overall match.  If more than one match is
possible, the one starting closest to the beginning
of the string will be chosen.   However, for each of the above
compound patterns a \f3\-\fP can be inserted in front of the \f3(\fP
to cause the shortest match to the specified \f2pattern-list\^\fP
to be used.
.PP
When \f2pattern-list\^\fP is contained within parentheses,
the backslash character \f3\e\fP is treated specially even
when inside a character class.   All ANSI-C character escapes are
recognized and match the specified character.  In addition
the following escape sequences are recognized:
.PD 0
.RS
.TP
.B \ed
Matches any character in the \f3digit\fP class.
.TP
.B \eD
Matches any character not in the \f3digit\fP class.
.TP
.B \es
Matches any character in the \f3space\fP class.
.TP
.B \eS
Matches any character not in the \f3space\fP class.
.TP
.B \ew
Matches any character in the \f3word\fP class.
.TP
.B \eW
Matches any character not in the \f3word\fP class.
.PD
.RE
.PP
A pattern of the form
\f3%(\fP\f2pattern-pair\^\fP(s)\f3)\fP
is a sub-pattern that
can be used to match nested character expressions.
Each
.I pattern-pair\^
is a two character sequence which cannot contain
.B &
or
.BR \(bv .
The first
.I pattern-pair\^
specifies the starting and ending characters for the match.
Each subsequent
.I pattern-pair\^
represents the beginning and ending characters of a nested group that
will be skipped over when counting starting and ending character matches.
The behavior is unspecified when the first character of a
.I pattern-pair\^
is alpha-numeric
except for the following:
.PD 0
.RS
.TP
.B D
Causes the ending character to terminate the search for this pattern without
finding a match.
.TP
.B E
Causes the ending character to be interpreted as an escape character.
.TP
.B L
Causes the ending character to be interpreted as a quote character
causing all characters to be ignored when looking for a match.
.TP
.B Q
Causes the ending character to be interpreted as a quote character
causing all characters other than any escape character to be ignored
when looking for a match.
.PD
.RE
Thus,
\f3%(\^{\^}Q"E\e\^)\fP,
matches characters starting at
.B {
until the matching
.B }
is found not counting any
.B {
or
.B }
that is inside a double quoted string or preceded by the escape character
.BR \e .
Without the
.B {\^}
this pattern matches any C language string.
.PP
Each sub-pattern in a composite pattern is numbered,
starting at 1, by the location of the \f3(\fP within
the pattern.
The sequence \f3\e\fP\f2n\^\fP, where \f2n\^\fP
is a single digit and \f3\e\fP\f2n\^\fP comes after
the \f2n\fP-th. sub-pattern,
matches the same string as the sub-pattern itself.
.PP
Finally a pattern can contain sub-patterns of the form
\f3\(ap(\fP\f2options\^\fP\f3:\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP\f3)\fP,
where either \f2options\^\fP or \f3:\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP
can be omitted.  Unlike the other compound patterns,
these sub-patterns are not counted in the numbered sub-patterns.
\f3:\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP must be omitted for options
.BR F ,
.BR G ,
.B N ,
and
.B V
below.
If \f2options\^\fP is present, it can consist of one or more
of the following:
.PD 0
.RS
.TP
.B +
Enable the following options.  This is the default.
.TP
.B \-
Disable the following options.
.TP
.B E
The remainder of the pattern uses extended regular expression syntax
like the
.IR egrep (1)
command.
.TP
.B F
The remainder of the pattern uses
.IR fgrep (1)
expression syntax.
.TP
.B G
The remainder of the pattern uses basic regular expression syntax
like the
.IR grep (1)
command.
.TP
.B K
The remainder of the pattern uses shell pattern syntax.
This is the default.
.TP
.B N
This is ignored.  However, when it is the first letter and is
used with file name generation, and no matches occur,
the file pattern expands to the empty string.
.TP
.B X
The remainder of the pattern uses augmented regular expression syntax
like the
.IR xgrep (1)
command.
.TP
.B P
The remainder of the pattern uses
.IR perl (1)
regular expression syntax.  Not all perl regular expression syntax is
currently implemented.
.TP
.B V
The remainder of the pattern uses System V regular expression syntax.
.TP
.B i
Treat the match as case insensitive.
.TP
.B g
File the longest match (greedy).  This is the default.
.TP
.B l
Left anchor the pattern.  This is the default for
.B K
style patterns.
.TP
.B r
Right anchor the pattern.  This is the default for
.B K
style patterns.
.PD
.RE
If both \f2options\^\fP and \f3:\fP\f2pattern-list\^\fP
are specified, then the options apply only to  \f2pattern-list\^\fP.
Otherwise, these options remain in effect until they are disabled
by a subsequent \f3\(ap(\fP\f2...\^\fP\f3)\fP or at the end of
the sub-pattern containing \f3\(ap(\fP\f2...\^\fP\f3)\fP.
.SS Quoting.
Each of the
.I metacharacters\^
listed earlier (see
.I Definitions\^
above)
has a special meaning to the shell
and causes termination of a word unless quoted.
A character may be
.I quoted\^
(i.e., made to stand for itself)
by preceding
it with a
.BR \e .
The pair
.B \enew-line
is removed.
All characters enclosed between a pair of single quote marks
(\^\f3\(fm\^\(fm\fP\^)
that is not preceded by a
.B $
are quoted.
A single quote cannot appear within the single quotes.
A single quoted string preceded by an unquoted
.B $
is processed as an ANSI-C string
except for the following:
.PD 0
.TP
.B \e0
Causes the remainder of the string to be ignored.
.TP
.B \eE
Equivalent to the escape character
(ascii
.BR 033 ),
.TP
.B \ee
Equivalent to the escape character
(ascii
.BR 033 ),
.TP
.BI \ec x
Expands to the character control-\f2x\fP.
.TP
.BI \eC[. name .]
Expands to the collating element \f2name\fP.
.PD
.PP
Inside double quote marks
(\f3"\^"\fP),
parameter and command substitution occur and
.B \e
quotes the characters
.BR \e ,
.BR \*` ,
\f3"\fP,
and
.BR $ .
A
.B $
in front of a double quoted string will be ignored
in the "C" or "POSIX" locale, and may cause
the string to be replaced by a locale specific string otherwise.
The meaning of
.B "$\(**"
and
.B "$@"
is identical when not quoted or when used as a variable assignment value
or as a file name.
However, when used as a command argument,
.B
"$\(**"
is equivalent to
\f3"$1\fP\f2d\fP\f3\|$2\fP\f2d\fP\|.\|.\|.\f3"\fP,
where
.I d
is the first character of the
.SM
.B IFS
variable, whereas
.B
"$@"
is equivalent to
.B
"$1"\|
.B
"$2"\|
\&.\|.\|.\^.
Inside grave quote marks
(\f3\*`\^\*`\fP),
.B \e
quotes the characters
.BR \e ,
.BR \*` ,
and
.BR $ .
If the grave quotes occur within double quotes, then
.B \e
also quotes the character
\f3"\fP.
.PP
The special meaning of reserved words or aliases can be removed by quoting any
character of the reserved word.
The recognition of function names or built-in command names listed below
cannot be altered by quoting them.
.SS Arithmetic Evaluation.
The shell performs arithmetic evaluation for
arithmetic substitution, to evaluate an arithmetic command,
to evaluate an indexed array subscript,
and to evaluate arguments to
the built-in commands
.B shift\^
and
.BR let .
Evaluations are performed using
double precision floating point
arithmetic or long double precision floating point for
systems that provide this data type.
Floating point constants follow the ANSI-C programming language
floating point conventions.
The floating point constants
.B Nan
and
.B Inf
can be use to represent "not a number" and infinity respectively.
Integer constants follow the ANSI-C programming language
integer constant conventions although only single byte
character constants are recognized and character casts
are not recognized.
In addition constants can be of the form
\*(OK\f2base\f3#\^\f1\*(CK\f2n\^\fP
where
.I base\^
is a decimal number between two and sixty-four
representing the arithmetic base
and
.I n\^
is a number in that base.
The digits above 9 are represented
by the lower case letters, the upper case letters,
.BR @ ,
and
.B _
respectively.
For bases less than or equal to 36, upper and lower case
characters can be used interchangeably.
.PP
An arithmetic expression uses the same syntax, precedence, and
associativity of
expression as the C language.
All the C language operators
that apply to floating point quantities can be used.
In addition, the operator
.B **
can be used for exponentiation.
It has higher precedence than multiplication and is left associative.
In addition, when the value of an arithmetic variable
or sub-expression can be represented as a long integer,
all C language integer arithmetic operations can be performed.
Variables can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression
without using the parameter expansion syntax.
When a variable is referenced, its value is evaluated as
an arithmetic expression.
.PP
Any of the following math library functions that are in the C math library
can be used within an arithmetic expression:
.PP
.if t .RS
.B
.if n abs acos acosh asin asinh atan atan2 atanh cbrt ceil copysign cos cosh erf erfc exp exp2 expm1 fabs fpclassify fdim finite floor fma fmax fmin fmod hypot ilogb int isfinite sinf isnan isnormal issubnormal issubordered iszero j0 j1 jn lgamma log log10 log2 logb nearbyint nextafter nexttoward pow remainder rint round scanb signbit sin sinh sqrt tan tanh tgamma trunc y0 y1 yn
.if t abs   acos   acosh   asin   asinh   atan   atan2   atanh   cbrt   ceil copysign   cos   cosh   erf  erfc   exp   exp2   expm1   fabs   fpclassify fdim   finite   floor  fma   fmax   fmod   j0      j1      jn      hypot   ilogb   int   isfinite   isinf   isnan   isnormal  issubnormal   issubordered   iszero lgamma   log   log10 log2   logb   nearbyint   nextafter   nexttoward  pow   rint   round   scalb   signbit sin   sinh   sqrt   tan   tanh   tgamma   trunc   y0      y1      yn
.if t .RE
In addition, arithmetic functions can be define as shell functions with a
variant of the
.B function
.I name\^
syntax,
.TP
.PD 0
\f3function .sh.math.\fP\f2name ident\^\fP ... \f3{\fP \f2list\^\fP \f3;}\fP
.PD
where
.I name\^
is the function name used in the arithmetic expression and each identifier,
.I ident\^
is a name reference to the long double precision floating point argument.
The value of
.B .sh.value
when the function returns is the value of this function.
User defined functions can take up to 3 arguments and override C math library
functions.
.PP
An internal representation of a
.I variable\^
as a double precision floating point can be specified with the
\f3\-E\fP \*(OK\f2n\^\fP\*(CK,
\f3\-F\fP \*(OK\f2n\^\fP\*(CK,
or
\f3\-X\fP \*(OK\f2n\^\fP\*(CK
option of the
.B typeset
special built-in command.
The
.B \-E
option causes the expansion of the value to be represented using
scientific notation when it is expanded.
The optional option argument
.I n
defines the number of significant figures.
The
.B \-F
option causes the expansion to be represented as a floating decimal number
when it is expanded.
The
.B \-X
option cause the expansion to be represented using the
.B %a
format defined by ISO C-99.
The optional option argument
.I n
defines the number of places after the decimal (or radix) point in this case.
.PP
An internal integer representation of a
.I variable\^
can be specified with the
\f3\-i\fP \*(OK\f2n\^\fP\*(CK
option of the
.B typeset
special built-in command.
The optional option argument
.I n
specifies an arithmetic base to be used when expanding the variable.
If you do not specify an arithmetic base,
base 10 will be used.
.PP
Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each
assignment to a variable with the
.BR \-E ,
.BR \-F ,
.BR \-X ,
or
.B \-i
attribute.
Assigning a floating point number to a
variable whose type is an integer causes the fractional
part to be truncated.
.PP
.SS Prompting.
When used interactively,
the shell prompts with the value of
.SM
.B PS1
after expanding it for parameter expansion, command substitution, and
arithmetic substitution,
before reading a command.
In addition, each single
.B !
in the prompt is replaced by the command number.
A
.B !!
is required to place
.B !
in the prompt.
If at any time a new-line is typed and further input is needed
to complete a command, then the secondary prompt
(i.e., the value of
.BR \s-1PS2\s+1 )
is issued.
.SS Conditional Expressions.
A
.I "conditional expression"
is used with the
.B [[
compound command to test attributes of files and to compare
strings.
Field splitting and file name generation are
not performed on the words between
.B [[
and
.BR ]] .
Each expression can be constructed from one or more
of the following unary or binary expressions:
.PD 0
.TP
\f2string\fP
True, if
.I string
is not null.
.TP
\f3\-a\fP \f2file\fP
Same as \f3\-e\fP below.
This is obsolete.
.TP
\f3\-b\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a block special file.
.TP
\f3\-c\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a character special file.
.TP
\f3\-d\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a directory.
.TP
\f3\-e\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists.
.TP
\f3\-f\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is an ordinary file.
.TP
\f3\-g\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and it has its setgid bit set.
.TP
\f3\-k\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and it has its sticky bit set.
.TP
\f3\-n\fP \f2string\fP
True, if length of
.I string\^
is non-zero.
.TP
\f3\-o\fP \f3?\fP\f2option\fP
True, if option named
.I option\^
is a valid option name.
.TP
\f3\-o\fP \f2option\fP
True, if option named
.I option\^
is on.
.TP
\f3\-p\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a fifo special file or a pipe.
.TP
\f3\-r\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is readable by current process.
.TP
\f3\-s\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and has size greater than zero.
.TP
\f3\-t\fP \f2fildes\fP
True, if file descriptor number
.I fildes\^
is open and associated with a terminal device.
.TP
\f3\-u\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and it has its setuid bit set.
.TP
\f3\-v\fP \f2name\fP
True, if variable
.I name\^
is a valid variable name and is set.
.TP
\f3\-w\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is writable by current process.
.TP
\f3\-x\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is executable by current process.
If
.I file\^
exists and is a directory, then true if the current process
has permission to search in the directory.
.TP
\f3\-z\fP \f2string\fP
True, if length of
.I string\^
is zero.
.TP
\f3\-L\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a symbolic link.
.TP
\f3\-h\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a symbolic link.
.TP
\f3\-N\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and the modification time is greater than the last access time.
.TP
\f3\-O\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is owned by the effective user id of this process.
.TP
\f3\-G\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and its group matches the effective group id of this process.
.TP
\f3\-R\fP \f2name\fP
True if variable
.I name\^
is a name reference.
.TP
\f3\-S\fP \f2file\fP
True, if
.I file\^
exists and is a socket.
.TP
\f2file1\fP \f3\-nt\fP \f2file2\fP
True, if
.I file1\^
exists and
.I file2\^
does not, or
.I file1\^
is newer than
.IR file2 .
.TP
\f2file1\fP \f3\-ot\fP \f2file2\fP
True, if
.I file2\^
exists and
.I file1\^
does not, or
.I file1\^
is older than
.IR file2 .
.TP
\f2file1\fP \f3\-ef\fP \f2file2\fP
True, if
.I file1\^
and
.I file2\^
exist and refer to the same file.
.TP
\f2string\fP \f3==\fP \f2pattern\fP
True, if
.I string\^
matches
.IR pattern .
Any part of
.I pattern\^
can be quoted to cause it to be matched as a string.
With a successful match to a pattern, the
.B .sh.match
array variable will contain the match and sub-pattern matches.
.TP
\f2string\fP \f3=\fP \f2pattern\fP
Same as \f3==\fP above, but is obsolete.
.TP
\f2string\fP \f3!=\fP \f2pattern\fP
True, if
.I string\^
does not match
.IR pattern .
When the
.I string\^
matches the
.I pattern\^
the
.B .sh.match
array variable will contain the match and sub-pattern matches.
.TP
\f2string\fP \f3=\(ap\fP \f2ere\fP
True if
.I string\^
matches the pattern
.BI \(ap(E) ere\^
where
.I ere\^
is an extended regular expression.
.TP
\f2string1\fP \f3<\fP \f2string2\fP
True, if
.I string1\^
comes before
.I string2\^
based on ASCII value of their characters.
.TP
\f2string1\fP \f3>\fP \f2string2\fP
True, if
.I string1\^
comes after
.I string2\^
based on ASCII value of their characters.
.PP
The following obsolete arithmetic comparisons are also permitted:
.PD 0
.TP
\f2exp1\fP \f3\-eq\fP \f2exp2\fP
True, if
.I exp1\^
is equal to
.IR exp2 .
.TP
\f2exp1\fP \f3\-ne\fP \f2exp2\fP
True, if
.I exp1\^
is not equal to
.IR exp2 .
.TP
\f2exp1\fP \f3\-lt\fP \f2exp2\fP
True, if
.I exp1\^
is less than
.IR exp2 .
.TP
\f2exp1\fP \f3\-gt\fP \f2exp2\fP
True, if
.I exp1\^
is greater than
.IR exp2 .
.TP
\f2exp1\fP \f3\-le\fP \f2exp2\fP
True, if
.I exp1\^
is less than or equal to
.IR exp2 .
.TP
\f2exp1\fP \f3\-ge\fP \f2exp2\fP
True, if
.I exp1\^
is greater than or equal to
.IR exp2 .
.PD
.PP
In each of the above expressions, if
.I file\^
is of the form
\f3/dev/fd/\fP\f2n\fP,
where
.I n\^
is an integer,
then the test is applied to the open file whose
descriptor number is
.IR n .
.PP
A compound expression can be constructed from these primitives by
using any of the following, listed in decreasing order of precedence.
.PD 0
.TP
\f3(\fP\f2expression\fP\f3)\fP
True, if
.I expression\^
is true.
Used to group expressions.
.TP
\f3!\fP \f2expression\fP
True if
.I expression\^
is false.
.TP
\f2expression1\fP \f3&&\fP \f2expression2\fP
True, if
.I expression1\^
and
.I expression2\^
are both true.
.TP
\f2expression1\fP \f3\(bv\(bv\fP \f2expression2\fP
True, if either
.I expression1\^
or
.I expression2\^
is true.
.PD
.SS Input/Output.
Before a command is executed, its input and output
may be redirected using a special notation interpreted by the shell.
The following may appear anywhere in a simple-command
or may precede or follow a
.I command\^
and are
.I not\^
passed on to the invoked command.
Command substitution, parameter expansion,
and arithmetic substitution occur before
.I word\^
or
.I digit\^
is used except as noted below.
File name generation
occurs only if the shell is interactive and
the pattern matches a single file.
Field splitting is not performed.
.PP
In each of the following redirections, if
.I file\^
is of the form
\f3/dev/sctp/\fP\f2host\fP\f3/\fP\f2port\fP,
\f3/dev/tcp/\fP\f2host\fP\f3/\fP\f2port\fP,
or
\f3/dev/udp/\fP\f2host\fP\f3/\fP\f2port\fP,
where
.I host\^
is a hostname or host address,
and
.I port\^
is a service given by name or an integer port number,
then the redirection attempts to make a
\f3tcp\fP, \f3sctp\fP or \f3udp\fP connection to the corresponding
socket.
.PP
No intervening space is allowed between the characters of redirection operators.
.TP 14
.BI < word
Use file
.I word\^
as standard input (file descriptor 0).
.TP
.BI > word
Use file
.I word\^
as standard output (file descriptor 1).
If the file does not exist then it is created.
If the file exists, and the
.B noclobber
option is on,
this causes an error;
otherwise, it is truncated to zero length.
.TP
.BI >| word
Same as
.BR > ,
except that it overrides the
.B noclobber
option.
.TP
.BI >; word
Write output to a temporary file.  If the command completes
successfully rename it to
.IR word  ,
otherwise, delete the temporary file.
.BI >; word
cannot be used with the
.IR exec (2).
built-in.
.TP
.BI >> word
Use file
.I word\^
as standard output.
If the file exists, then output is appended to it (by first seeking to the end-of-file);
otherwise, the file is created.
.TP
.BI <> word
Open file
.I word\^
for reading and writing
as standard output.
.TP
.BI <>; word
The same as
.BI <> word
except that if the command completes successfully,
.I word\^
is truncated to the offset at command completion.
.BI <>; word
cannot be used with the
.IR exec (2).
built-in.
.TP
\f3<<\fP\*(OK\f3\-\fP\*(CK\f2word\fP
The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as
.IR word
after any quoting has been removed,
or to an end-of-file.
No parameter substitution, command substitution, arithmetic substitution or
file name generation is performed on
.IR word .
The resulting document,
called a
.IR here-document ,
becomes
the standard input.
If any character of
.I word\^
is quoted, then no interpretation
is placed upon the characters of the document;
otherwise, parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic
substitution occur,
.B \enew-line
is ignored,
and
.B \e
must be used to quote the characters
.BR \e ,
.BR $ ,
.BR \*` .
If
.B \-
is appended to
.BR << ,
then all leading tabs are stripped from
.I word\^
and from the document.
If
.B #
is appended to
.BR << ,
then leading spaces and tabs will be stripped off the first
line of the document and up to an equivalent indentation will
be stripped from the remaining lines and from
.IR word .
A tab stop is assumed to occur at every 8 columns for the
purposes of determining the indentation.
.TP
\f3<<<\fP\f2word\fP
A short form of here document in which \f2word\fP becomes the
contents of the here-document after any
parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic
substitution occur.
.TP
.BI <& digit
The standard input is duplicated from file descriptor
.I digit
(see
.IR dup (2)).
Similarly for the standard output using
\f3>&\^\f2digit\fR.
.TP
.BI <& digit \-
The file descriptor given by
.I digit
is moved to standard input.
Similarly for the standard output using
\f3>&\^\f2digit\f3\-\fR.
.TP
.B <&\-
The standard input is closed.
Similarly for the standard output using
.BR >&\- .
.TP
.B <&p
The input from the co-process is moved to standard input.
.TP
.B >&p
The output to the co-process is moved to standard output.
.TP
.BI <# \^\^\^  (( expr ))
Evaluate arithmetic expression
.I expr\^
and position file descriptor 0
to the resulting value
bytes from the start of the file.
The variables
.B CUR
and
.B EOF
evaluate to the current offset and end-of-file offset
respectively when evaluating
.IR expr.
.TP
.BI ># \^\^\^ (( offset ))
The same as
.B <#
except applies to file descriptor 1.
.TP
.BI <# pattern
Seeks forward to the beginning of the next line containing
.IR pattern .
.TP
.BI <## pattern
The same as
.B <#
except that the portion of the file that is skipped is copied to
standard output.
.PP
If one of the above is preceded by a digit,
with no intervening space, then the
file descriptor number referred to is that specified
by the digit
(instead of the default 0 or 1).
If one of the above, other than
.BR >&\-
and the
.B >#
and
.B <#
forms,
is preceded by
.BI { varname }
with no intervening space,
then a file descriptor number > 10
will be selected by
the shell and stored in the variable
.IR varname .
If
.B >&\-
or the any of the
.B >#
and
.B <#
forms
is preceded by
.BI { varname }
the value of
.I varname\^
defines the file descriptor to close or position.
For example:
.PP
.RS
\fB\&.\|.\|. \|2>&1\fR
.RE
.PP
means file descriptor 2 is to be opened
for writing as a duplicate
of file descriptor 1 and
.PP
.RS
\fBexec {n}<file\fR
.RE
.PP
means open file named
.B file
for reading and store
the file descriptor number in variable
.BR n .
.PP
The order in which redirections are specified is significant.
The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the
.RI ( "file descriptor" ", " file )
association at the time of evaluation.
For example:
.PP
.RS
\fB\&.\|.\|. \|1>\f2fname\^\fP 2>&1\fR
.RE
.PP
first associates file descriptor 1 with file
.IR fname\^ .
It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file
descriptor 1 (i.e.
.IR fname\^ ).
If the order of redirections were reversed, file descriptor 2 would be associated
with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor
1 would be associated with file
.IR fname\^ .
.PP
If a command is followed by
.B &
and job control is not active,
then the default standard input
for the command
is the empty file
.BR /dev/null .
Otherwise, the environment for the execution of a command contains the
file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by
input/output specifications.
.SS Environment.
The
.I environment\^
(see
.IR environ (7))
is a list of name-value pairs that is passed to
an executed program in the same way as a normal argument list.
The names must be
.I identifiers\^
and the values are character strings.
The shell interacts with the environment in several ways.
On invocation, the shell scans the environment
and creates a
variable
for each name found,
giving it the corresponding value and attributes and marking it
.IR export .
Executed commands inherit the environment.
If the user modifies the values of these
variables
or creates new ones,
using the
.B export
or
.B typeset \-x
commands, they become part of the
environment.
The environment seen by any executed command is thus composed
of any name-value pairs originally inherited by the shell,
whose values may be modified by the current shell,
plus any additions
which must be noted in
.B export
or
.B typeset \-x
commands.
.PP
The environment for any
.I simple-command\^
or function
may be augmented by prefixing it with one or more variable assignments.
A variable assignment argument is a word of the form
.IR identifier=value .
Thus:
.PP
.RS
\fB\s-1TERM\s+1=450 \|cmd \|args\fR				and
.br
\fB(export \|\s-1TERM\s+1; \|\s-1TERM\s+1=450; \|cmd \|args)\fR
.RE
.PP
are equivalent (as far as the above execution of
.I cmd\^
is concerned except for special built-in commands listed below \-
those that are
preceded with a dagger).
.PP
If the obsolete
.B \-k
option is set,
.I all\^
variable assignment arguments are placed in the environment,
even if they occur after the command name.
The following
first prints
.B "a=b c"
and then
.BR c :
.PP
.RS
.nf
.ft B
echo \|a=b \|c
set \|\-k
echo \|a=b \|c
.ft R
.fi
.RE
This feature is intended for use with scripts written
for early versions of the shell and its use in new scripts
is strongly discouraged.
It is likely to disappear someday.
.SS Functions.
.PP
For historical reasons, there are two
ways to define functions,
the
.IB name (\^)
syntax and
the
.B function
.I name\^
syntax, described in the
.I Commands
section above.
Shell functions are read in and stored internally.
Alias names are resolved when the function is read.
Functions are executed like commands with the arguments
passed as positional parameters.
(See
.I Execution
below.)
.PP
Functions defined by the
.B function
.I name
syntax and called by name execute in the same process as the caller and
share all files
and present working directory with the
caller.
Traps caught by the caller are reset to their default action
inside the function.
A trap condition that is not caught or ignored by the
function causes the function to terminate and the condition
to be passed on to the caller.
A trap on
.SM
.B EXIT
set inside a function
is executed
in the environment
of the caller
after the function completes.
Ordinarily,
variables are shared between the calling program
and the function.
However,
the
.B typeset
special built-in command used within a function
defines local variables whose scope includes
the current function.
They can be passed to functions that they call in the
variable assignment list that precedes the call or as arguments
passed as name references.
Errors within functions return control to the caller.
.PP
Functions defined with the
.IB name (\^)
syntax and functions defined with the
.B function
.I name
syntax that are invoked with the \f3\s+2.\s-2\fP
special built-in
are executed in the caller's
environment and share all variables
and traps with the caller.
Errors within these function executions cause the script that contains
them to abort.
.PP
The special built-in command
.B return
is used to return
from function calls.
.PP
Function names
can be listed with the
.B \-f
or
.B +f
option of the
.B typeset
special built-in command.
The text of functions, when available, will also
be listed with
.BR \-f .
Functions can be undefined with the
.B \-f
option of the
.B unset
special built-in command.
.PP
Ordinarily, functions are unset when the shell executes a shell script.
Functions that need to be defined across separate
invocations of the shell should
be placed in a directory and the
.B
.SM
FPATH
variable should contain the name of this directory.
They may also
be specified in the
.B
.SM
ENV
file.
.SS Discipline Functions.
Each variable can have zero or more discipline functions
associated with it.
The shell initially understands the discipline names \f3get\fP,
\f3set\fP, \f3append\fP, and \f3unset\fP but can be added
when defining new types.  On most systems
others can be added at run time via the
C programming interface extension provided by the
.B builtin
built-in utility.
If the \f3get\fP discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked
whenever the given variable is referenced.
If the variable \f3.sh.value\fP is assigned a value inside
the discipline function, the referenced variable will evaluate
to this value instead.
If the \f3set\fP discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked
whenever the given variable is assigned a value.
If the \f3append\fP discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked
whenever a value is appended to the given variable.
The variable \f3.sh.value\fP is given the value
of the variable before invoking the discipline, and
the variable will be assigned the value of \f3.sh.value\fP
after the discipline completes.
If \f3.sh.value\fP is unset inside the discipline, then
that value is unchanged.
If the \f3unset\fP discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked
whenever the given variable is unset.
The variable will not be unset unless it is unset explicitly
from within this discipline function.
.PP
The variable
.B .sh.name
contains the name of the variable for which the discipline function is called,
.B .sh.subscript
is the subscript of the variable, and
.B .sh.value
will contain the value being assigned inside the
.B set
discipline function.
The variable
.B _
is a reference to the variable including the subscript if any.
For the \f3set\fP discipline,
changing
.B .sh.value
will change the value that gets assigned.
Finally, the expansion \f3${\fP\f2var\^\fP\f3.\fP\f2name\^\fP\f3}\fP,
when \f2name\^\fP is the name of a discipline, and there is
no variable of this name, is equivalent to the command substitution
\f3${ \fP\f2var\^\fP\f3.\fP\f2name\^\fP\f3;}\fP.

.SS Name Spaces.
Commands and functions that are executed as part of the
.I list\^
of a
.B namespace
command that modify variables or create new ones, create
a new variable whose
name is the name of the name space
as given by
.I identifier\^
preceded by \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP.
When a variable whose name is
.I name\^
is referenced, it is
first searched for
using \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP\f2identifier\fP\fB\s+2.\s-2\fP\f2name\fP.
Similarly, a function defined by a command in the
.B namespace
.I list\^
is created using the name space name  preceded by a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP.
.PP
When  the
.I list\^
of a
.B namespace
command contains a
.B namespace
command, the names of variables and functions that are created consist
of the variable or function name preceded by the list of
.IR identifier\^ s
each preceded by \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP.
.PP
Outside of a name space, a variable or function created inside a
name space can be referenced by preceding it with the name space name.
.PP
By default, variables staring with
\fB\s+2.\s-2sh\fP are in the
.B sh
name space.

.SS Type Variables.
Typed variables provide a way to create data structure and objects.
A type can be defined either by a shared library, by the
.B enum
built-in command described below, or by using the new
.B \-T
option of the
.B typeset
built-in command.
With the
.B \-T
option of
.BR typeset ,
the type name, specified as an option argument to
.BR \-T ,
is set with a compound variable assignment that defines the type.
Function definitions can appear inside the compound variable
assignment and these become discipline functions for this type and
can be invoked or redefined by each instance of the type.
The function name
.B create
is treated specially.  It is invoked for each instance of
the type that is created but is not inherited and cannot be
redefined for each instance.
.PP
When a type is defined a special built-in command of that name
is added.  These built-ins are declaration commands and follow the
same expansion rules as all the special built-in commands defined
below that are preceded by \(dg\(dg.  These commands can subsequently
be used inside further type definitions.  The man page for these commands can
be generated by using the
.B \-\-man
option or any of the other
.B \-\-
options described with
.BR getopts .
The
.BR \-r ,
.BR \-a ,
.BR \-A ,
.BR \-h ,
and
.B \-S
options of
.B typeset
are permitted with each of these new built-ins.
.PP
An instance of a type is created by invoking the type name
followed by one or more instance names.
Each instance of the type is initialized with a copy of the sub-variables
except for sub-variables that are defined with the
.B \-S
option.  Variables defined with the
.B \-S
are shared by all instances of the type.
Each instance can change the value of any sub-variable and can also
define new discipline functions of the same names
as those defined by the type definition as well as any
standard discipline names.
No additional sub-variables can be defined for any instance.
.PP
When defining a type,
if the value of a sub-variable is not set and the
.B \-r
attribute is specified, it causes the sub-variable
to be a required sub-variable.
Whenever an instance of a type is created, all required sub-variables
must be specified.
These sub-variables become readonly in each instance.
.PP
When
.B unset
is invoked on a sub-variable within a type,
and the
.B \-r
attribute has not been specified for this field,
the value is reset to the default value associative with
the type.
Invoking
.B unset
on a type instance not contained within another type deletes
all sub-variables and the variable itself.
.PP
A type definition can be derived from another type definition
by defining the first sub-variable name as
.B _
and defining its type as the base type.
Any remaining definitions will be additions and modifications
that apply to the new type.
If the new type name is the same is that of the base type,
the type will be replaced and the original type will
no longer be accessible.
.PP
The
.B typeset
command with the
.B \-T
and no option argument or operands will write all the type definitions to
standard output in a form that that can be read in to create all they types.
.SS Jobs.
.PP
If the
.B monitor
option of the
.B set
command is turned on,
an interactive shell associates a \fIjob\fR with each pipeline.
It keeps
a table of current jobs, printed by the
.B jobs
command, and assigns them small integer numbers.
When a job is started asynchronously with
.BR & ,
the shell prints a line which looks
like:
.PP
.DT
	[1] 1234
.PP
indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number
1 and had one (top-level) process, whose process id was 1234.
.PP
This paragraph and the next require features that are
not in all versions of UNIX and may not apply.
If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key
\fB^Z\fR (control-Z) which sends a STOP signal to the current job.
The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been `Stopped',
and print another prompt.
You can then manipulate the state of this job,
putting it in the background with the
.B bg
command, or run some other
commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with
the foreground command
.BR fg .
A \fB^Z\fR takes effect immediately and
is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are discarded
when it is typed.
.PP
A job being run in the background will stop if it tries to read
from the terminal.
Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output,
but this can be disabled by giving the command
.BR "stty tostop" .
If you set this
tty option, then background jobs will stop when they try to produce
output like they do when they try to read input.
.PP
A job pool is a collection of jobs started with
.I list\^
.B &
associated with a name.
.PP
There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell.
A job can be referred to by the process id of any process of the job
or by one of the following:
.PD 0
.TP
.BI % number
The job with the given number.
.TP
.I  pool\^
All the jobs in the job pool named by
.IR pool .
.TP
.IB  pool . number
The job number
.I number\^
in the job pool named by
.IR pool .
.TP
.BI % string
Any job whose command line begins with
.IR string .
.TP
.BI %? string
Any job whose command line contains
.IR string .
.TP
.BI %%
Current job.
.TP
.BI %+
Equivalent to
.BR %% .
.TP
.BI %\-
Previous job.
.PD
In addition, unless noted otherwise, wherever a job can be specified,
the name of a background job pool can be used to represent all the
jobs in that pool.
.PP
The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state.
It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that
no further progress is possible, but only just before it prints
a prompt.
This is done so that it does not otherwise disturb your work.
The
.B notify
option of the
.B set
command causes
the shell to print these job change messages
as soon as they occur.
.PP
When the
.B monitor
option is on, each background job that completes
triggers any trap set for
.BR CHLD .
.PP
When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or stopped, you will
be warned that `You have stopped(running) jobs.'
You may use the
.B jobs
command to see what they are.
If you immediately try to
exit again, the shell will not warn you a second time, and the stopped
jobs will be terminated.
When a login shell receives a HUP signal, it sends
a HUP signal to each job that has not been disowned with the
.B disown
built-in command described below.
.SS Signals.
The \s-1INT\s+1 and \s-1QUIT\s+1 signals for an invoked
command are ignored if the command is followed by
.B &
and the
.B monitor
option is not active.
Otherwise, signals have the values
inherited by the shell from its parent
(but see also
the
.B trap
built-in command below).
.SS Execution.
Each time a command is read, the above substitutions
are carried out.
If the command name matches one
of the
.I "Special Built-in Commands\^"
listed below,
it is executed within the
current shell process.
Next, the command name is checked to see if
it matches a user defined function.
If it does,
the positional parameters are saved
and then reset to the arguments of the
.I function\^
call.
A function is also executed in the
current shell process.
When the
.I function\^
completes or issues a
.BR return ,
the positional parameter list is restored.
For functions defined with the
.B function
.I name\^
syntax,
any trap set on
.SM
.B EXIT
within the function is executed.
The exit value of a
.I function\^
is the value of the last command executed.
If a command name is not a
.I "special built-in command\^"
or a user defined
.IR function ,
but it is one of the built-in commands listed below,
it is executed in the current shell process.
.PP
The shell variables
.B
.SM PATH
followed by the variable
.B
.SM FPATH
defines the list of directories to
search for the command name.
Alternative directory names are separated by
a colon
.RB ( : ).
The default path is
.B /bin:/usr/bin:
(specifying
.BR /bin ,
.BR /usr/bin ,
and the current directory
in that order).
The current directory can be specified by
two or more adjacent colons, or by a colon
at the beginning or end of the path list.
If the command name contains a \f3/\fP, then the search path
is not used.
Otherwise, each directory in the list of directories defined by
.B
.SM PATH
and
.B
.SM FPATH
is checked in order.
If the directory being searched is contained in
.B
.SM FPATH
and contains a file whose name matches the command being searched,
then this file is loaded into the current shell environment
as if it were the argument to the \fB.\fP command
except that only preset aliases are expanded,
and a function of the given name is executed
as described above.
.P
If this directory is not in
.B
.SM FPATH
the shell first
determines whether there is a built-in version
of a command corresponding to a given pathname and if so
it is invoked in the current process.
If no built-in is found, the shell checks for a file named
.B .paths
in this directory.
If found and there is a line of the form
.BI FPATH= path
where
.I path\^
names an
existing directory
then that directory is searched after immediately after the current directory
as if it were found in the
.B
.SM FPATH
variable.
If
.I path\^
does not begin with /, it is checked for relative to the directory
being searched.
.P
The
.B .paths
file is then checked  for a line of the form
.BI PLUGIN_LIB= libname
\*(OK \f3:\fP \f2libname\^\fP \*(CK .\|.\|. .
Each library named by
.I libname\^
will be searched for as if it were an option argument to
.BR "builtin -f" ,
and if it contains a built-in of the specified name
this will be executed instead of a command by this name.
Any built-in loaded from a library found this way will be associated
with the directory containing the
.B .paths
file so it will only execute if not found in an earlier directory.
.P
Finally, the directory will be checked for a file of the given name.
If the file has execute permission but is not an
.B a.out
file,
it is assumed to be a file containing shell commands.
A separate shell is spawned to read it.
All non-exported variables are removed in this case.
If the shell command
file doesn't have read permission,
or if the
.I setuid
and/or
.I setgid
bits are set on the file,
then the shell executes an agent whose job it is to
set up the permissions and execute the shell with the
shell command file passed down as an open file.
If the
.B .paths
contains a line of the form
.IB name\^ = value\^
in the first or second line, then the environment variable
.I name\^
is modified by prepending the directory specified by
.I value\^
to the directory list.
If
.I value\^
is not an absolute directory, then it
specifies a directory relative to the directory that the
executable was found.
If the environment variable
.I name\^
does not already exist it will be added to the environment
list for the specified command.
A parenthesized command is executed in
a sub-shell without removing non-exported variables.
.SS Command Re-entry.
The text of the last
.B
.SM
HISTSIZE
(default 512)
commands entered from a terminal device
is saved in a
.I history
file.
The file
.B \s-1$HOME\s+1/.sh_history
is used if the
.B
.SM
HISTFILE
variable is not set
or if the file it names is not writable.
A shell can access the commands of
all
.I interactive
shells which use the same named
.SM
.BR HISTFILE .
The built-in command
.B hist\^
is used to list or
edit a portion of this file.
The portion of the file to be edited or listed can be selected by
number or by giving the first character or
characters of the command.
A single command or range of commands can be specified.
If you do not specify an editor program as
an argument to
.B hist\^
then the value of the variable
.SM
.B HISTEDIT
is used.
If
.SM
.B HISTEDIT
is unset, the obsolete variable
.SM
.B FCEDIT
is used.
If
.SM
.B FCEDIT
is not defined, then
.B /bin/ed
is used.
The edited command(s) is printed and re-executed upon
leaving the editor unless you quit without writing.
The
.B \-s
option
(and in obsolete versions, the editor name
.BR \-\^ )
is used to skip the editing phase and
to re-execute the command.
In this case a substitution parameter of the form
\f2old\fP\f3=\fP\f2new\fP
can be used to modify the command before execution.
For example, with the preset alias
.BR r ,
which is aliased to
.BR "\(fmhist \-s\(fm" ,
typing
`\f3r bad=good c\fP'
will re-execute the most recent command which starts with the letter
.BR c ,
replacing the first occurrence of the string
.B bad
with the string
.BR good .
.SS In-line Editing Options.
Normally, each command line entered from a terminal device is simply
typed followed by a \f3new-line\fP (`RETURN' or `LINE\ FEED').
If either the
.BR emacs ,
.BR gmacs ,
or
.B vi
option is active, the user can edit the command line.
To be in either of these edit modes
.B set
the corresponding
option.
An editing option is automatically selected each time the
.SM
.B VISUAL
or
.SM
.B EDITOR
variable is assigned a value ending in either of these
option names.
.PP
The editing features require that the user's terminal
accept `RETURN' as carriage return without line feed
and that a space (`\ ') must overwrite the current character on
the screen.
.PP
Unless the
.B multiline
option is on,
the editing modes implement a concept where the user is looking through a
window at the current line.
The window width is the value of
.SM
.B COLUMNS
if it is defined, otherwise 80.
If the window width is too small to display the prompt and leave
at least 8 columns to enter input, the prompt is truncated from the
left.
If the line is longer than the window width minus two, a mark is
displayed at the end of the window to notify the user.
As the cursor moves and reaches the window boundaries the window will be
centered about the cursor.
The mark is a
.BR > " (<" ,
.BR * )
if the line extends on the
right (left, both) side(s) of the window.
.PP
The search commands in each edit mode provide access to the history file.
Only strings are matched, not patterns, although a leading
.B ^
in the string restricts the match
to begin at the first character in the line.
.PP
Each of the edit modes has an operation to list the files
or commands that match a partially entered word.
When applied to the first word on the line,
or the first word after a
.BR ; ,
.BR \(bv ,
.BR & ,
or
.BR ( ,
and the word does not begin with
.B \(ap
or contain a
.BR / ,
the list of aliases, functions, and executable commands
defined by the
.B
.SM PATH
variable that could match the partial word is displayed.
Otherwise, the list of files that match the given
word is displayed.
If the partially entered word does not contain any
file expansion characters, a
.B *
is appended before generating these lists.
After displaying the generated list, the input line
is redrawn.
These operations are called command name listing and file name listing,
respectively.
There are additional operations, referred to as command name
completion and file name completion, which compute the list
of matching commands or files, but instead of printing the list,
replace
the current word with a complete or partial match.
For file name completion,
if the match is unique, a
.B /
is appended if the file is a directory and a space is
appended if the file is not a directory.
Otherwise, the longest common prefix for all the matching
files replaces the word.
For command name completion, only the portion of the file names
after the last
.B /
are used to find the longest command prefix.
If only a single name matches this prefix, then the
word is replaced with the command name followed by a space.
When using a
.I tab\^
for completion that does not yield a unique match,
a subsequent
.I tab\^
will provide a numbered list of matching alternatives.
A specific selection can be made by entering the
selection number followed by a
.IR tab .
.SS Key Bindings.
The
.B
.SM KEYBD
trap can be used to intercept keys as they are typed
and change the characters that are actually seen by
the shell.
This trap is executed after each character
(or sequence of characters when the first character is ESC)
is entered while reading from a terminal.
The variable
.B .sh.edchar
contains the character or character sequence which
generated the trap.
Changing the value of
.B .sh.edchar
in the trap action causes the shell to behave as if the
new value were entered from the keyboard rather than
the original value.
.PP
The variable
.B .sh.edcol
is set to the input column number of the cursor at the time
of the input.
The variable
.B .sh.edmode
is set to
ESC
when in
.B vi
insert mode (see below) and is null otherwise.
By prepending
.B ${.sh.editmode}
to a value assigned to
.B .sh.edchar
it will cause the shell
to change to control mode if it is not already in this mode.
.PP
This trap is not invoked for characters entered as arguments to
editing directives, or while reading input for a character search.
.SS Emacs Editing Mode.
This mode is entered by enabling either the
.B emacs
or
.B gmacs
option.
The only difference between these two modes is the way
they handle
.BR ^T .
To edit, the user
moves the cursor to the point needing correction and
then inserts or deletes characters or words as needed.
All the editing commands are control characters or escape
sequences.
The notation for control characters is caret
.RB ( ^ )
followed
by the character.
For example,
.B ^F
is the notation for control
.BR F .
This is entered by depressing `f' while holding down the
`CTRL' (control) key.
The `SHIFT' key is
.I not
depressed.
(The notation
.B ^?
indicates the DEL (delete) key.)
.PP
The notation for escape sequences is
.B M-
followed by a
character.
For example,
.B M-f
(pronounced Meta f)
is entered by depressing ESC
(ascii
.BR 033 )
followed by `f'.
.RB ( M-F
would be the notation for ESC followed by `SHIFT' (capital) `F'.)
.PP
All edit commands
operate from any place on the line
(not just at the beginning).
Neither the `RETURN' nor the `LINE FEED' key is
entered after edit commands except when noted.
.PP
.PD 0
.TP 10
.BI ^F
Move cursor forward (right) one character.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[C
Move cursor forward (right) one character.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-f
Move cursor forward one word.
(The
.B emacs
editor's idea of a word is a string of characters
consisting of only letters, digits and underscores.)
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^B
Move cursor backward (left) one character.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[D
Move cursor backward (left) one character.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-b
Move cursor backward one word.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^A
Move cursor to start of line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[H
Move cursor to start of line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^E
Move cursor to end of line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[Y
Move cursor to end of line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^] char
Move cursor forward to character
.I char
on current line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-^] char
Move cursor backward to character
.I char
on current line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^X^X
Interchange the cursor and mark.
.PP
.TP 10
.I erase
(User defined erase character as defined
by the
.IR stty (1)
command, usually
.B ^H
or
.BR # .)
Delete previous character.
.PP
.TP 10
.I lnext
(User defined literal next character as defined
by the
.IR stty (1)
command,
or
.B ^V
if not defined.)
Removes the next character's
editing features (if any).
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^D
Delete current character.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-d
Delete current word.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-^H
(Meta-backspace) Delete previous word.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-h
Delete previous word.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-^?
(Meta-DEL) Delete previous word (if your interrupt character is
.B ^?
(DEL, the default) then this command will not work).
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^T
Transpose current character with previous character
and advance the cursor
in
.I emacs
mode.
Transpose two previous characters in
.I gmacs
mode.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^C
Capitalize current character.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-c
Capitalize current word.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-l
Change the current word to lower case.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^K
Delete from the cursor to the end of the line.
If preceded by a numerical parameter whose value is less than the
current cursor position, then delete from given position
up to the cursor.
If preceded by a numerical parameter whose value is greater than the
current cursor position, then delete from cursor up to
given cursor position.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^W
Kill from the cursor to the mark.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-p
Push the region from the cursor to the mark on the stack.
.PP
.TP 10
.I kill
(User defined kill character as defined
by the stty command, usually
.B ^G
or
.BR @ .)
Kill the entire current line.
If two
.I kill
characters are entered in succession, all
kill characters from then on cause a line feed
(useful when using paper terminals).
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^Y
Restore last item removed from line. (Yank item back to the line.)
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^L
Line feed and print current line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-^L
Clear the screen.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^@
(Null character) Set mark.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M- space
(Meta space) Set mark.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^J
(New\ line) Execute the current line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^M
(Return) Execute the current line.
.PP
.TP 10
.I eof
End-of-file character,
normally
.BR ^D ,
is processed as an End-of-file only
if the current line is null.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^P
Fetch previous command.
Each time
.B ^P
is entered
the previous command back in time is accessed.
Moves back one line when not on the first line of a multi-line command.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[A
If the cursor is at the end of the line, it is equivalent to
.B ^R
with
.I string\^
set to the contents of the current line.
Otherwise, it is
equivalent to
.BR ^P.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-<
Fetch the least recent (oldest) history line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M->
Fetch the most recent (youngest) history line.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^N
Fetch next command line.
Each time
.B ^N
is entered
the next command line forward in time is accessed.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[B
Equivalent to
.BR ^N.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^R string
Reverse search history for a previous command line containing
.IR string .
If a parameter of zero is given, the search is forward.
.I String
is terminated by a `RETURN' or `NEW\ LINE'.
If string is preceded by a
.BR ^ ,
the matched line must begin with
.IR string .
If
.I string
is omitted,
then the next command line containing the most recent
.I string
is accessed.
In this case a parameter of zero
reverses the direction of the search.
.PP
.TP 10
.B ^O
Operate \- Execute the current line and fetch
the next line relative to current line from the
history file.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M- digits
(Escape) Define numeric parameter, the digits
are taken as a parameter to the next command.
The commands that accept a parameter are
.BR ^F ,
.BR ^B ,
.IR erase ,
.BR ^C ,
.BR ^D ,
.BR ^K ,
.BR ^R ,
.BR ^P ,
.BR ^N ,
.BR ^] ,
.BR M-. ,
.BR M-^] ,
.BR M-_ ,
.BR M-= ,
.BR M-b ,
.BR M-c ,
.BR M-d ,
.BR M-f ,
.BR M-h ,
.B M-l
and
.BR M-^H .
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M- letter
Soft-key \- Your alias list is searched for an
alias by the name
.BI _ letter
and if an alias of this name is defined, its
value will be inserted on the input queue.
The
.I letter
must not be one of the above meta-functions.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI M-[ letter
Soft-key \- Your alias list is searched for an
alias by the name
.BI _\&_ letter
and if an alias of this name is defined, its
value will be inserted on the input queue.
This can be used to program function keys on many terminals.
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-.
The last word of the previous command is inserted
on the line.
If preceded by a numeric parameter, the value
of this parameter determines which word to insert rather than
the last word.
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-_
Same as
.BR M-. .
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-*
Attempt file name generation on the current word.
An asterisk is appended if the word doesn't match any file
or contain any special
pattern characters.
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-ESC
Command or file name completion as described above.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^I " tab"
Attempts command or file name completion as described above.
If a partial completion occurs, repeating this will
behave as if
.B M-=
were entered.
If no match is found or entered after
.IR space\^ ,
a
.I tab\^
is inserted.
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-=
If not preceded by a numeric parameter,
it generates the list of matching commands or
file names as described above.
Otherwise, the word under the cursor is replaced by
the item corresponding to the value of the numeric parameter
from the most recently generated command or file list.
If the cursor is not on a word, it is inserted instead.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI ^U
Multiply parameter of next command by 4.
.PP
.TP 10
.BI \e
Escape next character.
Editing characters, the user's erase, kill and
interrupt (normally
.BR ^? )
characters
may be entered
in a command line or in a search string if preceded by a
.BR \e .
The
.B \e
removes the next character's
editing features (if any).
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-^V
Display version of the shell.
.PP
.TP 10
.B M-#
If the line does not begin with a
.BR # ,
a
.B #
is inserted
at the beginning of the line
and after each new-line,
and the line is entered.
This causes a comment to be inserted in the history file.
If the line begins with a
.BR # ,
the
.B #
is deleted and one
.B #
after each new-line is also deleted.
.PD
.SS Vi Editing Mode.
There are two typing modes.
Initially, when you enter a command you are in the
.I input\^
mode.
To edit, the user enters
.I control\^
mode by typing ESC
.RB ( 033 )
and moves the cursor to the point needing correction and
then inserts or deletes characters or words as needed.
Most control commands accept an optional repeat
.I count
prior to the command.
.PP
When in
.B vi
mode on most systems,
canonical processing is initially enabled and the
command will be echoed again if the speed is 1200 baud or greater and it
contains any control characters or less than one second has elapsed
since the prompt was printed.
The ESC character terminates canonical processing for the remainder of the command
and the user can then modify the command line.
This scheme has the advantages of canonical processing with the type-ahead
echoing of raw mode.
.PP
If the option
.B viraw
is also set, the terminal will always have canonical processing
disabled.
This mode is implicit for systems that do not support two
alternate end of line delimiters,
and may be helpful for certain terminals.
.SS "\ \ \ \ \ Input Edit Commands"
.PP
.RS
By default the editor is in input mode.
.PD 0
.TP 10
.I erase
(User defined erase character as defined
by the stty command, usually
.B ^H
or
.BR # .)
Delete previous character.
.TP 10
.BI ^W
Delete the previous blank separated word.
On some systems the \f3viraw\fP option
may be required for this to work.
.TP 10
.I eof
As the first character of the line causes
the shell to terminate unless the \f3ignoreeof\fP
option is set.
Otherwise this character is ignored.
.TP 10
.I lnext
(User defined literal next character as defined
by the
.IR stty (1)
or
.B ^V
if not defined.)
Removes the next character's
editing features (if any).
On some systems the \f3viraw\fP option
may be required for this to work.
.TP 10
.BI \e
Escape the next
.I erase
or
.I kill
character.
.TP 10
.BI ^I  " tab"
Attempts command or file name completion as described above
and returns to input mode.
If a partial completion occurs, repeating this will
behave as if
.B =
were entered from control mode.
If no match is found or entered after
.IR space\^ ,
a
.I tab\^
is inserted.
.RE
.SS "\ \ \ \ \ Motion Edit Commands"
.RS
These commands will move the cursor.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3l\fP
Cursor forward (right) one character.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3[C\fP
Cursor forward (right) one character.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3w\fP
Cursor forward one alpha-numeric word.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3W\fP
Cursor to the beginning of the next word that follows a blank.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3e\fP
Cursor to end of word.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3E\fP
Cursor to end of the current blank delimited word.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3h\fP
Cursor backward (left) one character.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3[D\fP
Cursor backward (left) one character.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3b\fP
Cursor backward one word.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3B\fP
Cursor to preceding blank separated word.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3\(bv\fP
Cursor to column
.IR count .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3f\fP\f2c\fP
Find the next character \fIc\fP in the current line.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3F\fP\f2c\fP
Find the previous character \fIc\fP in the current line.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3t\fP\f2c\fP
Equivalent to
.B f
followed by
.BR h .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3T\fP\f2c\fP
Equivalent to
.B F
followed by
.BR l .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3;\fP
Repeats
.I count
times,
the last single character find command,
.BR f ,
.BR F ,
.BR t ,
or
.BR T .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3,\fP
Reverses the last single character find command
.I count
times.
.TP 10
.B 0
Cursor to start of line.
.TP 10
.B ^
Cursor to start of line.
.TP 10
.B [H
Cursor to first non-blank character in line.
.TP 10
.B $
Cursor to end of line.
.TP 10
.B [Y
Cursor to end of line.
.TP 10
.B %
Moves to balancing
.BR ( ,
.BR ) ,
.BR { ,
.BR } ,
.BR [ ,
or
.BR ] .
If cursor is not on one of the above characters,
the remainder of the line is searched for the first
occurrence of one of the above characters first.
.RE
.SS "\ \ \ \ \ Search Edit Commands"
.RS
These commands access your command history.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3k\fP
Fetch previous command.
Each time
.B k
is entered
the previous command back in time is accessed.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3\-\fP
Equivalent to
.BR k .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3[A\fP
If cursor is at the end of the line it is equivalent to
.B /
with
.I string^\
set to the contents of the current line.
Otherwise, it is equivalent to
.BR k .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3j\fP
Fetch next command.
Each time
.B j
is entered
the next command forward in time is accessed.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3+\fP
Equivalent to
.BR j .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3[B\fP
Equivalent to
.BR j .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3G\fP
The command number
.I count
is fetched.
The default is the least recent history command.
.TP 10
.BI / string
Search backward through history for a previous command containing
.IR string .
.I String
is terminated by a `RETURN' or `NEW\ LINE'.
If string is preceded by a
.BR ^ ,
the matched line must begin with
.IR string .
If \fIstring\fP is null, the previous string will be used.
.TP 10
.BI ? string
Same as
.B /
except that search will be in the forward direction.
.TP 10
.B n
Search for next match of the last pattern to
.B /
or
.B ?
commands.
.TP 10
.B N
Search for next match of the last pattern to
.B /
or
.BR ? ,
but in reverse direction.
.RE
.SS "\ \ \ \ \ Text Modification Edit Commands"
.RS
These commands will modify the line.
.TP 10
.B a
Enter input mode and enter text after the current character.
.TP 10
.B A
Append text to the end of the line.
Equivalent to
.BR $a .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3c\fP\f2motion\fP
.TP 10
\f3c\fP[\f2count\fP]\f2motion\fP
Delete current character through the character that
.I motion
would move the cursor to and enter input mode.
If \fImotion\fP is
.BR c ,
the entire line will be deleted and
input mode entered.
.TP 10
.B C
Delete the current character through the end of line and enter input mode.
Equivalent to
.BR c$ .
.TP 10
.B S
Equivalent to
.BR cc .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3s\fP
Replace characters under the cursor in input mode.
.TP 10
.B D
Delete the current character through the end of line.
Equivalent to
.BR d$ .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3d\fP\f2motion\fP
.TP 10
\f3d\fP[\f2count\fP]\f2motion\fP
Delete current character through the character that
.I motion
would move to.
If \fImotion\fP is
.B d ,
the entire line will be deleted.
.TP 10
.B i
Enter input mode and insert text before the current character.
.TP 10
.B I
Insert text before the beginning of the line.
Equivalent to
.BR 0i .
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3P\fP
Place the previous text modification before the cursor.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3p\fP
Place the previous text modification after the cursor.
.TP 10
.B R
Enter input mode and
replace characters on the screen with characters you type overlay fashion.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3r\fP\f2c\fP
Replace the
.I count
character(s) starting at the current cursor position with
.IR c ,
and advance the cursor.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3x\fP
Delete current character.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3X\fP
Delete preceding character.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3.\fP
Repeat the previous text modification command.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3\(ap\fP
Invert the case of the
.I count
character(s) starting at the current cursor position and advance the cursor.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3_\fP
Causes the
.I count\^
word of the previous command to be appended and
input mode entered.
The last word is used
if
.I count\^
is omitted.
.TP 10
.B *
Causes an
.B *
to be appended to the current word and file name generation attempted.
If no match is found,
it rings the bell.
Otherwise, the word is replaced
by the matching pattern and input mode is entered.
.TP 10
.B \e
Command or file name completion as described above.
.RE
.SS "\ \ \ \ \ Other Edit Commands"
.RS
Miscellaneous commands.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3y\fP\f2motion\fP
.TP 10
\f3y\fP[\f2count\fP]\f2motion\fP
Yank current character through character that
.I motion
would move the cursor to and puts them into the delete buffer.
The text and cursor are unchanged.
.TP 10
.B yy
Yanks the entire line.
.TP 10
.B Y
Yanks from current position to end of line.
Equivalent to
.BR y$ .
.TP 10
.B u
Undo the last text modifying command.
.TP 10
.B U
Undo all the text modifying commands performed on the line.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3v\fP
Returns the command
.BI "hist \-e ${\s-1VISUAL\s+1:\-${\s-1EDITOR\s+1:\-vi}}" " count"
in the input buffer.
If
.I count\^
is omitted, then the current line is used.
.TP 10
.BI ^L
Line feed and print current line.
Has effect only in control mode.
.TP 10
.BI ^J
(New\ line) Execute the current line, regardless of mode.
.TP 10
.BI ^M
(Return) Execute the current line, regardless of mode.
.TP 10
.B #
If the first character of the command is a
.BR # ,
then this command deletes this
.B #
and each
.B #
that follows a newline.
Otherwise,
sends the line after
inserting a
.B #
in front of each line in the command.
Useful for causing the current line to be
inserted in the history as a comment and
uncommenting previously commented commands
in the history file.
.TP 10
[\f2count\fP]\f3=\fP
If \f2count\fP is not specified,
it generates the list of matching commands or
file names as described above.
Otherwise, the word under the the cursor is replaced by the
\f2count\fP item from the most recently generated command or file list.
If the cursor is not on a word, it is inserted instead.
.TP 10
.BI @ letter
Your alias list is searched for an
alias by the name
.BI _ letter
and if an alias of this name is defined, its
value will be inserted on the input queue for processing.
.TP 10
.BI ^V
Display version of the shell.
.RE
.PD
.SS Built-in Commands.
The following simple-commands are executed in the shell process.
Input/Output redirection is permitted.
Unless otherwise indicated, the output is written on file descriptor 1
and the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero.
Except for
.BR : ,
.BR true ,
.BR false ,
.BR echo ,
.BR newgrp ,
and
.BR login ,
all built-in commands accept
.B \-\-
to indicate end of options.
They also interpret the option
.B \-\-man
as a request to display the man page onto
standard error and
.B \-?
as a help request which prints a
.I usage\^
message
on standard error.
Commands that are preceded by one or two \(dg symbols
are special built-in commands and
are treated specially in the following ways:
.PD 0
.TP
1.
Variable assignment lists preceding the command
remain in effect when the command completes.
.TP
2.
I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.
.TP
3.
Errors
cause a script
that contains them to abort.
.TP
4.
They are not valid function names.
.TP
5.
Words
following a command preceded by \(dg\(dg
that are in the format of a variable assignment
are expanded with the same rules as a variable assignment.
This means that
tilde substitution is performed after the
.B =
sign and field splitting and file name generation are not
performed.
These are called
.I declaration\^
built-ins.
.PD
.TP
\(dg \f3:\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
The command only expands parameters.
.br
.ne 2
.TP
\(dg \f3\|. \f2name\^\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
If
.I name\^
is a function defined with the
.B function
.I name\^
reserved word syntax,
the function is executed in the current environment
(as if it had been defined with the
.IB name ()
syntax.)
Otherwise if
.I name\^
refers to a file, the
file is read in its entirety and the commands are
executed in the current shell environment.
The search path
specified by
.B
.SM PATH
is used to find the directory containing the file.
If any arguments
.I arg\^
are given,
they become the positional parameters while processing
the
.B .
command and the original positional parameters are restored upon completion.
Otherwise the positional parameters are unchanged.
The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed.
.TP
\(dg\(dg \f3alias\fP \*(OK \f3\-ptx\fP \*(CK  \*(OK \f2name\fP\*(OK \f3=\fP\f2value\^\fP  \*(CK \*(CK .\|.\|.
.B alias\^
with no arguments prints the list of aliases
in the form
.I name=value\^
on standard output.
The
.B \-p
option
causes the word
.B alias
to be inserted before each one.
When one or more arguments are given,
an
.I alias\^
is defined
for each
.I name\^
whose
.I value\^
is given.
A trailing space in
.I value\^
causes the next word to be checked for
alias substitution.
The obsolete
.B \-t
option is used to set and list tracked aliases.
The value of a tracked alias is the full pathname
corresponding to the given
.IR name .
The value becomes undefined when the value of
.SM
.B PATH
is reset but the alias remains tracked.
Without the
.B \-t
option,
for each
.I name\^
in the argument list
for which no
.I value\^
is given, the name
and value of the alias is printed.
The obsolete
.B \-x
option has no effect.
The exit status is non-zero if a
.I name\^
is given, but no value, and no alias has been defined for the
.IR name\^ .
.TP
\f3bg\fP \*(OK \f2job\^\fP.\|.\|. \*(CK
This command is only on systems that support job control.
Puts each specified
.I job\^
into the background.
The current job is put in the background
if
.I job\^
is not specified.
See
.I Jobs
for a description of the format of
.IR job .
.TP
\(dg \f3break\fP \*(OK \f2n\^\fP \*(CK
Exit from the enclosing
.BR for\^ ,
.BR while\^ ,
.BR until\^ ,
or
.B select\^
loop, if any.
If
.I n\^
is specified, then break
.I n\^
levels.
.TP
\f3builtin\fP \*(OK \f3\-ds\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-f\fP \f2file\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2name\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
If
.I name\^
is not specified,
and no
.B \-f
option is specified,
the built-ins are printed on standard output.
The
.B \-s
option prints only the special built-ins.
Otherwise, each
.I name\^
represents the pathname whose basename is the name of the built-in.
The entry point function name is determined by prepending
.B b_
to the built-in name.
A built-in specified by a pathname will only be executed when that pathname
would be found during the path search.  Built-ins found in libraries loaded
via the
.B .paths
file will be associate with the pathname of the directory containing the
.B .paths
file.
.P
The ISO C/C++ prototype is
\f3b_\fP\f2mycommand\fP\f3(int\fP \f2argc\fP, \f3char *\fP\f2argv\fP\f3[]\fP, \f3void *\fP\f2context\fP\f3)\fP
for the builtin command
.I mycommand\^
where
.I argv\^
is array an of
.I argc\^
elements and context is an optional pointer to a
.B Shell_t
structure as described in
.BR <ast/shell.h> .
.sp .5
Special built-ins cannot be bound to a pathname or deleted.
The
.B \-d
option deletes each of the given built-ins.
On systems that support dynamic loading, the
.B \-f
option names a shared library containing the code for built-ins.
The shared library prefix and/or suffix, which depend on the system,
can be omitted.
Once a library is loaded, its symbols become available
for subsequent invocations of
.BR builtin .
Multiple libraries can be specified with separate invocations
of the
.B builtin
command.
Libraries are searched in the reverse order in which they are specified.
When a library is loaded, it looks for a function in the library
whose name is
.B lib_init()
and invokes this function with an argument of
.BR 0 .
.TP
.PD 0
\f3cd\fP \*(OK \f3\-LP\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP \*(CK
.TP
\f3cd\fP \*(OK \f3\-LP\fP \*(CK \f2old\^\fP \f2new\^\fP
.PD
This command can be in either of two forms.
In the first form it
changes the current directory to
.IR arg .
If
.I arg\^
is
.B \-
the directory is changed to the previous
directory.
The shell
variable
.B
.SM HOME
is the default
.IR arg .
The variable
.SM
.B PWD
is set to the current directory.
The shell variable
.B
.SM CDPATH
defines the search path for
the directory containing
.IR arg .
Alternative directory names are separated by
a colon
.RB ( : ).
The default path is
.B <null>
(specifying the current directory).
Note that the current directory is specified by a null path name,
which can appear immediately after the equal sign
or between the colon delimiters anywhere else in the path list.
If
.I arg
begins with a \f3/\fP then the search path
is not used.
Otherwise, each directory in the path is
searched for
.IR arg .
.sp .5
The second form of
.B cd
substitutes the string
.I new
for the string
.I old
in the current directory name,
.SM
.BR PWD ,
and tries to change to this new directory.
.sp .5
By default, symbolic link names are treated literally when
finding the directory name.
This is equivalent to the
.B \-L
option.
The
.B \-P
option causes
symbolic links to be resolved when determining the directory.
The last instance of
.B \-L
or
.B \-P
on the command line
determines which method is used.
.sp .5
The
.B cd\^
command may not be executed by
.if \nZ=0 .B rsh\^.
.if \nZ=1 .B rksh\^.
.if \nZ=1 .B rksh93\^.
.TP
\f3command\fP \*(OK \f3\-pvxV\fP \*(CK \f2name\^\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
Without the
.B \-v
or
.B \-V
options,
.B command
executes
.I name\^
with the arguments given by
.IR arg .
The
.B \-p
option causes
a default path to be searched
rather than the one defined by the value of
.SM
.BR PATH .
Functions will not be searched for when finding
.IR name .
In addition, if
.I name\^
refers to a special built-in,
none of the special properties associated with the leading
daggers will be honored.
(For example, the predefined alias
.B "redirect=\(fmcommand exec\(fm"
prevents a script from terminating when an invalid
redirection is given.)
With the
.B \-x
option,
if command execution would result in a failure because
there are too many arguments, errno
.SM
.BR E2BIG ,
the shell will invoke command
.I name\^
multiple times with a subset of the arguments on each invocation.
Arguments that occur prior to the first word that
expands to multiple arguments and after the last word
that expands to multiple arguments will be passed on each invocation.
The exit status will be the maximum invocation exit status.
With the
.B \-v
option,
.B command
is equivalent to the built-in
.B whence
command described below.
The
.B \-V
option causes
.B command
to act like
.BR "whence \-v" .
.TP
\(dg \f3continue\fP \*(OK \f2n\^\fP \*(CK
Resume the next iteration of the enclosing
.BR for\^ ,
.BR while\^ ,
.BR until\^ ,
or
.B select\^
loop.
If
.I n\^
is specified, then resume at the
.IR n -th
enclosing loop.
.TP
\f3disown\fP \*(OK \f2job\^\fP.\|.\|. \*(CK
Causes the shell not to send a HUP signal to
each given
.IR job ,
or all active jobs if
.I job
is omitted,
when a login shell terminates.
.TP
\f3echo\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
When the first
.I arg\^
does not begin with a \-, and
none of the arguments contain a \e,
then
.B echo
prints each of its arguments separated by a space
and terminated by a new-line.
Otherwise, the behavior of
.B echo
is system dependent
and
.B print
or
.B printf
described below should be used.
See
.IR echo (1)
for usage and description.
.TP
\(dg\(dg \f3enum\fP \*(OK \f3\-i\fP  \*(CK \f2type\^\fP\*(OK=(\f2value\^\fP .\|.\|.) \*(CK
Creates a declaration command named \f2type\^\fP that is an
integer type that allows one of the specified \f2value\fPs as
enumeration names.  If \f3=(\fP\f2value\^\ .\|.\|.\|\fP\f3)\fP is
omitted, then \f2type\^\fP must be an indexed array variable with at
least two elements and the values are taken from this array variable.
If
.B -i
is specified the values are case insensitive.
.TP
\(dg \f3eval\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
The arguments are read as input
to the shell
and the resulting command(s) executed.
.TP
\(dg \f3exec\fP \*(OK \f3\-c\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-a\fP \f2name\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
If
.I arg\^
is given,
the command specified by
the arguments is executed in place of this shell
without creating a new process.
The
.B \-c
option causes the environment to be cleared before applying
variable assignments associated with the
.B exec
invocation.
The
.B \-a
option
causes
.I name\^
rather than the first
.IR arg ,
to become
.B argv[0]
for the new process.
Input/output arguments may appear and
affect the current process.
If
.I arg\^
is not given,
the effect of this command is to
modify file descriptors
as prescribed by the input/output redirection list.
In this case,
any file descriptor numbers greater than 2 that are
opened with this mechanism are closed when invoking
another program.
.TP
\(dg \f3exit\fP \*(OK \f2n\^\fP \*(CK
Causes the shell to exit
with the exit status specified by
.IR n .
The value will be the least significant 8 bits of the specified status.
If
.I n\^
is omitted, then the exit status is that of the last command executed.
An end-of-file will also cause the shell to exit
except for a
shell which has the
.B ignoreeof
option (see
.B set
below) turned on.
.TP
\(dg\(dg \f3export\fP \*(OK \f3\-p\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2name\^\fP\*(OK\f3=\fP\f2value\^\fP\*(CK \*(CK .\|.\|.
If
.I name\^
is not given,
the names and values of each variable with
the export attribute are printed with the values
quoted in a manner that allows them to be re-input.
The
.B export
command is the same as
.B typeset \-x
except that if you use
.B export
within a function, no local
variable is created.
The
.B \-p
option
causes the word
.B export
to be inserted before each one.
Otherwise, the given
.IR name s
are marked for automatic
export to the
.I environment\^
of subsequently-executed commands.
.TP
\f3false\fP
Does nothing, and exits 1. Used with
.B until
for infinite loops.
.TP
\f3fg\fP \*(OK \f2job\^\fP.\|.\|. \*(CK
This command is only on systems that support job control.
Each
.I job\^
specified is brought to the foreground and waited for in
the specified order.
Otherwise, the current job is
brought into the foreground.
See
.I Jobs
for a description of the format of
.IR job .
.TP
\f3getconf\fP \*(OK \f2name\^\fP \*(OK \f2pathname\^\fP \*(CK \*(CK
Prints the current value of the configuration parameter given by
.IR name .
The configuration parameters are defined by the IEEE POSIX 1003.1
and IEEE POSIX 1003.2 standards.
(See
.IR pathconf (2)
and
.IR sysconf (2).)
The
.I pathname
argument is required for parameters whose value depends on
the location in the file system.
If no arguments are given,
.B getconf
prints the names and values of the current configuration
parameters.
The pathname
.B /
is used for each of the parameters that requires
.IR pathname .
.TP
\f3getopts\fP \*(OK \f3\ \-a\fP \f2name\^\fP \*(CK \f2optstring vname\^\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
Checks
.I arg
for legal options.
If
.I arg
is omitted,
the positional parameters are used.
An option argument begins with a
.B +
or a
.BR \- .
An option not beginning with
.B +
or
.B \-
or the argument
.B \-\|\-
ends the options.
Options beginning with
.B +
are only recognized when
.I optstring\^
begins with a
.BR + .
.I optstring\^
contains the letters that
.B getopts
recognizes.
If a letter is followed by a
.BR : ,
that option is expected to have an argument.
The options can be separated from the argument by blanks.
The option
.B \-?
causes
.B getopts
to generate a usage message on standard error.
The
.B \-a
argument can be used to specify the name to use for the
usage message, which defaults to
.BR $0 .
.sp .5
.B
getopts
places the next option letter it finds inside variable
.I vname\^
each time it is invoked.
The option letter will be prepended with a
.B +
when
.I arg
begins with a
.BR + .
The index of the next
.I arg
is stored in
.SM
.BR OPTIND .
The option argument,
if any,
gets stored in
.SM
.BR OPTARG .
.sp .5
A leading
.B :
in
.I optstring
causes
.B getopts
to store the letter of an invalid
option in
.SM
.BR OPTARG ,
and to set
.I vname
to
.B ?
for an unknown option and to
.B :
when a required option argument is missing.
Otherwise,
.B getopts
prints an error message.
The exit status is non-zero when there are no more options.
.sp .5
There is no way to specify any of the options
.BR : ,
.BR + ,
.BR \- ,
.BR ? ,
.BR [ ,
and
.BR ] .
The option
.B #
can only be specified as the first option.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3hist\fP \*(OK \f3\-e\fP \f2ename\^\fP \ \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-nlr\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2first\^\fP \*(OK \f2last\^\fP \*(CK \*(CK
.TP
\f3hist \-s \fP \*(OK \f2old\fP\f3\=\fP\f2new\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2command\^\fP \*(CK
.PD
In the first form,
a range of commands from
.I first\^
to
.I last\^
is selected from the last
.SM
.B HISTSIZE
commands that were typed at the terminal.
The arguments
.I first\^
and
.I last\^
may be specified as a number or as a string.
A string is used to locate the most recent command starting with
the given string.
A negative number is used as an offset to the current command number.
If the
.B \-l
option
is selected,
the commands are listed on standard output.
Otherwise, the editor program
.I ename\^
is invoked on a file containing these
keyboard commands.
If
.I ename\^
is not supplied, then the value of the variable
.SM
.B HISTEDIT
is used.
If
.SM
.B HISTEDIT
is not set, then
.SM
.B FCEDIT
(default
.BR /bin/ed\^ )
is used as the editor.
When editing is complete, the edited command(s)
is executed if the changes have been saved.
If
.I last\^
is not specified,
then it will be set to
.IR first .
If
.I first\^
is not specified,
the default is the previous command
for editing and \-16 for listing.
The option
.B \-r
reverses the order of the commands and
the option
.B \-n
suppresses command numbers when listing.
In the second form,
.I command\^
is interpreted as
.I first\^
described above
and defaults to the last command executed.
The resulting command is executed
after the optional substitution
\f2old\^\fP\f3=\fP\f2new\^\fP
is performed.
.TP
\f3jobs\fP \*(OK \f3\-lnp\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2job\^\fP \.\|.\|. \*(CK
Lists information about each given job; or all active jobs if
.I job
is omitted.
The
.B \-l
option lists process ids in addition to the normal information.
The
.B \-n
option only displays jobs that have stopped or exited since last
notified.
The
.B \-p
option causes only the process group to be listed.
See
.I Jobs
for a description of the format of
.IR job .
.TP
.PD 0
\f3kill\fP \*(OK \f3\-s\fP \f2signame\^\fP \*(CK \f2job\^\fP .\|.\|.
.TP
.PD 0
\f3kill\fP \*(OK \f3\-n\fP \f2signum\^\fP \*(CK \f2job\^\fP .\|.\|.
.TP
\f3kill\fP \f3\-Ll\fP \*(OK \f2sig\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
.PD
Sends either the TERM (terminate) signal or the
specified signal to the specified jobs or processes.
Signals are either given by number with the
.B \-n
option or by name with the
.B \-s
option
(as given in
.BR <signal.h> ,
stripped of the prefix ``SIG'' with
the exception that SIGCLD is named CHLD).
For backward compatibility, the
.B n
and
.B s
can be omitted and the number or name placed immediately
after the
.BR \- .
If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup),
then the job or process will be sent a CONT (continue) signal
if it is stopped.
The argument
.I job\^
can be the process id of a process that is not a member of one of the
active jobs.
See
.I Jobs
for a description of the format of
.IR job .
In the third form,
.BR "kill \-l" ,
or
.BR "kill \-L" ,
if
.I sig\^
is not specified,
the signal names are listed.
The
.B \-l
option list only the signal names.
.B \-L
options lists each signal name and corresponding number.
Otherwise, for each
.I sig\^
that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.
For each
.I sig\^
that is a number, the signal name corresponding to the
least significant 8 bits of
.I sig\^
is listed.
.TP
\f3let\fP \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|.
Each
.I arg
is a separate
.I "arithmetic expression"
to be evaluated.
.B let
only recognizes octal constants starting with
.B 0
when the
.B set
option
.B letoctal
is on.
See
.I "Arithmetic Evaluation"
above, for a description of arithmetic expression evaluation.
.sp .5
The exit status is
0 if the value of the last expression
is non-zero, and 1 otherwise.
.TP
\(dg \f3newgrp\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
Equivalent to
.BI "exec /bin/newgrp" " arg\^"
\&.\|.\|.\^.
.TP
\f3print\fP \*(OK \f3\-CRenprsv\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-u\fP \f2unit\^\fP\*(CK \*(OK \f3\-f\fP \f2format\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
With no options or with option
.B \-
or
.BR \-\|\- ,
each
.I arg
is printed
on standard output.
The
.B \-f
option causes the arguments to be printed as
described by
.BR printf .
In this case, any
.BR e ,
.BR n ,
.BR r ,
.B R
options are ignored.
Otherwise,
unless the
.BR \-C ,
.BR \-R ,
.BR \-r ,
or
.B \-v
are specified, the following
escape conventions will be applied:
.RS
.PD 0
.TP
.B \ea
The alert character (ascii
.BR 07 ).
.TP
.B \eb
The backspace character (ascii
.BR 010 ).
.TP
.B \ec
Causes
.B print
to end without processing more arguments and
not adding a new-line.
.TP
.B \ef
The formfeed character (ascii
.BR 014 ).
.TP
.B \en
The new-line character (ascii
.BR 012 ).
.TP
.B \er
The carriage return character (ascii
.BR 015 ).
.TP
.B \et
The tab character (ascii
.BR 011 ).
.TP
.B \ev
The vertical tab character (ascii
.BR 013 ).
.TP
.B \eE
The escape character (ascii
.BR 033 ).
.TP
.B \e\e
The backslash character \e.
.TP
.BI \e0 x
The character defined by the 1, 2, or 3-digit octal
string given by \fIx\fP.
.PD
.PP
The
.B \-R
option will print all subsequent arguments and options
other than
.BR \-n .
The
.B \-e
causes the above escape conventions to be applied.
This is the default behavior.
It reverses the effect of an earlier
.BR \-r .
The
.B \-p
option causes the
arguments to be written onto the pipe
of the process spawned with
.B \(bv&
instead of standard output.
The
.B \-v
option treats each
.I arg\^
as a variable name and writes the value in
the
.B printf
.B %B
format.
The
.B \-C
option treats each
.I arg\^
as a variable name and writes the value in
the
.B printf
.B %#B
format.
The
.B \-s
option causes the
arguments to be written onto the history file
instead of standard output.
The
.B \-u
option can be used to specify a one digit
file descriptor unit number
.I unit\^
on which the
output will be placed.
The default is 1.
If the option
.B \-n
is used, no
.B new-line\^
is added to the output.
.RE
.TP
\f3printf\fP \f2format\^\fP \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
The arguments
.I arg\^
are printed on standard output
in accordance with the ANSI-C
formatting rules associated with the format string
.IR format .
If the number of arguments exceeds the number of
format specifications, the
.B format\^
string is reused to format remaining arguments.
The following extensions can also be used:
.RS
.PD 0
.TP
.B %b
A
.B %b
format can be used instead of
.B %s
to cause escape sequences in the corresponding
.I arg\^
to be expanded as described in
.BR print.
.TP
.B %B
A
.B %B
option causes each of the arguments to be treated
as variable names and the binary value of variable
will be printed.
The alternate flag
.B #
causes a compound variable to be output on a single line.
This is most useful for compound variables and variables whose attribute
is
.BR \-b .
.TP
.B %H
A
.B %H
format can be used instead of
.B %s
to cause characters in
.I arg\^
that are special in HTML and XML
to be output as their entity name.
The alternate flag
.B #
formats the output for use as a URI.
.TP
.B %P
A
.B %P
format can be used instead of
.B %s
to cause
.I arg\^
to be interpreted as an extended regular
expression and be printed as a shell pattern.
.TP
.B %R
A
.B %R
format can be used instead of
.B %s
to cause
.I arg\^
to be interpreted as a shell pattern
and to be printed as an extended regular expression.
.TP
.B %q
A
.B %q
format can be used instead of
.B %s
to cause the resulting string to be quoted in a manner than can
be reinput to the shell.
When
.B q
is preceded by the alternative format specifier,
.BR # ,
the string is quoted in manner suitable as a field in a
.B .csv
format file.
.TP
.BI %( date-format )T
A
.BI %( date-format )T
format can be use to treat an argument as a date/time string
and to format the date/time according to the
.I date-format\^
as defined for the
.BR date (1)
command.
.TP
.B %Z
A
.B %Z
format will output a byte whose value is 0.
.TP
.B %d
The precision field of the
.B %d
format can be followed by a
.B .
and the output base.
In this case, the
.B #
flag character causes
.IB base #
to be prepended.
.TP
.B #
The
.B #
flag, when used with the
.B %d
format without an output base,
displays the output in powers of 1000 indicated by one of the following suffixes:
.BR "k M G T P E" ,
and when used with the
.B %i
format displays the output in powers of 1024 indicated by one of the following suffixes:
.BR "Ki Mi Gi Ti Pi Ei" .
.TP
.B =
The
.B =
flag centers the output within the specified field width.
.TP
.B L
The
.B L
flag, when used with the
.B %c
or
.B %s
formats, treats precision as character width instead of byte count.
.TP
.B ,
The
.B ,
flag, when used with the
.B %d
or
.B %f
formats, separates groups of digits with the grouping delimiter
.RB  ( ,
on groups of 3 in the C locale.)
.PD
.PP
.RE
.TP
\f3pwd\fP \*(OK \f3\-LP\fP \*(CK
Outputs the value of the current working
directory.
The
.B \-L
option is the default; it prints the logical name of the current directory.
If the
.B \-P
option is given,
all symbolic links are resolved from the name.
The last instance of
.B \-L
or
.B \-P
on the command line
determines which method is used.
.TP
\f3read\fP \*(OK \f3\-ACSprsv\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-d\fP \f2delim\^\fP\*(CK \*(OK \f3\-n\fP \f2n\^\fP\*(CK \*(OK \*(OK \f3\-N\fP \f2n\^\fP\*(CK \*(OK \*(OK \f3\-t\fP \f2timeout\^\fP\*(CK \*(OK \f3\-u\fP \f2unit\^\fP\*(CK \*(OK \f2vname\f3?\f2prompt\^\f1 \*(CK \*(OK \f2vname\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
The shell input mechanism.
One line is read and
is broken up into fields using the characters in
.B
.SM IFS
as separators.
The escape character,
.BR \e ,
is used to remove any special meaning for the next
character and for line continuation.
The
.B \-d
option
causes the read to continue to the first character of
.I delim\^
rather than new-line.
The
.B \-n
option causes at most
.I n\^
bytes to read rather a full line
but will return when reading from a slow device
as soon as any characters have been read.
The
.B \-N
option causes exactly
.I n\^
to be read unless an end-of-file has been encountered or
the read times out because of the
.B \-t
option.
In raw mode,
.B \-r,
the
.B \e
character is not treated specially.
The first
field is assigned to the first
.IR vname ,
the second field
to the second
.IR vname ,
etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last
.IR vname .
When
.IR vname
has the binary attribute and
.B \-n
or
.B \-N
is specified, the bytes that are read are stored directly
into the variable.
If the
.B \-v
is specified, then the value of the first
.I vname\^
will be used as a default value when reading from a terminal device.
The
.B \-A
option causes the variable
.I vname\^
to be unset and each field that is read to be stored in
successive elements of the indexed array
.IR vname.
The
.B \-C
option causes the variable
.I vname\^
to be read as a compound variable.  Blanks will be ignored when
finding the beginning open parenthesis.
The \-S
option causes the line to be treated like a record in a
.B .csv
format file so that double quotes can be used to allow the delimiter
character and the new-line character to appear within a field.
The
.B \-p
option causes the input line
to be taken from the input pipe
of a process spawned by the shell
using
.BR \(bv& .
If the
.B \-s
option is present,
the input will be saved as a command in the history file.
The option
.B \-u
can be used to specify a one digit file
descriptor unit
.I unit\^
to read from.
The file descriptor can be opened with the
.B exec\^
special built-in command.
The default value of unit
.I n\^
is 0.
The option
.B \-t
is used to specify a timeout in
seconds when reading from a terminal or pipe.
If
.I vname\^
is omitted, then
.SM
.B REPLY
is used as the default
.IR vname .
An end-of-file with the
.B \-p
option causes cleanup for this process
so that another can be spawned.
If the first argument contains a
.BR ? ,
the remainder of this word is used as a
.I prompt\^
on standard error
when the shell is interactive.
The exit status is 0 unless an end-of-file is encountered
or
.B read
has timed out.
.TP
\(dg\(dg \f3readonly\fP \*(OK \f3\-p\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2vname\fP\*(OK\f3=\fP\f2value\^\fP\*(CK \*(CK .\|.\|.
If
.I vname\^
is not given,
the names and values of each variable with
the readonly attribute is printed with the values
quoted in a manner that allows them to be re-inputted.
The
.B \-p
option
causes the word
.B readonly
to be inserted before each one.
Otherwise, the given
.IR vname s
are marked
readonly and these
names cannot be changed
by subsequent assignment.
When defining a type, if the value of a readonly sub-variable is not defined
the value is required when creating each instance.
.TP
\(dg \f3return\fP \*(OK \f2n\^\fP \*(CK
Causes a shell
.I function
or
\f3\|.\fP
script to return
to the invoking script
with the exit status specified by
.IR n .
The value will be the least significant 8 bits of the specified status.
If
.I n\^
is omitted, then the return status is that of the last command executed.
If
.B return
is invoked while not in a
.I function
or a
\f3\|.\fP
script,
then it behaves the same as
.BR exit .
.TP
\(dg \f3set\fP \*(OK \f3\(+-BCGabefhkmnoprstuvx\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\(+-o\fP \*(OK \f2option\^\fP \*(CK \*(CK .\|.\|. \*(OK \f3\(+-A\fP \f2vname\^\fP \*(CK  \*(OK \f2arg\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
The options for this command have meaning as follows:
.RS
.PD 0
.TP 8
.B \-A
Array assignment.
Unset the variable
.I vname
and assign values sequentially from the
.I arg\^
list.
If
.B +A
is used, the variable
.I vname
is not unset first.
.TP 8
.B \-B
Enable brace pattern field generation.
This is the default behavior.
.TP 8
.B \-B
Enable brace group expansion.  On by default.
.TP 8
.B \-C
Prevents redirection
.B >
from truncating existing files.
Files that are created are opened with the O_EXCL mode.
Requires
.B >\(bv
to truncate a file when turned on.
.TP 8
.B \-G
Causes the pattern
.B \(**\(**
by itself to match files and zero or more directories and sub-directories
when used for file name generation.
If followed by a
.B /
only directories and sub-directories are matched.
.TP 8
.B \-a
All subsequent variables that are defined are automatically exported.
.TP 8
.B \-b
Prints job completion messages as soon as a background job changes
state rather than waiting for the next prompt.
.TP 8
.B \-e
Unless contained in a
.B \(bv\(bv
or
.B &&
command, or the command following an
.B if
.B while
or
.B until
command or in the pipeline following
.BR ! ,
if a command has a non-zero exit status,
execute the
.SM
.B ERR
trap, if set,
and exit.
This mode is disabled while reading profiles.
.TP 8
.B \-f
Disables file name generation.
.TP 8
.B \-h
Each command
becomes a tracked alias when first encountered.
.TP 8
.B \-k
(Obsolete). All variable assignment arguments are placed in the environment for a command,
not just those that precede the command name.
.TP 8
.B \-m
Background jobs will run in a separate process group
and a line will print upon completion.
The exit status of background jobs is reported in a completion message.
On systems with job control,
this option is turned on automatically for
interactive shells.
.TP 8
.B \-n
Read commands and check them for syntax errors, but do not execute them.
Ignored for interactive shells.
.TP 8
.B \-o
The following argument can be one of the following option names:
.RS
.TP 8
.B allexport
Same as
.BR \-a .
.TP 8
.B errexit
Same as
.BR \-e .
.TP 8
.B bgnice
All background jobs are run at a lower priority.
This is the default mode.
.TP 8
.B braceexpand
Same as
.BR \-B .
.TP 8
.B emacs
Puts you in an
.I emacs
style in-line editor for command entry.
.TP 8
.B globstar
Same as
.BR \-G .
.TP 8
.B gmacs
Puts you in a
.I gmacs
style in-line editor for command entry.
.TP 8
.B ignoreeof
The shell will not exit on end-of-file.
The command
.B exit
must be used.
.TP 8
.B keyword
Same as
.BR \-k .
.TP 8
.B letoctal
The
.B let
command allows octal constants starting with
.BR 0 .
.TP 8
.B markdirs
All directory names resulting from file name generation have a trailing
.B /
appended.
.TP 8
.B monitor
Same as
.BR \-m .
.TP 8
.B multiline
The built-in editors will use multiple lines on the screen for lines
that are longer than the width of the screen.  This may not work
for all terminals.
.TP 8
.B noclobber
Same as
.BR \-C .
.TP 8
.B noexec
Same as
.BR \-n .
.TP 8
.B noglob
Same as
.BR \-f .
.TP 8
.B nolog
Do not save function definitions in the history file.
.TP 8
.B notify
Same as
.BR \-b .
.TP 8
.B nounset
Same as
.BR \-u .
.TP 8
.B pipefail
A pipeline will not complete until all components
of the pipeline have completed, and the return value
will be the value of the last non-zero command
to fail or zero if no command has failed.
.TP 8
.B showme
When enabled, simple commands or pipelines preceded by a semicolon
.RB ( ; )
will be displayed as if the
.B xtrace
option were enabled but will not be executed.
Otherwise, the leading
.B ;
will be ignored.
.TP 8
.B privileged
Same as
.BR \-p .
.TP 8
.B verbose
Same as
.BR \-v .
.TP 8
.B trackall
Same as
.BR \-h .
.TP 8
.B vi
Puts you in insert mode of a
.I vi\^
style in-line editor
until you hit the escape character
.BR 033 .
This puts you in control mode.
A return sends the line.
.TP 8
.B viraw
Each character is processed as it is typed
in
.I vi\^
mode.
.TP 8
.B xtrace
Same as
.BR \-x .
.PP
If no option name is supplied, then the current option settings are printed.
.RE
.TP 8
.B \-p
Disables processing of the
.B \s-1$HOME\s+1/.profile
file and uses the file
.B /etc/suid_profile
instead of the
.SM
.B ENV
file.
This mode is on whenever the effective uid (gid)
is not equal to the real uid (gid).
Turning this off causes the effective uid and gid to be
set to the real uid and gid.
.TP 8
.B \-r
Enables the restricted shell.  This option cannot be unset
once set.
.TP 8
.B \-s
Sort the positional parameters lexicographically.
.TP 8
.B \-t
(Obsolete).  Exit after reading and executing one command.
.TP 8
.B \-u
Treat unset parameters as an error when substituting.
.TP 8
.B \-v
Print shell input lines as they are read.
.TP 8
.B \-x
Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.
.TP 8
.B \-\|\-
Do not change any of the options; useful in setting
.B $1
to a value beginning with
.BR \- .
If no arguments follow this option then the positional parameters are unset.
.PD
.PP
As an obsolete feature,
if the first
.I arg\^
is
.B \-
then the
.B \-x
and
.B \-v
options are turned off and the next
.I arg
is treated as the first argument.
Using
.B \+
rather than
.B \-
causes these options to be turned off.
These options can also be used upon invocation of the shell.
The current set of options may be found in
.BR $\- .
Unless
.B \-A
is specified,
the remaining arguments are positional
parameters and are assigned, in order, to
.B $1
.B $2
\&.\|.\|.\^.
If no arguments are given, then the names and values
of all variables are printed on the standard output.
.RE
.TP
\(dg \f3shift\fP \*(OK \f2n\^\fP \*(CK
.br
The positional parameters from
\f3$\fP\f2n\fP\f3+1\fP
\&.\|.\|.
are renamed
.B $1
\&.\|.\|.\^
, default
.I n\^
is 1.
The parameter
.I n\^
can be any arithmetic expression that evaluates to a non-negative
number less than or equal to
.BR $# .
.TP
\f3sleep\fP \f2seconds\^\fP
Suspends execution for the number of decimal seconds or fractions of a
second given by
.IR seconds .
.TP
\(dg \f3trap\fP \*(OK \f3\-p\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2action\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2sig\^\fP \*(CK .\|.\|.
The
.B \-p
option causes the trap
action associated with each trap as specified by the arguments
to be printed with appropriate quoting.
Otherwise,
.I action\^
will be processed as if it were an argument to
.B eval
when the shell
receives signal(s)
.IR sig .
Each
.I sig\^
can be given as a number or as the name of the signal.
Trap commands are executed in order of signal number.
Any attempt to set a trap on a signal that
was ignored on entry to the current shell
is ineffective.
If
.I action\^
is omitted and the first
.I sig\^
is a number, or if
.I action\^
is
.BR \- ,
then the trap(s) for each
.I sig\^
are reset
to their original values.
If
.I action\^
is the null
string then this signal is ignored by the shell and by the commands
it invokes.
If
.I sig\^
is
.SM
.B ERR
then
.I action\^
will be executed whenever a command has a non-zero exit status.
If
.I sig\^
is
.SM
.B DEBUG
then
.I action\^
will be executed before each command.
The variable
.B .sh.command
will contain the contents of the current command line
when
.I action\^
is running.
If the exit status of the trap is
.B 2
the command will not be executed.
If the exit status of the trap is
.B 255
and inside a function or a dot script,
the function or dot script will return.
If
.I sig\^
is
.B 0
or
.SM
.B EXIT
and the
.B trap
statement is executed inside the body of a function defined with the
.B function
.I name\^
syntax,
then the command
.I action\^
is executed
after the function completes.
If
.I sig\^
is
.B 0
or
.SM
.B EXIT
for a
.B trap
set outside any function
then the command
.I action\^
is executed
on exit from the shell.
If
.I sig\^
is
.SM
.BR KEYBD ,
then
.I action\^
will be executed whenever a key is read
while in
.BR emacs ,
.BR gmacs ,
or
.B vi\^
mode.
The
.B trap
command
with no arguments prints a list
of commands associated with each signal number.
.PP
An
.B exit
or
.B return
without an argument in a trap action will
preserve the exit status of the command that invoked the trap.
.TP
\f3true\fP
Does nothing, and exits 0. Used with
.B while
for infinite loops.
.TP
\(dg\(dg \f3typeset\fP \*(OK \f3\(+-ACHSfblmnprtux\^\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\(+-EFLRXZi\*(OK\f2n\^\fP\*(CK \*(CK   \*(OK \f3\+-M  \*(OK \f2mapname\fP \*(CK \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-T  \*(OK \f2tname\fP=(\f2assign_list\fP) \*(CK \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-h \f2str\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f3\-a\fP \*(OK\f2type\fP\*(CK \*(CK \*(OK \f2vname\^\fP\*(OK\f3=\fP\f2value\^\fP \*(CK \^ \*(CK .\|.\|.
Sets attributes and values for shell variables and functions.
When invoked inside a function defined with the
.B function
.I name\^
syntax,
a new instance of the variable
.I vname\^
is created,
and the variable's value and type are restored
when the function completes.
The following list of attributes may be specified:
.RS
.PD 0
.TP
.B \-A
Declares
.I vname\^
to be an associative array.
Subscripts are strings rather than arithmetic
expressions.
.TP
.B \-C
causes each
.I vname\^
to be a compound variable.
.I value\^
names a compound variable it is copied into
.IR vname .
Otherwise, it unsets each
.IR vname .
.TP
.B \-a
Declares
.I vname\^
to be an indexed array.
If
.I type\^
is specified, it must be the name of an enumeration
type created with the
.B enum
command and it allows enumeration constants to be used
as subscripts.
.TP
.B \-E
Declares
.I vname\^
to be a double precision floating point number.
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the number of significant figures
that are used when expanding
.IR vname .
Otherwise, ten significant figures will be used.
.TP
.B \-F
Declares
.I vname\^
to be a double precision floating point number.
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the number of places after the
decimal point that are used when expanding
.IR vname .
Otherwise ten places after the decimal point will be used.
.TP
.B \-H
This option provides UNIX to host-name file mapping on non-UNIX
machines.
.TP
.B \-L
Left justify and remove leading blanks from
.IR value .
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the width
of the field,
otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of
first assignment.
When the variable is assigned to, it is
filled on the right with blanks or truncated, if necessary, to
fit into the field.
The
.B \-R
option is turned off.
.TP
.B \-M
Use the character mapping
.I mapping\^
defined by
.IR wctrans (3).
such as
.B tolower
and
.B toupper
when assigning a value to each of the specified operands.
When
.I mapping\^
is specified and there are not operands, all variables
that use this mapping are written to standard output.
When
.I mapping\^
is omitted and there are no operands, all mapped
variables are written to standard output.
.TP
.B \-R
Right justify and fill with leading blanks.
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the width
of the field,
otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of
first assignment.
The field is left filled with blanks or
truncated from the end if the
variable is reassigned.
The
.B \-L
option is turned off.
.TP
.B \-S
When used within the
.I assign_list\^
of a type definition, it causes the specified sub-variable
to be shared by all instances of the type.
When used inside a function defined with the
.B function
reserved word, the specified variables will have
.I "function static\^"
scope.
Otherwise, the variable is unset prior to processing the assignment list.
.TP
.B \-T
If followed by \fItname\^\fP, it
creates a type named by \fItname\^\fP using the compound
assignment
.I assign_list\^
to \f2tname\fP.
Otherwise, it writes all the type definitions to standard output.
.TP
.B \-X
Declares
.I vname\^
to be a double precision floating point number
and expands using the
.B %a
format of ISO-C99.
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the number of hex digits after
the radix point that is used when expanding
.IR vname .
The default is 10.
.TP
.B \-Z
Right justify and fill with leading zeros if
the first non-blank character is a digit and the
.B \-L
option has not been set.
Remove leading zeros if the
.B \-L
option is also set.
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the width
of the field,
otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of
first assignment.
.TP
.B \-f
The names refer to function names rather than
variable names.
No assignments can be made and the only other
valid options are
.BR \-S ,
.BR \-t ,
.B \-u
and
.BR \-x .
The \-S
can be used with discipline functions defined in a type to indicate that
the function is static.  For a static function, the same method will be used by all instances of that type no matter which instance references it.  In addition,
it can only use value of variables from the original type definition.  These
discipline functions cannot be redefined in any type instance.
The
.B \-t
option
turns on execution tracing for this function.
The
.B \-u
option
causes this function to be marked undefined.
The
.SM
.B FPATH
variable will be searched to find the function definition
when the function is referenced.
If no options other than
.B \-f
is specified, then the function definition will be displayed
on standard output.  If
.B +f
is specified, then a line containing the function name followed
by a shell comment containing the line number and path name of the
file where this function was defined, if any, is displayed.
The exit status can be used to determine whether the function is
defined so that
.BI "typeset \-f .sh.math." name\^
will return 0 when math function
.I name\^
is defined and non-zero otherwise.
.TP
.B \-b
The variable can hold any number of bytes of data.
The data can be text or binary.
The value is represented by the base64 encoding of the data.
If
.B \-Z
is also specified, the size in bytes of the
data in the buffer will be determined by the size associated with the
.BR \-Z .
If the base64 string assigned results in more data, it will be
truncated.  Otherwise, it will be filled with bytes
whose value is zero.
The
.B printf
format
.B %B
can be used to output the actual data in this buffer instead
of the base64 encoding of the data.
.TP
.B \-h
Used within type definitions to add information when generating
information about the sub-variable on the man page.
It is ignored when used outside of a type definition.
When used with
.B \-f
the information is associated with the corresponding discipline
function.
.TP
.B \-i
Declares
.I vname\^
to be represented internally as integer.
The right hand side of an assignment is evaluated as an
arithmetic expression when assigning to an integer.
If
.I n\^
is non-zero, it defines the output arithmetic base,
otherwise the output base will be ten.
.TP
.B \-l
Used with
.BR \-i ,
.B \-E
or
.BR \-F ,
to indicate long integer, or long float.
Otherwise, all upper-case characters are
converted to lower-case.
The upper-case option,
.BR \-u ,
is turned off.
Equivalent to
.B "\-M tolower" .
.TP
.B \-m
moves or renames the variable.
The value is the name of a variable whose value will be moved to
.IR vname\^ .
The original variable will be unset.
Cannot be used with any other options.
.TP
.B \-n
Declares
.I vname\^
to be a reference to the variable whose name is
defined by the value of variable
.IR vname .
This is usually used to reference a variable inside
a function whose name has been passed as an argument.
Cannot be used with any other options.
.TP
.B \-p
The name, attributes and values for the given
.IR vname s
are written on standard output in a form that can be
used as shell input.
If
.B +p
is specified, then the values are not displayed.
.TP
.B \-r
The given
.IR vname s
are marked
readonly and these
names cannot be changed
by subsequent assignment.
.TP
.B \-t
Tags the variables.
Tags are user definable and have no special
meaning to the shell.
.TP
.B \-u
When given along with
.BR \-i ,
specifies unsigned integer.
Otherwise, all lower-case characters are converted
to upper-case.
The lower-case option,
.BR \-l ,
is turned off.
Equivalent to
.B "\-M toupper" .
.TP
.B \-x
The given
.IR vname s
are marked for automatic
export to the
.I environment\^
of subsequently-executed commands.
Variables whose names contain a \fB\s+2.\s-2\fP
cannot be exported.
.PD
.PP
The
.B \-i
attribute cannot be specified along with
.BR \-R ,
.BR \-L ,
.BR \-Z ,
or
.BR \-f .
.PP
Using
.B \+
rather than
.B \-
causes these options to be turned off.
If no
.I vname\^
arguments are given,
a list of
.I vnames\^
(and optionally the
.IR values\^ )
of the
.I variables\^
is printed.
(Using
.B \+
rather than
.B \-
keeps the
values from being printed.)
The
.B \-p
option causes
.B typeset
followed by the option letters
to be printed before each name
rather than the names of the options.
If any option other than
.B \-p
is given,
only those variables
which have all of the given
options are printed.
Otherwise, the
.IR vname s
and
.I attributes\^
of all
.I variables\^
that have attributes
are printed.
.RE
.TP
\f3ulimit\fP \*(OK \f3\-HSacdfmnpstv\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2limit\^\fP \*(CK
Set or display a resource limit.
The available resource limits are listed below.
Many systems do not support one or more of these limits.
The limit for a specified resource is set when
.I limit\^
is specified.
The value of
.I limit\^
can be a number in the unit specified below with each resource,
or the value
.BR unlimited .
The
.B \-H
and
.B \-S
options specify whether the hard limit or the
soft limit for the given resource is set.
A hard limit cannot be increased once it is set.  A soft
limit can be increased up to the value of the hard limit.
If neither the
.B H
nor
.B S
option is specified, the limit applies to both.
The current resource limit is printed when
.I limit\^
is omitted.
In this case, the soft limit is printed unless
.B H
is specified.
When more than one resource is specified, then the limit
name and unit is printed before the value.
.RS
.PD 0
.TP
.B \-a
Lists all of the current resource limits.
.TP
.B \-c
The number of 512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
.TP
.B \-d
The number of K-bytes on the size of the data area.
.TP
.B \-f
The number of 512-byte blocks on files that can be written by the
current process or by child processes (files of any size may be read).
.TP
.B \-m
The number of K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
.TP
.B \-n
The number of file descriptors plus 1.
.TP
.B \-p
The number of 512-byte blocks for pipe buffering.
.TP
.B \-s
The number of K-bytes on the size of the stack area.
.TP
.B \-t
The number of CPU seconds to be used by each process.
.TP
.B \-v
The number of K-bytes for virtual memory.
.PD
.PP
If no option is given,
.B \-f
is assumed.
.RE
.TP
\f3umask\fP \*(OK \f3\-S\fP \*(CK \*(OK \f2mask\^\fP \*(CK
The user file-creation mask is set to
.I mask\^
(see
.IR umask (2)).
.I mask
can either be an octal number or
a symbolic value as described in
.IR chmod (1).
If a symbolic value is given,
the new
umask value is the complement of the result of
applying
.I mask\^
to the complement of the previous umask value.
If
.I mask\^
is omitted, the current value of the mask is printed.
The
.B \-S
option causes the mode to be printed as a symbolic
value.  Otherwise, the
mask is printed in octal.
.TP
\(dg \f3unalias\fP \*(OK \f3\-a\fP \*(CK \f2name\^\fP .\|.\|.
The aliases
given by the list of
.IR name s
are removed from the alias list.
The
.B \-a
option causes all the
aliases to be unset.
.TP
\(dg\f3unset\fP \*(OK \f3\-fnv\fP \*(CK \f2vname\^\fP .\|.\|.
The variables given by the list of
.IR vname s
are unassigned,
i.e.,
except for sub-variables within a type,
their values and attributes are erased.
For sub-variables of a type, the values are reset to the
default value from the type definition.
Readonly variables cannot be unset.
If the
.B \-f
option
is set, then the names refer to
.I function\^
names.
If the
.B \-v
option is set, then the names refer to
.I variable\^
names.
The
.B \-f
option overrides
.BR \-v .
If
.B \-n
is set and
.I name\^
is a name reference, then
.I name\^
will be unset rather than the variable
that it references.
The default is equivalent to
.BR \-v .
Unsetting
.SM
.BR LINENO ,
.SM
.BR MAILCHECK ,
.SM
.BR OPTARG ,
.SM
.BR OPTIND ,
.SM
.BR RANDOM ,
.SM
.BR SECONDS ,
.SM
.BR TMOUT ,
and
.SM
.B _
removes their special meaning even if they are
subsequently assigned to.
.TP
\f3wait\fP \*(OK \f2job\^\fP .\|.\|. \*(CK
Wait for the specified
.I job
and
report its termination status.
If
.I job\^
is not given, then all currently active child processes are waited for.
The exit status from this command is that of
the last process waited for if
.I job\^
is specified; otherwise it is zero.
See
.I Jobs
for a description of the format of
.IR job .
.TP
\f3whence\fP \*(OK \f3\-afpv\fP \*(CK \f2name\^\fP .\|.\|.
For each
.IR name ,
indicate how it
would be interpreted if used as a command name.
.sp .5
The
.B \-v
option
produces a more verbose report.
The
.B \-f
option skips the search for functions.
The
.B \-p
option
does a path search for
.I name\^
even if name is an alias, a function, or a reserved word.
The
.B \-p
option turns off the
.B \-v
option.
The
.B \-a
option
is similar to the
.B \-v
option but causes
all interpretations of the given name to be reported.
.SS Invocation.
If the shell is invoked by
.IR exec (2),
and the first character of argument zero
.RB ( $0 )
is
.BR \- ,
then the shell is assumed to be a
.I login
shell and
commands are read from
.B /etc/profile
and then from either
.B .profile
in the current directory or
.BR \s-1$HOME\s+1/.profile ,
if either file exists.
Next, for interactive shells, commands are read from
the file named by
performing parameter expansion, command substitution,
and arithmetic substitution on
the value of the environment variable
.SM
.B ENV
if the file exists.
If the
.B \-s
option is not present and
.I arg\^
and a file by the name of
.I arg\^
exists, then it reads and executes this script.
Otherwise, if the first
.I arg\^
does not contain a
.BR / ,
a path search is performed on the first
.I arg\^
to determine the name of the script to execute.
The script
.I arg\^
must have execute permission and any
.I setuid
and
.I setgid
settings will be ignored.
If the script is not found on the path,
.I arg\^
is processed as if it named a built-in command or function.
Commands are then read as described below;
the following options are interpreted by the shell
when it is invoked:
.PP
.PD 0
.TP 8
.B \-D
Do not execute the script, but output the set of double quoted strings
preceded by a
.BR $ .
These strings are needed for localization of the script to different locales.
.TP 8
.B \-E
Reads the file named by the
.B ENV
variable or by
\s-1$HOME\s+1/\f3.\fPkshrc
if not defined after the profiles.
.TP 10
.BI \-c
If the
.B \-c
option is present, then
commands are read from the first
.IR arg .
Any remaining arguments become
positional parameters starting at
.BR 0 .
.TP
.B \-s
If the
.B \-s
option is present or if no
arguments remain,
then commands are read from the standard input.
Shell output,
except for the output of the
.I Special Commands\^
listed above,
is written to
file descriptor 2.
.TP
.B \-i
If the
.B \-i
option is present or
if the shell input and output are attached to a terminal (as told by
.IR tcgetattr (2)),
then this shell is
.IR interactive .
In this case \s-1TERM\s+1 is ignored (so that \f3kill 0\fP
does not kill an interactive shell) and \s-1INTR\s+1 is caught and ignored
(so that
.B wait
is ).
In all cases, \s-1QUIT\s+1 is ignored by the shell.
.TP
.B \-r
If the
.B \-r
option is present, the shell is a restricted shell.
.TP
.B \-D
A list of all double quoted strings that are preceded by a
.B $
will be printed on standard output and the shell will exit.
This set of strings will be subject to language translation
when the locale is not C or POSIX.
No commands will be executed.
.PD
.TP
.B \-P
If
.B \-P
or
.B \-o profile
is present, the shell is a profile shell (see
.IR pfexec (1)).
.TP
.BI \-R " filename\^"
The
.B \-R
.I filename\^
option is used
to generate a cross reference database
that can be used by a separate utility
to find definitions and references for variables and commands.
.PP
The remaining options and arguments are described under the
.B set
command above.
An optional
.B \-
as the first argument is ignored.
.if \nZ=0 \{.SS Rsh Only.
.I Rsh\}
.if \nZ=1 \{.SS Rksh Only.
.I Rksh\}
.if \nZ=2 \{.SS Rksh93 Only.
.I Rksh93\}
is used to set up login names and execution environments whose
capabilities are more controlled than those of the standard shell.
The actions of
.if \nZ=0 .B rsh\^
.if \nZ=1 .B rksh\^
.if \nZ=2 .B rksh93\^
are identical to those of
.if \nZ=0 .BR sh\^ ,
.if \nZ=1 .BR ksh\^ ,
.if \nZ=2 .BR ksh93\^ ,
except that the following are disallowed:
.RS
.PD 0
.PP
Unsetting the restricted option.
.br
changing directory (see
.IR cd (1)),
.br
setting or unsetting the value or attributes of
.SM
.BR SHELL ,
.SM
.BR ENV ,
.SM
.BR FPATH ,
or
.SM
.BR PATH\*S,
.br
specifying path or
command names containing
.BR / ,
.br
redirecting output
.RB ( > ,
.BR >| ,
.BR <> ,
and
.BR >> ).
.br
adding or deleting built-in commands.
.br
using
.B "command -p"
to invoke a command.
.PD
.RE
.PP
The restrictions above are enforced
after \f3.profile\fP and the
.SM
.B ENV
files are interpreted.
.PP
When a command to be executed is found to be a shell procedure,
.if \nZ=0 \{.B rsh\^
invokes
.I sh\^\}
.if \nZ=1 \{.B rksh\^
invokes
.I ksh\^\}
.if \nZ=2 \{.B rksh93\^
invokes
.I ksh93\^\}
to execute it.
Thus, it is possible to provide to the end-user shell procedures
that have access to the full power of
the standard shell,
while imposing a limited menu of commands;
this scheme assumes that the end-user does not have write and
execute permissions in the same directory.
.PP
The net effect of these rules is that the writer of the
.B .profile
has complete control over user actions,
by performing guaranteed setup actions
and leaving the user in an appropriate directory
(probably
.I not\^
the login directory).
.PP
The system administrator often sets up a directory
of commands
(e.g.,
.BR /usr/rbin )
that can be safely invoked by
.if \nZ=0 .BR rsh .
.if \nZ=1 .BR rksh .
.if \nZ=2 .BR rksh93 .
.SH EXIT STATUS
Errors detected by the shell, such as syntax errors,
cause the shell
to return a non-zero exit status.
If the shell is being used non-interactively,
then execution of the shell file is abandoned
unless the error occurs inside a subshell in which case
the subshell is abandoned.
Otherwise, the shell returns the exit status of
the last command executed (see also the
.B exit
command above).
Run time errors detected by the shell are reported by
printing the command or function name and the error condition.
If the line number that the error occurred on is greater than one,
then the line number is also printed in square brackets
.RB ( "[]" )
after the command or function name.
.SH FILES
.TP
.B /etc/profile
The system wide initialization file, executed for login shells.
.if \nZ=2 \{.br
.TP
.B /etc/ksh.kshrc
The system wide startup file, executed for interactive shells.
\}
.TP
.B \s-1$HOME\s+1/\f3.\fPprofile
The personal initialization file, executed for login shells after /etc/profile.
.TP
\s-1$HOME\s+1/\f3.\fP.kshrc
Default personal initialization file, executed for interactive shells when
.SM
.B ENV
is not set.
.TP
.B /etc/suid_profile
Alternative initialization file, executed instead of the personal initialization
file when the real and effective user or group id do not match.
.TP
.B /dev/null
NULL device
.SH SEE ALSO
cat(1),
cd(1),
chmod(1),
cut(1),
egrep(1),
echo(1),
emacs(1),
env(1),
fgrep(1),
gmacs(1),
grep(1),
newgrp(1),
pfexec(1),
stty(1),
test(1),
umask(1),
vi(1),
dup(2),
exec(2),
fork(2),
getpwnam(3),
ioctl(2),
lseek(2),
paste(1),
pathconf(2),
pipe(2),
sysconf(2),
umask(2),
ulimit(2),
wait(2),
wctrans(3),
rand(3),
a.out(5),
profile(5),
environ(7).
.PP
Morris I. Bolsky and David G. Korn,
.IR "The New KornShell Command and Programming Language" ,
Prentice Hall, 1995.
.PP
.I "POSIX \- Part 2: Shell and Utilities,"
IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, ISO/IEC 9945-2, IEEE, 1993.
.SH CAVEATS
.PP
If a command
is executed, and then a command with the same name is
installed in a directory in the search path before the directory where the
original command was found, the shell will continue to
.I exec\^
the original command.
Use the
.B \-t
option of the
.B alias\^
command to correct this situation.
.PP
Some very old shell scripts contain a
.B ^
as a synonym for the pipe character
.BR \(bv .
.PP
Using the
.B hist\^
built-in command within a compound command will cause the whole
command to disappear from the history file.
.PP
The built-in command \f3\|.\fP \f2file\^\fP
reads the whole file before any commands are executed.
Therefore,
.B alias
and
.B unalias
commands in the file
will not apply to any commands defined in the file.
.PP
Traps are not processed while a job is waiting for a foreground process.
Thus, a trap on
.B CHLD
won't be executed until the foreground job terminates.
.PP
It is a good idea to leave a space after the comma operator in
arithmetic expressions to prevent the comma from being interpreted
as the decimal point character in certain locales.