File: issue36.txt

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lg-issue36 2-4
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: woody
  • size: 2,920 kB
  • ctags: 242
  • sloc: makefile: 36; sh: 4
file content (14330 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 657,415 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
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           Linux Gazette... making Linux just a little more fun!
                                      
         Copyright  1996-98 Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc.
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                       Welcome to Linux Gazette! (tm)
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     _________________________________________________________________
   
                             Table of Contents
                           January 1999 Issue #36
     _________________________________________________________________
   
     * The Front Page
     * The MailBag
          + Help Wanted--Article Ideas
          + General Mail
     * More 2 Cent Tips
     * News Bytes
          + News in General
          + Software Announcements
     * The Answer Guy, by James T. Dennis
     * Booting Linux with the NT Loader, by Gustavo Larriera
     * Defining a Linux-based Production System, by Jurgen Defurne
     * EMACSulation, by Eric Marsden
     * Evaluating postgreSQL for a Production Environment, by Jurgen
       Defurne
     * Introducing Samba, by John Blair
     * Linux Installation Primer, Part 5, by Ron Jenkins
     * Linux on a Shoestring, by Vivek Haldar
     * The Linux User, by Bryan Patrick Coleman
     * New Release Reviews, by Larry Ayers
          + Kernel 2.2's Frame-buffer Option
     * Running Your Own Domain Over a Part Time Dialup, by Joe Merlino
     * Setting Up a PPP/POP Dial-in Server USING Red Hat Linux 5.1, by
       Hassan Ali
     * Touchpad Cures Inflammation, by Bill Bennet
     * Through the Looking Glass: Finding Evidence of Your Cracker, by
       Chris Kuethe
     * USENIX LISA Vendor Exhibit Trip Report, by Paul L. Lussier
     * X Windows versus Windows 95/98/NT: No Contest, by Paul Gregory
       Cooper
     * Announcements by Sun and Troll Tech by Marjorie Richardson
     * The Back Page
          + About This Month's Authors
          + Not Linux
       
   The Answer Guy
   The Graphics Muse will return next month.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
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     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Got any great ideas for improvements? Send your comments, criticisms,
   suggestions and ideas.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   This page written and maintained by the Editor of Linux Gazette,
   gazette@ssc.com
     _________________________________________________________________
   
    "Linux Gazette...making Linux just a little more fun!"
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                                The Mailbag!
                                      
                    Write the Gazette at gazette@ssc.com
                                      
                                 Contents:
                                      
     * Help Wanted -- Article Ideas
     * General Mail
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                        Help Wanted -- Article Ideas
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 30 Dec 1998 05:04:56 -0800
   From: "Fields, Aubrey", Aubrey.Fields@PSS.Boeing.com
   Subject: I have two ideas for articles.
   
   I am a new user to the Linux community. I have two ideas for articles
   that I would read, print, and distribute to the other Linux newbees
   that I know.
   
   1. PPP using minicom. I have read several articles on using PPP, pppd,
   minicom and other dialup and networking issues. Being a new, however,
   I would find it very valuable to read "the definitive new users guide
   to configuring PPP on Linux". I've gotten a lot of pointers and some
   advanced tips, but what I'd like to see is how to setup a stand alone
   Linux 2.0.x machine (Red Hat v4 in my case) for dialing up via PPP
   using minicom with dhcp and dns provided by an ISP.
   
   2. basic xfree86 / fvwm95 config tricks. For example, how to change
   the word "start" on the menu button at the bottom of fvwm95 to
   ANYTHING else! I kick Bill Gate off my PC for a reason! I don't find
   it cute, funny, nor reassuring to see the "I want to be windows95
   'Start'" button on my Linux machine.
   
   also, how to use icons, get rid of the "virtual" desktop so that I can
   see my entire window without scrolling.
   
   Thank you very much, the Linux Gazette has proven to be a valuable
   resource!
   
   --
   Aubrey
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 02 Dec 1998 13:33:11 PST
   From: David Camara, cpdj2@hotmail.com
   Subject: connecting to novell 3.12 servers...
   
   Hi, I'm trying to connect to netware 3.12 servers. I am using the IPX
   module and ncpfs 2.2.0.7-1 (for Debian 2.0). Now, I don't use the
   auto_primary and auto_interface since a number of old posts recommend
   adding the ipx interface manually.
   
   I use:

ipx_interface add -p eth0 802.3 xxxxxxxx

   When I cat /proc/net/ipx_interface:

Network    Node_Address   Primary   Device    Frame_Type
xxxxxxxx   yyyyyyyyyyyy   Yes       eth0      802.3

   When I try to slist, I get:

slist: No server found in ncp_open

   When I try to mount a Novell volume using:

ncpmount -S server_name -U user_name -V sys /mnt/ncp

   I get:

ncpmount: No server found when trying to find server_name

   All this as su root... Any ideas? Thanks!
   
   --
   David
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 8 Dec 1998 12:16:20 -0500
   From: Blazek, Daniel, blazek@globalserve.net
   Subject: Ethernet
   
   Which Ethernet cards are compatible with Linux with minimum ease of
   installation, also does the make/model of the hub matter?
   
   --
   Dan
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 15 Dec 1998 12:29:37 +0000
   From: Tomos Llewelyn, tml@aber.ac.uk
   Subject: "Unable to open console..." Why?
   
   Can anyone tell me why I'm getting this message?
   
   Trying to boot a 2.0.36 kernel on a PII350 with an ATI Xpert@Play 8Mb
   AGP card. Should I be tweaking the video mode?
   
   --
   Tom Llewelyn
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Mon, 14 Dec 1998 12:46:57 -0500
   From: Michael Bright mabright@us.ibm.com
   Subject: Token Ring Errors with SuSE 5.3
   
   Hi, I would seriously appreciate any help you can give. I had the
   evaluation copy of SuSE 5.3 running fine on this machine. I loaded the
   full version of SuSE 5.3 and the Token ring went south. During install
   everything went fine, including loading the token ring module. I have
   replaced the ibmtr.o module file from a working machine with _no_
   change in the error. I also checked the /etc/conf.modules file to make
   sure the alias is defined right ( alias tr0 ibmtr.o ) and the options
   line is right ( options ibmtr io=0xa20 ). At this point I see two
   options, reload the machine with the eval copy and do an upgrade or
   recompile the kernel and hope for the best.

initialising tr0
general protection: 0000
CPU:    0
EIP:    0010:[]
EFLAGS: 00010212
eax: 00000003   ebx: 0009e658   ecx: fffffff7   edx: 00000000
esi: f000f84d   edi: 00000003   ebp: 00000000   esp: 019b7e0c
ds: 0018   es: 0018   fs: 002b   gs: 002b   ss: 0018
Process insmod (pid: 66, process nr: 16, stackpage=019b7000)
Stack: 0009e658 00000000 00000003 019b7e4c 00000008 0010ca1c 00000003
00000000
       019b7e4c 019b7e4c 00000003 00000000 0009e658 0010bae1 00000003
019b7e4c
       001f9b7c fffffff7 00108e00 00000003 00000000 0009e658 ffffff50
00000018
Call Trace: [] [] [] []
[] [] []
       [] [] [] [] []
[] [] []
       [] [] [] [] []
[] [] []
       []
Code: 0f b6 56 2f 83 fa 01 0f 84 9e 07 00 00 83 fa 02 0f 85 a9 07
Aiee, killing interrupt handler

   OS: SuSE 5.3 Hardware: IBM ISA Auto 16/4 Tokenring adapter.
   
   Thanks,
   --
   Michael
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 14:33:55 -0600
   From: David Caliguire, djc@sgi.com
   Subject: Driver for Netflex III card on Linux
   
   I noticed a question posed to the Gazette about drivers for Netflex 3
   cards on Compaq on Linux. I have a Compaq with this card and would
   like to know where I could get a driver for this card for Linux.......
   
   Thanks
   --
   Dave
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 16:06:42 -0300
   From: Saltiel, Hernan Claudio, hsaltiel@infovia.com.ar
   Subject: Help Wanted!!!
   
   I have a Linux box, with S.u.S.E., and a Lotus Notes server. I want to
   e-mail the status of my workstation to another user that belongs to
   the Notes Network. Does anybody know how to do that, or just the
   concepts to do this?
   
   --
   Hernn Claudio Saltiel
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Sun, 13 Dec 1998 14:35:20 -0500
   From: John, john@maxom.com
   Subject: Accounting
   
   I am looking for some inexpensive Accounting w/Inventory Software that
   will run on Linux . If you could point me in the right direction I
   would be greatly thankful
   
   Thank You
   --
   John Nelson
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Thu, 24 Dec 1998 14:47:09 +0200
   From: "tdk001", tdk001@mweb.co.za
   Subject: Linux and UNIX
   
   I am a 2nd year computer science student. I have looked everywhere for
   the answer and found only basic answers. My question is what exactly
   is the difference between Linux and UNIX, excluding size and speed. I
   would appreciate it if you could just send me a few of the
   differences.
   
   Thank you
   --
   Frans
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 22 Dec 1998 12:33:42 -0000
   From: "James Jackson", james.jackson@3f.co.uk
   Subject: Intellimouse
   
   Does anybody know how to enable the wheel on an Intellimouse under
   Linux? (Red Hat 5.2)
   
   --
   James
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Sat, 19 Dec 1998 13:53:33 PST
   From: "Thomas Smith", highminded015@hotmail.com
   Subject: Upgrading Red Hat
   
   I just installed Red Hat 5.0 and I hear about the newer versions out
   there and I want to upgrade but I don't want to buy a brand new CD or
   download everything and then re-install. I have been to a couple of
   sites and I have found no real help for this at any of them, so could
   you please help me out. Thank you.
   
   --
   Thomas
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Fri, 18 Dec 1998 23:20:12 -0800
   From: Taro Fukunaga, tarozax@earthlink.net
   Subject: How to get CPU info
   
   I am writing a Tcl/Tk program that prints info about the CPU, memory
   usage, processes, and disk usage of a Linux computer. On problem I
   have is in getting info about the CPU. Because the contents (ie field
   names) of /proc/cpuinfo may vary from one machine (perhaps kernel
   build is the right answer) to the next, I decided to use the program
   uname. However, this also doesn't work well, and simply lists my
   processor as "unknown". I looked at the source code, and "unknown" is
   the default value for the CPU!
   
   So my question is, is there any way to write a program that can get
   the type of CPU on any Linux computer?
   
   Thank you, anyone.
   
   --
   Taro
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Thu, 31 Dec 1998 21:19:48 -0600
   From: dcramer@midusa.net
   Subject: Does Linux have multimedia support?
   
   I just finished reading Marjorie Richardson's comments about Linux in
   the January '99 issue of Computer Shopper, and I was wondering if
   Linux now has, or will support any of the multimedia formats supported
   by Windows, such as AVI, JPG, WAV, MOV, etc? I have looked into some
   of the basics of the OS, but I have not tried to install it. Thank
   you.
   
   --
   Don Cramer
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 30 Dec 1998 14:03:42 -0500
   From: Soraia Paz, spaz@rens.com
   Subject: LILO Problems
   
   I originally had Windows NT on my PC with some room left for Linux. I
   installed Linux and I set up LILO to boot both operating systems. I
   got into Linux fine but when I tried to get into NT it kept on
   crashing. I tried using DOS's fdisk to get rid of Linux but LILO is
   still there. How can I get rid of it?
   
   --
   Soraia
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 30 Dec 1998 09:42:23 -0600
   From: Bill McConnaughey, mcconnau@biochem.wustl.edu
   Subject: DB9 serial port
   
   I degraded my floppy disk drive, apparently by doing fdformat with
   inappropriate parameters and/or media. In order to back up my work, I
   want to use minicom or seyon to transfer files over the DB-9 serial
   port. I can get the computers to type to each other, but file transfer
   protocols (xmodem and ymodem) don't work. There is no Kermit in my
   installation and I don't know where to get it. What is the correct
   wiring for a direct connection of the DB-9 com ports on two pc's? How
   can I transfer files?
   
   --
   Bill
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 29 Dec 1998 10:40:15 -0500 (EST)
   From: ive.db@usa.com
   Subject: HELP
   
   I have a jamicon 36X cd player.
   
   It doesn't work under Linux. I tried to install Linux but I failed.
   
   Could you please help me with this. I also need to say that you can
   set my cd-player master,slave and CSEL with a jumper.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 03:49:21 -0500
   From: "david marcelle", marcelle@avana.net
   Subject: Audio-Only CDRs
   
   Do you have for sale or do you know where I can purchase audio-only
   blank CDRs (for my phillips CD recorder) for $4.00 each or less?
   
   Thanks
   --
   David
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 02:15:26 -0500
   From: "Clayton J. Ramseyer", cyberzard@earthlink.net
   Subject: IP Masquerading and related
   
   I am writing this message to you, because I am new to Linux. (I love
   it by the way) Anyway, I have a small LAN setup at home and would like
   to provide access to the Internet for my other machine.
   
   The HOWTO is a bit confusing when it comes to setting this up.
   
   If someone could write me with a possible offer for help, I'd surely
   appreciate it.
   
   The commands I have are probably correct. Yet the HOWTOs don't mention
   which machine these commands are entered on.
   
   I assume it would be the machine connected to the net.
   
   By the way, I connect with a USR 56K v.90 compatible modem. My service
   provider is earthlink.
   
   I look forward to your responses.
   
   Thanks,
   --
   CJ
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Sat, 2 Jan 1999 23:05:13 +0530
   From: "L.V.Gandhi", lvgandhi@vsnl.com
   Subject: Netscape help
   
   I have installed NC4.5 for Linux. I could edit preferences both as
   root and an user. Once closed and then restarted I am unable to do
   that. I am not sure from when it happened. It may be due improper
   shutdown due to power outage or hanging of nc after many windows are
   open. I have system PII with 780MB partition for Linux with 64 MB swap
   space, 32 MB ram. Is there any easy way to remove an installed
   software and reinstall it in Linux?
   
   --
   L.V.Gandhi
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Sat, 2 Jan 1999 23:03:35 +0530
   From: "L.V.Gandhi", lvgandhi@vsnl.com
   Subject: help for microsoft intellimouse
   
   I have installed RH5.0 and upgraded to 5.1. I have Microsoft
   intellimouse and logitech super mouse. when I configure mi, the same
   is not recognized by Linux and xserver. The same is recognized in
   win98. But logi mouse is recognized in both. Any solutions welcome.
   
   --
   L.V.Gandhi
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                                General Mail
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 13:39:58 -0500
   From: Brad Gerrard, bradgerrard@x-stream.co.uk
   Subject: The Future Of Artificial Intelligence and Linux
   
   Can you imagine, 'eureka' you've done it, you're going to make
   millions neigh billions, you've created a programme that gives a
   computer the seeming ability to think.
   
   There it is flashing away 'walking the walk', bezazz it thinks.
   
   Hold on a moment the operating system, no the skeleton of this
   thinking machine has crashed.
   
   What say you, shall we change the operating system? Not arf we will.
   
   How about something a little more stable, how about an operating
   system that will go for at least a year. Is that to much to ask? One
   might well wonder were we not acquainted with the genie in the bottle,
   yes 'Linux'.
   
   Linux is gaining in popularity, that makes it commercial, that means
   money, and money means more thinkers are turning their attention
   towards it as a viable alternative to some of it's less exciting
   competition. Linux is a stable operating system, freely available, an
   operating system for Man All Born Equal as written in the American
   constitution, yes could this operating system level out the playing
   field.
   
   Artificial Intelligence requires a very stable platform, and I believe
   that given the limitations of present day hardware, AI requires an
   operating system with a small foot print in order to possibly tackle
   the problem of achieving any potential of new thought, which could
   possibly be termed artificial intelligence in it's true sense. Linux
   is a Unix operating system, it can be and usually is networked, this
   is a plus when it comes to composing an AI operating programme.
   
   The very makeup and variable structure lends it's self to AI.
   
   Yes I believe that Linux is an operating system with a bright future.
   
   --
   Brad
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 13:39:58 -0500
   From: "Serge E. Hallyn", hallyn@CS.WM.EDU
   Subject: happy hacking keyboard
   
   wow. $140 for a keyboard because it has fewer keys? I simply don't
   think the arguments in favor make sense - namely that you don't have
   to reach for any keys, because you should never need to with other
   normal keyboards either. Let's see:
     * control not being next to A should never be a problem for anyone
       who'd dare call him/herself a hacker, happy or otherwise - if you
       can't figure out how to remap caps lock,...
     * escape should not be a problem, since any self-respecting vi user
       uses ctrl-[ anyway
     * backspace: ctrl-h (well, OK, emacs users are out of luck :)
     * tab, if it's a really weird keyboard, ctrl-i, though i seldom do
       that
       
   $140. ridiculous.
   
   --
   serge
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 01 Dec 1998 12:28:06 -0600
   From: Tim Kelley, tpkelley@winkinc.com
   Subject: Jeremy Dinsel's review of keyboard ...
   
   He did not mention something which many people would be very
   interested in knowing - is it a clicking, spring action style keyboard
   or a membrane (mushy) style keyboard?
   
   At that price (~$150), I can't believe it's one of those cheap
   membrane things, but one can never be sure. Actually, at that price, I
   can't believe anyone would buy it, but whatever.
   
   --
   Tim
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 2 Dec 1998 01:32:06 +1000 (GMT)
   From: Norman Widders winspace@paladincorp.com.au
   Subject: Linux Gazette
   
   I just read David Jao's article in Linux Gazette #35 and enjoyed it.
   He had one fact wrong though, he mentioned:
   
     Currently, a limitation of the UW IMAP server is that a folder
     cannot contain both messages and subfolders.
     
   This is not a limitation of the UOW server. It is a limitation of the
   default UNIX mail files... There are other available mailbox types
   available on the UNIX platform that will allow UOW to create
   subfolders... see the release notes with UOW for more info :)
   
   --
   Norman
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 08:24:43 -0500 (EST)
   From: Walt Taninatz, waldo@voicenet.com
   Subject: Re: Linux Gazette #35
   
   Thank you for the reminders and for making such a great magazine. The
   content is always useful, interesting and well written.
   
   Best Regards,
   --
   Walter
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Thu, 03 Dec 1998 13:52:14 -0800
   From: Jauder Ho, jauderho@transmeta.com
   Subject: Re: IMAP on Linux: A Practical Guide 
   
   I have some comments on the article written by David Jao. There are
   some inaccuracies that I need to correct. We use IMAP here and it is
   indeed excellent technology.
     * NS 4.08 is out. NS 4.5 is actually pretty stable when it comes to
       IMAP based mail, we have no problems using it.
     * By default, imapd uses UNIX spool. This is horrendously
       inefficient. So I am not surprised by it crashing over 1000
       messages. HOWEVER, if you change the mailbox format to something
       like mbx (Modify the Makefile, change unixproto to mbxproto), it
       can easily handle much more messages and allow concurrent access.
       I have users with 8000 messages in their in box with not problem.
     * Netscape is now beta testing Linux versions of their Messaging and
       Directory servers.
     * There is one more way to do IMAP securely and that is to use
       stunnel under IMAP.
       
   More information about what we do site specific can be found at
   http://www.carumba.com/imap/
   
   --
   Jauder
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Wed, 02 Dec 1998 08:46:18 +0100
   From: "Thomas Diehl", th.diehl@dtp-service.com
   Subject: Editor's Choice Awards: Most Desired Port?
   
   This is on your "Editor's Choice Awards", esp. the following from your
   article "Most Desired Port--QuarkXPress":
   
     For layout, we must have an MS Windows 95 machine in order to run
     QuarkXPress... We are more than ready to be rid of this albatross
     and have a total Linux shop. Next, like everyone else, we'd like
     Adobe to port all its products to Linux.
     
   I'm a professional DTPer and a Linux user myself. So I would certainly
   like to see the whole Acrobat suite for Linux as well as good font and
   printing solutions from Adobe. And, of course, I don't have anything
   against porting PM, Frame, PShop, Illustrator, or XPress to the
   penguin platform. No doubt about it.
   
   I find it problematic, however, that hardly anybody in the DTP area
   seems to do justice to the fact that there is a complete suite for our
   kind of work coming up just NOW: Corel promised repeatedly to port
   _all_ their DTP programs to Linux: Ventura, Draw, PhotoPaint as well
   as a lot of helpful apps like WordPerfect and their whole Office
   suite. (See eg www.zdnet.co.uk/news/1998/45/ns-6073.html)
   
   This would be an incredible step forward for Linux -- but somehow
   nobody in DTP seems to care. I wonder why?
   
   Of course, I'm fully aware of the bad reputation Corel software has
   among DTPers (and also how much of this they deserved). But I can
   assure you and everybody from daily, first hand experience that the
   situation has incredibly improved over the last years. Today the Corel
   DTP apps brings a wealth of functionality to the users that, as a
   whole, is unmatched by anything I know in this area.
   
   I'm also aware that this will not be enough to make XPress users
   really consider a switch and that they have perfectly good reasons for
   this attitude. But, nevertheless, I would appreciate it VERY much if
   the Corel announcements would at least be taken into account when
   talking about this area. If Corel keep their promise there will be a
   complete publishing suite for Linux very soon. And I would ask
   everybody to spread the good news, esp. those who may be held "opinion
   leaders" by many people out there. I'm sure it would be a real loss
   for everybody if Corel would get second thoughts about their plans
   because of apparent "lack of demand" among professional DTPers.
   
   Just in case you are prepared to look a little more at this I'm
   attaching some more material on the aptness of Corel DTP software.
   
   Kind regards,
   --
   Thomas
   
     We use many of Corel's products including Ventura (for book
     layout). Editor's choice is after all my opinion only, but I do
     know that many magazines besides Linux Journal use QuarkXPress for
     layout. --Editor 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 8 Dec 1998 16:30:53 -0500
   From: "Adams, Ranald", Ranald.Adams@ctny.com
   Subject: Compaq
   
   There's a lot of this sort of thing on Compaq's forum. Please publish
   to interested parties so that they can become subject to the
   appropriate level of ridicule (in a caring, motivationally productive
   kind of way).
   
     Topic: Servers - Banyan-Unix Subject: Linux and Compaq Servers
     From: COMPAQ - Robert G 05/11/98 09:10:13 Compaq now or in the
     future will not be providing Linux drivers. This is because the
     Linux operating system is a public domain OS. There is not a single
     source of ownership to go to when trying to resolve OS issues like
     there is for SCO Unix and other versions of Unix on the market.
     Because there is no single source for the compiled binary code
     required to install and run the OS there is no way to guarantee
     driver compatibility with all the flavors of Linux.
     
     Compaq Engineering has decided that they will not provide or
     release hardware drivers unless they can be fully certified and
     supported. Since Linux does not have a single source manufacture,
     this is not possible with Linux. But you can by all means make a
     formal request in writing to Compaq Engineering concerning your
     need for Linux drivers. The address is:
     
     Compaq Computer Corp.
     Attn. Engineering Dept.
     MS. 050702
     20555 State Hwy. 249
     Houston, TX 77070 b4
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Sat, 5 Dec 1998 10:53:00 -0800
   From: Mike Wiley, npg@integrityonline.com
   Subject: Corel Ventura would be best DTP port
   
   I agree that Linux needs a DTP program, but the one which should be
   desired is Corel Ventura Publisher, not Quark. CVP version 8 is at
   least one generation ahead of Quark and include many features which we
   use regularly =97 features which are completely absent from Quark. It
   is more powerful and easier to use. From my perspective, Quark shows
   all the signs of product arrogance which arises from having a
   monopoly, or near monopoly, in a field.
   
   Another point: Corel Corp has made a commitment to Linux. Adobe and
   Quark, to my knowledge have not. Why not support those who support
   you, especially when those who support you have the best product?
   
   Just a couple of thoughts...
   
   Sincerely,
   
   --
   Mike
   
     We support Corel in every way we can, but Quark is more suited for
     our purposes in printing the magazine than is Ventura. Corel's
     NetWinder will be featured on the April Linux Journal cover.
     --Editor 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Fri, 11 Dec 1998 14:19:43 -0500
   From: "Nils Lohner", lohner@debian.org
   Subject: Debian Powers 512 Node Cluster into Book of Records
   
   Over 512 computers were assembled for the CLOWN (CLuster Of Working
   Nodes) system that ran on the night of December 5-6. This cluster used
   a modified version of the Debian GNU/Linux distribution (reduced in
   size to a mere 16 MB, and boot script modifications) to run a
   combination of PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and several application
   programs. These programs included povray (a ray tracing program used
   to calculate frames for a film), Cactus, a program that solves the
   Einstein Equations, which are ten non-linear joint
   hyperbolic-elliptical partial differential equations. These are used
   to describe Black Holes, Neutron Stars, etc. and are among the most
   complex in the field of mathematical Physics.
   
   For more information, please visit the following sites (mostly in
   German):
   
   http://www.ccnacht.de/
   http://www.linux-magazin.de/cluster/
   http://www.heise.de/ix/artikel/1999/01/010/
   http://europium.oc2.uni-duesseldorf.de/cluster/tech.html
   
   --
   Nils
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Fri, 11 Dec 1998 02:31:14 -0500
   From: Paul Iadonisi, iadonisi@colltech.com
   Subject: Re: USENIX LISA Vendor Exhibit trip report
   
     There were a lot of what I call "Want-Ad" booths to. Collective
     Technologies (formerly Pencom System Administration), Sprint
     Paranet, Fidelity, and several other companies there for sole
     reason of trying to recruit people.
     
   Hmmm. I take exception to this. We (Collective Technologies) have many
   reasons for being at LISA. Like any business, we work to get name
   recognition. We want people to know who we are. But we also seek to
   educate our members (look in the rear of the Attendee List for the
   list by company and you will see how many of us went -- I think we
   have the largest number of attendees) and give back to the System
   Administration community at large. Take a look at the Technical Talks
   and BoFs and you will find four events each sponsored by a Collective
   Technologies member. Five of our members also wrote summaries for SANS
   in the August issue of ;login:.
   
   I hope no one sees this as a marketing message and my intention is not
   to try to sell my company on a Linux mailing list. The point is that
   we do all of this without tootin' our own horn that much. I think
   reducing our booth to a "Want-Ad" type booth is a little unfair. I
   normally wouldn't post a message like this on this list, but couldn't
   let the '...there for sole reason of trying to recruit people...'
   comment pass, especially since we were the first company listed. No
   ill will, I just wanted to clear that up.
   
   --
   Paul Iadonisi
   
     You must be clairvoyant! :-) That article is just being posted in
     this issue. Of course, it's on Paul's web site, but to know to send
     a copy of your letter to me. Wow! --Editor 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Fri, 11 Dec 1998 20:09:57 -0500
   From: Kevin Forge, forgeltd@usa.net
   Subject: Quark
   
   Most Desired Port--QuarkXPress
   
   Hate to say it but "BUY A MAC". Mind you I don't like the Mac. I don't
   use a Mac. I don't even like the few occasions when I must attempt to
   repair a Mac ( often it's cheaper to ditch it than buy parts ).
   
   All this considered even Microsoft uses Quark on a Mac to do it's
   manuals and stuff. As far as I know a Mac used in this post may never
   crash. Sure Mac OS isn't Linux quality in terms of stability but it
   beets NT.
   
   In the mean time whine for a port ... It may never happen though since
   even the windows port is 1/2 harted, unstable and not quite what the
   printers want ( they all use Macs. )
   
   --
   Kevin
   
     We started out with a Mac but at that time it wasn't as easy to
     network a Mac with Linux as it now is with Netatalk. So the
     decision was made to go with Windows. It happens. --Editor 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Tue, 22 Dec 1998 21:13:56 -0600
   From: Sam, myoldkh@earthlink.net
   Subject: Sponsorship

gts global >>myoldkh<< 12-22-98     09:15:32 PM:

   You will be very pleased to know that yesterday I made a credit card
   order on the Web for a copy of the Linux OS from one of your sponsors
   - Red Hat Software.
   
   I support quality web sites and their sponsors! (I am also sick and
   tired of MS Windows crashing my computer all of the time - I think
   that Microsoft writes software about the same way that GM builds cars
   - I know cause I drive a Pontiac lemon!)
   
   --
   Sam
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 19:46:04 -0600 (EST)
   From: "Michael J. Hammel", mjhammel@graphics-muse.org
   Subject: Logo
   
     From LG Editor:
     I get at least one letter a month asking that we change the quote
     in the logo to be attributed directly to Gandhi rather than a movie
     actor, as well as ones requesting that the graphic be made smaller.
     What do you think? Is it time to make either of these changes?
     
   I'll look at making the image smaller, but it may not be till next
   month. I'm still getting things back together at home.
   
   As to the quote, I'll stick to the attribution until someone provides
   a definitive resource that attributes it to Gandhi. I'm fairly certain
   he would have said it, but I don't want to give him the attribution
   unless I can find some other resource to back it up. After all, I only
   know about it because of a movie.
   
   I have no objection to changing it - I just need some other definitive
   attribution to do so.
   
   --
   Michael
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 16:46:13 -0800
   From: Randy Herrick, HERRICK@PACBELL.NET
   Subject: graphics on title page
   
   Great site, just one thing, I think Tux needs to look like, well, the
   real Tux, in real Tux colors. In the beginning there were several
   kinds of birds from seagulls to penguins, but I think nowadays most
   everyone has adopted the standard Tux penguin that is siting down
   (looking happy from eating herring-as Linus Torvald's put it )in the
   black and white and yellow colors. We need to have a standard logo for
   Linux, don't you think? Thanks for your time. :)
   
   --
   Randy
   
     As far as graphics go, I trust Michael's judgment in all
     things--even the way Tux is drawn. --Editor 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Date: Sun, 27 Dec 1998 13:38:52 -0600
   From: Lyno Sullivan, lls@freedomain.org
   Subject: MPDN - Minnesota Public Digital Network
   
   I would appreciate your support of the following initiative.
   Specifically, I will need the help of the free software community
   during discussions of item 4 and the excerpt listed below: December
   27, 1998
   The full MPDN announcement may be viewed at:
   http://www.freedomain.org/^lls/free-mn/19981222-mpdn.html
   
   This post constitutes an invitation to join discussions concerning the
   MPDN. Beginning in January, 1999, I will present each goal of the MPDN
   for discussion within the MN-NETGOV listserv. If you are a stake
   holder to these goals, please join the listserv.
   
   Anyone can join that listserv by sending an email to
   
   mailto:mn-netgov-subscribe@egroups.com
   
   Members may view past messages, calendars, and other group features
   at:
   
   http://www.egroups.com/list/mn-netgov/
   
   ABSTRACT
   
   In preparation for my requesting Legislative hearings in 1999, this
   article explains my vision of the Minnesota Public Digital Network
   (MPDN), which is:
   
   1) to provide every Minnesota citizen with a secure and authenticated
   email address within the mn.us hierarchy,
   
   2) to assure that every citizen can use email to dialogue with the
   elected and the appointed offices of government,
   
   3) to assure that every local community has a high speed digital
   network and a repository for the creative works and letters of the
   Minnesota people, and
   
   4) to collect the free software tools necessary to attain these goals,
   within the Government Information Freedom Toolbox (the GIFT), which
   will be created as a byproduct of Minnesota State government's
   conversion to free software.
   
   EXCERPT
   
   GOAL 1) Effective immediately, freeze (at current levels or lower) all
   spending for non-free, closed source, software. Establish a
   Legislative audit to determine the Total Cost of Operation (TCO) costs
   of non-free server and desktop software. Establish a cost reduction
   plan that will result in the elimination of spending on non-free
   software. Collect all those monies, identified by the TCO analysis,
   together into a revolving Software Freedom Fund, to be administered by
   the Office of Technology. Require that all further purchases and
   upgrades of non-free, closed source server and desktop software must
   be approved by the Minnesota Office of Technology's, Information
   Policy Council (IPC). The IPC will be charged to develop a statewide
   model of the MPDN. The IPC will be charged to connect every public
   sector worker in Minnesota to the MPDN. Savings within the Software
   Freedom Fund may be spent on writing free software. Revenues of the
   Software Freedom Fund must be spent, to endow the creation of free
   software and free content, all of which, must be licensed under the
   GNU General Public License (GPL) or a suitable copyleft license.
   
   --
   Lyno Sullivan
     _________________________________________________________________
   
             Published in Linux Gazette Issue 36, January 1999
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   [ TABLE OF CONTENTS ] [ FRONT PAGE ] Next 
   
      This page written and maintained by the Editor of Linux Gazette,
      gazette@ssc.com
      Copyright  1999 Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
    "Linux Gazette...making Linux just a little more fun!"
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                               More 2 Tips!
                                      
               Send Linux Tips and Tricks to gazette@ssc.com 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Contents:
  
     * Forcing fsck on Red Hat 5.1 
     * Personal Listserver 
     * Re: Back Ups 
     * ANSWER: Your Supra Internal Modem Problems 
     * ANSWER: Single Floppy Linux 
     * ANSWER: Re: scsi + ide; boot ide 
     * ANSWER: Numlock at startup 
     * ANSWER: Re: graphics for disabled 
     * ANSWER: BTS: GNU wget for updating web site 
     * ANSWER: Linux Boot-Root 
     * Replies to My Questions in Nov. 98 Linux Gazette 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Forcing fsck on Red Hat 5.1
  
   Date: Tue, 08 Dec 1998 18:20:28 -0500
   From: James Dahlgren, jdahlgren@netreach.net
   
   I don't know if this is a 2 cent tip or what, and since it's
   distribution specific, it's applicability is limited, but I still
   thought it was worth sharing.
   
   The shutdown command accepts a -F switch to force a fsck when the
   system is rebooted. This switch just writes a flag file /forcefsck, it
   is up to the initialization scripts do do something about it. In Red
   Hat 5.1 ( I don't know about 5.2 ) the rc.sysinit script uses a
   different method to force a fsck.
   
   It checks for the existence of /fsckoptions and if it exists uses it's
   contents as a switch when calling fsck. The command "echo -n '-f' >
   /fsckoptions" will create a file, /fsckoptions, with "-f" in it and
   will force a fsck the next time the system is booted. The rc.sysinit
   script removes the /fsckoptions file after remounting the drive
   read-write, so that the fsck won't be forced every time the system is
   booted.
   
   If you want the -F switch from the shutdown command to work, a little
   editing of the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit file will do it.
   
   near the beginning of the rc.sysinit file is the following:

if [ -f /fsckoptions ]; then
        fsckoptions=`cat /fsckoptions`
else
        fsckoptions=''
fi

   This is where it checks for the /fsckoptions file and reads its
   contents into a variable for later use. We add an elif to check for
   the /forcefsck file and set the variable accordingly:

if [ -f /fsckoptions ]; then
        fsckoptions=`cat /fsckoptions`
elif [ -f /forcefsck ]; then
        fsckoptions='-f'
else
        fsckoptions=''
fi

   Now the /forcefsck flag file created by using the -F switch with
   shutdown will force a fsck on reboot. Now we need to get rid of the
   /forcefsck file, or it will force the check every time the system is
   started. Further down in the rc.sysinit file, after the disk is
   remounted read-write, is the following line which removes any existing
   /fsckoptions file:

rm -f /etc/mtab~ /fastboot /fsckoptions

   We just add /forcefsck to the list of files to delete:

rm -f /etc/mtab~ /fastboot /fsckoptions /forcefsck

   Now we have two ways to force the fsck, we can use the -F switch when
   running shutdown, or we can put specific flags in a /fsckoptions file.
   
   CAUTION!
   The rc.sysinit file is critical to system startup. A silly typo in it
   can make the system hang when it boots. ( I've been there! ) Make a
   backup before you edit it. Edit it carefully. If you do blotch it, you
   can recover by rebooting and using the -b switch after the image name
   on the lilo command line. This brings you up in maintenance mode
   without running the rc.sysininit script. The disk is in read-only
   mode.

mount -n -o remount,rw /

   will get you to read-write mode so you can fix the problem.

mount -n -o remount,ro /

   after fixing the problem to prepare the system for continuing startup.
   
   exit or ctl-d to exit the maintenance shell and continue on to the
   default runlevel.
   
   Hope this is of some use to someone.
   
   --
   Jim
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Personal Listserver
  
   Date: Mon, 07 Dec 1998 01:59:48 +0100
   From: "Soenke J. Peters", peters@simprovement.com
   
   An often unused feature of "sendmail" is it's "plussed user feature"
   which makes mails to "user+testlist@localhost" match "user@localhost".
   I will show you how to use this to implement personal mailing lists.
   
   First, you have to set up "procmail" to act as a filter on your
   incoming mails. This could be done inside sendmail by setting it up as
   your local mailer, or simply via your "~/.forward" file.
   
   Now, you should get a mailing list program. I prefer BeroList, because
   it's easy to configure. Compile it (don't forget to adjust the paths!)
   and install it somewhere in your home directory.
   
   Done that, you have to tell procmail what mails are to be passed to
   the mailing list program. This is done inside "~/.procmailrc" and
   should contain something like the following for every list (in this
   example, the list is called "testlist", the mailname of the user is
   "username"):

:0
* ^To:.*username\+testlist
| path/to/the/listprogram testlist

   The last step is to prepare the configuration files for the mailing
   list. As this is specific to the program you use, I can't tell you
   here.
   
   For a german description see:
   http://www.simprovement.com/linux/listserver.html
   
   --
   Soenke Jan Peters
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Re: Back Ups
  
   Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 10:07:46 -0500 (EST)
   From: Jim Buchanan, c22jrb@koptsv01.delcoelect.com
   
     From: Anthony Baldwin:
     Disk space is relatively cheap, so why not buy a small drive say
     500Meg which is used for holding just the root /lib /bin /sbin
     directories. Then setup a job to automatically back this up to
     another drive using "cp -ax" (and possibly pipe it through gzip and
     tar). This way when the unthinkable happens and you loose something
     vital, all you have to do is boot from floppy mount the 2 drives
     and do a copy. This has just saved my bacon while installing
     gnu-libc2
     
   A good idea as far as it goes, but there is one gotcha. If lightning
   or some other power surge takes out one drive, it might take out the
   on-line backup as well.
   
   I use a very similar method where each night, on each machine, I have
   a cron job back up vital information to another HD in another machine
   on my home network.
   
   In addition to the nightly back-ups, I do a weekly backup to removable
   media, which I keep in a separate building (my workshop at the back of
   my lot). That way if lightning takes out everything on the network, I
   have lost a weeks or less work. The separate building part might be
   paranoia, but I really recommend at least weekly off-line back ups.
   
   --
   Jim Buchanan
     _________________________________________________________________
   
    Tips in the following section are answers to questions printed in the Mail
    Bag column of previous issues.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: Your Supra Internal Modem Problems
  
   Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 09:48:10 -0500 From: "Brower, William"
   wbrower@indiana.edu
   
     Richard wrote:
     I have a PII (350MHz) running with an AGP ATI 3DRage graphics card
     (which works fine) and a Sound Blaster 16 PnP (which also works
     fine). But, I can't get my internal SupraExpress 56k modem to work.
     
   Your modem sounded familiar from a past search I had done, so I went
   to Red Hat's www site (http://www.redhat.com/) and followed the
   support | hardware link. You will find this reference in the modem
   category:
   
   Modems that require software drivers for compression, error
   correction, high-speed operation, etc.
   PCI Memory Mapped Modems (these do not act like serial ports)
   Internal SupraExpress 56k & also the Internal SupraSonic 56k
   
   It appears that your modem is inherently not compatible with Linux. I
   use an inexpensive clone modem called the E-Tech Bullet, pc336rvp
   model - paid $28 for it and it operates with no problems at all. Good
   luck in finding a compatible modem!
   
   --
   Bill
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: Single Floppy Linux
  
   Date: Tue, 01 Dec 1998 22:05:59 -0800
   From: Ken Leyba, kleyba@pacbell.net
   
   To: roberto.urban@uk.symbol.com
   There are a few choices for a single floppy Linux (O.K. some are more
   than one floppy). I haven't tried them, but I will be doing a Unix
   presentation next month and plan to demo and handout a single or
   double floppy sets for hands-on.
   
   muLinux (micro linux):
   http://www4.pisoft.it/~andreoli/mulinux.html
   
   tomsrtbt:
   http://www.toms.net/rb/
   
   Linux Router Project:
   http://www.linuxrouter.org/
   
   Trinux:
   http://www.trinux.org/
   
   Good Luck,
   --
   Ken
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: Re: scsi + ide; boot ide
  
   Date: Sun, 29 Nov 1998 07:42:29 -0800 (PST)
   From: Phil Hughes, fyl@ssc.com
   
     The amazing Al Goldstein wrote:
     I have only linux on a scsi disk. I want to add an ide disk and
     want to continue to boot from the scsi which has scsi id=0. Redhat
     installation says this is possible. Is that true? If so how is it
     done?
     
   First, you should be able to tell your BIOS where to boot from. Just
   set it to SCSI first and all should be ok.
   
   If that isn't an option, just configure LILO (/etc/lilo.conf) so that
   it resides on the MBR of the IDE disk (probably /dev/hda) but boots
   Linux from where it lives on the SCSI disk.
   
   --
   Phil
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: Numlock at startup
  
   Date: Thu, 03 Dec 1998 21:51:08 -0800
   From: "D. Cooper Stevenson", coopers@proaxis.com
   
     To: bmtrapp@acsu.buffalo.edu
     
   Here's a bit of code I found while searching the documentation for
   "numlock" It turns numlock on for all terminals at startup! The bolded
   code is the added code in the /etc/rc.d/rc file of my Redhat 5.1
   Linux:

 Is there an rc directory for this new runlevel?
if [ -d /etc/rc.d/rc$runlevel.d ]; then
        # First, run the KILL scripts.
        for i in /etc/rc.d/rc$runlevel.d/K*; do
                # Check if the script is there.
                [ ! -f $i ] && continue

                # Check if the subsystem is already up.
                subsys=${i#/etc/rc.d/rc$runlevel.d/K??}
                [ ! -f /var/lock/subsys/$subsys ] && \
                    [ ! -f /var/lock/subsys/${subsys}.init ] && continue

                # Bring the subsystem down.
                $i stop
        done

        # Now run the START scripts.
        for i in /etc/rc.d/rc$runlevel.d/S*; do
                # Check if the script is there.
                [ ! -f $i ] && continue

                # Check if the subsystem is already up.
                subsys=${i#/etc/rc.d/rc$runlevel.d/S??}
                [ -f /var/lock/subsys/$subsys ] || \
                    [ -f /var/lock/subsys/${subsys}.init ] && continue

                # Bring the subsystem up.
                $i start
        done

        # Turn the NumLock key on at startup
        INITTY=/dev/tty[1-8]
        for tty in $INITTY; do
             setleds -D +num < $tty
        done
fi
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: Re: graphics for disabled
  
   Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 00:13:19 GMT
   From: Enrique I.R., esoft@arrakis.es
   
     In a previous message, Pierre LAURIER says: - control of the
     pointer device with the keyboard
     
   You can do it with any windowmanager. It's a XFree86 feature (v3.2,
   don't know of older versions). You only have to use the XKB extension.
   You enable it hiting the Control+Shift+NumLock. You should hear a beep
   here. Now you use the numerical keypad to:

Numbers (cursors) -> Move pointer.
/,*,- -> l,r&m buttons.
5 -> Click selected button.
+ -> Doubleclick selected button.
0(ins) -> Click&Hold selected button.
.(del) -> Release holded button.

   Read the XFree86 docs to get details.
   
   --
   Enrique I.R.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: BTS: GNU wget for updating web site
  
   Date: Thu, 24 Dec 1998 03:15:16 -0500
   From: "J. Milgram", milgram@cgpp.com
   
     Re. the question "Updating Web Site" in the Jan 1999 Linux Journal,
     p. 61 ...
     
   Haven't tried the mirror package - might be good, but you can also use
   GNU wget (prep.ai.mit.edu). Below is the script I use to keep the
   University of Maryland LUG's Slackware mirror up-to-date. "Crude but
   effective".

#!/bin/bash
#
#  Update slackware
#
#  JM 7/1998

# usage:   slackware.wget [anything]
# any argument at all skips mirroring, moves right to cleanup.

site=ftp://sunsite.unc.edu
sitedir=pub/Linux/distributions/slackware-3.6; cutdirs=3
localdir=`basename $sitedir`
log=slackware.log
excludes=""
for exclude in bootdsks.12 source slaktest live kernels; do
  [ "$excludes" ] && excludes="${excludes},"
  excludes="${excludes}${sitedir}/${exclude}"
done

# Do the mirroring:

if [ ! "$*" ]; then
 echo -n "Mirroring from $site (see $log) ... "
 wget -w 5 --mirror $site/$sitedir -o $log -nH --cut-dirs=$cutdirs -X"$excludes
"
 echo "done."
fi

# Remove old stuff
# (important, but wipes out extra stuff you might have added)

echo "Removing old stuff ..."
for d in `find $localdir -depth -type d`; do
  pushd $d > /dev/null
  for f in *; do
     grep -q "$f" .listing || { rm -rf "$f" && echo $d/$f; }
  done
  popd > /dev/null
done
echo "Done."

   --
   Judah
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  ANSWER: Linux Boot-Root
  
   Date: Mon, 7 Dec 1998 12:57:34 +0100
   From: Ian Carr-de Avelon, ian@emit.pl
   
   This is an answer to one of the letters in the December '98 issue.
   
     Date: Wed, 04 Nov 1998 19:01:02 +0000 From: Roberto Urban,
     roberto.urban@uk.symbol.com Subject: Help Wanted - Installation On
     Single Floppy
     
     My problem seems to be very simple yet I am struggling to solve it.
     I am trying to have a very basic installation of Linux on a single
     1.44MB floppy disk and I cannot find any documents on how to do
     that. My goal is to have just one floppy with the kernel, TCP/IP,
     network driver for 3COM PCMCIA card, Telnet daemon, so I could
     demonstrate our RF products (which have a wireless Ethernet
     interface - 802.11 in case you are interested) with just a laptop
     PC and this floppy. I have found several suggestions on how to
     create a compressed image on a diskette but the problem is how to
     create and install a _working_ system on the same diskette, either
     through a RAM disk or an unused partition. The distribution I am
     currently using is Slackware 3.5.
     
   Making a "boot-root" disk is not too difficult and there is
   information and and examples available:
   http://metalab.unc.edu/LDP/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO.html
   http://www.linuxrouter.org/
   
   Maybe the new LDP site should have a link from every page of Linux
   Gazett: http://metalab.unc.edu/LDP/
   
   I build boot-root disks quite regularly and they have lots of uses Eg:
    1. change an old PC into a dial on demand router for a net.
    2. Give clients and emergency disk which will ring in to us so we can
       log in and fix things. (Even if the main OS on the machine is not
       Linux)
    3. Turn any Windows PC on the net into a terminal, or testbed for
       network hardware.
    4. Clients often bring laptops for installations with no easy way of
       connecting them to the net. A bootroot disk and a PLIP cable gives
       me a simple way to get the laptop to let me telnet to it and ftp
       files across.
       
   Basicly it is just a matter of reducing what you are trying to
   something which will fit on the floppy and following the HOWTO. If you
   are short of space you can usually gain a little by using older
   versions.
   
   Having said that you are putting yourself up against some additional
   problems here. Laptops are notorious for being only PC compatable with
   drivers which are only available for Windows. Even here there is some
   support: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/kharker/linux-laptop/ but you
   should realise that not all PCMCIA chip sets are supported and that is
   before you get onto support for the card itself. Obvioulsy if the card
   is your own product you have some advantages as far as getting access
   to technical information :-) but in general if the laptop and card
   manufacturers are unwilling to give information you can end up wasting
   a lot of time on reverse engineering and sometimes still fail.
   
   --
   Ian
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Replies to My Questions in Nov. 98 Linux Gazette
  
   Date: Tue, 15 Dec 1998 20:23:48 -0800
   From: Sergio Martinez, sergiomart@csi.com
   
   Last month, Ms. Richardson published a short letter I wrote that asked
   some questions about the differences among the terminology of GUIs,
   window managers, desktops, interfaces, and a bit about the differences
   among GNOME, KDE, and Windows. These matters came to mind as I
   switched from Windows 95 to Linux, with its multiple choices of window
   managers.
   
   Several people were kind enough to send long replies. I'm forwarding
   them to you in case you would like to consider using one as an
   article, or editing them into one. I suppose the title could be
   something like "A Vocabulary Primer to GUI's, Window Managers,
   Desktops, Interfaces, and All That".
   
   I'm leaving all this to your judgment. It would be an article for
   newbies, but I found most of the replies very informative for this
   migrant from Windows 95.
   
   --
   Sergio E. Martinez
   
       --------------------------------------------------------------
                                      
   Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 13:44:20 -0500
   From: Moore, Tim, Tim.Moore@ThomsonConsulting.com
   
   I don't have time to write a full article, but I can answer your
   questions. Unfortunately, I'm using MS Outlook to do so (I'm at work
   and I have to )-: ) so sorry if this comes out formatted funny in your
   mailer.
   
     Terminology: The differences (if any) among a GUI, a window
     manager, a desktop, and an interface. How do they differ from X
     windows?
     
   In the X world, things tend to be split up into multiple components,
   whereas in other systems, everything is just part of the "OS". Here
   are some definitions:
   
   Interface is a general term which really just means a connection
   between two somewhat independent components -- a bridge. It is often
   used to mean "user interface" which is just the component of a
   computer system which interacts with the user.
   
   GUI is another general term, and stands for graphical user interface.
   It's pretty much just what it sounds like; a user interface that is
   primarily graphical in nature. Mac OS and Windows are both GUIs. In
   fact, pretty much everything intended for desktop machines is these
   days.
   
   On Mac OS and Windows, capabilities for building a graphical interface
   are built into the OS, and you just use those. It's pretty simple that
   way, but not very flexible. Unix and Unix-like OSes don't have these
   built in capabilities -- to use a GUI, you have to have a "windowing
   system." X is one of them -- the only one that sees much use these
   days.
   
   All X provides is a way to make boxes on the screen (windows) and draw
   stuff in them. It doesn't provide a) ways to move windows around,
   resize them, or close them, b) standard controls like buttons and
   menus, c) standards or guidelines for designing user interfaces for
   programs, or for interoperating between programs (e.g., via drag and
   drop or a standard help system).
   
   A window manager is a program which lets you move windows around and
   resize them. It also usually provides a way to shrink a window into an
   icon or a taskbar, and often has some kind of a program launcher. The
   user can use any window manager that he or she wants -- any X
   application is supposed to work with any window manager, but you can
   only run one at a time. That is, you can switch between window
   managers as much as you want, but at most one can be running at a
   time, and all programs on screen are managed by whichever one is
   running (if any).
   
   A widget set is a library of routines that programmers can use to make
   standard controls like buttons and menus (which are called widgets by
   X programmers). The widget set that an application uses is chosen by
   the *programmer* (not the user). Most people have multiple widget sets
   installed, and can run multiple programs using different widget sets
   at the same time.
   
   Finally, there's the desktop environment. This is the newest and most
   nebulous X term. It basically means "the things that the Mac OS and
   Windows GUIs have that X doesn't but should" which generally consists
   a set of interacting applications with a common look and feel, and
   libraries and guidelines for creating new applications that "fit in"
   with the rest of the environment. For example, all KDE applications
   use the same widget set (Qt) and help program, and you can drag and
   drop between them. You can have multiple desktop environments
   installed at the same time, and you can run programs written for a
   different environment than the one you're running without having to
   switch, as long as you have it installed. That is, if you use GNOME,
   but like the KDE word processor KLyX, you can run KLyX without running
   any other KDE programs, but it won't necessarily interoperate well
   with your GNOME programs. You can even run the GNOME core programs and
   the KDE core programs at the same time, thought it doesn't really make
   much sense to, as you would just end up with two file managers, two
   panels, etc.
   
     Do all window managers (like GNOME or KDE or FVWM95) run on top of
     X windows?
     
   Yes, though GNOME and KDE aren't window managers (they're desktop
   environments). KDE comes with a windowmanager (called KWM). GNOME
   doesn't come with a window manager -- you can use whichever one you
   want, though some have been specifically written to interoperate well
   with GNOME programs (Enlightenment being the furthest along). But yes,
   they all require X to be running.
   
     What exactly does it mean for an application to be GNOME or KDE
     aware? What happens if it's not? Can you still run it?
     
   It just means that it was written using the GNOME or KDE libraries.
   This means a few things: 1) programs will probably *not* be both GNOME
   *and* KDE aware, 2) you have to have the GNOME libraries installed to
   run GNOME-aware applications, 3) you can run GNOME applications and
   KDE applications side-by-side, and to answer your question, 4) you can
   always run non-aware applications if you use either environment.
   
     What exactly do the GTK+ (for GNOME) or Troll (for KDE) libraries
     do?
     
   GTK+ and Qt (which is the name of the product by Troll Tech that KDE
   uses) are both widget sets. That is, they provide buttons, menus,
   scrollbars, and that sort of thing to application developers. Note
   that applications can use GTK+ or Qt without being GNOME or KDE aware,
   but *all* GNOME apps use GTK+ and *all* KDE apps use Qt.
   
     How does the history of Linux (or UNIX) window managers compare to
     that of say, the desktop given to Win98/95 users? How,
     specifically, does Microsoft limit consumer's choices by giving
     them just one kind of desktop, supposedly one designed for ease of
     use?
     
   This is a much more complicated question. In essence, Windows provides
   a built in windowing system, window manager, widget set, and desktop
   environment, so everybody uses those instead of being able to chose
   the one they like.
   
     What's happening with Common Desktop Environment? Is it correct
     that it's not widely adopted among Linux users because it's a
     resource hog, or not open source?
     
   Yes. Also, it costs a lot of money. You can get it from Red Hat,
   though.
   
   --
   Tim
   
       --------------------------------------------------------------
                                      
   Date: Wed, 2 Dec 1998 00:34:46 +0100 (AMT)
   From: Hans Nieuwenhuis, niha@ing.hj.se
   
   I read your mail today in the Linux Gazette and decided to answer (or
   try to) your questions.
   
   Here it goes:
   
   X-Windows is designed as a client-server system. Advantage is that you
   can run the server on another machine then the machine your monitor is
   connected to. Then you need a client. This can be a program or a
   window manager. A window manager communicates with the server by
   asking it to create a window. When the server fullfilled the requests
   the windowmanager ads a nice titlebar to it and lets the application
   create its interface. Basicly the window manager stand between the
   server and the application, but that is not necessary. It is possible
   to run an application on a X server without a window manager but the
   only thing you are able to do is run that specific application, close
   it and kill the X server.
   
   A GUI is a Graphical User Interface, which means all of the
   information presented on the screen is done by windows, menus, buttons
   etc... Just like Windows. Also all the interaction, the interface is
   based upon those windows and buttons. The main goal of a GUI is to
   provide a uniform system of presenting windows and gathering
   information. A good example in MS Windows is the Alt+F4 keystroke,
   with this keystroke you can close any window on your screen. A window
   manager can be part of this system. This is what happens with KDE and
   CDE. They both feature their own window manager and then you are able
   to bring this same uniformity to your desktop. Basicly what I see as a
   desktop is the set of applications which are availeble on a certain
   system. A uniform GUI can bring also features like drag and drop and
   "point and shoot", associate applications to a certain filetype. One
   question you ask about the awareness for GNOME or KDE, this means,
   that a program that is designed for those environment is (or should
   be) able to communicate with other programs that are designed for
   those environments. This brings you for example drag and drop. Some
   programs can indeed not run without the desktop environment for which
   they are designed, but some can. For example I use KDE programs, but I
   do not like their window manager so I use Window Maker, which is not
   designed for use in the KDE environment, therefore I have to lack some
   features.
   
   The libraries: GTK+ and Qt (Troll, as you mentioned it) are toolkits.
   What they basicly do is draw windows, buttons and menus. These are
   tour Legos with which you build your interface. And yes, if you want
   to run applications designed for a specif environment, say GNOME, you
   need atleast the GNOME libaries, like GTK+ and a few others.
   
   As I mentioned before, the client-server design of X-Windows gives the
   user the flexibility to choose a window manager they like, but basicly
   they do the same as the win95/98 system. Win95/98 limits you to one
   look and feel (yeah you can change the color of your background, but
   that is about it), but manages also windows. But it does not give the
   user the freedom to experiment with other looks and feels. Most modern
   window managers permits you to define other keybindings and such. And
   if you don't like GNOME you can use KDE and vice versa (there are a
   few others btw).
   
   All I know about CDE is that it is based on the Motif toolkit (compare
   GTK+ and Qt) and this toolkit is not free (better say GPLed software)
   like GTK+. I think that is the main reason why it is not used very
   much on Linux. But if it is a resource hog I do not know. Personally
   the main reason why I will not use it is because it looks ugly :-)
   
   Well that is about it, I hope this information is a bit usefull. If
   you have questions, do not hesitate...
   
   --
   Hans Nieuwenhuis
   
       --------------------------------------------------------------
                                      
   Date: Sat, 05 Dec 1998 00:29:34 -0500
   From: sottek, sottek@quiknet.com
   
   I thought I would take the time to send you some information about the
   questions you have posted on Linux Gazette. From your question I can
   tell that even though you are new to Linux you have seen some of the
   fundamental differences in the interface workings. I currently work
   for Intel where I administrate Unix Cad tools, and am having to
   explain these differences to management everyday... I think you will
   understand far better than they do :)
   
     1.Terminology: The differences (if any) among a GUI, a window
     manager, a desktop, and an interface. How do they differ from X
     windows?
     
   X windows is a method by which things get drawn on your screen. All x
   windows clients (the part drawing in front of you) have to know how to
   respond to certain commands, like 'draw a green box', 'Draw a pixel'
   allocate memory for client images... This in itself is NOT what you
   think of as "Windows". All applications send these commands to your
   client. This is done through tcp/ip, even if your application and your
   client are both on the machine in front of you. This is VERY VERY
   important. The #1 design flaw in MS Windows is the lack of this
   network layer in the windows system. Every X application (any
   window... xterm netscape xclock) looks at your "DISPLAY" environment
   variable to find out who it should tell to draw itself. IF your
   DISPLAY is set to computer1:0.0 and you are on computer2 and you type
   'xterm' it will pop up on computer1's screen (Provided you have
   permission) This is why on my computer at work I have windows open
   from HP's RS6000's Sun's... Linux(when I'm sneeky) and they all work
   just fine together.
   
     2.Do all window managers (like GNOME or KDE or FVWM95) run on top
     of X windows?
     
   Well, yes. Given the above you should now know that X is the thing
   that draws. Anything that needs to draw has to run "on" X.
   
   BUT, we need to get a better understanding of the window manager
   because I didn't tel you about that yet. In MS Windows when a program
   hangs it sits on your screen until you can kill it. There is usually
   no way to move it, or minimize it. This is design flaw #2 in windows.
   Every MS Windows program has to have some code for the title bar,
   close, maximize, and minimize buttons. This code is in shared libs so
   you don't have to write it yourself but never the less it IS there. In
   X windows the program knows nothing about its titlebar, or the buttons
   on it. The program just keeps telling X to draw whatever it needs.
   Another program, the window manager does those things (It 'Manages
   windows') The window manager draws the title bars and the buttons. The
   window manager also 'hides' a window from you when it is minimized and
   replaces it with an icon. The program has NO say so in the matter.
   This means that even is a program is totally locked up it can be
   moved, minimized, and killed. (Sometimes not killed unless you window
   manager is set to send a kill -9)
   
   That being said here is the bad news. KDE and gnome and NOT window
   managers. They do not draw title bars, allow you to resize windows and
   stuff like that. They are just a program that does things like provide
   a button bar (which some window managers do too) and the stuff like
   telling programs how they should look.
   
     3.What exactly does it mean for an application to be GNOME or KDE
     aware? What happens if it's not? Can you still run it?
     
   gnome aware applications do what I was just about to mention. They pay
   attention to gnome when it tells them how to look and act. If gnome
   says 'you should have a red background' they do it. Also there will be
   some advanced things like an app can ask gnome if it can have a spell
   checker and gnome can supply it with one (See CORBA stuff) KDE is the
   same way minus the CORBA (I think)
   
     4.What exactly do the GTK+ (for GNOME) or Troll (for KDE) libraries
     do?
     
   This is a hidden layer called widgets. It allows you do say 'draw a
   button' rather than 'draw a box, draw an edge on that box so it looks
   3d, put some text in that box, make sure this box looks for mouse
   clicks, if a click happens remove that 3d stuff and put it back pretty
   quick'. It would not be a good idea to try to program complex things
   without a widget set.
   
     5.How does the history of Linux (or UNIX) window managers compare
     to that of say, the desktop given to Win98/95 users? How,
     specifically, does Microsoft limit consumer's choices by giving
     them just one kind of desktop, supposedly one designed for ease of
     use?
     
   I think you can get this from the other answers. really the limit
   are...
    1. You have to run the program on the same machine where you want to
       see it.
    2. You can't choose another window manager if you don't like the way
       windows works.
    3. No matter how configurable windows is, if there is just 1 thing
       you need that it doesn't have built in , there is no way to get
       it. With X you just use a different wm,desktop,widget set,
       whatever.
       
     6.What's happening with Common Desktop Environment? Is it correct
     that it's not widely adopted among Linux users because it's a
     resource hog, or not open source?
     
   CDE what a thing driven by big Unix verdors for their own needs.
   Things that start that way get re-invented to suit everyones needs,
   hence Gnome and KDE.
   
   Well, when I get going I can sure waste some time. I hope I haven't
   taken up too much of you time with this. I'll leave you with just 1
   thing.
   
   I know hundreds of world class programmers, and administrators who are
   gods on BOTH NT and Unix. I know not a single one who prefers NT. Keep
   learning until you agree, I know you will.
   
   --
   SOTTEK
   
       --------------------------------------------------------------
                                      
   Date: Sat, 5 Dec 1998 09:48:43 -0600
   From: Dustin Puryear, dpuryear@usa.net
   
     desktop, and an interface. How do they differ from X windows?
     
   X windows is what sits behind it all. More or less, it controls the
   access to your hardware and provides the basic functionality that is
   needed by the wm. The wm controls windows, and how the user interacts
   with them. A desktop, such as KDE or GNOME, provides more services
   than a wm. For instance, drag 'n drop is a feature of a desktop, not a
   wm.
   
     Do all window managers (like GNOME or KDE or FVWM95) run on top of
     X windows?
     
   Yes.
   
     What exactly does it mean for an application to be GNOME or KDE
     aware? What happens if it's not? Can you still run it?
     
   They use the functions provided by GNOME or KDE, not just X.
   
     What exactly do the GTK+ (for GNOME) or Troll (for KDE) libraries
     do?
     
   GTK+ and Qt (KDE) provide the basic foundation for the desktops. For
   instance, Qt provides the code to actually create a ListBox (a list of
   items a user can choose). KDE just uses this code to do it's thing.
   Note that Qt can be used for console apps just as well as for X apps.
   I'm not familiar with GTK+, so I can't comment.
   
     What's happening with Common Desktop Environment? Is it correct
     that it's not widely adopted among Linux users because it's a
     resource hog, or not open source?
     
   Well, Red Hat used CDE for a while (I think). However, they could not
   actually fix anything with it since it's was closed source. They have
   since moved to GNOME. However, there are some CDE clones out there.
   
   --
   Dustin
   
       --------------------------------------------------------------
                                      
   Date: Sat, 05 Dec 1998 19:45:34 +0000
   From: "Richard J. Moore", moorer@cs.man.ac.uk
   
   Hope this helps:
   
     1.Terminology: The differences (if any) among a GUI, a window
     manager, a desktop, and an interface. How do they differ from X
     windows?
     
   A GUI (Graphical User Interface) is a general term that refers to the
   basic idea of using a graphical representation to communicate with the
   user (as opposed to a text based interface such as the command line).
   
   A window manager is an idea that is really specific to X windows. In X
   windows the policy for how windows are arranged and controlled is
   separated from the core system, the window manager is a special
   program that does this. This allows people to choose a window manager
   that has a policy that is good for them, and allows new window
   managers to be created that have different policies. The window
   manager draws window borders, minimise/maximise buttons etc. You can
   mix and match window managers, but most GUI toolkits for UNIX will
   provide one as standard.
   
   A desktop is a metaphor used by many GUIs it is basically an attempt
   to make computers fit in with the way people would work in an office.
   The hope is that this will make it easy for people to operate the
   system. The term is also used more generally to refer to a combination
   of window manager, toolkit (the box of parts used by the programmers
   of the system), and other 'standard' applications. If a set of tools
   is referred to as a desktop, it generally means that it will provide
   all of these things, and that they will be designed to work together
   in an integrated fashion. An example would be KDE
   (http://www.kde.org/).
   
   An 'interface' is just an abbreviation for a user interface. This is
   the view that a program presents to the user, and (for a graphical
   user interface) is usually composed of widgets such as menus,
   checkboxes, push buttons etc.
   
   Finally X windows is a toolkit for actually getting all of the widgets
   etc. onto your screen. It provides routines for drawing lines, circles
   etc. and these are used to draw everything you see. X windows is a lot
   more complicated and powerful than this really, but it would take a
   book to explain why. If you want this level of detail then look at the
   O'Reilly X windows programming series.
   
     2.Do all window managers (like GNOME or KDE or FVWM95) run on top
     of X windows?
     
   Yes, though neither Gnome nor KDE is a window manager. Both of these
   are complete desktops and though they provide window managers, there
   is much more to them than just that. The window manager in KDE is
   called kwm.
   
     3.What exactly does it mean for an application to be GNOME or KDE
     aware? What happens if it's not? Can you still run it?
     
   It means the app will talk to the window manager to get support for
   special features of that environment, and that it will use the
   standard look and feel of the desktop. If the app is not compliant
   then it should still work fine, but the special features will be
   unavailable. The other situation is using a compliant app with a
   nonstandard window manager, in this case too the app should work fine
   (but some feature may be unavailable). It is possible for window
   managers other than the standard ones to be compliant, for example
   there is now a KDE-Compliant version of the BlackBox WM.
   
     4.What exactly do the GTK+ (for GNOME) or Troll (for KDE) libraries
     do?
     
   They provide tools such as edit widgets, menus etc. in a form that
   makes them easy to reuse. The library used by KDE (called Qt, see
   http://www.troll.no/qt) is written in a language called C++ and also
   provides tools for programmers such as routines for platform
   independent access to files and directories etc. GTK+ is similar
   though it has narrower scope and is written in C.
   
     5.How does the history of Linux (or UNIX) window managers compare
     to that of say, the desktop given to Win98/95 users?
     
   Badly :-(
   
     How, specifically, does Microsoft limit consumer's choices by
     giving them just one kind of desktop, supposedly one designed for
     ease of use?
     
   They restrict the system to a single view which may not be the best
   one for the job. Allowing people the choice means people can choose
   the best for them, even if it is nonstandard. The downside of this is
   that if everyone uses a different window manager then supporting and
   managing the system becomes difficult. In between these two options is
   the choice made by most UNIX toolkits - have a standard window window
   manager, but allow people to use another if they want.
   
     6.What's happening with Common Desktop Environment? Is it correct
     that it's not widely adopted among Linux users because it's a
     resource hog, or not open source?
     
   CDE is based on Motif which is an old C toolkit that is (IMHO) looking
   rather dated. Motif is very slow, and as you say is very resource
   hungry. In the past linux versions have often been buggy, though this
   situation may have improved. I found CDE itself to be quite poor, it
   works fine if you spend all your time in a single application (such as
   emacs), but using the drag and drop, and some of the built in tools
   was generally problematic. IMHO It is unlikely to take off on linux
   because it it pricey and of lower quality than the free alternatives.
   
   --
   Rich
     _________________________________________________________________
   
             Published in Linux Gazette Issue 36, January 1999
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   [ TABLE OF CONTENTS ] [ FRONT PAGE ] Back Next 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
      This page maintained by the Editor of Linux Gazette, gazette@ssc.com
      Copyright  1999 Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
    "Linux Gazette...making Linux just a little more fun!"
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                                 News Bytes
                                      
                                 Contents:
                                      
     * News in General
     * Software Announcements
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                              News in General
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  February 1999 Linux Journal
  
   The February issue of Linux Journal will be hitting the newsstands
   January 11. This issue focuses on Cutting Edge Linux with an article
   on wearable computers by Dr. Steve Mann. Also, featured are articles
   on COAS, Csound, VNC, KDE and GNOME. Check out the Table of Contents
   at http://www.linuxjournal.com/issue58/index.html. To subscribe to
   Linux Journal, go to http://www.linuxjournal.com/ljsubsorder.html.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Open Source Petition
  
   Date: Sat, 05 Dec 1998 15:20:19 -0500
   A petition has recently been launched asking the General Services
   Administration of the US Government to evaluate Open Source software
   (OSS) alongside commercial software whenever it buys or upgrades
   computers. The goal of the petition, written by Prof. Clay Shirky and
   sponsored by the Open Source Iniative and O'Reilly and Associates, and
   hosted on www.e-thepeople.com, is to point out that OSS has reached a
   level of quality, reliability and support that makes it competitive
   with existing commercial products.
   
   The ultimate hope is to get vendors of Open Source software included
   in contract bids for Federal Government work.
   
   If you are interested in this petition, there are three things you can
   do:
     * Sign it:
       http://www.ethepeople.com/etp/affiliates/national/fullview.cfm?ETP
       ID=0&PETID=74386&ETPDIR=affiliates/national/
     * Post the press release URL on sites or in other forums whose
       members might be interested in such a thing:
       http://www.shirky.com/opensource/petition.html
     * Pass this message on.
       
   For more information:
   Clay Shirky, clay@shirky.com
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  LinuxWorld Conference & Expo - March 1999
  
   IDG World Expo, the world's leading producer of IT-focused conferences
   and expositions, will produce LinuxWorld Conference & Expo, the first
   international exposition addressing the business and technology issues
   of the Linux operating environment.
   
   Addressing the needs of both the Linux business and development
   communities, LinuxWorld Conference and Expo, headed by Charles Greco,
   President of IDG World Expo, features a high-level, technical
   conference program led by industry luminaries offering advice and
   solutions on the industry's fastest growing operating systems
   technology. An exhibit floor highlighting leading service providers,
   solutions integrators, and development organizations -- Pacific
   HiTech, Enchanced Software, Linux Journal, Knock Software, and Oracle
   among others -- will also include customized event areas such as
   Start-up City, Developer Central and Developer Greenhouse, which will
   spotlight the latest developments and emerging companies in the Linux
   arena.
   
   The first LinuxWorld Conference and Expo will be held March 1-4, 1999
   in San Jose, California at the San Jose Convention Center. The target
   audience includes Linux developers, Fortune 1000 business leaders,
   enterprise managers, CIOs, service providers, system administrators,
   software solution providers, computer consultants, and solutions
   integrators.
   
   Dr. Michael Cowpland, President and CEO, Corel Corporation, Mark
   Jarvis, Senior Vice President of World Wide Marketing, Oracle and
   Linus Torvalds, Creator of Linux, the open source operating system,
   will be the featured keynote speakers on Tuesday, March 2. Keynotes
   are open to all registered attendees.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.linuxworldexpo.com/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Debian Project Adopts a Constitution
  
   December 14, 1998
   The Debian Project adopted a constitution which can be viewed at
   http://www.debian.org/devel/constitution/. The highlights of the
   constitution include the creation of the Technical Committee, the
   Project Leader postion, the Project Secretary position, Leader
   Delegate positions and a voting proceedure. The constitution was
   proposed in September 1998, and after a discussion period the vote
   took place in December 1998. It was virtually unanimously in favor
   with 86 valid votes.
   
   The discussion about the constitution began in early 1998 and was
   carried out on the Debian mailing lists. Most of the discussion can be
   found in the archives of the debian-devel mailing list at
   http://www.debian.org/Lists-Ar chives/. Details of the vote can be
   found at http://www.debian.org/vote/19 99/vote_0000.
   
   The constitution describes the organisational structure for formal
   decisionmaking within the Debian Project. As Debian continues to grow,
   this will be a valuable document to ensure that Debian continues to
   evolve and grow with the input and contributions from its membership.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.debian.org/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Linux Links
  
   Linux is the cover story of December Network Magazine:
   http://www.networkmagazine.com/
   
   Perl Web site at The Mining Co.: http://perl.miningco.com/
   
   LinuxCAD review: http://pw2.netcom.com/~rwuest/linuxcadreview.html
   
   Comdex and the Linux pavilion: http://marc.merlins.org/linux/comdex98/
   
   Tea Party: http://marc.merlins.org/linux/teaparty/
   
   The Internet an International Public Treasure: A Proposal:
   http://firstmonday.dk/issues/issue3_10/hauben/index.html
   
   Linux and Apple: http://www.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB19981215S0011
   
   "The money's too good":
   http://www.salonmagazine.com/21st/rose/1998/10/23straight.html
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                           Software Announcements
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Applix Adds Applixware for Linux On Compaq Alpha
  
   Date: Fri, 4 Dec 1998 18:28:28 -0500
   
   WESTBORO, Mass.--Dec. 1, 1998--Applix, Inc. announced today the
   release of Applixware 4.4.1 for Linux running on COMPAQ's Alpha
   processor.
   
   Applixware includes Applix Words, Spreadsheets, Graphics, Presents,
   HTML Author and Applix Data which provides database connectivity to
   Oracle, Informix, Sybase and other Linux databases. Applix Builder, a
   graphical, object oriented development tool with CORBA connectivity is
   also included in the suite. Microsoft Office 97 document interchange
   is provided through an Applix developed set of filters for Word, Excel
   and PowerPoint.
   
   For more information:
   Applix, Inc., Richard Manly, rmanly@applix.com
   http://linux.applixware.com/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  NetBeans Announces Support for the Java Development Kit 1.2
  
   New York, Java Business Expo, December 8, 1998 - NetBeans today
   announced that its Java(tm) IDE, NetBeans DeveloperX2, supports and
   runs on Sun Microsystems, Inc.'s Java Development Kit (JDK version
   1.2). This latest release of the JDK provides a rich feature set of
   new class libraries and tools, making it easier than ever for
   developers to create portable, distributed, enterprise-class
   applications. Sun's announcement of the availability of the next
   version of the JDK was made today during the Java Business Expo in New
   York. NetBeans Developer X2 2.1 (beta) supports JDK 1.2 and uses it
   internally. It is available to NetBeans' Early Access Program
   participants.
   
   In addition to overall performance improvements, Sun's new version of
   the JDK enhances the NetBeans IDE by offering features such as drag 'n
   drop, Beans enhancements, collections, JDBC 2.0, and Swing 1.1. Among
   other new features, NetBeans DeveloperX2 will utilize the new APIs for
   grouping and manipulating objects of different types and for extending
   server functionality. JDK 1.2 will also strengthen NetBeans users'
   ability to design more user-friendly interfaces, process images,
   address multilingual requirements, use stylized text, and print.
   
   The final release of NetBeans DeveloperX2 2.1 will be available in
   January, 1999. NetBeans Developer will also be available in a
   concurrent version, which will continue to support JDK 1.1.x. NetBeans
   Enterprise, a multi-user edition of the IDE due in Beta version in
   January, 1999, will support JDK 1.2. The full release of this edition
   of the IDE is due in Spring, '99.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.netbeans.com/ 
   Helena Stolka, helena.stolka@netbeans.com
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Zope Goes Open Source
  
   Date: Sat, 5 Dec 1998 06:19:32 -0500 (EST)
   Just in case you missed this in LWN, http://www.zope.org/ just went
   online. It's a really nice product for developing web sites. The
   company that created it gave a talk at the DCLUG meeting a few months
   back. They dropped are strong Linux supporters. It's there principal
   platform in house.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.zope.org/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  KDE on Corel's Netwinder
  
   Ottawa, Canada--November 25, 1998--
   Corel Computer and the KDE project today announced a technology
   relationship that will bring the K Desktop Environment (KDE), a
   sophisticated graphical user environment for Linux and UNIX, to future
   desktop versions of the NetWinder family of Linux-based thin-clients
   and thin-servers. A graphical user interface is a necessary element
   for Corel Computer to create a family of highly reliable, easy-to-use,
   easy-to-manage desktop computers. The alliance between Corel Computer
   and KDE, a non-commercial association of Open Source programmers,
   provides NetWinder users a sophisticated front-end to Linux, a stable
   and robust Unix-like operating system.
   
   Corel Computer has shipped a number of NetWinder DM, or development
   machines, to KDE developers who are helping to port the desktop
   environment. Additionally, NetWinder.Org developers, Raffaele Saena
   and John Olson, were responsible for championing development of KDE on
   the NetWinder. Corel Computer plans to announce the availability of
   desktop versions of the NetWinder running KDE beginning in early 1999.
   Early demonstrations of the port, such as the one shown at the Open
   Systems fair in Wiesbaden, Germany, in September, have been
   enthusiastically received by potential customers.
   
   Based on the Open Source model, Corel Computer is devoting internal
   development resources to the improvement of the KDE project including
   rigorous testing of the environment on the NetWinder. As a developing
   partner, Corel Computer will release its work back to the KDE
   development community.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.corelcomputer.com/
   htt://www.kde.org/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  New Perl Module Enables Application Developers to Use XML
  
   Date: Wed, 25 Nov 1998 06:36:08 -0800 (PST)
   Sebastopol, CA--Perl is the language operating behind the scenes of
   most dynamic Web sites. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is emerging
   as a core standard for Web development. Now a new Perl module (or
   extension) known as XML::Parser allows Perl programmers building
   applications to use XML, and provides an efficient, easy way to parse
   (break down and process) XML document parts.
   
   Perl is renowned for its superior text processing capabilities; XML is
   text that contains markup tags and structures. Thus Perl's support for
   XML offers a natural expansion of the capabilities of both.
   
   XML::Parser is built upon a C library, expat, that is very fast and
   robust. Perl, expat and XML::Parser are all Unicode-aware; that is,
   they read encoding declarations and perform necessary conversions into
   Unicode, a system for "the interchange, processing, and display of the
   written texts of the diverse languages of the modern world"
   (http://www.unicode.org/). Thus a single XML document written in Perl
   can now contain Greek, Hebrew, Chinese and Russian in their proper
   scripts. Expat was authored by James Clark, a highly respected leader
   in the SGML/XML community.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.perl.com/
   http://www.oreilly.com/
   http://perl.oreilly.com/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  QLM for IT Reduces Cost & Guarantees Certainty of Application Development
  
   Newton, Mass., December 9, 1998 - Kalman Saffran Associates, Inc.
   (KSA), a leading developer of state-of-the-art products and complex IT
   systems for data communications, telecommunications, financial, and
   interactive/CATV industries, today announced the availability of its
   new Quantum Leap Methodology (QLM(tm) ) for IT. QLM for IT is an
   innovative process for information technology organizations looking to
   decrease expense and speed application development. Using QLM for IT,
   KSA increases productivity and certainty by pre-empting the mistakes
   that have historically created barriers to IT project success.
   Successful application of QLM for IT allows upper management to
   refocus on strategic planning and IT objectives, and away from budget
   and schedule overruns. At the same time the methodology sharpens an
   organization's focus on assessment, implementation, verification,
   customization and quantification. This approach allows KSA to
   guarantee speedy results and high quality.
   
   The QLM for IT offering is available starting at $20,000. Companies
   interested in QLM for IT analysis and recommendations or learning more
   about KSA's comprehensive training program should call 1.888.597.9284
   For more information:
   kalsaf@email.msn.com
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Spectra Logic Announces Alex 4.50, Has Linux Support
  
   BOULDER, Colo., Dec. 15, 1998 - Spectra Logic Corp. today announced
   the availability of Version 4.50 of its award winning Alexandria
   Backup and Archival Librarian software. Alexandria 4.50 adds a number
   of significant new features to provide users with greater
   functionality, reliability, and ease-of-use for backup and recovery of
   large distributed databases and data center applications.
   
   Alexandria 4.50 has been ported to Red Hat and Slackware Linux OSes,
   and additional ports are being developed for Linux OSes from SuSE,
   Caldera, and TurboLinux. Alexandria Linux support is available on the
   Red Hat distribution CD or from Spectra Logic's website at
   www.spectralogic.com/linux/index.htm
   http://www.spectralogic.com/linux/index.htm.
   
   For more information:
   http://www.spectralogic.com/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  WebMaker
  
   Date: Thu, 10 Dec 1998 21:22:25 GMT
   WebMaker, an HTML Editor for UNIX, version 0.6 is out now. (Copyright
   - GPL)
   
   Main features:
     * nice GUI interface;
     * menus, toolbar and dialogs for tag editing - like HomeSite and
       asWedit;
     * HTML 4.0 support;
     * preview for <IMG> tag (see screenshot);
     * color selectors for bgcolor and other color attributes;
     * color syntax highlighting;
     * preview with external browser (Netscape);
     * ability to filter editor content through any external program that
       support stdin/stdout interface;
     * KDE integration.
       
   For more information:
   http://www.services.ru/linux/webmaker/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
             Published in Linux Gazette Issue 36, January 1999
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   [ TABLE OF CONTENTS ] [ FRONT PAGE ] Back Next 
     _________________________________________________________________
   
      This page written and maintained by the Editor of Linux Gazette,
      gazette@ssc.com
      Copyright  1999 Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc.
      
    "The Linux Gazette...making Linux just a little more fun!"
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                           (?) The Answer Guy (!)
                                      
                   By James T. Dennis, answerguy@ssc.com
          Starshine Technical Services, http://www.starshine.org/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  Contents:
  
   (!)Greetings From Jim Dennis
   
   (?)Routing and Subnetting 101
          
   (?)No STREAMS Error while Installing Netware for Linux
          
   (?)More than 8 loopfs Mounts?
          
   (?)eql dual line ppp --or--
          EQL Serial Line "Load Balancing" 
          
   (?)who to report gcc bug to? --or--
          Where to Report Bugs and Send Patches 
          
   (?)RedHat Linux (5.1) and Brand X --or--
          How to "get into" an Linux system from a Microsoft client 
          
   (?)Linux File System recommendations --or--
          Where to Put New and Supplemental Packages 
          
   (?)Your book --or--
          Book: Linux Systems Administration 
          
   (?)FTP Site... --or--
          'ls' Doesn't work for FTP Site 
          
   (?)very general process question --or--
          An Anthropologist Asks About the Linux "Process" 
          
   (?)Locating AV Research --or--
          Looking for a Hardware Vendor: In all the Wrong Places 
          
   (?)question for answerguy --or--
          Letting Those Transfers Run Unattended 
          
   (?)where can i find information about LOFS, TFS --or--
          Translucent, Overlay, Loop, and Union Filesystems 
          
   (?)Modem dial out
          
   (?)Linux Gazette --or--
          Mea Culpea
          
   (?)PAM & chroot (fwd) --or--
          'chroot()' Jails or Cardboard Boxes 
          
   (?)The Linux Swap File --or--
          Swap file on a RAM Disk 
          
   (?)RedHat Linux (5.1) and Brand X --or--
          How to "get into" an Linux system from a Microsoft client 
          
   (?)Dynamic IP Address Publishing Hack
          
   (?)Why 40-second delay in sending mail to SMTP server?
          
   (?)how to install two ethernet cards for proxy server for red hat
          linux --or--
          Linux as Router and Proxy Server: HOWTO? 
          
   (?)ey answer guy! answer this! --or--
          PostScript to GIF 
          
   (?)troubleshooting
          
   (?)More on: "Remote Login as root"
          
   (?)Thank You --or--
          Kudos 
          
   (?)Question --or--
          Linux Support for Intel Pentium II Xeon CPU's and Chipsets 
          
   (?)isp --or--
          Linux Friendly ISP's: SF Bay Area 
          
   (?)Hello I need some help --or--
          Eight Character login Name Limit 
          
   (?)Locked Out of His Mailserver
          
   (?)Changing the color depth for your x-server? --or--
          Changing the X Server's Default Color Depth 
          
   (?)Num Lock and X apps --or--
          NumLock and X Problems 
          
   (?)NE2000 "clones" --- not "cloney" enough! --or--
          Expansion on NE-2000 Cards: Some PCI models "okay" 
          
   (?)MySql --or--
          Finding info on MySqL? 
          
   (?)read please very important --or--
          Spying: (AOL Instant Messenger or ICQ): No Joy! 
          
   (?)Tuning monitors for use with X --or--
          Fraser Valley LUG's Monitor DB 
          
   (?)chattr =u and then what? --or--
          ext2fs "Undeletable" Attribute 
          
   (?)How to Install Linux on an RS6000?
          
   (?)Real PS Printing --or--
          Advanced Printer Support: 800x600 dpi + 11x17" Paper 
          
   (?)TAG suggestions
          
   (?)password change --or--
          CGI Driven Password Changes 
          
   (?)ifconfig reports TX errors on v2.1.x kernels
          
   (?)Trident 9685 tv --or--
          Support for Trident Video/Television Adapter 
          
   (?)Looking for info on BIOS setup --or--
          Plug and Pray Problems 
          
   (?)Mount linux drives from win9x/nt? password encryption seems to be a
          problem... --or--
          Sharing/Exporting Linux Directories to Windows '9x/NT 
          
   (?)Mail processing
          
   (?)Printing question --or--
          Extra Formfeed from Windows '95 
          
   (?)Root password --or--
          Can't Login in as Root 
          
   (?)Alternate root-password recovery option --or--
          Alternative Method for Recovering from Root Password Loss 
          
   (?)Journal File Support and Tarantella? --or--
          SCOldies Bragging Rights 
          
   (?)Remote tape access, using local CPU --or--
          Application Direct Access to Remote Tape Drive 
          
   (?)Mounting CD Drives from SoundCard --or--
          Mounting multiple CD's 
          
   (?)Re: leafnode-1.7 -- news server for small sites --or--
          More on Multi-Feed Netnews (leafnode) 
          
   (?)rsh config --or--
          Getting 'rsh' to work 
          
   (?)update on your answer - netware clients --or--
          Linux as a Netware Client 
          
   (?)LILO Default
          
   (?)uninstall help --or--
          Uninstalling Linux 
          
   (?)Compiling kernel --or--
          Making a Kernel Requires 'make' 
          
   (?)memory usage --or--
          Using only 64Mb out of 128Mb Available 
          
   (?)Manipulating Clusters on a Floppy ...
          
   (?)Setting up ircd
          
   (?)Sendmail on private net with UUCP link to Internet
          
   (?)Linux in general --or--
          Complaint Department: 
          
   (?)A Dual Modem configuration... how do I get it to work? --or--
          eql Not Working 
          
   (?)HELP: fetchmail dies after RH 5.2 upgrade --or--
          Upgrade Kills Name Server 
          
   (?)Question (what else?) --or--
          MS Applications Support For Linux 
          
   (?)Linux as a Home Internet Gateway and Server
          
   (?)lilo --or--
          Persistent Boot Sector 
          
   (?)preference=20 --or--
          Secondary MX Records: How and Why 
          
   (?)LPD forks and hangs/Linux --or--
          'lpd' Bug: "restricted service" option; Hangs Printer Daemon 
          
   (?)Dual booting NT or Win9x with Linux (Red Hat 5.2) --or--
          Dual Boot Configurations 
          
   (?)Can you give me a Suggestion?/ --or--
          Microtek Scanner Support: Alejandro's Tale 
          
   (?)Offer to make available Winmodem interface spec --or--
          Modem HOWTO Author Gets Offer RE: WinModems 
          
   (?)I do know i am boring (ma windows fa veramente cagare) --or--
          Condolences to Another Victim of the "LoseModem" Conspiracy 
          
   (?)Kai Makisara: Re: audio-DAT on SCSI streamer? --or--
          More on: Reading Audio Tapes using HP-DAT Drive 
          
   (?)Just a sugestion... --or--
          Best of Answer Guy: A Volunteer? 
          
   (?)more on keybindings --or--
          termcap/terminfo Oddities to Remotely Run SCO App 
          
   (?)Arabic? --or--
          Arabic BiDi Support for Linux 
          
   (?)Updates: Risks and rewards --or--
          Automated Updates 
          
   (?)Liam Greenwood: Your XDM question
          
   (?)rsh on 2.0.34 --or--
          'rsh' as 'root' Denied 
            ____________________________________________________
   
(!) Greetings from Jim Dennis

   Happy New Year everybody. I would say more, but I think I've said
   enough for this month...
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Routing and Subnetting 101

   From pashah on Wed, 18 Nov 1998 on the L.U.S.T List
   
   Hullo list, 
   
   what is the way to devide a net into subnets according to bits
   bourder? 
   
     (!) This is a very large subject --- and your question isn't
     sufficiently detailed to offer much of a clue as to how much
     background you really need.
     
     However, I'm writing a book on Linux Systems Administration, and I
     have to put some discussion of this somewhere in around chapter 12,
     so I might as well try here.
     
     "subnetting" is a means of dividing a block of IP addresses into
     separately routable groups. If you are assigned a class C address
     block (255 addresses) it often makes sense to subnet those in some
     way that's appropriate to your LAN layout.
     
     (!) [Paul Anderson] Also known as a /24, IIRC. TTYL!
     
     Paul Anderson - Self-employed Megalomaniac
     Member of the Sarnia Linux User's Group http://www.sar-net.com/slug
     
     For example you might split the block (lets say it's 192.168.200.*)
     into two subnets of 126 hosts each. We might assign half of them to
     an "external" or "perimeter" segment (an ethernet segment that
     contains all of our Internet visible hosts) while we assign the
     other addresses to our "internal" LAN.
     
     (Actually there are better ways to do that --- where we use
     "private net" (RFC1918) addresses on all of our internal LAN's ---
     and masquerading and/or proxying for all Internet access and
     internetwork routing. However, we'll ignore those methods for now).
     
     To do this we use a "netmask" option on the 'ifconfig' commands for
     each of the interfaces on our network. We'll have to put a router
     between our two segments. Conventionally primary routers are
     assigned the first available address on their subnets. So we'd
     assume that we're using a Linux system with two ethernet cards as
     our router. This would use the following commands to configure
     those two addresses:
     
                ifconfig  eth0 192.168.200.1 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.128 \
                        broadcast 192.168.200.127

                ifconfig  eth1 192.168.200.129 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.128 \
                        broadcast 192.168.200.255

     ... note that the 129 address in our original block becomes the
     first address in our upper subnet. We have subnetted into two
     blocks. (None of this makes sense unless you look at these numbers
     in binary).
     
     For this to work we'll also have to configure corresponding routes.
     In the 2.0 kernels and earlier it is/was necessary to do this as a
     separate operation. In the 2.1 kernel a route is automatically
     added for each 'ifconfig' command. For our example the routes would
     look like:
     
                route add -net 192.168.200.0 eth0
                route add -net 192.168.200.120 eth1

     ... I'm assuming, in this case, that we also have an ISP that has
     assigned this address block. Actually my examples are using
     addresses from RFC1918, these are reserved for "private" or
     "non-Internet" use --- and would never actually be issued by an
     ISP. However, they'll serve for our purposes. Let's assume that you
     had a simple PPP link to your ISP (or to some external ISDN, xDSL,
     CSU/DSU or other ISP provided device which is your connection point
     to them). They might have assigned one of their addresses to your
     border router, or they might expect that you'll assign your .1
     address to it. Somewhere on their end they'll have a route that
     looks something like:
     
                route add -net 192.168.200.0 gw 192.168.200.1

     This says that your router (.1) is the gateway (gw) for that
     network (192.168.200.*). Note that their netmask for you is
     255.255.255.0 --- their's differs from your idea of your netmask.
     That's because your router will handle the routing internal to your
     LAN.
     
     It might be the case that you have to assign your .1 address to
     your ppp0 interface, and perhaps your .2 address to eth0. That
     won't affect any of what I've said so far (other than the one digit
     in one of our 'ifconfig' commands). All of our routes are the same.
     
     In any event we'll want a default route to be active on our router
     anytime our connection to the Internet is up. The hosts on either
     of our subnets can all declare our router as their default route.
     Thus all of the hosts on the 192.168.200 subnet (2 through 126) can
     use a command like:
     
                route add default gw 102.168.200.1

     ... while all of the hosts on our upper subnet (192.168.200.128 ---
     129 through 254) would use:
     
                route add default gw 102.168.200.1

     Note that we can't use hosts numbered ...127 and ...255 in this
     example. For each subnet we create we "lose" two IP addresses. One
     is for the "network number" (offset zero from our subnet) and the
     other is for the broadcast address (the last offset from our
     network number for our subnet).
     
     We can have routes to gateways other than our "default." For
     example if I had a more complicated internetwork with a set of
     machines with addresses of the form 172.16.*.* (another RFC1918
     reserved block) I could use a command like:
     
                route add -net 172.16.0.0 gw 192.168.200.5

     ... to declare my local system (....5) as the gateway to that whole
     block of Class B addresses. Locally I don't care how the 172.16.*.*
     addresses are subnetted on their end. I just send all of their
     packets to their routers and those routers figure out the details.
     Of course if our .1/.129 router (from our earlier examples) has
     this route, than all of our other client systems on both
     192.168.200 subnets could just use their default route. This might
     result in an extra hope for the systems on the 192.168.200.0 lower
     network (one to the .1 router, and another from there to the .5
     router). However, it does centralize the administration of our
     locate routing tables.
     
     All of the routing that I've been describing is "static" (I've
     using the 'route' command to establish all of the routes). Another
     option for larger and more complicated networks is to use a dynamic
     routing protocol, such as RIP. To do that, we have to run the
     'routed' or (better) the 'gated' command on each of our routers.
     
     In a typical leaf site (a LAN with only one router, therefore only
     one route in or out) we only run 'routed' or 'gated' on the router.
     All nonlocal traffic has to go to that one router anyway. In many
     cases we want our routers to be "quiet" (to listen to our routes,
     but not advertise any of their own). There are options to the
     'routed' and 'gated' commands to do this. As you get into the
     intricacies of routing in larger environments, and of dynamically
     maintaining routes (like ISP's must do for their customers) you
     enter into some pretty specialized and rarefied territory (and will
     fly past my level of expertise).
     
     Routing on the Internet is currently managed through the BGP4
     protocols, as implemented in 'gated' and various dedicated router
     products like Cisco's IOS.
     
     More about ' gated 'can be found at the Merit site:
     
     http://www.gated.merit.edu/~gated
     
     In order to participate in routing on the Internet (to be a first
     tier ISP like UUNet, PSInet, etc) or to be a truly "multi-homed"
     site (to optimally use feeds from multiple ISP's concurrently)
     you'd have get an AS (autonomous systems) number and "peer" with
     your ISP's. Because any mistake on your part can propaget bogus
     routes to your peers --- which can cause considerable disruption
     across the net --- this is all way beyond the typical network
     administrator.
     
     * (I'm told that the routing infrastructure
     
     has been tightened up quite a bit in the last of years. Some of the
     great Internet "blackouts" from '96 and '97 were caused by
     erroneous route propations across the backbone peers. So now most
     of these sites have configured their routers to only accept
     appropriate routes from each peer.)
     
     The subnet I've been describing is a "1-bit" subnet. That is that
     we're only masking off one extra bit from the default for our
     addressing class. In other words, the default mask for a Class C
     network block is 255.255.255.0 --- which is a decimal
     representation of a 32-bit field where the first 24 bits are set to
     "1" our subnet mask, represented in binary, would have the first 25
     bits set. The next legal subnet would have the first 26 bits set
     (which divides a Class C into four subnets of 62 hosts each).
     Beyond that we can subnet to 27 bits (eight subnets of 30 hosts
     each), 28 bits (16 subnets of 14 hosts each), 29 bits (32 subnets
     of 6 each) and even 30 bits (64 subnets of 2 each).
     
     So far as I know a 31 bit mask is useless. A 32 bit mask defines a
     point-to-point route.
     
     Ultimately all these masks and subnets are used for all routing
     decisions. In a typical host with only one interface the subnet
     mask is used only to distinguish between "local" and "non-local"
     addresses.
     
     For any destination IP address the host "masks off" the trailing
     bits, and then compares the result to the "masked off" versions of
     each local interface address. If the the masks match then the
     address is local, and the kernel (or other routing code) looks for
     a MAC (media access control) or lower level (framing) address. If
     one isn't found an ARP (address resolution protocol) transaction is
     performed where the host broadcasts a message to the local LAN to
     ask where it should set a locally destined packet.
     
     If you have a bad subnet set on a host one of two things can
     happen. It might be unable to communicate with the hosts on any
     other subnets (it thinks those are local addresses and tries to do
     ARP's to find them --- then it figures they must be down since
     there's now response to the ARP requests). It might also send
     locally destined packets to the router (which should bounce them
     back to the local net --- if the router is properly configured). Of
     course that might only work if the bad subnet mask doesn't
     interfere with the host's ability to get packets to it's
     gateway/router. Obviously it's better to have your subnet masks
     properly defined throughout.
     
     If the address isn't local to any interface than the routing code
     searches through its list of routes to look for the "most specific"
     or "best" match. If there is a default route (pointing to a
     gateway) then anything with no other match will get sent to that.
     
     Obviously one of the constraints posed by this classic routing and
     subnetting model is that you can only subnet to a few even sized
     blocks. We can't define one block of 14 or 30 addresses (for our
     perimeter net) have all of the rest routed to our larger internal
     LAN segment. Actually it is possible, with some equipment, to do
     this. That's called "variable length subnetting" or VLSN sometimes
     called VLSM's for VLS "masks").
     
     RIP and the other old routing protocols (EGP, IGRP, etc) don't
     support VLSN (from what I've read in the Cisco FAQ). However, the
     modern OSPF, BGP4, and EIGRP protocols do. Each routing table entry
     has it's own independent mask or "prefix" number.
     
     It appears that Linux can handle VLSN by simply over-riding the
     netmask for a given network when defining static routes. Presumably
     packages like 'gated' can also provide the appropriate arguments
     when updating the kernel's routing table, so long as the route
     exchange protocol can provide it with the requisite extra
     information.
     
     Thus, going back to our example, you might configure your
     192.168.200 network into a block of 30 addresses for the perimeter
     network (one eth0 in our example) and put the rest unto the
     interior net (using eth0). I'm just guesing here --- since I
     haven't actually done this, but I guess that you'd define the
     netmasks in the ifconfig command to be "255.255.255.0" (24 bit),
     while over-riding it in the routes with commands like:
     
                route add -net 192.168.200.0 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.224  eth0
                route add -net 192.168.200.0 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.0   eth1

     At a glance this would appear to be ambiguous. There would seem to
     be two possible routes for some addresses. However, the routing
     rules handle it just find. One of the masks is longer than the
     other --- and the "most specific" (longest mask) wins.
     
     That's why we can have a host route (one without the "-net" option)
     that over-rides any of our network routes. (It's mask is 32 bits
     long). Note: although I've shown these in order, most specific
     towards least so --- it shouldn't matter what order you add the
     routes in.
     
     It's also possible for us to have these two subnets separated from
     one another by intervening networks. I should be able to define a
     gateway to a subnet with a command like:
     
                route add -net 192.168.200.0 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 172.17.2.1

     ... where 172.17.2.1 is some host, somewhere, to which I do have a
     valid route.
     
     In any event I did hit Yahoo! to try and confirm that Linux
     supports VLSN's. I found a message from a frustrated network
     manager who had prototyped a whole network, testing it with Linux
     and depending on VLSN support --- and then finding that Solaris 2.5
     didn't support them. (That was in early '97 --- allegedly 2.6 has
     added this support and presumably the new Solaris 7 also supports
     them). I also know that the route commands will actually add
     entries to your routing table (I created some bogus routes on
     another VC while I was writing this). However, I don't have time to
     set up a proper experiment to prove the point. It appears that
     Linux has supported VLSN's for some time.
     
     Throughout this message I've talked about "classes" of addresses.
     These were classic categories into which IPv4 addresses are cast
     which define the default netmasks and addressing blocks for them.
     For example 10.*.*.* is a Class A network. (In fact it is the one
     Class A address block that is reserved for private network use in
     RFC1918 et al). 56.*.*.* is the Class A network assigned to the
     United States Postal Service, and 17.*.*.* is reserved for Apple
     Computing Inc. However, these classes are being phased out of the
     Internet routing infrastructure through a process called
     "supernetting" or CIDR (classless Internet domain routing). Support
     for VLSN is a requirement for CIDR. (That's a matter for your ISP
     or your ISP's NAP -- network access point --- to worry about).
     
     In the old days if you got a block of addresses and you changed
     ISP's you'd take your addresses with you. You new ISP would add
     your block of addresses to his routing tables and propagate this
     route to his peers and so on through the Internet routing chain.
     The problem was that this isn't scaleable. The routing tables were
     getting so big that the first tier routers couldn't handle them.
     
     So we started using CIDR. CIDR block is a large chunk of addresses
     (32 Class C's minimum). These are given to NAP's and ISP's, and a
     single route, for the whole block, is added to the top level
     routers. The ISP then subnets those and handles the routing
     locally. Although addresses are now routed in a "classless" manner
     --- we still talk about the addressing classes in networking
     discussions. It's convenient, though sometimes not technically
     precise.
     
     The main implication of this for most of us is that you don't get
     "take your addresses with you" if you change ISP's. You can keep
     your domain name, of course. That's completely independent of the
     routing. (Theoretically it's always been possible to have a block
     of addresses with no associated DNS at all. I don't know anyone
     that does that --- but there isn't any rule against it).
     
     I said earlier that the "better" solution to your internal network
     addressing is to use private network addresses (per RFC1918) and
     use IP masquerading, NAT (network address translation) or
     applications level proxies at your borders for all of your client
     Internet access.
     
     In this model you only assign "real" IP addresses to your publicly
     accessible servers.
     
     This is "better" for several reasons. First, you conserve
     addresses. You can have thousands of hosts on your network and they
     can all access the Internet using only one or a few "real" IP
     addresses.
     
     This is particularly handy these days since ISP's (feeling a bit of
     an addressing crunch themselves) often charge premium rates for
     larger subnets. In the "old days" you got a Class C or larger
     address block for any dedicated Internet connection that you
     established. Now you usually get a subnet. For the xDSL line I just
     got into my office/home I got a subnet of 30 addresses
     (255.255.255.224, or 27 bits for the netmask).
     
     So, you can use 192.168.x.* addresses for all/most of your clients
     and reserve your "real" IP's for your router, and your mail, web,
     FTP, DNS, proxy and other servers (including any old-fashioned
     virtual web hosting; newer HTTP 1.1 style web hosting doesn't
     require an extra IP address and IP aliasing but "virtual hosting"
     for most other protocols and services does).
     
     If you're really ambitous you could probably configure a server
     with 'ipportfw' and/or 'ipautofw' (or 'ipmasqadm') to redirect each
     service on this list through a masquerade to its own dedicated
     server(s). I've heard that there's even a "load balancing" patch to
     one of these port forwarders. That would conserve more addresses by
     making one system appear to be running many services --- while
     allowing you to isolate those services on their own systems for
     security or load management reasons.
     
     Another advantage of this model is that you can change ISP's more
     readily. For any network of more than about five IP hosts, address
     renumbering is difficult and expensive. You want to avoid it. Of
     course you can use DHCP to make that easier --- but then you have
     to carry around your DHCP infrasture, and you can only imagine the
     disruption that this might still cause for your internal servers.
     I've known companies that were very unhappy with their ISP but not
     quite mad enough to shutdown their network for a week to renumber
     (large novice userbase, small IS staff, mostly Windows clients ---
     it's a real concern).
     
     Yet another advantage relates to your network security. It is
     easier to enforce your network policies and protect your internal
     systems if you prevent direct routing into your internal LAN. It is
     much easier to ensure that a few machines (your routers, proxy
     servers, and publicly accessible hosts) are secure from known
     attacks (source routing, "ping of death" and various things like
     nestea, boink, land/latierra, etc) than to apply those patches to
     every host on your network. (Indeed in many cases it is not
     possible to apply necessary patches to some of those hosts because
     they are running proprietary, or "closed source" operating systems
     --- and you have to wait for your vendor to make correct patches or
     "service packs" available).
     
     It is folly to think that no new attacks of this sort will be
     discovered. It is also usually futile to have an unenforced policy
     that no insecure services be allowed on internal systems.
     
     So you should use IP masquerading and/or applications proxying for
     most hosts on most networks. Of course you can use "real" IP
     addresses and still "hide" them behind a firewall (any combination
     of packet filters, and proxying can be called a 'firewall').
     However, there's no reason (at that point) to do so.
     
     It should be noted that use of masquerading and/or proxying will
     not inherently improve your security overall security. These are
     not a panacea. If an attacker can gain sufficient access to any of
     the hosts that do have a valid route into your internal LAN (such
     as the interior routers and/or proxy hosts) or trick any such
     system into routing packets for them (with source routing, for
     example) or embed hostile code into any of the data streams that
     will be executed by any of your systems ... if they can do any of
     that then the firewall will just be a minor nuisance to their other
     mischief.
     
     Indeed using masquerading and proxying is a bit of a nuisance. It's
     an extra step in configuring your systems, and you'll probably
     still occasionally bump into some new or obscure protocol that
     can't be easily proxied or masqueraded. Luckily, as the number of
     sites that must use firewalls increases (the percentage of
     "directly routable clients" decreases) the programmers and groups
     that design these protocols and tools becomes more aware of the
     problem and less likely to implement them in problematic ways.
     
     One aspect of this that is a bit confusing is that you can put
     multiple subnets and IP address blocks on a single ethernet
     segment.
     
     For example, a few years ago I was the admin of a large site which
     had established permanent connections to three ISP's. They had not
     yet applied for an AS number and were not "peering" with those
     ISP's. So they were assigning addresses to different groups of
     computers from all three ISP's (about eight different Class C
     addresses). However, they used a VLAN architecture internally.
     (That --- and the fact that they were using direct routing to
     clients --- was counter to my recommendations; but I was just a
     lowly "junior" netadmin, so they didn't listen, until much later
     --- after I'd left).
     
     So they had a flat internal topology and some routing problems
     (their senior netadmin didn't know how to trick the Ciscos into
     this using static routes and we didn't use IP RIP or anything like
     internally). I used IP aliases on a Linux box and defined the
     static routes there. Under current versions of Linux you can use IP
     aliases in your route commands:
     
                ifconfig  eth0 192.168.200.1 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.0

                ifconfig  eth0:1 192.168.100.1 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.0

                route add -net 192.168.200.0 eth0
                route add -net 192.168.100.0 eth0:1

     ... here I've route the 200 net to eth0, the 100 net to eth0:1 (a
     "sub-interface" or IP alias), and added routes to each.
     
     Under the newer (2.1.x) kernels this works a little differently ---
     you just use the device name without the aliasing suffix in the
     route command. In other words the ifconfig commands would the be
     same, the first route command would be unecessary (its added
     automatically) and the second route command would just refer to
     eth0 --- not eth0:1.
     
     This may look a bit odd. (It certainly did to me at the time). You
     clients on the 100 network are sending their 200-net destined
     packets to this host which is then resending them over the same LAN
     segments back to destinations on the 200 net and vice versa. I
     still think its a stupid way to do it --- but it worked. I
     personally think that VLAN's are a bad idea --- and they seem to
     have been a kludge to deal with overgrown clusters of
     NetBIOS/NetBEUI (MS Windows) boxes that were too braindead to talk
     IP.
     
     One thing I haven't covered in this (extremely long) discussion is
     "proxyarp." This is a technique to allow one system to accept IP
     packets for other systems without changing the subnet masks and/or
     routes for the rest of the segment. It's most often used with PPP
     or SLIP dial-up lines --- though I've seen examples posted to
     newsgroups that were done between ethernet segments.
     
     Basically, the proxyarp host will respond to ARP requests IP
     addresses that are not assigned to any of it's interfaces, and. The
     proxyarp host needs a valid route to the proxied IP address --- but
     other systems will consider it to be a "local" address (local to
     their LAN segment). Obviously the address to be proxied must be
     valid for one of the subnet masks on the "local side."
     
     I'm sure this is all very confusing. So I'll give a simple example:
     
     I might have a host on 192.168.200 net with its own address of
     192.168.200.13 (eth0). I might also have a system connected to that
     system's ppp0 port --- and that might be configured to use
     192.168.200.44. When any of the systems on my LAN (eth0) have
     packets for 192.168.200.44 (which is local to them according to
     their subnet masks and routing tables) they perform an ARP (or
     search their ARP cache, of cours). My system (listening on
     192.168.200.13) responds with its ethernet MAC address. So the
     localhost hosts and routers send those packets to me. (So far as
     they are concerned that's just another IP alias of mine).
     
     When I (.13) get this packet I find that it is NOT an alias of
     mine, but I have a valid route to it (over my ppp0 interface) so I
     forward it. The .44 system presumably has it's ppp0 interface
     configured as the default route and certainly has 192.168.200.0
     routed to it's ppp0 --- so any packets to my (.13's) ethernet LAN
     get routed, too. Note that I (the .13 host) don't have to publish
     routes to .44. The routers and other hosts on the 200 LAN don't
     know or care whether I really am .44 --- just that IP packets for
     .44 can be encapsulated in data frames addressed to my ethernet
     card, where I'll deal with them as though it were my address (so
     far as they know).
     
     I realize it's a bit confusing. I've probably over-simplified in a
     few areas and probably gotten some of this completely wrong
     (corrections gratefully accepted). However, that's the basics of
     routing and subnetting.
     
     One of these days I really should read Comer's "Internetworking
     With Tcp/Ip : Principles, Protocols, and Architecture Vol 1" which
     I've heard is essentially the TCP/IP bible. However, I've had
     Christian Huitema's "Routing in the Internet" (a 300 page text book
     on routing) sitting next to my desk for about a year --- and
     Comer's book is much larger and not to hand.
     
     So, in answer to your original question:
     
     You divide a group of systems into subnets by assigning them
     addresses that lie within valid groupings of your address blocks,
     and creating routes to those blocks. Most of this is done with the
     'ifconfig' command's "netmask" option and with appropriate 'route'
     commands (if you're using static routes).
     
     (Any other readers want to tell me how 'routed' and 'gated' get
     their routes? I guess that you still add static routes for your
     local nets and the local daemon picks them up and
     publishes/propagates them via broadcasts and their own router
     discovery mechanisms).
                        ____________________________
   
(?) Subnetting and Routing 101 (continued)

                          Some examples and tables
                                      
   From Pavel Plankov on Fri, 20 Nov 1998 L.U.S.T List 
   
   (?) Thank you, that was very informative, but could you be more
   specific about "masking off" For example I have a 62.200.34 net, how
   can I subnet it? 
   
   ...the only thing I am sure about is that 62.200.34.0/24 - is the C
   subnet. the quote at the bottom sounds rather vague %) 
   
     (!) The subnet I've been describing is a "1-bit" subnet. That is
     that we're only masking off one extra bit from the default for our
     addressing class. In other words, the default mask for a Class C
     network block is 255.255.255.0 --- which is a decimal
     representation of a 32-bit field where the first 24 bits are set to
     "1" our subnet mask, represented in binary, would have the first 25
     bits set. The next legal subnet would have the first 26 bits set
     (which divides a Class C into four subnets of 62 hosts each).
     Beyond that we can subnet to 27 bits (eight subnets of 30 hosts
     each), 28 bits (16 subnets of 14 hosts each), 29 bits (32 subnets
     of 6 each) and even 30 bits (64 subnets of 2 each).
     
     Any Class C (or 8 bit network) can be subnet into the following
     combinations:
     
            1  subnetwork of    254 hosts       (255.255.255.0)/24
            2  subnetworks of   126 hosts each  (255.255.255.128)/25
            4  subnetworks of    62 hosts each  (255.255.255.192)/26
            8  subnetworks of    30 hosts each  (255.255.255.224)/27
           16  subnetworks of    14 hosts each  (255.255.255.240)/28
           32  subnetworks of     6 hosts each  (255.255.255.248)/29
           64  subnetworks of     2 hosts each  (255.255.255.252)/30

     ... or (from what I gather) it can be treated as a set of 254
     separate point-to-point links. A subnet consisting of a network
     number and a broadcast address is absurd -- so we don't have "128
     nets of 0 hosts each" with a mask ending it 254).
     
     Notice that I've specified the netmask and the number of network
     bits in the last column of this table.
     
     So. Let's say I didn't have this table. (I didn't when I started
     this message). So I want to find all of the valid netmasks on an
     eight bit network. I start the 'bc' command (big calculator ---
     it's a multi-precision "calculations shell" and scripting language
     that's included with most versions of Unix and Linux). I issue the
     following commands:
     
                ibase=2
                10000000
                11000000
                11100000
                11110000
                11111000
                11111100

     This sets the input base to 2 (binary), leaving the output base at
     the default (decimal). Then, entering each of these binary numbers
     (note that this is every combination of 8 bits with anywhere from
     one to six leading one's and a corresponding number of trailing
     zeros. All (modern) legal netmasks have this property. As each of
     these numbers is entered, 'bc' spits out the decimal equivalent:
     
                128 192 224 240 248 252

     ... which matches my table -- these are the valid ways to subnet on
     8 bits. (Actually I memorized those along time ago --- but
     hopefully this makes it clear where they came from).
     
     For "classic" subnetting, you pick any one of these entries. You
     then divide your network that number of segments (2, 4, 8, etc)
     with up to the corresponding hosts per segment (126, 62, 30, etc),
     and you use the corresponding netmask in the 'ifconfig' commands
     for all hosts on that network. 'route add -net' commands will
     default to following the chosen netmask.
     
     VSLN (variable length subnetting) is a little more confusing, so we
     won't cover it at this point.
     
     Given that we've chosen a subnetting paradigm (one line from this
     table) we now have to figure out what the valid network number,
     broadcast addresses, and range of host IP addresses are within each
     subnet.
     
     We could have a table for each of these. This would take too much
     space (actually it's about 128 lines long plus headers, etc). So,
     I'll give an example of the .224 netmask used to created 8 subnets.
     
     For all of these the netmask would be 255.255.255.224 (as listed in
     our previous table). The three prefix octets would be same in all
     cases (62.200.34 in your example).
     
     Here's our networks:
     
            8  subnetworks of    30 hosts each  (255.255.255.224)

           net#         broadcast       Hosts:  low     high
             0             31                     1      30
            32             63                    33      62
            64             95                    65      94
            96            127                    97     126
           128            159                   129     158
           160            191                   161     190
           192            223                   193     222
           224            255                   225     254

     ... I think I got all those right (I just made up that table). It
     should be fairly obvious that the networks begin every 32 IP's
     between 0 and 256. The rest of the table is constructed by adding
     or subtracting one from the current or next network number or the
     by subtracting one from the broacast address.
     
     The lowest permitted host number in every subnet is that network's
     number plus one.
     
     The broadcast address for any subnet is the network number of the
     NEXT network minus one.
     
     The highest allowed host address on a subnet is the broadcast
     number minus one.
     
     So, your fourth subnet on this table would be 62.200.34.96/27.
     You're netmask would be 255.255.255.224 (as I said before), and the
     broadcast for this subnet would be 62.200.34.127.
     
     In other words, all of the hosts from 62.200.34.97 through
     62.200.34.126 would use the 62.200.34.127 address for ARP requests
     and other broadcasts. Those from ...161 to ...190 would use the
     .191 address for their broadcasts. They'd be on the ...160 subnet.
     
     I'll do another one for comparison:
     
           16  subnetworks of    14 hosts each  (255.255.255.240)/28

           net#         broadcast       Hosts:  low     high
             0             15                     1      14
            16             31                    17      30
            32             47                    33      46
            48             63                    49      62
            64             79                    65      78
            80             95                    81      94
            96            111                    97     110
           112            127                   113     126
           128            143                   129     142
           144            159                   145     158
           160            175                   161     174
           176            191                   177     190
           192            207                   193     206
           208            223                   209     222
           224            239                   225     238
           240            255                   241     254

     ... That table is twice as long (obviously) and the number is it
     "look weird" However, it should be obvious where these number came
     from. Start with zero can keep adding 16 until we get to 256 to get
     the first column. Those are the network numbers. 256 can't be a
     network number. To get the second column we add fifteen to the
     network number (or we subtract one from the next network's number
     -- which is the network number on the next line). To get the third
     column we add one to the network number. To get the last column we
     subtract one from the broadcast number (the second column).
     
     I'll include one last table because it's shorter than the others:
     
            4  subnetworks of    62 hosts each  (255.255.255.192)/26

           net#         broadcast       Hosts:  low     high
             0             63                     1      62
            64            127                    65     126
           128            191                   129     190
           192            255                   193     254

     ... I really hope this one comes as no surprise.
     
     From here I would hope that you'd be able to generate the larger
     tables of 32 and 64 subnets if you were insane enough to use those.
     (The only organizations I know of that subnet that way are ISP's).
     I could write a perl script to generate subnet tables like these in
     far less time than this message took to write.
     
     Now, if you wanted to use VLSN, to create one small subnet and one
     larger one, I guess you'd pick a block of addresses, suitable for
     any of these subnets --- reserving the whole block (from the
     network# through the broadcast) and only assigning those in the
     range (from the low to high numbers). Those would be a subnet.
     You'd construct your route for that subnet, and put one of those
     addresses (the low or the high usually) unto one of your
     interfaces, and point your route (with its netmask override) to
     that interface. You'd put the rest of your network unto another
     interface with a broader route (one with fewer network bits in the
     netmask) to that.
     
     Example:
     
     Let's put a 14 host subnet on our perimeter and hide the rest of
     our hosts behind our router (with packet filters):
     
     We'll arbitrarily choose the first available 14 host subnet (from
     our table above). This should make it easier to remember which
     hosts are "outside" and which ones are available for assignment
     "inside"
     
     So we assign eth1 an address of 14 (the highest available address
     in this block --- I'm assuming that .1 is already in use by another
     router on that subnet, and we give eth0 (the interface to our
     internal network) an address of .17 (the first available address
     that's after our subnet). Then we set that up like so:
     
                  ifconfig eth1 62.200.34.14 \
                     netmask 255.255.255.240 broadcast 62.200.34.15

                   route add -net 62.200.34.0 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.240   eth1

                   ifconfig eth0 62.200.34.17 \
                      netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 62.200.34.255

                   route add -net 62.200.34.0 \
                        netmask 255.255.255.0   eth0

     I haven't actually done VLSN. However I think this would work. One
     important consideration about this would be that every internal
     system would have to know about this first route (the one with the
     .240 netmask).
     
     They could have this as a static route, or it could be propagated
     to them via some routing protocol (I'm not sure if RIP can handle
     that --- I think there was a RIPv2 that could --- while RIP would
     have to propagate this as a list of 14 host routes rather than a
     subnet route --- or some silly thing like that).
     
     The other thing that we'd have to be sure of is that we didn't use
     any of these subnet addresses inside of our domain. That includes
     the network number and the broadcast address. By choosing the first
     subnet for my example I cheated. You'd never try to assign the .0
     address anyway. However, if you'd picked a subnet from somewhere in
     the middle of your address range --- everything should work. It
     would just be more confusing.
     
     Notice that I also skipped .16 (which would be the "next" network
     number if we were to use two of these subnets --- while leaving the
     rest on one segment. This should be unnecessary. However, I'd avoid
     assigning it an address just in case I need to add the additional
     small subnet later.
     
     Actually if you wanted to use a sophisticated address allocation
     strategy, to minimize the disruption that would be caused by most
     future subnetting strategies you could limit yourself to assigning
     addresses from the following groups:
     
     1-14, 17-30, 33-46, 49-62, 65-78, 81-94, 97-110, 113-126, 129-142,
     145-158, 161-174, 177-190, 193-206, 209-222, 225-238, 241-254
     
     ... or better yet:
     
     2-13, 18-29, 34-45, 50-61, 66-77, 82-93, 98-109, etc
     
     ... so that you're not issuing the possible network numbers,
     broadcast numbers, and first or last addresses in each of your
     possible subnets.
     
     Using this strategy you could start with a flat topology and later
     break it into anywhere from two to sixteen classic subnets or split
     off VLSN's (and add/propagate appropriate routes to them).
     
     As I've said, this sort of obtuse allocation strategy isn't
     necessary for most of us these days because we can use private net
     (RFC1918) addresses for our internal networks.
     
     However, if you're going to use direct routable addresses in your
     domain --- following this allocation schedule might actually help
     (and can't really hurt if you simply prepare the list ahead of
     time).
     
     It's possible to define some netmasks that aren't on even octet
     boundaries. For example the RFC1918 group of Class B addresses is
     172.16.*.* through 172.31.*.*. That can be described with the
     address/mask 172.16.0.0/12 (which you could then then subnet into
     various ways).
     
     Most sane people reduce that ugliness to a "known" problem for
     which we've already described a solution. They treat these as a
     large group of Class C addresses and do all their network design
     based on those. The RFC1918 addresses: 192.168.x.* (for x from 0 to
     255) is usually described as 255 contiguous class C address blocks.
     However, there is nothing prevent us from using this as a single
     16-bit network (192.168.0.0/16).
     
     The only case where I've used these notations is when I'm writing a
     set of packet filters. I customary add the following four address
     masks to the source deny lists on perimeter routers:
     
     10.0.0.0/8 127.0.0.0/8 172.16.0.0/12 192.168.0.0/16
     
     These are denied in both directions.
     
     The outbound denials are "anti-leakage." We shouldn't be sending
     any packets onto the Internet which claim to be from these IP
     addresses. They are "non-routable" on the open Internet. So, any
     that "try" to get out are either a mistake (they were supposed to
     go through masquerading or network address translations --- NAT),
     or they are hostile actions possibly by users on our networks or by
     some subverted services or hosts (something's been "tricked" into
     it).
     
     The inbound denials are part of an anti-spoofing screen. No legal
     packet should get to us from any of these addresses (there should
     be no legal route back to any such host over the Internet).
     
     The 127.* filtering is also interesting. If I actually allowed
     packets through my router that claimed to be from "localhost" I
     might find that some services on some hosts could be exploited
     using it.
     
     I've heard of such packets being referred to as "martians."
     However, I'm not sure if the term is supposed to apply just to
     packets that claim a 127.* source address or to any of these "bad
     boys."
     
     To complete our anti-spoofing we also want to deny any inbound
     packets that claim to be from any of our real IP addresses. Thus
     you'd want to add a rule to deny 62.200.34.0/24. All of the hosts
     which are legitimately assigned any of those IP addresses should
     already be inside your network perimeter --- none should be
     traversing the inbound interface on any of your border routers. I
     might add a rule to block: 214.185.47.32/27 if I was given the
     second 30 host subnet on the 214.185.47.0 network (for example).
     
     Anti-spoofing gives us considerable protection from a variety of
     exploits. It really doesn't leave us "secure" --- IP ADDRESSES AND
     DNS HOSTNAMES ARE NOT AUTHENTICATION CREDENTIALS! However it limits
     the exploits that can be mounted from outside of our network.
     That's why you should ideal have sets of anti-spoofing packet
     filters at your border (between the Internet and your perimeter
     network) and at your interior router (between your internal and
     your permimeter networks).
     
     In some organizations you may also want to have anti-spoofing
     between your internal client networks and your "sanctum" of
     servers.
     
     In addition to the anti-spoofing rules it's a good idea to add a
     couple of rules to limit some known-to-be-bogus destinations (Thus
     far we've only been discussing packet filtering policies based on
     source addresses).
     
     I suggest that any of your local "real" IP addresses that translate
     into network or broadcast numbers for your network topology should
     be forbidden as destinations. These extra rules may seem
     unnecessary --- but there have been "denial of service" exploits
     that used these sorts of addresses to create packet storms and
     disrupt your networks. (A few broadcast packets that get in can
     cause reponses from all or most of your active hosts).
     
     So you should at least add: $YOURNET.0 and $YOURNET.255 to your
     denied destinations list (where these are the network number and
     broadcast for your block of assigned addresses.
     
     No one outside your domain has any business addressing packets to
     your whole network. If you are subnetted in other ways --- you'd
     face the possibility that some attacker might try sending to
     $YOURSUBNET.31, etc. However, this is probably just not such a big
     problem. If you use IP masquerading and/or proxying for all or most
     of your client hosts (as I recommended in my last post) you won't
     see any of that anyway. Meanwhile, how much do you need to subnet
     your banks of servers (in most cases, not much).
     
   (?) Thanx in advance.
   Pavel Piankov 
   
     (!) Gosh I hope that helps. I also hope I haven't bored the rest of
     the list too much with this. I simply don't know of a way to
     describe subnetting and routing more concisely than this. If you
     really understand what I've written in these two messages --- you
     can probably get a job as a junior netadmin.
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) No STREAMS Error while Installing Netware for Linux

   From Sean McMurray on Tue, 17 Nov 1998 
   
   I'm trying to install Caldera Netware for Linux on Redhat 5.1.
   Following the instructions from
   ftp://ftp.caldea.com/pub/netware/INSTALL.redhat, I get to Step 5 under
   "Downloading the Files." 
   
     (!) Well, I haven't played with this yet, since I don't have any
     Netware client systems around here. (Maybe one of these days I'll
     fire up one of my old XT's to use for clients).
     
   (?) When I type in rpm -i kernel-2_0_35-1nw_i386.rpm, I get the
   following error: 
   
   ln: boot/vmlinuz-2.0.35-1nw-streams: No such file or directory 
   
   Can you tell me why? More importantly, can you tell me how to fix it? 
   
     (!) Well, the Netware for Linux requires a kernel with STREAMS and
     IPX patches built into it.
     
     STREAMS is an alternative to BSD sockets. It's a programming model
     for communications within a Unix or other kernel --- between the
     applications interfaces and the devices. The Linux kernel core team
     has soundly reject suggestions that Linux adopt a STREAMS
     networking model for its native internal interfaces and we won't go
     into their reasoning here. (I'm inclined to agree with them on this
     issue in any event.)
     
     So, this error suggests that the 'ln' command (creates hard and
     symbolic links) can't find the '/boot/vmlinuz...' files to which it
     refers.
     
     One trick to try is to view the contents of the rpm file using 'mc'
     (Midnight Commander). Just bring up 'mc', select the RPM file with
     your cursor keys and highlight bar, and hit [Enter]. That will
     treat the RPM file as a "virtual directory" and allow you to view
     and manually extract the contents. Look in RPM:/boot for the kernel
     file --- also look for the README files.
     
     I've occasionally manually extracted the files from an RPM and just
     put them in place myself. Then I read through any scripts that and
     docs contained therein to see what should have been done by the rpm
     system. (Usually this sort of dodge is only necessary when doing
     piecemeal upgrades to the rpm package itself).
     
     There are other times when I have to resort to 'rpm -i --force
     --nodeps ...' to get things to work.
     
     Note that this kernel may not support you hardware configuration
     (that's one reason why many Linux users build custom kernels). So
     you may have to find and install the kernel source patches and
     build your own --- or at least build a set of modules that match
     that version.
     
     Probably your best bet would be to subscribe to the caldera-netware
     mailing list. Look to Liszt to help find specific mailing lists and
     newsgroups:
     
    Liszt: caldera-netware
    http://www.liszt.com/cgi-bin\
        /start.lcgi?list=caldera-netware&server=majordomo@rim.caldera.com
                        ____________________________
   
(?) No STREAMS Error while Installing Netware for Linux

   From Sean McMurray on Wed, 18 Nov 1998 
   
   Jim Dennis wrote: 
   
   >When I type in rpm -i kernel-2_0_35-1nw_i386.rpm, I get the
   >following error:
   >ln: boot/vmlinuz-2.0.35-1nw-streams: No such file or directory
   >Can you tell me why? More importantly, can you tell me how to fix it?
   
   Well, the Netware for Linux requires a kernel with STREAMS and IPX
   patches built into it. 
   
   Shouldn't it be included in Caldera's RPMs then. It seems that the
   first they their install does is try to build a new kernel.Also, does
   the fact that ncpfs is built in indicate that the STREAMS and IPX
   patches already exist - the IPX patches, anyway?<clipped> 
   
     (!) It is. That's what that kernel is saying. However it seems that
     the /boot directory isn't there (my to 'mkdir' that) and, for some
     reason, your 'rpm' command isn't or can't make it. (If you do have
     a /boot directory --- maybe you've used 'chattr +i' to make it
     immutable. Maybe you have a file named /boot so that a directory
     can't be made by that name. Who knows?).
     
   (?) Midnight Commander won't open the RPMs on my system, but I
   executed rpm -qpl kernel-2_0_35-1nw_i386.rpm > dump.txt to get a
   listing. The /boot files are: /boot/WHATSIN-2.0.35-1nw
   /boot/vmlinuz-2.0.35-1nw 
   
   The only files with the word stream in the title is
   /lib/modules/2.0.35-1nw/misc/streams.o 
   
     (!) ... that would be the STREAMS loadable kernel module. The other
     support and IPX patches are compiled into that kernel, and the FAQ
     tells you how to build a kernel to match the shipping one (close
     enough to load the requisite modules and route/utilize the IPX
     protocols anyway).
     
   (?) There are other times when I have to resort to 'rpm -i --force
   --nodeps ...' to get things to work. 
   
   I tried to rpm -e kernel-2_0_35-1nw_i386.rpm, but rpm says that it
   isn't installed. 
   
     (!) That tries to "erase" (uninstall) that package --- except that
     you have to use the package's name not the package *file's* name.
     kernel-2.0.35-1nw is probably the package name. The filename is
     independent of that, though it is conventionally similar.
     
     You can use the 'rpm -qpi' command to extract information about the
     RPM file including the package name.
     
     In general the -i and -p options to 'rpm' refer to file while
     others refer to "packages."
     
     If you issued the command 'rpm -ql foo-1.2.3-bang' RPM would list
     all of the files that are "owned by" the foo-1.2.3-bang package. If
     you issue the command 'rpm -qpl foo-1.2.3-bang.i386.rpm' then the
     command would list all of the file in that package file. If (by
     some chance) you had a different implementation of the same package
     these two lists might differ.
     
     (That's a minor problem with the RPM system --- there's no central
     naming authority on package naming and versioning so you can have
     differences between, for example, the S.u.S.E. and Red Hat
     packages, with some differences in dependencies --- etc. Actually
     it's a rather major pain in the patootie when you're a S.u.S.E.
     user and you keep getting packages that are contributed to the Red
     Hat site. However, it's still usually easier than building them
     from tarballs and the "right" answer for me is probably for me to
     learn enough about building my own RPM's that I can grap the source
     RPM packages and modify them to fit. The "right" answer for Red Hat
     and S.u.S.E. and Caldera is to make their packages as compatable
     with one another as possible --- particularly with regards to
     dependences and provision identification).
     
   (?) So I tried to rpm -e kernel-2_0_35-1nw_i386.rpm again, but rpm
   says it's already installed 
   
     (!) That sounds wrong. Are you sure you typed exactly that?
     
   (?) I don't know rpm (or Linux) well enough to trust not hosing my
   kernel. I guess it's not that big of deal. I can just re-install RH5.1
   from scratch. 
   
     (!) After awhile building and installing new kernels will seem as
     routine and editing an old DOS CONFIG.SYS file (though you probably
     won't do anywhere near as often.
     
   (?) Probably your best bet would be to subscribe to the
   caldera-netware mailing list. 
   
   I'm subscribed, but impatient. Thank you for your help. 
   
     (!) I'd manually extract the kernel file from that RPM file, put it
     in the /boot/ directory, edit your /etc/lilo.conf file, run the
     /sbin/lilo command and try to reboot. Search through the old back
     issues of LG to read many messages about how LILO works -- or just
     read the HOWTO at:
     
     http://www.ssc.com/linux/LDP/HOWTO/mini/LILO.html
     
     (... and other LDP mirrors all over).
     
     Naturally you'll want to leave an entry for your existing (working)
     kernel so that you can reboot into that if this Caldera supplied
     kernel is inappropriate for your system. You'll also want to
     prepare a boot/root (rescue) diskette. Although one (image) comes
     with each Red Hat distribution I personally prefer Tom Oehser's
     "rtbt" (a full mini distribution on a single floppy --- with a
     suite of Unix tools sufficient to do most networking and rescue
     operations). You can find that at:
     
     http://www.toms.net/rb
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) More than 8 loopfs Mounts?

   From Philippe Thibault on Fri, 20 Nov 1998 
   
   I've setup an image easily enough and mounted it with the iso9660 file
   system and asigned it to one of my loop devices. It works fine. What I
   was wondering was, can I add more than the eight loops devices in my
   dev directory and how so. What I'm trying to do is share these CD
   images through SMB services to a group of Win 95 machines. Is what I'm
   trying to do feasable or possible. 
   
     (!) Good question. You probably need to patch the kernel in
     addition to making the additional block device nodes. So my first
     stab is, look in:
     
     /usr/src/linux/drivers/block/loop.c
     
     There I find a #define around line 50 that looks like:
     
                #define MAX_LOOP 8

     .... (lucky guess, with filename completion to help).
     
     So, the obvious first experiment is to bump that up, recompile,
     make some additional loop* nodes under the /dev/ directory and try
     to use them.
     
     To make the additional nodes just use:
     
                for i in 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15; do
                        mknod  /dev/loop$i b 7 $i; done

     I don't know if there are any interdependencies between the
     MAX_LOOP limit and any other kernel structures or variables.
     However, it's fairly unlikely (Ted T'so, the author of 'loop.c'
     hopefully would have commented on such a thing). It's easier to do
     the experiment than to fuss over the possibility.
     
     In any event I doubt you'd want to push that value much beyond 16
     or 32 (I don't know what the 'mount' maximums are --- and I don't
     feel like digging those up too). However, doing a test with that
     set to 60 or 100 is still a pretty low-risk and inexpensive affair
     (on a non-production server, or over a weekend when you're sure you
     have a good backup and plenty of time).
     
     So, try that and let us know how it goes. (Ain't open source (tm)
     great!)
     
     Of course you might find that a couple of SCSI controllers and
     about 15 or 30 SCSI CD-ROM drives (mostly in external SCSI cases)
     could be built for about what you'd be spending in the 16 Gig of
     diskspace that you're devoting to this. (Especially if you can find
     a cachet of old 2X CD drives for sale somewhere).
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) EQL Serial Line "Load Balancing"

   From Jim Kjorlaug on Mon, 30 Nov 1998 
   
   (?) I live in an area where ISDN services have been promised but no
   delivered. I had read a howto for EQL but can no longer find the
   documention on this method of ganging two modems together. Can you
   please let me know where I can find the source for this and the howto.
   
   Thanks for any help you can offer.
   Jim Kjorlaug 
   
     (!) The README.eql (EQL Driver: Serial IP Load Balancing HOWTO) by
     Simon "Guru Aleph-Null" Janes (simon@ncm.com) doesn't seem to be in
     the LDP HOWTO Index. However it is included with the Linux kernel
     sources under
     
     .../drivers/net/README.eql
     
     ... so that's probably your best bet. Naturally the sources to the
     driver are also included therein. This README doesn't appear to
     have been updated since 1995.
     
     Note that this requires support from your ISP. In other words, to
     use EQL to effectively double you bandwidth, you need support for
     the same version of EQL load balancing at each end of the
     connection. Most ISP's are likely to be somewhat averse to this
     prospect (or to charge extra) since you'll be taking up two of
     their modems while connected over EQL.
     
     Another thing to consider is the difference between latency and
     bandwidth. Bandwidth refers to the amount of data that can be
     transmitted over a communications channel in a given amount of
     time. Latency refers to the propagation delay --- the amount of
     time before the first bits get to one end or the other of the
     channel.
     
     EQL can provide more bandwidth. However modem latency is pretty
     high and nothing can improve that within the constraints of the
     current standards.
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Where to Report Bugs and Send Patches

   From Elwood C. Downey on Mon, 30 Nov 1998 
   
   (?) Hello, 
   
   I have found (and believe fixed) a bug in gcc libc, version 2.7.2.3
   related to handling of daylight savings time and timezones. I would
   like to know exactly to whom I should send the report so it gets into
   the correct hands asap. Part of my confusion is gcc vs the new egcs
   (or whatever the new one is). I happen to be running Red Hat 5.1 if
   that matters. 
   
   Thanks,
   Elwood Downey
   President/Chief Programmer
   Clear Sky Institute, Inc. 
   
     (!) One of the "dirty little secrets" of FSF/GNU documentation is
     that "they" have an official bias against 'man' pages. If you look
     at the 'gcc' man pages you'll find that they refer you to the
     "Info" (or "Texinfo" pages) and list the man pages as
     non-authoritative, deprecated, unmaintained etc.
     
     'Info' is a hypertext documentation system which is nothing like
     HTML. The easiest way to access them for this case would be to
     issue the command:
     
     info gcc
     
     There we'll find a node/link labeled "Bugs::" and following that
     will provide us with some guidelines for reporting problems. I'll
     refer you to those pages so that you'll get the full details rather
     than just an @ddress.
     
     Since 2.8.1 is the current version from the Free Software
     Foundation (http://www.gnu.org) you might encounter some resistance
     to accepting patches for 2.7.x at this point. Their maintainers may
     refer you to the more recent version. You might want to try the
     Debian package, which might include patches that update the GNU
     version.
     
     According to the Debian site (http://www.debian.org) the maintainer
     for the Debian GCC package is Galen Hazelwood. You can use 'alien'
     to to convert among RPM (Red Hat et al), Debian, SLP (Stampede
     Linux Packages) and Slackage package formats.
     
     Note that egcs is a spinoff of the GCC development.
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) How to "get into" an Linux system from a Microsoft client

   From WRB on Mon, 30 Nov 1998 
   
   (?) I know you don't like questions concerning Brand X (w95 and nt40),
   however, I am a NEWBEEEEE to RedHat Linux (5.1) and I don't know where
   to go for this answer. Over my internal network, when I try to get
   into the RedHat (5.1) machine using Brand X (nt40 SP4), I get the
   message "\\computer4 is not accessible" "the account is not authorized
   to log in from this station" I don't have a problem with the other
   Brand X product (W95 OSR2.1), it goes right in. I have no problems
   with FTP or TELNET with either of the Brand X machines. Without
   getting tooooo condescending, is this a Brand X problem or is it a
   RedHat (5.1) issue? 
   
   Thanks for your help
   Ron Botzen 
   
     (!) The big problem here is with the phrase "get into."
     
     By this you seem to mean "share files on my Red Hat (Linux) system
     from on of my MS Windows clients" or "make my Linux system a file
     server to my MS Windows clients."
     
     My clue that this is your intent is from the syntax "\\computer4"
     is an SMB UNC (so-called "universal naming convention") designation
     which is used for file and print services over the SMB protocols
     (server message block).
     
     Samba is the Unix/Linux package that provides SMB services to your
     MS Windows, OS/2, and similar clients. Also Linux supports an
     'smbfs' module and 'smbmount' command to allow it to act as a
     client in an SMB network.
     
     So, install the Samba package from your RH CD set, and read the
     docs therefrom. For the latest information on Samba go to:
     
     http://samba.anu.edu.au/samba/samba.html
     
     (or one of its mirrors).
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Where to Put New and Supplemental Packages

   From Lew Pitcher on Tue, 01 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Hello from the Great White North. 
   
   A few months ago, I installed the Slackware 3.3 distribution on a
   second-hand 486 system, and upgraded the kernel to the (then current)
   2.0.35 level. 
   
   I've been slowly accumulating packages (like Smail and iBCS) that I'd
   like to put up on this machine, and have a question about the
   placement of package installs. Given that I've acquired a system-level
   package with source code, where in the file system should I install
   it? 
   
   From inspection, it looks like I've got several alternatives...
   /usr/src looks like the obvious place to start, but /usr/local also
   looks good. Do the Linux FileSystem Standards specify a place to put
   packages? If not, do you have a recommendation in this regard? 
   
     (!) The Linux FHS (File Hierarchy Standard --- the descendent of
     the FSSTND --- filesystem standard) does have guidelines for system
     administrators and distribution developers and maintainers.
     
     I would say that the latter groups (those who produce and maintain
     general purpose distributions and packages) should be strongly
     encouraged (nigh on required) to follow these conventions.
     Sysadmins should be encouraged to follow them to the degree that
     makes sense for their site. Home users can do whatever the heck
     they like.
     
     I suggest '/usr/local/' for normal freeware packages that I install
     from tarball and compile myself. For commercial packages that are
     distributed as binaries I recommend '/opt' (which is, in my case, a
     link to '/usr/local/opt').
     
     One of my continuing gripes about Red Hat and Debian is that there
     is no easy way for me to "partition" my packages such that all
     packages installed or updated after the initial OS/program load
     (IPL) default to installation on '/usr/local'. This, and the fact
     that I sometimes have a perfectly legitimate reason for
     concurrently maintaining two or more versions of a given package
     are my main gripes about those package management tools.
     
     The canonical home of the FHS seems to be:
     
   Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
          http://www.pathname.com/fhs
          
   (?) Thanks in advance for the advice. 
   
     (!) You're welcome.
     
   (?) Lew Pitcher
   Joat-in-training
   If everyone has an angle, why are most of them so obtuse? 
   
     (!) Shouldn't that be JOAT (jack of all trades)?
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Book: Linux Systems Administration

   From Jim Buchanan on Tue, 01 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) I hope to finish my book real soon now. 
   
   Let us know when it's done. I'll surely order a copy. 
   
     (!) I'll do my best to promote it without getting crass.
     
   (?) Aeleen Frisch's Essential System Administration
   Unix System Administrator's Handbook by Evi Nemeth et al 
   
   Some real competition. I certainly wish you well, such a book would be
   a valuable addition to the many other Linux books available. 
   
     (!) I'm focusing a bit more on "soft skills" like requirements
     analysis, recovery and capacity planning, the view that security
     considerations permeate all aspects of professional systems
     administration, and the design of whole networks rather than
     isolated hosts.
     
     These are elements that seem to be missing from the existing
     literature.
     
   (?) Macmillan Computer Publishing: 
   
   The Macmillan folks are really nice people. They host our local LUG,
   INLUC (Indiana Linux Users Consortium, http://inluc.tctc.com) 
   
     (!) My editor mentioned something along those lines.
     
   (?) If you ever make a trip to the Indiana Macmillan offices, maybe we
   can arrange the date so that you can come to one of our meetings,
   which are usually held on the third Wednesday of the month. 
   
   Jim Buchanan 
   
     (!) If I can afford it I'll do a full tour.
     
     Thanks for your supportive comments. Now all I have to do is get
     the thing done!
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) 'ls' Doesn't work for FTP Site

   From Reuel Q. Salamatin on Tue, 01 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Mr. James T. Dennis, 
   
   I am so happy to have known that you are available to anwer Linux
   questions. I have tried emailing persons I found from how-to files and
   documentations about ftp, but as of yet, got no answers. 
   
   Here's my problem. Our ftp site doesn't seem to support the ls
   command. 
   
   Usually, upon log-in, or with a browser it should display directory
   listings. Now it worked just like that before. But now, it doesn't. I
   don't actually remember how it came about to be like that. 
   
   I have followed instructions listed on the ftpd man page, about making
   a copy of the ls command on the bin directory of ftp home. I did just
   that but still no directory listing output. I was wondering what else
   could have gone wrong. 
   
   Thank you even now in anticipation of your response. 
   
   Sincerely yours,
   Mr. Roland Reuel Q. Salamatin 
   
     (!) Assuming that you're using one of the traditional FTP servers
     (daemons) such as the BSD derived one, or WU-FTPD (which has been
     the default on most Linux distributions for several years), this
     probably relates to one of three problems. All have to do with the
     'chroot' jail in which anonymous FTP (and the "guestgroups" from
     WU-FTP) operate.
     
     The idea here is that we've tried to minimize the risks to your
     system that are associated with having untrusted parties (anonymous
     and guest FTP users) accessing your directories. So we set up a
     psuedo "root" directory and issue the 'chroot()' system call to
     "lock the process into a directory."
     
     On problem with this approach is that most Unix/Linux programs need
     access to files like '/etc/passwd' and '/etc/group' (to map the
     numeric ownership codes that are stored in the inodes of file and
     directories to the associated names and groups. Also most modern
     programs (dynamically linked ELF binaries) require access to
     '/dev/zero' (a psuedo-device) for fairly obtuse reasons that amount
     to "because that's the way they work."
     
     So we need to build a skeletal copy/shadow of the system's
     directory structure to support this. That must contain at least the
     following files:
     
     * 'ls' binary in the [chroot]/usr/bin
     * Fake 'passwd' and 'group' files for [chroot]/etc
     * A copy of (or hard link to) /dev/zero and /dev/null under
       [chroot]/dev/
     * (Possibly) copies of any shared libraries to which your copy of
       'ls' is linked.
       
     (You can compile a statically linked 'ls' or you can use the 'ldd'
     command to get a list of the required shared libraries).
     
     Another option is to replace the BSD or WU ftp daemon with Mike
     Gleason's 'ncftpd', or with ProFTPD which both have built-in static
     'ls' support.
     
     'ncftpd' is not free. It is shareware and can be registered for
     about $200 for a high volume server (more than 50 concurrent users)
     or ~$40 for a smaller server. Mike Gleason continues to support and
     release the best FTP client for free. There is also a free
     "personal use" option (upto 3 concurrent users). You can find out
     more:
     
     http://www.ncftp.com
     
     Of the FTP daemons that I've tried, 'ncftpd' was the easiest to set
     up and definitely the easiest to configure. It also supports
     "virtual FTP hosting" (where one host appears to be several
     different FTP servers, each with different directory structures and
     separate user lists). My only complaint was that this server
     doesn't seem to like being dynamically loaded from 'inetd' (unlike
     the normal ftp daemons --- but more like 'sendmail' and most web
     servers).
     
     ProFTPD is under the GPL. I know know the author's name and it may
     be a whole team that's worked on it.
     
     http://www.proftpd.org
     
     I have yet to try this one. However it looks very ambitious --- and
     might appeal to Apache webmasters in particular. The configuration
     files and directives are intentionally set to match or resemble
     Apache configuration options wherever possible.
     
     From what I've read the original author started working on a
     security audit and patch set to WU-FTPD and gave up. He then wrote
     the whole thing from scratch.
     
     So, I hope that helps. Naturally you could just fuss with the
     existing ftp daemon and "get it to work." Alternatively either of
     these replacements might be much better for your needs --- and
     considerably easier, as well.
     
     If not then there are a few other choices:
     
   BeroFTPD:
          ftp://ftp.aachen.linux.de/pub/BeroFTPD
          This is a WU-FTPD derivative.
          
   Troll Tech FTP Daemon:
          http://www.troll.no/freebies/ftpd.html
          Troll Tech is the publisher of the Qt libraries on which KDE is
          built.
          
   anonftpd
          ftp://koobera.math.uic.edu/www/anonftpd.html
          by D.J Bernstein (author of qmail) --- very lightweight FTP
          daemon, purely for read-only anonymous access. (Doesn't support
          normal user or "guest" accounts). Main focus is on security and
          low memory footprint.
          
     ... and I'm sure we could find many others.
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) An Anthropologist Asks About the Linux "Process"

   From donald.braman on Mon, 23 Nov 1998 
   
   (?) I don't know if you cover non-technical questions, but here
   goes... 
   
     (!) Then you haven't read enough of the back issues.
     
     I babble about all sorts of things and have even been know to
     respond to questions that have NOTHING to do with Linux. (Usually
     those responses are less than cordial --- but hey, you can have
     answers that are good, courteous, quick, and/or free (pick any
     three)).
     
   (?) I'm interested in finding a summary of the process by which LINUX
   is maintained and updated. 
   
   Where is Linus in the LINUX community and loose organizational
   structure, and how does he decide what to do with all of the stuff he
   get? (I always see "Linus just released kernel 2.xxx" messages.) 
   
     (!) Linus "owns" the kernel. He primarily focuses his work on the
     developmental kernels (2.1.x right now --- will probably be 2.3.x
     within a month or so). The stable kernels (2.0 currently) are
     largely maintained by Alan Cox, though they are still sent to Linus
     for final approval and official release.
     
     When Linus decides that the work is complete on the 2.1 series
     he'll declare it to be "2.2" --- then he'll start a 2.3 series (and
     there will be a quick flood of patches posted to that, since we've
     been in "feature freeze" for a couple of months and there are
     people who have been privately working on some new features in
     anticipation of the next development cycle.
     
     I've heard that Linus plans to turn the maintenance of 2.2
     immediately over to Alan and Stephen Tweedie. That will allow him
     to focus on the next version exclusively.
     
     Although there has been some effort to minimize the number of bugs
     that will be in the 2.2 release --- it is almost certain that we'll
     have at least a few 2.2.x releases within the first few months.
     Many of these will account for bugs that only affect a small subset
     of the available hardware configurations (one user in 10,000 or
     less). For the 1.0 series we had about nine releases to the stable
     kernel set. For the 1.2 series we had about 13 or so. In 2.0 we
     have had 36 (the versioning skipped from 1.3 to 2.x due major
     structural changes in the kernel). Don't just graph that to project
     an estimate --- unless you also scale the graph over the time
     frames involved. Even than you'd find some anomalies --- the
     differences between 1.2 and 2.0 are as great as the versions
     numbers suggest.
     
     As for how Linus decides what to incorporate and what to ignore or
     kick back ... that's one of the mysteries to which mere acolytes
     and initiates such as myself are not privvy.
     
     Linus is swamped. He gets direct e-mailed patches from countless
     programmers and programming students around the world. (The Savvy
     ones actually read the FAQ at http://www.tux.org/lkml before trying
     to contribute to the Linux kernel).
     
     See below for more on that.
     
   (?) What if, no offense intended, Linus died tomorrow? 
   
     (!) This class of events has been discussed (usually in less morbid
     terms --- using the term "retiring" rather than references to
     "expiriing").
     
     This would be a great loss to the Linux community.
     
     However, the sources are out there under a license that ensure that
     they will remain freely available and "alive" (able and likely to
     be upgraded, ported to new platforms, and generally improved upon).
     
     The great advantage that Linux has had over FreeBSD, (and it's
     brethren) has been Linus. He focuses on the kernel, and on code and
     quality, and almost completely eschews politics. He let's others
     deal with "user space" issues (libraries, compilers, and all of the
     suites of utilities and applications that go into any Linux
     distribution).
     
     We've benefitted immensely from our "benign dictactor" model --- we
     accepted Linus as "the Linux kernel God" (we hold none before him
     and we're monotheistic in this regard).
     
     When Linus eventually retires, moves on to other conquests, or
     whatever (may it happen long after my own demise), then the hope
     among the Linux kernel developers is that we'll be able to adopt,
     appoint, agree upon a successor --- a new benign dictator. That
     might be someone like Alan Cox, or Stephen Tweedie, or it might be
     just about anyone who's name appears regularly enough on the
     Linux-kernel mailing list (I don't know enough to say).
     
     Linus as jokingly referred to his daughters and Linus 2.0 and 3.0
     (we could make it a heriditary oligarchy, if they take the interest
     and aquire the proficiency). Check back in with us in about 15
     years on that.
     
   (?) Further, I'd like to find a place where (tentative) plans for
   future releases are discussed, and even a vague timeline is given. In
   short, is there a project management site/organization that contains a
   summary of (debates about) where LINUX is going and how it's going to
   get there? 
   
     (!) Here's the real fun question. Anyone who's seriously involved
     in Linux kernel development is subscribed to the Linux-kernel
     mailing list hosted by Rutgers University (Read the FAQ listed
     above for exact instructions on how to subscribe, where to find
     archives and how to search through them).
     
     linux-kernel is a very busy mailing list. I've received well over
     nine thousand pieces of e-mail on that list in just the last few
     months. It gets close to a hundred items per day. (The only
     Internet mailing list that I've been on that seemed busier was the
     old cypherpunks list when it was hosted at Toad Hall --- and maybe
     the Firewalls list that was started by Brent Chapman at Great
     Circle Associates).
     
     With that volume of traffic, you can be sure that many busy
     developers (such as Linus) don't get to read everything. (Linus has
     a family life and a full-time job --- mostly in addition to his
     kernel work; although Transmeta apparently does provide him with
     some work time to devote to Linux --- as per his contract with
     them).
     
     Of course, the best way for you to learn about the social dynamics
     of the Linux kernel developers is to immerse yourself in it for
     awhile. Start with some research (read the FAQ, and a month or
     two's worth of the archives), then subscribe to the list and lurk
     (read and don't post) for a month.
     
     If you're doing research on us --- please let us know where we can
     read any papers that you put together. We have one participant
     (esr, or Eric S. Raymond who has referred to himself as the Linux
     community's "anthropologist" but it might be interested to have an
     alternative set of opinions from a more "objective" source).
     
     (Eric has been a hacker since before Linux was developed. He helped
     to compile and publish the "New Hacker's Dictionary" --- which is
     also a pretty good source of background if you want to understand
     the Linux community as a subculture. Take it with a grain of salt,
     of course --- but read it anyway).
     
   (?) Donald Braman
   Yale Anthropology 
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Looking for a Hardware Vendor: In all the Wrong Places

   From Scott Tubbesing on Thu, 03 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Mr. Dennis, 
   
   My name is Scott Tubbesing and I am just starting to support Linux on
   my new job. I read "The Answer Guy" in The Linux Gazette for the first
   time. 
   
   My employer is in the process of purchasing a Linux server. You
   mentioned AV Research as a possible and recommended vendor. I couldn't
   find a WEB page on this company and wonder how to contact them.
   Appreciate your article and your assistance. 
   
   Have a good day. 
   
   Communication is the secret to success...Pass it on. 
   
   Scott Tubbesing 
   
     (!) That's VA Research (initials VAR, as in value-added reseller).
     They're at http://www.varesearch.com
     
     You can find a whole list of other Linux friendly hardware vendors
     at Linux International:
     
     http://www.linux.org/hardware
     
     Hope that helps.
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Letting Those Transfers Run Unattended

   From Terry Singleton on Wed, 02 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) While at home, dialed into work with my 56Kb modem, I sometimes
   run across very large interesting looking applications. I often wish
   that there were a way for me to telnet to my Linux box at work and
   start the download. When I got to work the next day the download would
   have hopefully completed. 
   
   Question: Is there a way for me to start my download remotely,
   disconnect from the Linux server and have the server continue to
   download the file(s)?? 
   
     (!) Yes. The most obvious is to use 'screen' - this will let you
     start interactive processes over a dialup or telnet connect (or
     within an xterm, on a VC), then you can "multiplex" multiple
     interactive programs and you can "detach" the whole session from
     your terminal/connection.
     
     Later, when you reconnect you can re-attach to your 'screen'
     session using the command:
     
     screen -r
     
     ... assuming that you only have one of them going. If you've
     started multiple 'screen' sessions you can select the one to which
     you want to re-attach using additional command switches (read the
     man page for that).
     
     I routinely use 'screen' (I'm using from a virtual console right
     now). If I leave this session like this and connect from my
     terminal in the living from (to watch a little CNN or "Law & Order"
     as I work) I just use the command:
     
     screen -r -d
     
     ... to simultaneously detach and reattach my screen session --- to
     effectively "yank it over to my terminal."
     
     Another advantage of using 'screen' is that my session is preserved
     if I get disconnected. (There's an "auto-detach" feature). So, you
     can leave the same session saving state in up to ten programs for
     weeks, even months at a time. (I have three copies of xemacs, a
     copy of lynx and a couple of shell prompts to the local and some of
     the other hosts on my net open as I type this).
     
     I do try to force myself to drop out of my screen session at least
     once a month.
     
     If you're using FTP to get these files you can also use the 'ncftp'
     command line features, including a "re-dial" which will keep trying
     to get to that busy FTP site until it gets your files. There's also
     a program called 'lftp' that is a "command line driven, script
     friendly" FTP client.
     
     Another approach would be to use 'expect' and/or Kermit scripts
     which you start at the remote and run "asynchronously" (in the
     background by slapping an '&' ampersand on the end of the command
     or by hitting [Ctrl]+[Z] to "suspend" the job and issuing the 'bg'
     command to restart it as though you'd put the '&' on it to begin
     with.
     
     Note that this "job control" feature (the [Ctrl]+[Z] and 'bg'
     stuff) only works with non-interactive programs. Interactive
     programs are likely to stop with a "waiting on terminal input"
     message. 'screen' and any properly written 'expect' script will
     cope with those because they set up a Unix domain socket as a sort
     of "virtual" terminal to control the interactive software.
     
   (?) Regards,
   Terry Singleton
   Canadore College, Network Analyst 
                        ____________________________
   
(?) Letting Those Transfers Run Unattended

   From Terry Singleton on Fri, 25 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Where do I find screen I searched my system and www.freshmeat.net
   but could not find the app you mentioned. I am running RedHat 5.1 and
   I believe installed almost everything. 
   
   thanks. 
   
     (!) That's odd. When I use freshmeat's "Quickfinder" it's the first
     entry that shows up. (Maybe the older version wasn't listed. A new
     version was just released recently --- after you sent me this
     message I think).
     
     Here's the Freshmeat "AppIndex" URL:
     
   ( freshmeat ) - ( details of "screen" )
          http://appindex.freshmeat.net/view/913939067
          
     ... and here's the main web page:
     
   screen - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)
          http://www.gnu.org/software/screen
          
     It's also easy to find at the Filewatcher site
     (http://filewatcher.org formerly lfw.linuxhq.com) and at the Linux
     Archive Search (http://las.ml.org).
     
     However, Freshmeat returned the most recent version and the
     canonical web site, while the others showed dozens of links to
     older versions and other packages (with the string 'screen' in
     their names) and no information about the package. So Freshmeat's
     my first choice at this point.
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Translucent, Overlay, Loop, and Union Filesystems

   From c17h21no4 on Wed, 02 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Where can i find information/documentation about the loopback
   filesystem and the translucent file sytstem under linux. From what i
   see on the mail lists there is support but the links are old or
   outdated (Ben's link) and i seem to not be finding any info on it. 
   
     (!) According to an old version of the CD-ROM Howto:
     
     Once upon a time there was an IFS (inheriting filesystem). This was
     written by Werner Almesberger for Linux version 0.99p11 was similar
     in principle to the "translucent fs" from Sun. This was a
     "copy-on-write" system, sometimes referred to as an "overlay" or
     "union" fs.
     
     All of these are different terms for the same concept, you mount
     two (or possibly more) filesystems on the same point. Accessing
     files under these mount points is presents files from one of the
     underlying filesystems.
     
     The most common case would be to lay a CD-ROM fs over a normal
     (ext2, minix, xiafs) filesystem. Any files on the "normal"
     (read-write) fs take precedence over any file with a colliding name
     on the CD-ROM. Any write attempt of a file results in a copy (or
     possibly a "diff" on a log-structured fs). Later access to such
     files will refer to the copy rather than the original.
     
     An early version of the Yggdrasil Plug-n-Play Linux (*)
     distribution supported this (IFS) as an installation method, if I
     recall correctly.
     
     * (the first CD-ROM distribution ever released as far as I know)
       
     As far as I know Werner's IFS hasn't been updated in years and
     there isn't any support for any of these union/translucent etc fs
     variants in the standard kernel. I did find on pretty obscure set
     of patches that appear to provide "overlay" filesystem support for
     2.0.31 kernels at:
     
   LOFS Patches for Linux:
          http://www.kvack.org/~blah/lofs
          
     ... this has no README files or other documentation so my guess
     about their intent is purely from reading the patches. I think
     "Blah" in this URL refers to Mr. Benjamin LaHaise who apparently
     wrote the following to the Linux-Kernel mailing list in May of
     1997:
     
     > Now is a very good time to tell me if
     > someone else has already got a working lofs :-) 
     
     I wrote one quite some time ago, and finally made patches against
     2.0.30 last week. They're at
     ftp://dot.superaje.com/pub/linux/lofs-2.0.30.diff It's not perfect,
     but it works. (I do have a fancier 2.1.x version, but it'll be a
     while before i get anymore work done on it.) 
     
     This was in response to a Mr. Jon Peatfield's query. (The ftp link
     therein does not work). He mentioned some additional work on his
     'lofs' as late as August of '97 --- quoted in a response by Linus
     regarding some VFS semantics.
     
     I presume this is the "Ben" to which you are referring. I've blind
     copied his last known @ddresses. (Sorry if you get three copies of
     this).
     
     There's a similar concept called a "cachefs" and there's a couple
     somewhat different concepts called "loop" filesystems.
     
     A Linux "loop" or "loopback" filesystem allows one to mount a
     regular file as a filesystem. This only works if the file is an
     image of a supported filesystem. Thus, if you have a boot diskette
     image you can mount it on /dev/loop0, 'cd' into the mount point and
     view the contents.
     
     I've leard of another interpretation of the phrase "loop back
     filesystem" that involves remounting the same filesystem with
     different option at different mount points. Thus you might mount
     one at /usr with "read-only" options and somewhere else with
     read-write and no-exec" However, I don't know which versions of
     Unix use this and it doesn't seem to match the Linux implemtation
     at all.
     
     It is possible to enable encryption on your loop devices using the
     'losetup' command (see the man page in section 8). However, this is
     more of a proof of concept than a real utility. See my column last
     month for pointers to some real cryptography packages, or look at
     the "privacy protected disk driver" (ppdd) which is one I forgot to
     mention last month.
     
     'cachefs' and 'tmpfs' are filesystems that are supported by
     Solaris.
     
     The CODA project at http://coda.cs.cmu.edu also has some
     interesting replication and caching features.
     
     Obviously when we start talking about specialized filesystems we
     see myriad terminology collisions and ambiguities.
     
     For now I'd say that Linux LOFS/Translucent filesystems are not
     "ready for prime time." However, if you're interested in working on
     the code --- go for it!
            ____________________________________________________
   
(?) Modem dial out

   From Infinite Loop on Wed, 02 Dec 1998 
   
   Hi Jim, 
   
   How are you? I'm want to write a program that enables my Linux system
   to dial a page to my beeper, this function to be activated upon
   certain events. I am learning C. I came across a system call ioctl
   that is supposed to let me control the devices, but I cannot find
   further information on it's usage. Or is there other
   programs/functions that you can advise me to work on to achieve the
   result? 
   
   Thanks. 
   
     (!) You might want to try the Linux Gazette "Search" feature. I
     wrote a fairly extensive piece on this back in May.
     
     Using the search phrase "pager software" at
     http://www.linuxgazette.com the following was the fourth hit:
     
   The Answer Guy 28: Email Alpha-Paging software
          http://www.ssc.com/lg/issue28/tag_paging.html
          
     Granted I wasn't able to find it so easily using Yahoo! and Alta
     Vista. When I elaborated on the phrase to include:
     
     pager software linux source code
     
     ... I got a surprise:
     
   Debian Package - hylafax-doc 4.0.2-5
          
   http://cgi.debian.org/www-master/debian.org/Packages/stable/comm/hylaf
          ax-client.html
          
          HylaFAX support [sic] the sending and receiving of
          facsimiles, the polled retrieval of facsimiles and
          the send [sic] of alphanumeric pages.
          ^^^^^^^^^^^^^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     (emphasis mine).
     
   (?) Regards, Joseph Ang 
   
     (!) I'd get those packages and read through their sources a bit.
                        ____________________________
   
(?) Promptness: It's Just a Lucky Shot

   From Infinite Loop on Fri, 04 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Hi Jim, 
   
   Thanks for your prompt reply! I'm very surprised to receive your reply
   in just a day! Really, really appreciate that :) 
   
   Best regards, Joseph Ang 
   
     (!) You were just lucky. The question was easy and appealed to me.
     
     Unfortunately there are many questions that I just don't "get to."
     Especially since I'm getting about five times more TAG traffic this
     month then last.
            ____________________________________________________
   
   
(?) 'chroot()' Jails or Cardboard Boxes

   From Clifton Flynt sometime before Wed, 02 Dec 1998 
   
   Hi, You recently stated: 
   
   You can set up inetd.conf to call simple chroot call to a jail before
   launching ftpd -- which will automatically use the /etc/passwd that's
   relative to the chroot directory. The You can even use shadow
   passwords in the chroot. 
   
   It does take a bit of tweaking -- but it can be done. 
   
   Could you point me to a FAQ or HowTo for this? 
   
   I'm upgrading a 4.2 based firewall system to 5.1, and already tried
   the obvious tricks of copying the /lib/security and /etc/pam.d
   directories to the playground/jail directory. 
   
   Thanks,
   Clif 
   
     (!) I don't know of an FAQ or HOWTO on this. I haven't had time to
     write one myself.
     
     One trick is to use the 'ldd' command extensively to identify
     shared libraries that must be copied into the 'chroot()' jail.
     Another is to use 'strace' to capture system call traces of each
     program (particularly those that fail to run properly in the jail)
     and compare the calls to 'open()' between the version run in the
     jail and the one that works normally within your normal
     environment.
     
     The brute force method is to simply install a whole distribution
     unto another filesystem. Mount that as the jail and trim out
     everything you don't need.
     
     It should be noted that 'chroot()' jails are not "root safe" under
     normal implementations of Unix and Linux. If an attacker does
     successfully gain 'root' privileges with the jail it is a simple
     matter to "break out."
     
     'securelevel' is a set of features in BSD (Free|Net|Open and
     BSDI/OS) to minimize the persistence of such compromise. These try
     to prevent root from exercising various privileges while the system
     is in "server" or "production" or "secure" mode.
     
     There were some patches for 'securelevel' that were under
     development for Linux. However, Linus rejected them and has
     accepted an alternative that may offer more flexibility, finer
     grained control and still allow for relatively easy "securelevel
     emulation."
     
     These features (what POSIX.1e refers to as "capabilities lists" but
     which are better described as "VMS like privileges") are built in
     the 2.1.x kernels and will almost certainly be part of 2.2. In
     addition to the possibility that these will allow us to "emulate
     'securelevel'" these may also prevent many forms of process
     subversion that lead to 'root' compromise.
     
     Normal 'securelevel' does nothing to prevent the attacker from
     gaining root. It doesn't very little to limit what the attacker can
     do with that privilege during the session in which it is obtained.
     In other words the successful attacker still has control of the
     system. 'securelevel' primarily prevents persistent changes to the
     filesystems (no changing immutable flags to mutable and
     "append-only" files to random access read/write, no remounting
     read-only filesystems in read/write mode, etc). Some other
     securelevel features prevent loading of kernel modules and access
     to /dev/kmem (/proc/kmem for Linux users).
     
     This doesn't address the mechanism by which the attacker gained
     'root' and only places relatively minor limitations on what 'root'
     can do to the state of the system. Those limitations mostly prevent
     sniffing on other processes, hiding the attacker tracks, and
     leaving 'rootkits' laying around.
     
     With the "privs" features the Linux kernel add more fine-grained
     delegation and limitation semantics. One can provide a process (and
     its descendents) with the ability to open a "privileged" TCP port
     (below the conventional Unix 1024 watermark) and/or with just
     read-only access to all files, without allowing that process to
     write to, change the ownership or permissions/mode or filesystem
     dependent attributes/flags on them, etc).
     
     Basically these "privileges" split the implications of "SUID root"
     into separately maskable and delegateable items. Instead of one
     "god flag" we have a whole pantheon of them, each with its own
     sphere of influence.
     
     The kernel support for this is just the tip of the iceberg.
     Consequently we probably won't see effective use of this for
     several month after Linux ships and it will be much longer until we
     have "full" support for this security model.
     
     Currently the only way to use these features with 2.1 kernels would
     be to write wrapper programs that set/mask the privilege sets
     (there are "allowed, effective, and inheritable" sets; the
     "inheritable" set is a mask which strips these privs from
     children). These wrapper/launchers could then start processes with
     small lists of required privileges and some (small?) assurance that
     these processes couldn't perform some forms of mischief directly.
     
     To emulate 'securelevel' you'd write wrappers that started 'init'
     and/or 'inetd' and various daemons like 'sendmail' and your web
     server with a set of privileges masked off. These processes and
     their children would be unable to exercise certain sorts of system
     calls (possibly including the equivalent of 'chroot(..)' to
     chdir/chroot out of a jail) and file operations. They would not be
     able to inherit these privileges even from an SUID 'root' program
     --- such programs would only be able to exercise the subset of
     privileges that were inherited and allowed. (*)
     
     * (The attack vector would then have to be via subversion of some
       running process that retained its privileges i.e. via some form of
       interprocess communication rather than by direct execution. If
       'init' was stripped of its "chatter +i" priv then no process on
       the system could make immutable files mutable. Naturally you'd
       construct the wrapper or patches to 'init' such that these
       features would be enabled at specific runlevels or disabled with
       certain boot-time parameters).
       
     Later it will be possible to store these privilege sets as
     attributes of executable files. Thus the 'rsh' and 'rlogin'
     commands would have their "bind to privileged IP port" bit set, and
     all others would be unset. (Note we're not masking off the other
     privs, we're merely not granting them). Thus the reason why these
     two command are "SUID 'root'" is accounted for, without giving
     these programs a host of other system privileges that are not
     required for their proper operation.
     
     The filesystem support for these features will presumably be added
     in the 2.3 kernel series.
     
     It looks like Linux 2.3 will mostly be about filesystems, "large"
     file support, ACL's, logging/journaling, b-tree directory
     structuring, and other features of that sort.
     
     It's not clear whether these will be rolled into ext2 or whether
     they will be incorporated into a new ext3.
     
     If this whole "privs" security model seems complex and difficult to
     administer and audit, then you're reading me loud and clear.
     
     Determining the precise set of requisite flags for each program and
     process will be a monumental pain. It is unclear how effective
     these efforts will eventually be. VMS has had these sorts of
     features since its inception, and they are similar to features in
     MLS/CMW (multi-level security for compartmented mode workstations)
     versions of Unix (usually billed/sold as the B2 Security Package,
     Option, or Version --- and generally only used by the U.S. military
     or similar organizations).
     
     Personally I would like to see a "true capabilities" subsystem
     implemented. This is a completely different security model that is
     so much unlike Unix, NT, and other identity/ACL based systems that
     you may have to spend a year or two unlearning what you know about
     operating systems design before you "get it." (It took me about two
     --- but I'm unusually stubborn).
     
     I've talked about this security model in this column before. Do a
     keyword search on EROS (extremely reliable OS) and/or KeyKOS to
     find some links about it. Ironically I've never used a system that
     incorporated "capabilities." However, I've grudgingly come to the
     conclusion that they represent a better security model than the
     ones we use in all major software today.
     
     The catch is that programs would have to be significantly retooled
     to work under such a system. There's also been almost no interest
     in this from the programmers that I've talked to. (That would
     suggest that I'm just a ranting crackpot --- since I'm not a
     programmer myself).
     
     In any event, hopefully these "privileges" will make your system
     somewhat more secure and make a chroot() jail more than just a
     cardboard box.
     
     If security is not your primary concern -- if all you want is to
     provide virtual FTP hosting, just look at ncftpd and or ProFTPD.
            ____________________________________________________
   
    "The Linux Gazette...making Linux just a little more fun!"
     _________________________________________________________________
   
                           (?) The Answer Guy (!)
                                      
                   By James T. Dennis, answerguy@ssc.com
          Starshine Technical Services, http://www.starshine.org/
     _________________________________________________________________
   
(?) Swap file on a RAM Disk

   From Mathieu Bouchard on Wed, 02 Dec 1998 
   
   (?) Hi, 
   
   Some have even reported that using 100 or 200K RAM disk with a swap
   file on it will dramatically improve the performance over using all of
   your memory as straight RAM. 
   
   Do you have any rational explication to this? I'm not a kernel expert,
   but it makes no sense -- especially because AFAIK, Linux RAM disks are
   swappable (and lazily-allocated), and mutual containment (in this
   context) makes no sense; 
   
     (!) No. I don't have a rational explication or explanation for
     this.
     
   (?) but in the event that a RAM disk wouldn't be swappable, then,
   swapping from RAM to RAM isn't anything more than a CPU hog and
   unnecessary complexity -- it's a kind of Alice in Wonderland to me. It
   would make sense if some compression was done while swapping, which
   would look like a Macintosh RAMdoubler. But Linux has no such feature
   -- six months ago I asked the Linux guys and they said that they
   didn't like the idea. 
   
   Is it possible that such a report would be gibberish? in which case I
   would like you to get the precise facts and publish them. I think that
   even though it is a detail, the Linux community doesn't deserve to
   have anything done wrong. I'm not [bf]laming, I just want to correct a
   situation. 
   
   matju 
   
     (!) However, I can make a guess. Many of the memory management code
     paths may have to special case the situation where no swap/paging
     space is available. The routines invoked to handle this special
     case may result in a slow down when no swap is available.
     
     You're welcome to search the Linux-Kernel mailing list archives
     yourself. You can also just try it (run some tests with no swap