File: new-XBase

package info (click to toggle)
libdbd-xbase-perl 1%3A1.08-1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: bookworm, bullseye, buster, sid, stretch
  • size: 992 kB
  • ctags: 506
  • sloc: perl: 7,060; makefile: 14
file content (601 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 17,843 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (3)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601

=head1 NAME

XBase - Perl module for reading and writing the dbf files

=head1 POZOR!

This is suggestion for new interface. Not current documentation,
see normal perldoc XBase.

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  use XBase;
  my $table = new XBase "dbase.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
  for (0 .. $table->last_record) {
  	my ($deleted, $id, $msg)
  		= $table->get_record($_, "ID", "MSG");
  	print "$id:\t$msg\n" unless $deleted;
  }

  $table->{'RaiseError'} = 1;			# new
  my $cur = $table->prepare_select_with_index("dbaseid.ndx",
  	"id", "msg");
  $cur->find_eq(156) or do {
  	print "Value 156 not found.\n"; exit;
  };
  my ($id, $msg) = $cur->fetch;


=head1 DESCRIPTION

This module can read and write XBase database files, known as dbf in
dBase and FoxPro world. It also transparently reads memo fields from
the dbt, fpt and smt files and works with index files (ndx, ntx, mdx, idx,
cdx and SDBM). This module XBase.pm provides simple native interface
to XBase files. For DBI compliant database access, see DBD::XBase and
DBI modules and their man pages.

To work with dbf and associated files, you first need to open the
dbf file using

    my $table = new XBase 'dbase.dbf' or die XBase->errstr;

type of call. This gives you an object to interact with the table.
You can then access the records using their position in the file

    my ($deleted, $id, $name, $born)
    	= $table->get_record($num, 'ID', 'NAME', 'DO_BIRTH');
    if ($id == 436) {
    	$table->update_record_hash($num, 'NAME' => 'Peter')
    }

or via cursors that allow you to walk through the file

    my $cur = $table->prepare_select('ID', 'NAME', 'DO_BIRTH');
    while (my ($id, $name, $born) = $cur->fetch) {
		# do some work
    }

If there are index files for given table, they can be used to speedup
the searches. You can either use them explicitely to open cursor based
on the index

    my $cur = $table->prepare_select_with_index('dbaseid.ndx'
    	'ID', 'NAME', 'DO_BIRTH');
    if ($cur->find_eq(436)) {
    	my ($id, $name, $born) = $cur->fetch;
    }

or you can attach the indexes to the table and they will be used when
needed and also updated when the dbf table changes

    my $table = new XBase 'file' => 'dbase.dbf', 'RaiseError' => 1,
    	'index' => [ 'dbaseid.ndx', 'dbasename.ndx' ];
    my $cur = $table->prepare_select_where('id = 436', 'NAME');
    while (my ($name) = $cur->fetch) {
    	print "Old value $name, new value 'Peter'\n";
    	$table->update_record_hash($cur->last_fetched,
    		'name' => 'Peter');
    }

The cdx, mdx and SDBM index files (with the same base name as the dbf)
are attached by default.

=head1 LIST OF METHODS

The following methods are available for XBase.pm tables and their
cursors, their meaning and parameters are in more detail described
below:

=over 4

=item General methods working with the table

	new			close
	create			drop
	attach_index
	pack			errstr

=item Methods returning information about the file

	last_record		field_names
	last_field		field_types
	header_info		field_lengths
	field_type		field_decimals
	field_length
	field_decimal

=item Accessing and modifying the records

	get_record		set_record
	get_record_nf		set_record_hash
	get_record_as_hash	update_record_hash
	get_all_records		delete_record
	dump_records		undelete_record

=item Creating cursors and working with them

	prepare_select			fetch
	prepare_select_with_index	fetch_hashref
	prepare_select_where		last_fetched
					find_eq
					cursor_uses_index

=back

=head1 General methods

The general methods working with the whole files or tables.

=head2 new

Opens the existing dbf file and provides an object to interact with
the table. Memo and index files are also opened transparently. If opening
of the dbf file or any other needed file (memo, index) fails, C<new>
returns undef and the error message may be retrieved via
B<XBase-E<gt>errstr>.

The parameters to B<new> are passed as hash:

=over 4

=item name

Name of the dbf file (dbf table). The C<.dbf> suffix may be omitted.
The name of the file may also be passed as the very first single
parameter.

=item memofile

Specifies non standard name for the associated memo file.
By default it's the name of the dbf file, with suffix C<.dbt>,
C<.fpt> or C<.smt>.

=item ignorememo

Makes B<new> and all subsequent operation to ignore memo file at all.
This is usefull if you've lost the dbt file and you do not need it.
The default is undef, not ignoring the memo file.

=item memosep

Separator of memo records in the dBase III memo files. The
standard says it should be C<"\x1a\x1a">. There are however
implementations that only put in one C<"\x1a">. XBase.pm tries hard to
guess which is the case for your dbt but if it fails, you can tell it
yourself.

=item nolongchars

Prevents B<new> to treat the decimal value of character
fields as high byte of the length -- there are some broken products
around producing character fields with decimal values set. XBase.pm
tries hard to guess which is the case for your dbf, so again you need
this option only if it fails.

=item index

Name of arrayref of names of index files to attach to the opened
object. The cdx, mdx and SDBM indexes are attached by default.

=item noindex

Prevents any index file to be attached automatically (cdx, mdx,
SDBM). Default is undef.

=item PrintError

If the B<new> or any subsequent call to the object fail, they
generate a warning using warn. The default is undef (but future
versions may default to 1).

=item RaiseError

If the B<new> or any subsequent call to the object fail, they
raise an exception (die). The default is undef.

=back

Examples:

    my $table = new XBase "table.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
	
    my $table = new XBase 'name' => 'table.dbf',
	'index' => 'table.ndx', 'PrintError' => 1;

=head2 create

Creates new empty dbf file on disk; memo file will be also created
if the table contains some memo fields. Parameters to create are
passed as hash.

=over 4

=item name

Name of the new dbf file.

=back

You can call this method as method of another XBase object and then
you only need to pass B<name> value of the hash; the structure
(fields) of the new file will be the same as of the original object.

If you call B<create> using class name (XBase), you have to (besides
B<name>) also specify the structure of the file:

=over 4

=item field_names

Arrayref to list of field name.

=item field_types

Arrayref to list of field types, specified either by one letter
strings (C, N, L, D, ...) or by long versions (char, numeric,
date, ...)

=item field_lengths

Arrayref to list of field widths.

=item field_decimals

Arrayref to list of precissions, for numeric columns.

=item version

Force different version of the dbf or memo file. The default is 
version of the source table (if you call B<create> on an object),
3 (dBase III compatible) otherwise.

=item memofile

Specify nonstandard memo file name or location.

=back

If you keep some value undefined, B<create> will make it into some
reasonable default. The new dbf file (nor memo file) mustn't exist
yet -- B<create> will not allow you to overwrite existing table.
Use B<drop> (or unlink) to delete it first.

    my $newtable = $table->create("name" => "copy.dbf");
	
    my $newtable = XBase->create("name" => "new.dbf",
		"field_names" => [ "ID", "MSG" ],
		"field_types" => [ "N", "C" ],
		"field_lengths" => [ 6, 40 ],
		"field_decimals" => [ 0, undef ]);

=head2 attach_index

The index file may be attached during the B<new> call or
additionally with this call.

=head2 pack

All records that were marked deleted in the table, will be purged from
the file. Effectively does a fresh copy to new file and then moves it
to original location, so is not aimed at efficiency. Also recreates
all attached index files.

=head2 close

Closes the object and associated memo file and attached index files,
no arguments.

=head2 drop

This method closes the table and deletes it on disk (including
associated memo file and attached index files, if there are any).

=head2 errstr

Called either as a class method (after B<new> or B<create>) or on
a table object, it returns error string describing the last error
of previous failed method call.

=head1 Information about dbf file

=head2 last_record

Returns number of the last record in the file. The records marked
deleted but present in the file are included in this number.

=head2 last_field

Returns number of the last field in the file, number of fields minus 1.

=head2 header_info

Returns string with formated information about the file and about
the fields.

=head2 field_names, field_types, field_lengths, field_decimals

Return list of field names and so on for the dbf file.

=head2 field_type, field_length, field_decimal

For a field name, returns the appropriate value. Returns undef if the
field doesn't exist in the table.

=head1 Accessing the records

When dealing with the records one by one, reading or writing, you have
to specify the number of the record in the file as the first argument.
The valid range is from 0 to C<$table-E<gt>last_record> and
C<$table-E<gt>last_record+1> to insert new record to the file.

=head2 get_record

Returns list of field values from the specified record. The first
parameter in the call is the number of the record. If you do not
specify any other parameters, all fields are returned in the same
order as they appear in the file. You can also put list of field
names after the record number and then only those will be returned.
The first value of the returned list is always the 1/0 C<_DELETED>
value saying whether the record is marked deleted or not, so
on success, B<get_record> never returns empty list.

=head2 get_record_as_hash

Like B<get_record>, but returns the values as hash (in list context)
or reference to hash (in scalar context) containing field values
indexed by field names. The name of the deleted flag is C<_DELETED>.
The field names are returned as uppercase.

=head2 get_record_nf

Like B<get_record> but instead if the names of the fields, you can
pass list of numbers of the fields to read.

=head2 get_all_records

Returns reference to an array containing array of values for each
undeleted record at once. As parameters, pass list of fields to
return for each record.

=head2 dump_records

Prints to currently selected filehandle all non-deleted records from
the file. By default, all fields are printed, separated by colons, one
record on a row. The method can have parameters in a form of a hash
with the following keys:

=over 4

=item rs

Record separator, string, newline by default.

=item fs

Field separator, string, one colon by default.

=item fields

Reference to a list of names of the fields to print. By default it's
undef, meaning all fields. You can also pass in scalar where the field
names are separated by commas, or by dashes to denote intervals.

=item undef

What to print for undefined (NULL) values, empty string by default.

=back

Example of use is

    use XBase;
    my $table = new XBase "table" or die XBase->errstr;
    $table->dump_records("fs" => " | ", "rs" => " <-+\n",
			"fields" => [ "id", "msg" ]);'

Also note that there is a command line script dbf_dump(1) that does
the printing.

=head1 Writing the data

All three writing methods always undelete the record. On success they
return true -- the record number actually written.

=head2 set_record

As parameters, takes the number of the record and the list of values
of the fields. It writes the record to the file. Unspecified fields
(if you pass less than you should) are set to undef/empty.

=head2 set_record_hash

Takes number of the record and hash as parameters, sets the fields,
unspecified fields are undefed/emptied.

=head2 update_record_hash

Like B<set_record_hash> but fields that do not have value specified
in the hash retain their original value.

=head2 delete_record, undelete_record

Marks the specified record in the file deleted/undeleted.

=head1 Sequentially reading the file

If you plan to sequentially walk through the file, you can create
a cursor first and then repeatedly call B<fetch> to get next record.

=head2 prepare_select

Creates and returns an cursor to walk through the file.
As parameters, pass list of field names to return, by default all
fields.

=head2 prepare_select_with_index

The first parameter is the file name of the index file, the rest is
optional list of field names. For index types that can hold more
index structures in one file (have tags), instead of file name use
arrayref with the file name, the tag name and optionaly the index type
(at the moment, expressions are not supported, so XBase.pm won't be
able to determine type of the index unless you tell it).
The B<fetch> will then return records in the ascending order,
according to the index.

=head2 prepare_select_where

The first parameter is a string with boolean expression, the rest is
optional list of field names. The B<fetch>es on the returned cursor
will return only records matching the expression. If there are
attached index files, they may be used to speed the search.

The previous methods on the table object will return cursor object,
the following methods are to be called on the cursor, not on the
table.

=head2 fetch

Returns the fields of the next available undeleted record from the
cursor. The list thus doesn't contain the C<_DELETED> flag since you
are guaranteed that the record is not deleted.

=item fetch_hashref

Returns a hash reference of fields for the next undeleted record from
the cursor.

=item last_fetched

Returns the record number of the record last fetched.

=item find_eq

This only works with cursor created via B<prepare_select_with_index>
or B<prepare_select_where> that uses index. As a parameter it takes
the cursor value to find. It returns 1 if there is matching record,
or 0 otherwise.

If there is a match, the next B<fetch>es will fetch the records
matching, and continue with records greater than the specified value
(walk the index). If there isn't match, B<fetch> returns next greater
record.

=item cursor_uses_index

Returns true if the cursor created with B<prepare_select_where> uses
index.

=head1 EXAMPLES

Assorted examples of reading and writing:

    my @data = $table->get_record(3, "jezek", "krtek");
    my $hashref = $table->get_record_as_hash(38);
    $table->set_record_hash(8, "jezek" => "jezecek",
					"krtek" => 5);
    $table->undelete_record(4);

This is a code to update field MSG in record where ID is 123.

    use XBase;
    my $table = new XBase "test.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
    for (0 .. $table->last_record) {
    	my ($deleted, $id) = $table->get_record($_, "ID")
    	die $table->errstr unless defined $deleted;
    	next if $deleted;
	$table->update_record_hash($_, "MSG" => "New message")
						if $id == 123;
    	}

Examples of using cursors:

    my $table = new XBase "names.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
    my $cursor = $table->prepare_select("ID", "NAME", "STREET");
    while (my @data = $cursor->fetch)
	{ ### do something here, like print "@data\n"; }

    my $table = new XBase "employ.dbf";
    my $cur = $table->prepare_select_with_index("empid.ndx");
    ## my $cur = $table->prepare_select_with_index(
		["empid.cdx", "ADDRES"], "id", "address");
    $cur->find_eq(1097);
    while (my $hashref = $cur->fetch_hashref
			and $hashref->{"ID"} == 1097)
	{ ### do something here with $hashref }

The second example shows that after you have done B<find_eq>, the
B<fetch>es continue untill the end of the index, so you have to check
whether you are still on records with given value. And if there is no
record with value 1097 in the indexed field, you will just get the
next record in the order.

The updating example can be rewritten to:

    use XBase;
    my $table = new XBase "test.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
    my $cursor = $table->prepare_select("ID")
    while (my ($id) = $cursor->fetch) {
	$table->update_record_hash($cursor->last_fetched,
			"MSG" => "New message") if $id == 123	
	}

=head1 DATA TYPES

The character fields are returned "as is". No charset or other
translation is done. The numbers are converted to Perl numbers. The
date fields are returned as 8 character string of the 'YYYYMMDD' form
and when inserting the date, you again have to provide it in this
form. No checking for the validity of the date is done. The datetime
field is returned in the number of seconds since 1970/1/1, possibly
with decimal part (since it allows precision up to 1/1000 s). To get
the fields, use the gmtime (or similar) Perl function.

If there is a memo field in the dbf file, the module tries to open
file with the same name but extension dbt, fpt or smt. It uses module
XBase::Memo(3) for this. It reads and writes this memo field
transparently (you do not know about it) and returns the data as
normal scalar.

=head1 INFORMATION SOURCE

This module is built using information from and article XBase File
Format Description by Erik Bachmann, URL

	http://www.clicketyclick.dk/databases/xbase/format/

Thanks a lot.

=head1 VERSION

1.00

=head1 AUTHOR

(c) 1997--2011 Jan Pazdziora.

All rights reserved. This package is free software; you can
redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

=head1 THANKS

Many people have provided information, test files, test results and
patches. This project would not be so great without them. See the
Changes file for (I hope) complete list. Thank you all!

Special thanks go to Erik Bachmann for his great page about the
file structures; to Frans van Loon, William McKee, Randy Kobes and
Dan Albertsson for longtime cooperation and many emails we've
exchanged when fixing and polishing the module's behaviour; and to
Dan Albertsson for providing support for the project.

=head1 SEE ALSO

XBase::FAQ(3); XBase::Index(3);
DBD::XBase(3) and DBI(3) for DBI interface;
dbf_dump(1); perl(1)

=cut