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# NAME

CDDB.pm - a high-level interface to cddb protocol servers (freedb and CDDB)

# VERSION

version 1.222

# SYNOPSIS

    use CDDB;

    ### Connect to the cddbp server.
    my $cddbp = new CDDB(
      Host  => 'freedb.freedb.org', # default
      Port  => 8880,                # default
      Login => $login_id,           # defaults to %ENV's
    ) or die $!;

    ### Retrieve known genres.
    my @genres = $cddbp->get_genres();

    ### Calculate cddbp ID based on MSF info.
    my @toc = (
      '1    0  2 37',           # track, CD-i MSF (space-delimited)
      '999  1 38 17',           # lead-out track MSF
      '1000 0  0 Error!',       # error track (don't include if ok)
    );
    my (
      $cddbp_id,      # used for further cddbp queries
      $track_numbers, # padded with 0's (for convenience)
      $track_lengths, # length of each track, in MM:SS format
      $track_offsets, # absolute offsets (used for further cddbp queries)
      $total_seconds  # total play time, in seconds (for cddbp queries)
     ) = $cddbp->calculate_id(@toc);

    ### Query discs based on cddbp ID and other information.
    my @discs = $cddbp->get_discs($cddbp_id, $track_offsets, $total_seconds);
    foreach my $disc (@discs) {
      my ($genre, $cddbp_id, $title) = @$disc;
    }

    ### Query disc details (usually done with get_discs() information).
    my $disc_info     = $cddbp->get_disc_details($genre, $cddbp_id);
    my $disc_time     = $disc_info->{'disc length'};
    my $disc_id       = $disc_info->{discid};
    my $disc_title    = $disc_info->{dtitle};
    my @track_offsets = @{$disc_info->{offsets}};
    my @track_seconds = @{$disc_info->{seconds}};
    my @track_titles  = @{$disc_info->{ttitles}};
    # other information may be returned... explore!

    ### Submit a disc via e-mail. (Requires MailTools)

    die "can't submit a disc (no mail modules; see README)"
      unless $cddbp->can_submit_disc();

    # These are useful for prompting the user to fix defaults:
    print "I will send mail through: ", $cddbp->get_mail_host(), "\n";
    print "I assume your e-mail address is: ", $cddbp->get_mail_address(), "\n";

    # Actually submit a disc record.
    $cddbp->submit_disc(
      Genre       => 'classical',
      Id          => 'b811a20c',
      Artist      => 'Various',
      DiscTitle   => 'Cartoon Classics',
      Offsets     => $disc_info->{offsets},   # array reference
      TrackTitles => $disc_info->{ttitles},   # array reference
      From        => 'login@host.domain.etc', # will try to determine
    );

# DESCRIPTION

CDDB protocol (cddbp) servers provide compact disc information for
programs that need it.  This allows such programs to display disc and
track titles automatically, and it provides extended information like
liner notes and lyrics.

This module provides a high-level Perl interface to cddbp servers.
With it, a Perl program can identify and possibly gather details about
a CD based on its "table of contents" (the disc's track times and
offsets).

Disc details have been useful for generating CD catalogs, naming mp3
files, printing CD liners, or even just playing discs in an automated
jukebox.

Despite the module's name, it connects to FreeDB servers by default.
This began at version 1.04, when cddb.com changed its licensing model
to support end-user applications, not third-party libraries.
Connections to cddb.com may still work, and patches are welcome to
maintain that functionality, but it's no longer officially supported.

# PUBLIC METHODS

- new PARAMETERS

    Creates a high-level interface to a cddbp server, returning a handle
    to it.  The handle is not a filehandle.  It is an object.  The new()
    constructor provides defaults for just about everything, but
    everything is overrideable if the defaults aren't appropriate.

    The interface will not actually connect to a cddbp server until it's
    used, and a single cddbp interface may actually make several
    connections (to possibly several servers) over the course of its use.

    The new() constructor accepts several parameters, all of which have
    reasonable defaults.

    __Host__ and __Port__ describe the cddbp server to connect to.  These
    default to 'freedb.freedb.org' and 8880, which is a multiplexor for
    all the other freedb servers.

    __Utf8__ is a boolean flag. If true, utf-8 will be used when submitting
    CD info, and for interpreting the data reveived. This requires the
    [Encode](http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?Encode) module (and probably perl version at least 5.8.0). The
    default is true if the [Encode](http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?Encode) module can be loaded. Otherwise, it
    will be false, meaning we fall back to ASCII.

    __Protocol\_Version__ sets the cddbp version to use.  CDDB.pm will not
    connect to servers that don't support the version specified here.  The
    requested protocol version defaults to 1 if __Utf8__ is off, and to 6
    if it is on.

    __Login__ is the login ID you want to advertise to the cddbp server.
    It defaults to the login ID your computer assigns you, if that can be
    determined.  The default login ID is determined by the presence of a
    LOGNAME or USER environment variable, or by the getpwuid() function.
    On Windows systems, it defaults to "win32usr" if no default method can
    be found and no Login parameter is set.

    __Submit\_Address__ is the e-mail address where new disc submissions go.
    This defaults to 'freedb-submit@freedb.org'. Note, that testing
    submissions should be done via `test-submit@freedb.org`.

    __Client\_Name__ and __Client\_Version__ describe the client software used
    to connect to the cddbp server.  They default to 'CDDB.pm' and
    CDDB.pm's version number.  If developers change this, please consult
    freedb's web site for a list of client names already in use.

    __Debug__ enables verbose operational information on STDERR when set to
    true.  It's normally not needed, but it can help explain why a program
    is failing.  If someone finds a reproduceable bug, the Debug output
    and a test program would be a big help towards having it fixed.  In
    case of submission, if this flag is on, a copy of the submission
    e-mail will be sent to the _From_ address.

- get\_genres

    Takes no parameters.  Returns a list of genres known by the cddbp
    server, or undef if there is a problem retrieving them.

- calculate\_id TOC

    The cddb protocol defines an ID as a hash of track lengths and the
    number of tracks, with an added checksum. The most basic information
    required to calculate this is the CD table of contents (the CD-i track
    offsets, in "MSF" \[Minutes, Seconds, Frames\] format).

    Note however that there is no standard way to acquire this information
    from a CD-ROM device.  Therefore this module does not try to read the
    TOC itself.  Instead, developers must combine CDDB.pm with a CD
    library which works with their system.  The AudioCD suite of modules
    is recommended: it has system specific code for MacOS, Linux and
    FreeBSD.  CDDB.pm's author has used external programs like dagrab to
    fetch the offsets.  Actual CDs aren't always necessary: the author has
    heard of people generating TOC information from mp3 file lengths.

    That said, see parse\_cdinfo() for a routine to parse "cdinfo" output
    into a table of contents list suitable for calculate\_id().

    calculate\_id() accepts TOC information as a list of strings.  Each
    string contains four fields, separated by whitespace:

    offset 0: the track number

    Track numbers start with 1 and run sequentially through the number of
    tracks on a disc.  Note: data tracks count on hybrid audio/data CDs.

    CDDB.pm understands two special track numbers.  Track 999 holds the
    lead-out information, which is required by the cddb protocol.  Track
    1000 holds information about errors which have occurred while
    physically reading the disc.

    offset 1: the track start time, minutes field

    Tracks are often addressed on audio CDs using "MSF" offsets.  This
    stands for Minutes, Seconds, and Frames (fractions of a second).  The
    combination pinpoints the exact disc frame where a song starts.

    Field 1 contains the M part of MSF.  It is ignored for error tracks,
    but it still must contain a number.  Zero is suggested.

    offset 2: the track start time, seconds field

    This field contains the S part of MSF.  It is ignored for error
    tracks, but it still must contain a number.  Zero is suggested.

    offset 3: the track start time, frames field

    This field contains the F part of MSF.  For error tracks, it contains
    a description of the error.

    Example track file.  Note: the comments should not appear in the file.

          1   0  2 37  # track 1 starts at 00:02 and 37 frames
          2   1 38 17  # track 2 starts at 01:38 and 17 frames
          3  11 57 30  # track 3 starts at 11:57 and 30 frames
          ...
        999  75 16  5  # leadout starts at 75:16 and  5 frames

    Track 1000 should not be present if everything is okay:

        1000   0  0  Error reading TOC: no disc in drive

    In scalar context, calculate\_id() returns just the cddbp ID.  In a
    list context, it returns an array containing the following values:

        (
          $cddbp_id,
          $track_numbers,
          $track_lengths,
          $track_offsets,
          $total_seconds
        ) = $cddbp->calculate_id(@toc);

        print(
          "cddbp ID      = $cddbp_id\n",        # b811a20c
          "track numbers = @$track_numbers\n",  # 001 002 003 ...
          "track lengths = @$track_lengths\n",  # 01:36 10:19 04:29 ...
          "track offsets = @$track_offsets\n",  # 187 7367 53805 ...
          "total seconds = $total_seconds\n",   # 4514
        );

    CDDBP\_ID

    The 0th returned value is the hashed cddbp ID, required for any
    queries or submissions involving this disc.

    TRACK\_NUMBERS

    The 1st returned value is a reference to a list of track numbers, one
    for each track (excluding the lead-out), padded to three characters
    with leading zeroes.  These values are provided for convenience, but
    they are not required by cddbp servers.

    TRACK\_LENGTHS

    The 2nd returned value is a reference to a list of track lengths, one
    for each track (excluding the lead-out), in HH:MM format.  These
    values are returned as a convenience.  They are not required by cddbp
    servers.

    TRACK\_OFFSETS

    The 3rd returned value is a reference to a list of absolute track
    offsets, in frames.  They are calculated from the MSF values, and they
    are required by get\_discs() and submit\_disc().

    TOTAL\_SECONDS

    The 4th and final value is the total playing time for the CD, in
    seconds.  The get\_discs() function needs it.

- get\_discs CDDBP\_ID, TRACK\_OFFSETS, TOTAL\_SECONDS

    get\_discs() asks the cddbp server for a summary of all the CDs
    matching a given cddbp ID, track offsets, and total playing time.
    These values can be retrieved from calculade\_id().

        my @id_info       = $cddbp->calculate_id(@toc);
        my $cddbp_id      = $id_info->[0];
        my $track_offsets = $id_info->[3];
        my $total_seconds = $id_info->[4];

    get\_discs() returns an array of matching discs, each of which is
    represented by an array reference.  It returns an empty array if the
    query succeeded but did not match, and it returns undef on error.

        my @discs = $cddbp->get_discs( $cddbp_id, $track_offsets, $total_seconds );
        foreach my $disc (@discs) {
          my ($disc_genre, $disc_id, $disc_title) = @$disc;
          print(
            "disc id    = $disc_id\n",
            "disc genre = $disc_genre\n",
            "disc title = $disc_title\n",
          );
        }

    DISC\_GENRE is the genre this disc falls into, as determined by whoever
    submitted or last edited the disc.  The genre is required when
    requesting a disc's details.  See get\_genres() for how to retrieve a
    list of cddbp genres.

    CDDBP\_ID is the cddbp ID of this disc.  Cddbp servers perform fuzzy
    matches, returning near misses as well as direct hits on a cddbp ID,
    so knowing the exact ID for a disc is important when submitting
    changes or requesting a particular near-miss' details.

    DISC\_TITLE is the disc's title, which may help a human to pick the
    correct disc out of several close mathches.

- get\_discs\_by\_toc TOC

    This function acts as a macro, combining calculate\_id() and
    get\_discs() calls into one function.  It takes the same parameters as
    calculate\_id(), and it returns the same information as get\_discs().

- get\_discs\_by\_query QUERY\_STRING

    Fetch discs by a pre-built cddbp query string.  Some disc querying
    programs report this string, and get\_discs\_by\_query() is a convenient
    way to use that.

    Cddb protocol query strings look like:

        cddb query $cddbp_id $track_count @offsets $total_seconds

- get\_disc\_details DISC\_GENRE, CDDBP\_ID

    This function fetches a disc's detailed information from a cddbp
    server.  It takes two parameters: the DISC\_GENRE and the CDDP\_ID.
    These parameters usually come from a call to get\_discs().

    The disc's details are returned in a reference to a fairly complex
    hash.  It includes information normally stored in comments.  The most
    common entries in this hash include:

        $disc_details = get_disc_details( $disc_genre, $cddbp_id );

    $disc\_details->{"disc length"}

    The disc length is commonly stored in the form "\#\#\# seconds", where
    \#\#\# is the disc's total playing time in seconds.  It may hold other
    time formats.

    $disc\_details->{discid}

    This is a rehash (get it?) of the cddbp ID.  It should match the
    CDDBP\_ID given to get\_disc\_details().

    $disc\_details->{dtitle}

    This is the disc's title.  I do not know whether it will match the one
    returned by get\_discs().

    $disc\_details->{offsets}

    This is a reference to a list of absolute disc track offsets, similar
    to the TRACK\_OFFSETS returned by calculate\_id().

    $disc\_details->{seconds}

    This is a reference to a list of track length, in seconds.

    $disc\_details->{ttitles}

    This is a reference to a list of track titles.  These are the droids
    you are looking for.

    $disc\_details->{"processed by"}

    This is a comment field identifying the name and version of the cddbp
    server which accepted and entered the disc record into the database.

    $disc\_details->{revision}

    This is the disc record's version number, used as a sanity check
    (semaphore?) to prevent simultaneous revisions.  Revisions start at 0
    for new submissions and are incremented for every correction.  It is
    the responsibility of the submitter (be it a person or a program using
    CDDB.pm) to provide a correct revision number.

    $disc\_details->{"submitted via"}

    This is the name and version of the software that submitted this cddbp
    record.  The main intention is to identify records that are submitted
    by broken software so they can be purged or corrected.

    $disc\_details->{xmcd\_record}

    The xmcd\_record field contains a copy of the entire unprocessed cddbp
    response that generated all the other fields.

    $disc\_details->{genre}

    This is merely a copy of DISC\_GENRE, since it's otherwise not possible
    to determine it from the hash.

- parse\_xmcd\_file XMCD\_FILE\_CONTENTS, \[GENRE\]

    Parses an array ref of lines read from an XMCD file into the
    disc\_details hash described above.  If the GENRE parameter is set it
    will be included in disc\_details.

- can\_submit\_disc

    Returns true or false, depending on whether CDDB.pm has enough
    dependent modules to submit discs.  If it returns false, you are
    missing Mail::Internet, Mail::Header, or MIME::QuotedPrint.

- get\_mail\_address

    Returns what CDDB.pm thinks your e-mail address is, or what it was
    last set to.  It was added to fetch the default e-mail address so
    users can see it and have an opportunity to correct it.

        my $mail_from = $cddb->get_mail_address();
        print "New e-mail address (or blank to keep <$mail_from>): ";
        my $new_mail_from = <STDIN>;
        $new_mail_from =~ s/^\s+//;
        $new_mail_from =~ s/\s+$//;
        $new_mail_from =~ s/\s+/ /g;
        $mail_from = $new_mail_from if length $new_mail_from;

        $cddbp->submit_disc(
          ...,
          From => $mail_from,
        );

- get\_mail\_host

    Returns what CDDB.pm thinks your SMTP host is, or what it was last set
    to.  It was added to fetch the default e-mail transfer host so users
    can see it and have an opportunity to correct it.

        my $mail_host = $cddb->get_mail_host();
        print "New e-mail host (or blank to keep <$mail_host>): ";
        my $new_mail_host = <STDIN>;
        $new_mail_host =~ s/^\s+//;
        $new_mail_host =~ s/\s+$//;
        $new_mail_host =~ s/\s+/ /g;
        $mail_host = $new_mail_host if length $new_mail_host;

        $cddbp->submit_disc(
          ...,
          Host => $mail_host,
        );

- parse\_cdinfo CDINFO\_FILE

    Generates a table of contents suitable for calculate\_id() based on the
    output of a program called "cdinfo".  CDINFO\_FILE may either be a text
    file, or it may be the cdinfo program itself.

        my @toc = parse_cdinfo("cdinfo.txt"); # read cdinfo.txt
        my @toc = parse_cdinfo("cdinfo|");    # run cdinfo directly

    The table of contents can be passed directly to calculate\_id().

- submit\_disc DISC\_DETAILS

    submit\_disc() submits a disc record to a cddbp server.  Currently it
    only uses e-mail, although it will try different ways to send that.
    It returns true or false depending on whether it was able to send the
    submission e-mail.

    The rest of CDDB.pm will work without the ability to submit discs.
    While cddbp submissions are relatively rare, most CD collections will
    have one or two discs not present in the system.  Please submit new
    discs to the system: the amazing number of existing discs got there
    because others submitted them before you needed them.

    submit\_disc() takes six required parameters and two optional ones.
    The parameters are named, like hash elements, and can appear in any
    order.

    Genre => DISC\_GENRE

    This is the disc's genre.  It must be one of the genres that the
    server knows.  See get\_genres().

    Id => CDDBP\_ID

    This is the cddbp ID that identifies the disc.  It should come from
    calculate\_id() if this is a new submission, or from get\_disc\_details()
    if this is a revision.

    Artist => DISC\_ARTIST

    This is the disc's artist, a freeform text field describing the party
    responsible for the album.  It will need to be entered from the disc's
    notes for new submissions, or it can come from get\_disc\_details() on
    subsequent revisions.

    DiscTitle => DISC\_TITLE

    This is the disc's title, a freeform text field describing the album.
    It must be entered from the disc's notes for new submissions.  It can
    come from get\_disc\_details() on subsequent revisions.

    Offsets => TRACK\_OFFSETS

    This is a reference to an array of absolute track offsets, as provided
    by calculate\_id().

    TrackTitles => TRACK\_TITLES

    This is a reference to an array of track titles, either entered by a
    human or provided by get\_disc\_details().

    From => EMAIL\_ADDRESS

    This is the disc submitter's e-mail address.  It's not required, and
    CDDB.pm will try to figure one out on its own if an address is
    omitted.  It may be more reliable to provide your own, however.

    The default return address may not be a deliverable one, especially if
    CDDB.pm is being used on a dial-up machine that isn't running its own
    MTA.  If the current machine has its own MTA, problems still may occur
    if the machine's Internet address changes.

    Host => SMTP\_HOST

    This is the SMTP host to contact when sending mail.  It's not
    required, and CDDB.pm will try to figure one out on its own.  It will
    look at the SMTPHOSTS environment variable is not defined, it will try
    'mail' and 'localhost' before finally failing.

    Revision => REVISION

    The revision number. Should be 1 for new submissions, and one higher
    than the previous one for updates. The previous revision number is
    available as the `revision` field in the hash returned by
    get\_disc\_details().

# PRIVATE METHODS

Documented as being not documented.

# EXAMPLES

Please see the cddb.t program in the t (tests) directory.  It
exercises every aspect of CDDB.pm, including submissions.

# COMPATIBILITY

CDDB.pm uses standard Perl modules.  It has been tested at one point
or another on OS/2, MacOS and FreeBSD systems, as well as the systems
listed at:

    http://testers.cpan.org/search?request=dist&dist=CDDB

If you want to submit disc information to the CDDB, you will need to
install two other modules:

    Mail::Internet will allow CDDB.pm to send email submissions, and it
    automagically includes Mail::Header.

    MIME::QuotedPrint will allow CDDB.pm to send non-ASCII text
    unscathed.  Currently only ISO-8859-1 and ASCII are supported.

All other features will work without these modules.

# KNOWN TEST FAILURES

The last test in the "make test" suite will try to send a sample
submission to the CDDB if MailTools is present.  It expects to find an
SMTP host in the SMTPHOST environment variable.  It will fall back to
"mail" if SMTPHOST doesn't exist.  If neither works, the test will be
skipped.  To see why it's skipped:

    make test TEST_VERBOSE=1

Some of the tests (most notably numbers 25, 27 and 29) compare data
returned by a cddbp server against a stored copy of a previous query.
These tests fail occasionally since the database is constantly in
flux.  Starting with version 1.00, the test program uses fuzzy
comparisons that should fail less.  Version 1.04 saw even fuzzier
comparisons.  Please report any problems so they can be fixed.

# LINKS

## BUG TRACKER

https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Status=Active&Queue=CDDB

## REPOSITORY

http://github.com/rcaputo/cddb-perl
http://gitorious.org/cddb-freedb-perl

## OTHER RESOURCES

http://search.cpan.org/dist/CDDB/

# CONTACT AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright 1998-2013 Rocco Caputo.  All rights reserved.  This program
is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
same terms as Perl itself.