File: expression.h

package info (click to toggle)
ldc 1:1.12.0-1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: buster, sid
  • size: 80,880 kB
  • sloc: ansic: 123,899; cpp: 84,038; sh: 1,402; makefile: 1,083; asm: 919; objc: 65; exp: 30; python: 22
file content (1480 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 38,039 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480

/* Compiler implementation of the D programming language
 * Copyright (C) 1999-2018 by The D Language Foundation, All Rights Reserved
 * written by Walter Bright
 * http://www.digitalmars.com
 * Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0.
 * http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt
 * https://github.com/dlang/dmd/blob/master/src/expression.h
 */

#ifndef DMD_EXPRESSION_H
#define DMD_EXPRESSION_H

#include "mars.h"
#include "identifier.h"
#include "arraytypes.h"
#include "intrange.h"
#include "visitor.h"
#include "tokens.h"

#include "rmem.h"

class Type;
class TypeVector;
struct Scope;
class TupleDeclaration;
class VarDeclaration;
class FuncDeclaration;
class FuncLiteralDeclaration;
class Declaration;
class CtorDeclaration;
class NewDeclaration;
class Dsymbol;
class Import;
class Module;
class ScopeDsymbol;
class Expression;
class Declaration;
class AggregateDeclaration;
class StructDeclaration;
class TemplateInstance;
class TemplateDeclaration;
class ClassDeclaration;
class BinExp;
class OverloadSet;
class Initializer;
class StringExp;
class ArrayExp;
class SliceExp;
struct UnionExp;
#ifdef IN_GCC
typedef union tree_node Symbol;
#else
struct Symbol;          // back end symbol
#endif

void initPrecedence();

#if IN_LLVM
class SymbolDeclaration;
namespace llvm {
    class Constant;
    class Value;
}

// in expressionsem.d
Expression *expressionSemantic(Expression *e, Scope *sc);
// in typesem.d
Expression *defaultInit(Type *mt, const Loc &loc);
#endif

Expression *resolveProperties(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
Expression *resolvePropertiesOnly(Scope *sc, Expression *e1);
bool checkAccess(Loc loc, Scope *sc, Expression *e, Declaration *d);
bool checkAccess(Loc loc, Scope *sc, Package *p);
Expression *build_overload(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc, Expression *ethis, Expression *earg, Dsymbol *d);
Dsymbol *search_function(ScopeDsymbol *ad, Identifier *funcid);
void expandTuples(Expressions *exps);
TupleDeclaration *isAliasThisTuple(Expression *e);
int expandAliasThisTuples(Expressions *exps, size_t starti = 0);
FuncDeclaration *hasThis(Scope *sc);
Expression *fromConstInitializer(int result, Expression *e);
bool arrayExpressionSemantic(Expressions *exps, Scope *sc, bool preserveErrors = false);
TemplateDeclaration *getFuncTemplateDecl(Dsymbol *s);
Expression *valueNoDtor(Expression *e);
int modifyFieldVar(Loc loc, Scope *sc, VarDeclaration *var, Expression *e1);
Expression *resolveAliasThis(Scope *sc, Expression *e, bool gag = false);
Expression *doCopyOrMove(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
Expression *resolveOpDollar(Scope *sc, ArrayExp *ae, Expression **pe0);
Expression *resolveOpDollar(Scope *sc, ArrayExp *ae, IntervalExp *ie, Expression **pe0);
Expression *integralPromotions(Expression *e, Scope *sc);
bool discardValue(Expression *e);
bool isTrivialExp(Expression *e);

int isConst(Expression *e);
Expression *toDelegate(Expression *e, Type* t, Scope *sc);
AggregateDeclaration *isAggregate(Type *t);
IntRange getIntRange(Expression *e);
bool checkNonAssignmentArrayOp(Expression *e, bool suggestion = false);
bool isUnaArrayOp(TOK op);
bool isBinArrayOp(TOK op);
bool isBinAssignArrayOp(TOK op);
bool isArrayOpOperand(Expression *e);
Expression *arrayOp(BinExp *e, Scope *sc);
Expression *arrayOp(BinAssignExp *e, Scope *sc);
bool hasSideEffect(Expression *e);
bool canThrow(Expression *e, FuncDeclaration *func, bool mustNotThrow);
Expression *Expression_optimize(Expression *e, int result, bool keepLvalue);
MATCH implicitConvTo(Expression *e, Type *t);
Expression *implicitCastTo(Expression *e, Scope *sc, Type *t);
Expression *castTo(Expression *e, Scope *sc, Type *t);
Expression *ctfeInterpret(Expression *);
Expression *inlineCopy(Expression *e, Scope *sc);
Expression *op_overload(Expression *e, Scope *sc);
Type *toStaticArrayType(SliceExp *e);
Expression *scaleFactor(BinExp *be, Scope *sc);
Expression *typeCombine(BinExp *be, Scope *sc);
Expression *inferType(Expression *e, Type *t, int flag = 0);
Expression *semanticTraits(TraitsExp *e, Scope *sc);
Type *getIndirection(Type *t);

Expression *checkGC(Scope *sc, Expression *e);

/* Run CTFE on the expression, but allow the expression to be a TypeExp
 * or a tuple containing a TypeExp. (This is required by pragma(msg)).
 */
Expression *ctfeInterpretForPragmaMsg(Expression *e);

enum OwnedBy
{
    OWNEDcode,      // normal code expression in AST
    OWNEDctfe,      // value expression for CTFE
    OWNEDcache,     // constant value cached for CTFE
};

#define WANTvalue   0   // default
#define WANTexpand  1   // expand const/immutable variables if possible

class Expression : public RootObject
{
public:
    Loc loc;                    // file location
    Type *type;                 // !=NULL means that semantic() has been run
    TOK op;                     // to minimize use of dynamic_cast
    unsigned char size;         // # of bytes in Expression so we can copy() it
    unsigned char parens;       // if this is a parenthesized expression

    static void _init();
    Expression *copy();
    virtual Expression *syntaxCopy();

    // kludge for template.isExpression()
    int dyncast() const { return DYNCAST_EXPRESSION; }

    void print();
    const char *toChars();
    void error(const char *format, ...) const;
    void warning(const char *format, ...) const;
    void deprecation(const char *format, ...) const;

    // creates a single expression which is effectively (e1, e2)
    // this new expression does not necessarily need to have valid D source code representation,
    // for example, it may include declaration expressions
    static Expression *combine(Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
    static Expression *extractLast(Expression *e, Expression **pe0);
    static Expressions *arraySyntaxCopy(Expressions *exps);

    virtual dinteger_t toInteger();
    virtual uinteger_t toUInteger();
    virtual real_t toReal();
    virtual real_t toImaginary();
    virtual complex_t toComplex();
    virtual StringExp *toStringExp();
    virtual bool isLvalue();
    virtual Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    virtual Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *implicitCastTo(Scope *sc, Type *t)
    {
        return ::implicitCastTo(this, sc, t);
    }
    MATCH implicitConvTo(Type *t)
    {
        return ::implicitConvTo(this, t);
    }
    Expression *castTo(Scope *sc, Type *t)
    {
        return ::castTo(this, sc, t);
    }
    virtual Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);
    virtual bool checkType();
    virtual bool checkValue();
    bool checkScalar();
    bool checkNoBool();
    bool checkIntegral();
    bool checkArithmetic();
    bool checkDeprecated(Scope *sc, Dsymbol *s);
    bool checkDisabled(Scope *sc, Dsymbol *s);
    bool checkPurity(Scope *sc, FuncDeclaration *f);
    bool checkPurity(Scope *sc, VarDeclaration *v);
    bool checkSafety(Scope *sc, FuncDeclaration *f);
    bool checkNogc(Scope *sc, FuncDeclaration *f);
    bool checkPostblit(Scope *sc, Type *t);
    bool checkRightThis(Scope *sc);
    bool checkReadModifyWrite(TOK rmwOp, Expression *ex = NULL);
    virtual int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag = 0);
    virtual Expression *toBoolean(Scope *sc);
    virtual Expression *addDtorHook(Scope *sc);
    Expression *addressOf();
    Expression *deref();

    Expression *optimize(int result, bool keepLvalue = false)
    {
        return Expression_optimize(this, result, keepLvalue);
    }

    // Entry point for CTFE.
    // A compile-time result is required. Give an error if not possible
    Expression *ctfeInterpret()
    {
        return ::ctfeInterpret(this);
    }

    int isConst() { return ::isConst(this); }
    virtual bool isBool(bool result);
    Expression *op_overload(Scope *sc)
    {
        return ::op_overload(this, sc);
    }

    virtual bool hasCode()
    {
        return true;
    }

    virtual void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class IntegerExp : public Expression
{
public:
    dinteger_t value;

    static IntegerExp *create(Loc loc, dinteger_t value, Type *type);
    static IntegerExp *createi(Loc loc, int value, Type *type);
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    dinteger_t toInteger();
    real_t toReal();
    real_t toImaginary();
    complex_t toComplex();
    bool isBool(bool result);
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
    dinteger_t getInteger() { return value; }
    void setInteger(dinteger_t value);
    void normalize();
};

class ErrorExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }

    static ErrorExp *errorexp; // handy shared value
};

class RealExp : public Expression
{
public:
    real_t value;

    static RealExp *create(Loc loc, real_t value, Type *type);
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    dinteger_t toInteger();
    uinteger_t toUInteger();
    real_t toReal();
    real_t toImaginary();
    complex_t toComplex();
    bool isBool(bool result);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ComplexExp : public Expression
{
public:
    complex_t value;

    static ComplexExp *create(Loc loc, complex_t value, Type *type);
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    dinteger_t toInteger();
    uinteger_t toUInteger();
    real_t toReal();
    real_t toImaginary();
    complex_t toComplex();
    bool isBool(bool result);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class IdentifierExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Identifier *ident;

    static IdentifierExp *create(Loc loc, Identifier *ident);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DollarExp : public IdentifierExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DsymbolExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Dsymbol *s;
    bool hasOverloads;

    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ThisExp : public Expression
{
public:
    VarDeclaration *var;

    bool isBool(bool result);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class SuperExp : public ThisExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class NullExp : public Expression
{
public:
    unsigned char committed;    // !=0 if type is committed

    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    bool isBool(bool result);
    StringExp *toStringExp();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class StringExp : public Expression
{
public:
    void *string;       // char, wchar, or dchar data
    size_t len;         // number of chars, wchars, or dchars
    unsigned char sz;   // 1: char, 2: wchar, 4: dchar
    unsigned char committed;    // !=0 if type is committed
    utf8_t postfix;      // 'c', 'w', 'd'
    OwnedBy ownedByCtfe;

    static StringExp *create(Loc loc, char *s);
    static StringExp *create(Loc loc, void *s, size_t len);
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    StringExp *toStringExp();
    StringExp *toUTF8(Scope *sc);
    int compare(RootObject *obj);
    bool isBool(bool result);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    unsigned charAt(uinteger_t i) const;
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
#if IN_LLVM
    // The D version returns a slice.
    const char *toStringz() const
    {
        auto nbytes = len * sz;
        char* s = (char*)mem.xmalloc(nbytes + sz);
        writeTo(s, true);
        return s;
    }
#endif
    size_t numberOfCodeUnits(int tynto = 0) const;
    void writeTo(void* dest, bool zero, int tyto = 0) const;
    char *toPtr();
};

// Tuple

class TupleExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *e0;     // side-effect part
    /* Tuple-field access may need to take out its side effect part.
     * For example:
     *      foo().tupleof
     * is rewritten as:
     *      (ref __tup = foo(); tuple(__tup.field0, __tup.field1, ...))
     * The declaration of temporary variable __tup will be stored in TupleExp::e0.
     */
    Expressions *exps;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool equals(RootObject *o);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ArrayLiteralExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *basis;
    Expressions *elements;
    OwnedBy ownedByCtfe;

    static ArrayLiteralExp *create(Loc loc, Expressions *elements);
    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    Expression *getElement(d_size_t i);
    static Expressions* copyElements(Expression *e1, Expression *e2 = NULL);
    bool isBool(bool result);
    StringExp *toStringExp();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AssocArrayLiteralExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expressions *keys;
    Expressions *values;
    OwnedBy ownedByCtfe;

    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool isBool(bool result);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// scrubReturnValue is running
#define stageScrub          0x1
// hasNonConstPointers is running
#define stageSearchPointers 0x2
// optimize is running
#define stageOptimize       0x4
// apply is running
#define stageApply          0x8
//inlineScan is running
#define stageInlineScan     0x10
// toCBuffer is running
#define stageToCBuffer      0x20

class StructLiteralExp : public Expression
{
public:
    StructDeclaration *sd;      // which aggregate this is for
    Expressions *elements;      // parallels sd->fields[] with NULL entries for fields to skip
    Type *stype;                // final type of result (can be different from sd's type)

#if IN_LLVM
    // With the introduction of pointers returned from CTFE, struct literals can
    // now contain pointers to themselves. While in toElem, contains a pointer
    // to the memory used to build the literal for resolving such references.
    llvm::Value* inProgressMemory;

    // A global variable for taking the address of this struct literal constant,
    // if it already exists. Used to resolve self-references.
    llvm::Constant *globalVar;
#endif

    bool useStaticInit;         // if this is true, use the StructDeclaration's init symbol
    Symbol *sym;                // back end symbol to initialize with literal

    OwnedBy ownedByCtfe;

    // pointer to the origin instance of the expression.
    // once a new expression is created, origin is set to 'this'.
    // anytime when an expression copy is created, 'origin' pointer is set to
    // 'origin' pointer value of the original expression.
    StructLiteralExp *origin;

    // those fields need to prevent a infinite recursion when one field of struct initialized with 'this' pointer.
    StructLiteralExp *inlinecopy;

    // anytime when recursive function is calling, 'stageflags' marks with bit flag of
    // current stage and unmarks before return from this function.
    // 'inlinecopy' uses similar 'stageflags' and from multiple evaluation 'doInline'
    // (with infinite recursion) of this expression.
    int stageflags;

    static StructLiteralExp *create(Loc loc, StructDeclaration *sd, void *elements, Type *stype = NULL);
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    Expression *getField(Type *type, unsigned offset);
    int getFieldIndex(Type *type, unsigned offset);
    Expression *addDtorHook(Scope *sc);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DotIdExp;
DotIdExp *typeDotIdExp(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Identifier *ident);

class TypeExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool checkType();
    bool checkValue();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ScopeExp : public Expression
{
public:
    ScopeDsymbol *sds;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool checkType();
    bool checkValue();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class TemplateExp : public Expression
{
public:
    TemplateDeclaration *td;
    FuncDeclaration *fd;

    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    bool checkType();
    bool checkValue();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class NewExp : public Expression
{
public:
    /* thisexp.new(newargs) newtype(arguments)
     */
    Expression *thisexp;        // if !NULL, 'this' for class being allocated
    Expressions *newargs;       // Array of Expression's to call new operator
    Type *newtype;
    Expressions *arguments;     // Array of Expression's

    Expression *argprefix;      // expression to be evaluated just before arguments[]

    CtorDeclaration *member;    // constructor function
    NewDeclaration *allocator;  // allocator function
    bool onstack;               // allocate on stack
    bool thrownew;              // this NewExp is the expression of a ThrowStatement

    static NewExp *create(Loc loc, Expression *thisexp, Expressions *newargs, Type *newtype, Expressions *arguments);
    Expression *syntaxCopy();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class NewAnonClassExp : public Expression
{
public:
    /* thisexp.new(newargs) class baseclasses { } (arguments)
     */
    Expression *thisexp;        // if !NULL, 'this' for class being allocated
    Expressions *newargs;       // Array of Expression's to call new operator
    ClassDeclaration *cd;       // class being instantiated
    Expressions *arguments;     // Array of Expression's to call class constructor

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class SymbolExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Declaration *var;
    bool hasOverloads;

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// Offset from symbol

class SymOffExp : public SymbolExp
{
public:
    dinteger_t offset;

    bool isBool(bool result);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// Variable

class VarExp : public SymbolExp
{
public:
    /**
    * Semantic can be called multiple times for a single expression.
    * This field is needed to ensure the deprecation message will be printed only once.
    */
    bool hasCheckedAttrs;

    static VarExp *create(Loc loc, Declaration *var, bool hasOverloads = true);
    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool checkReadModifyWrite();
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// Overload Set

class OverExp : public Expression
{
public:
    OverloadSet *vars;

    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// Function/Delegate literal

class FuncExp : public Expression
{
public:
    FuncLiteralDeclaration *fd;
    TemplateDeclaration *td;
    TOK tok;

    bool equals(RootObject *o);
    void genIdent(Scope *sc);
    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    MATCH matchType(Type *to, Scope *sc, FuncExp **pfe, int flag = 0);
    const char *toChars();
    bool checkType();
    bool checkValue();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// Declaration of a symbol

// D grammar allows declarations only as statements. However in AST representation
// it can be part of any expression. This is used, for example, during internal
// syntax re-writes to inject hidden symbols.
class DeclarationExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Dsymbol *declaration;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();

    bool hasCode();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class TypeidExp : public Expression
{
public:
    RootObject *obj;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class TraitsExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Identifier *ident;
    Objects *args;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class HaltExp : public Expression
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class IsExp : public Expression
{
public:
    /* is(targ id tok tspec)
     * is(targ id == tok2)
     */
    Type *targ;
    Identifier *id;     // can be NULL
    TOK tok;       // ':' or '=='
    Type *tspec;        // can be NULL
    TOK tok2;      // 'struct', 'union', etc.
    TemplateParameters *parameters;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/****************************************************************/

class UnaExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *e1;
    Type *att1; // Save alias this type to detect recursion

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    Expression *incompatibleTypes();
    Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

typedef UnionExp (*fp_t)(const Loc &loc, Type *, Expression *, Expression *);
typedef int (*fp2_t)(const Loc &loc, TOK, Expression *, Expression *);

class BinExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *e1;
    Expression *e2;

    Type *att1; // Save alias this type to detect recursion
    Type *att2; // Save alias this type to detect recursion

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    Expression *incompatibleTypes();
    Expression *checkOpAssignTypes(Scope *sc);
    bool checkIntegralBin();
    bool checkArithmeticBin();

    Expression *reorderSettingAAElem(Scope *sc);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class BinAssignExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *ex);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/****************************************************************/

class CompileExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ImportExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AssertExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Expression *msg;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DotIdExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Identifier *ident;
    bool noderef;       // true if the result of the expression will never be dereferenced
    bool wantsym;       // do not replace Symbol with its initializer during semantic()

    static DotIdExp *create(Loc loc, Expression *e, Identifier *ident);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DotTemplateExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    TemplateDeclaration *td;

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DotVarExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Declaration *var;
    bool hasOverloads;

    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool checkReadModifyWrite();
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DotTemplateInstanceExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    TemplateInstance *ti;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool findTempDecl(Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DelegateExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    FuncDeclaration *func;
    bool hasOverloads;


    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DotTypeExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Dsymbol *sym;               // symbol that represents a type

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class CallExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Expressions *arguments;     // function arguments
    FuncDeclaration *f;         // symbol to call
    bool directcall;            // true if a virtual call is devirtualized

    static CallExp *create(Loc loc, Expression *e, Expressions *exps);
    static CallExp *create(Loc loc, Expression *e);
    static CallExp *create(Loc loc, Expression *e, Expression *earg1);
    static CallExp *create(Loc loc, FuncDeclaration *fd, Expression *earg1);

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *addDtorHook(Scope *sc);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AddrExp : public UnaExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class PtrExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class NegExp : public UnaExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class UAddExp : public UnaExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ComExp : public UnaExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class NotExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DeleteExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    bool isRAII;
    Expression *toBoolean(Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class CastExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    // Possible to cast to one type while painting to another type
    Type *to;                   // type to cast to
    unsigned char mod;          // MODxxxxx

    Expression *syntaxCopy();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class VectorExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    TypeVector *to;             // the target vector type before semantic()
    unsigned dim;               // number of elements in the vector

    static VectorExp *create(Loc loc, Expression *e, Type *t);
    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class SliceExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Expression *upr;            // NULL if implicit 0
    Expression *lwr;            // NULL if implicit [length - 1]
    VarDeclaration *lengthVar;
    bool upperIsInBounds;       // true if upr <= e1.length
    bool lowerIsLessThanUpper;  // true if lwr <= upr
    bool arrayop;               // an array operation, rather than a slice

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    bool isBool(bool result);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ArrayLengthExp : public UnaExp
{
public:

    static Expression *rewriteOpAssign(BinExp *exp);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class IntervalExp : public Expression
{
public:
    Expression *lwr;
    Expression *upr;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DelegatePtrExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DelegateFuncptrExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// e1[a0,a1,a2,a3,...]

class ArrayExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    Expressions *arguments;             // Array of Expression's
    size_t currentDimension;            // for opDollar
    VarDeclaration *lengthVar;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/****************************************************************/

class DotExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class CommaExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    bool isGenerated;
    bool allowCommaExp;
    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    bool isBool(bool result);
    Expression *toBoolean(Scope *sc);
    Expression *addDtorHook(Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class IndexExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    VarDeclaration *lengthVar;
    bool modifiable;
    bool indexIsInBounds;       // true if 0 <= e2 && e2 <= e1.length - 1

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);

    Expression *markSettingAAElem();

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/* For both i++ and i--
 */
class PostExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/* For both ++i and --i
 */
class PreExp : public UnaExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

enum MemorySet
{
    blockAssign     = 1,    // setting the contents of an array
    referenceInit   = 2,    // setting the reference of STCref variable
};

class AssignExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    int memset;         // combination of MemorySet flags

    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *ex);
    Expression *toBoolean(Scope *sc);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ConstructExp : public AssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class BlitExp : public AssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AddAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class MinAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class MulAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DivAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ModAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AndAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class OrAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class XorAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class PowAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ShlAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ShrAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class UshrAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class CatAssignExp : public BinAssignExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AddExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class MinExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class CatExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class MulExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class DivExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ModExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class PowExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ShlExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ShrExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class UshrExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class AndExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class OrExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class XorExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class LogicalExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    Expression *toBoolean(Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class CmpExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class InExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class RemoveExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// == and !=

class EqualExp : public BinExp
{
public:

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

// is and !is

class IdentityExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/****************************************************************/

class CondExp : public BinExp
{
public:
    Expression *econd;

    Expression *syntaxCopy();
    int checkModifiable(Scope *sc, int flag);
    bool isLvalue();
    Expression *toLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *modifiableLvalue(Scope *sc, Expression *e);
    Expression *toBoolean(Scope *sc);
    void hookDtors(Scope *sc);

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/****************************************************************/

class DefaultInitExp : public Expression
{
public:
    TOK subop;             // which of the derived classes this is

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class FileInitExp : public DefaultInitExp
{
public:
    Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class LineInitExp : public DefaultInitExp
{
public:
    Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class ModuleInitExp : public DefaultInitExp
{
public:
    Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class FuncInitExp : public DefaultInitExp
{
public:
    Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

class PrettyFuncInitExp : public DefaultInitExp
{
public:
    Expression *resolveLoc(const Loc &loc, Scope *sc);
    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/****************************************************************/

/* A type meant as a union of all the Expression types,
 * to serve essentially as a Variant that will sit on the stack
 * during CTFE to reduce memory consumption.
 */
struct UnionExp
{
    UnionExp() { }  // yes, default constructor does nothing

    UnionExp(Expression *e)
    {
        memcpy(this, (void *)e, e->size);
    }

    /* Extract pointer to Expression
     */
    Expression *exp() { return (Expression *)&u; }

    /* Convert to an allocated Expression
     */
    Expression *copy();

private:
    union
    {
        char exp       [sizeof(Expression)];
        char integerexp[sizeof(IntegerExp)];
        char errorexp  [sizeof(ErrorExp)];
        char realexp   [sizeof(RealExp)];
        char complexexp[sizeof(ComplexExp)];
        char symoffexp [sizeof(SymOffExp)];
        char stringexp [sizeof(StringExp)];
        char arrayliteralexp [sizeof(ArrayLiteralExp)];
        char assocarrayliteralexp [sizeof(AssocArrayLiteralExp)];
        char structliteralexp [sizeof(StructLiteralExp)];
        char nullexp   [sizeof(NullExp)];
        char dotvarexp [sizeof(DotVarExp)];
        char addrexp   [sizeof(AddrExp)];
        char indexexp  [sizeof(IndexExp)];
        char sliceexp  [sizeof(SliceExp)];

        // Ensure that the union is suitably aligned.
        real_t for_alignment_only;
    } u;
};

/****************************************************************/

class ObjcClassReferenceExp : public Expression
{
    ClassDeclaration* classDeclaration;

    void accept(Visitor *v) { v->visit(this); }
};

/* Special values used by the interpreter
 */

Expression *expType(Type *type, Expression *e);

UnionExp Neg(Type *type, Expression *e1);
UnionExp Com(Type *type, Expression *e1);
UnionExp Not(Type *type, Expression *e1);
UnionExp Bool(Type *type, Expression *e1);
UnionExp Cast(Loc loc, Type *type, Type *to, Expression *e1);
UnionExp ArrayLength(Type *type, Expression *e1);
UnionExp Ptr(Type *type, Expression *e1);

UnionExp Add(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Min(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Mul(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Div(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Mod(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Pow(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Shl(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Shr(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Ushr(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp And(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Or(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Xor(const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Index(Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Cat(Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);

UnionExp Equal(TOK op, const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Cmp(TOK op, const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);
UnionExp Identity(TOK op, const Loc &loc, Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *e2);

UnionExp Slice(Type *type, Expression *e1, Expression *lwr, Expression *upr);

// Const-folding functions used by CTFE

void sliceAssignArrayLiteralFromString(ArrayLiteralExp *existingAE, StringExp *newval, size_t firstIndex);
void sliceAssignStringFromArrayLiteral(StringExp *existingSE, ArrayLiteralExp *newae, size_t firstIndex);
void sliceAssignStringFromString(StringExp *existingSE, StringExp *newstr, size_t firstIndex);

int sliceCmpStringWithString(StringExp *se1, StringExp *se2, size_t lo1, size_t lo2, size_t len);
int sliceCmpStringWithArray(StringExp *se1, ArrayLiteralExp *ae2, size_t lo1, size_t lo2, size_t len);


#endif /* DMD_EXPRESSION_H */