File: NYTProf.xs

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libdevel-nytprof-perl 4.04-1
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  • area: main
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  • size: 2,124 kB
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  • sloc: perl: 4,392; ansic: 92; makefile: 19
file content (5034 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 179,675 bytes parent folder | download
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/* vim: ts=8 sw=4 expandtab:
 * ************************************************************************
 * This file is part of the Devel::NYTProf package.
 * Copyright 2008 Adam J. Kaplan, The New York Times Company.
 * Copyright 2009-2010 Tim Bunce, Ireland.
 * Released under the same terms as Perl 5.8
 * See http://search.cpan.org/dist/Devel-NYTProf/
 *
 * Contributors:
 * Tim Bunce, http://www.tim.bunce.name and http://blog.timbunce.org
 * Nicholas Clark,
 * Adam Kaplan, akaplan at nytimes.com
 * Steve Peters, steve at fisharerojo.org
 *
 * ************************************************************************
 * $Id: NYTProf.xs 1323 2010-07-07 17:05:28Z tim.bunce@gmail.com $
 * ************************************************************************
 */
#ifndef WIN32
#define PERL_NO_GET_CONTEXT                       /* we want efficiency */
#endif

#include "EXTERN.h"
#include "perl.h"
#include "XSUB.h"

#include "FileHandle.h"
#include "NYTProf.h"

#ifndef NO_PPPORT_H
#define NEED_eval_pv
#define NEED_grok_number
#define NEED_grok_numeric_radix
#define NEED_newCONSTSUB
#define NEED_newRV_noinc
#define NEED_sv_2pv_flags
#define NEED_newSVpvn_flags
#define NEED_my_strlcat
#   include "ppport.h"
#endif

/* Until ppport.h gets this:  */
#ifndef memEQs
#  define memEQs(s1, l, s2) \
          (sizeof(s2)-1 == l && memEQ(s1, ("" s2 ""), (sizeof(s2)-1)))
#endif

#ifdef USE_HARD_ASSERT
#undef NDEBUG
#include <assert.h>
#endif

#if !defined(OutCopFILE)
#    define OutCopFILE CopFILE
#endif

#ifndef gv_fetchfile_flags  /* added in perl 5.009005 */
/* we know our uses don't contain embedded nulls, so we just need to copy to a
 * buffer so we can add a trailing null byte */
#define gv_fetchfile_flags(a,b,c)   Perl_gv_fetchfile_flags(aTHX_ a,b,c)
static GV *
Perl_gv_fetchfile_flags(pTHX_ const char *const name, const STRLEN namelen, const U32 flags) {
    char buf[2000];
    if (namelen >= sizeof(buf)-1)
        croak("panic: gv_fetchfile_flags overflow");
    memcpy(buf, name, namelen);
    buf[namelen] = '\0'; /* null-terminate */
    return gv_fetchfile(buf);
}
#endif

#ifndef OP_SETSTATE
#define OP_SETSTATE OP_NEXTSTATE
#endif
#ifndef PERLDBf_SAVESRC
#define PERLDBf_SAVESRC PERLDBf_SUBLINE
#endif
#ifndef PERLDBf_SAVESRC_NOSUBS
#define PERLDBf_SAVESRC_NOSUBS 0
#endif
#ifndef CvISXSUB
#define CvISXSUB CvXSUB
#endif

#if (PERL_VERSION < 8) || ((PERL_VERSION == 8) && (PERL_SUBVERSION < 8))
/* If we're using DB::DB() instead of opcode redirection with an old perl
 * then PL_curcop in DB() will refer to the DB() wrapper in Devel/NYTProf.pm
 * so we'd have to crawl the stack to find the right cop. However, for some
 * reason that I don't pretend to understand the following expression works:
 */
#define PL_curcop_nytprof (opt_use_db_sub ? ((cxstack + cxstack_ix)->blk_oldcop) : PL_curcop)
#else
#define PL_curcop_nytprof PL_curcop
#endif

#define OP_NAME_safe(op) ((op) ? OP_NAME(op) : "NULL")

#ifdef I_SYS_TIME
#include <sys/time.h>
#endif
#include <stdio.h>

#ifdef HAS_ZLIB
#include <zlib.h>
#define default_compression_level 6
#else
#define default_compression_level 0
#endif
#ifndef ZLIB_VERSION
#define ZLIB_VERSION "0"
#endif

#define NYTP_FILE_MAJOR_VERSION 4
#define NYTP_FILE_MINOR_VERSION 0

#define NYTP_START_NO            0
#define NYTP_START_BEGIN         1
#define NYTP_START_CHECK_unused  2  /* not used */
#define NYTP_START_INIT          3
#define NYTP_START_END           4

#define NYTP_OPTf_ADDPID         0x0001 /* append .pid to output filename */
#define NYTP_OPTf_OPTIMIZE       0x0002 /* affect $^P & 0x04 */
#define NYTP_OPTf_SAVESRC        0x0004 /* copy source code lines into profile data */

#define NYTP_FIDf_IS_PMC         0x0001 /* .pm probably really loaded as .pmc */
#define NYTP_FIDf_VIA_STMT       0x0002 /* fid first seen by stmt profiler */
#define NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB        0x0004 /* fid first seen by sub profiler */
#define NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT   0x0008 /* fid is an autosplit (see AutoLoader) */
#define NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC        0x0010 /* src is available to profiler */
#define NYTP_FIDf_SAVE_SRC       0x0020 /* src will be saved by profiler, if NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC also set */
#define NYTP_FIDf_IS_ALIAS       0x0040 /* fid is clone of the 'parent' fid it was autosplit from */
#define NYTP_FIDf_IS_FAKE        0x0080 /* eg dummy caller of a string eval that doesn't have a filename */
#define NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL        0x0100 /* is an eval */

/* indices to elements of the file info array */
#define NYTP_FIDi_FILENAME       0
#define NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FID       1
#define NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_LINE      2
#define NYTP_FIDi_FID            3
#define NYTP_FIDi_FLAGS          4
#define NYTP_FIDi_FILESIZE       5
#define NYTP_FIDi_FILEMTIME      6
#define NYTP_FIDi_PROFILE        7
#define NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FI        8
#define NYTP_FIDi_HAS_EVALS      9
#define NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED  10
#define NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_CALLED   11
#define NYTP_FIDi_elements      12   /* highest index, plus 1 */

/* indices to elements of the sub call info array */
#define NYTP_SIi_FID             0   /* fid of file sub was defined in */
#define NYTP_SIi_FIRST_LINE      1   /* line number of first line of sub */    
#define NYTP_SIi_LAST_LINE       2   /* line number of last line of sub */    
#define NYTP_SIi_CALL_COUNT      3   /* number of times sub was called */
#define NYTP_SIi_INCL_RTIME      4   /* incl real time in sub */
#define NYTP_SIi_EXCL_RTIME      5   /* excl real time in sub */
#define NYTP_SIi_SUB_NAME        6   /* sub name */
#define NYTP_SIi_PROFILE         7   /* ref to profile object */
#define NYTP_SIi_REC_DEPTH       8   /* max recursion call depth */
#define NYTP_SIi_RECI_RTIME      9   /* recursive incl real time in sub */
#define NYTP_SIi_CALLED_BY      10   /* { fid => { line => [...] } } */
#define NYTP_SIi_elements       11   /* highest index, plus 1 */

/* indices to elements of the sub call info array */
#define NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT      0   /* count of calls to sub */    
#define NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME      1    /* inclusive real time in sub */    
#define NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME      2   /* exclusive real time in sub */    
#define NYTP_SCi_spare_3         3   /* */
#define NYTP_SCi_spare_4         4   /* */
#define NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME      5   /* recursive incl real time in sub */
#define NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH       6   /* max recursion call depth */
#define NYTP_SCi_CALLING_SUB     7   /* name of calling sub */
#define NYTP_SCi_elements        8   /* highest index, plus 1 */

#define MAX_HASH_SIZE 512

static unsigned int next_fid = 1;         /* 0 is reserved */

/* we're not thread-safe (or even multiplicity safe) yet, so detect and bail */
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
static PerlInterpreter *orig_my_perl;
#endif

typedef struct hash_entry
{
    unsigned int id;
    void* next_entry;
    char* key;
    unsigned int key_len;
    unsigned int eval_fid;
    unsigned int eval_line_num;
    unsigned int file_size;
    unsigned int file_mtime;
    unsigned int fid_flags;
    char *key_abs;
    void* next_inserted;                          /* linked list in insertion order */
    /* update autosplit logic in get_file_id if fields are added or changed */
} Hash_entry;

typedef struct hash_table
{
    Hash_entry** table;
    unsigned int size;
    Hash_entry* first_inserted;
    Hash_entry* last_inserted;
} Hash_table;

static Hash_table hashtable = { NULL, MAX_HASH_SIZE, NULL, NULL };
/* END Hash table definitions */


/* defaults */
static NYTP_file out;

/* options and overrides */
static char PROF_output_file[MAXPATHLEN+1] = "nytprof.out";
static unsigned int profile_opts = NYTP_OPTf_OPTIMIZE | NYTP_OPTf_SAVESRC;
static int profile_start = NYTP_START_BEGIN;      /* when to start profiling */

struct NYTP_int_options_t {
  const char *option_name;
  int option_value;
};

/* XXX boolean options should be moved into profile_opts */
static struct NYTP_int_options_t options[] = {
#define profile_usecputime options[0].option_value
    { "usecputime", 0 },
#define profile_subs options[1].option_value
    { "subs", 1 },                                /* subroutine times */
#define profile_blocks options[2].option_value
    { "blocks", 1 },                              /* block and sub *exclusive* times */
#define profile_leave options[3].option_value
    { "leave", 1 },                               /* correct block end timing */
#define embed_fid_line options[4].option_value
    { "expand", 0 },
#define trace_level options[5].option_value
    { "trace", 0 },
#define opt_use_db_sub options[6].option_value
    { "use_db_sub", 0 },
#define compression_level options[7].option_value
    { "compress", default_compression_level },
#define profile_clock options[8].option_value
    { "clock", -1 },
#define profile_stmts options[9].option_value
    { "stmts", 1 },                              /* statement exclusive times */
#define profile_slowops options[10].option_value
    { "slowops", 2 },                            /* slow opcodes, typically system calls */
#define profile_findcaller options[11].option_value
    { "findcaller", 0 },                         /* find sub caller instead of trusting outer */
#define profile_forkdepth options[12].option_value
    { "forkdepth", -1 },                         /* how many generations of kids to profile */
#define opt_perldb options[13].option_value
    { "perldb", 0 },                             /* force certain PL_perldb value */
#define opt_nameevals options[14].option_value
    { "nameevals", 1 },                          /* change $^P 0x100 bit */
#define opt_nameanonsubs options[15].option_value
    { "nameanonsubs", 1 },                       /* change $^P 0x200 bit */
#define opt_evals options[16].option_value
    { "evals", 0 }                               /* handling of string evals - TBD XXX */
};

/* time tracking */
static struct tms start_ctime, end_ctime;

#ifdef HAS_CLOCK_GETTIME
/* http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=clock_gettime
 * http://webnews.giga.net.tw/article//mailing.freebsd.performance/710
 * http://sean.chittenden.org/news/2008/06/01/
 * Explanation of why gettimeofday() (and presumably CLOCK_REALTIME) may go backwards:
 * http://groups.google.com/group/comp.os.linux.development.apps/tree/browse_frm/thread/dc29071f2417f75f/ac44671fdb35f6db?rnum=1&_done=%2Fgroup%2Fcomp.os.linux.development.apps%2Fbrowse_frm%2Fthread%2Fdc29071f2417f75f%2Fc46264dba0863463%3Flnk%3Dst%26rnum%3D1%26#doc_776f910824bdbee8
 */
typedef struct timespec time_of_day_t;
#  define CLOCK_GETTIME(ts) clock_gettime(profile_clock, ts)
#  define CLOCKS_PER_TICK 10000000                /* 10 million - 100ns */
#  define get_time_of_day(into) CLOCK_GETTIME(&into)
#  define get_ticks_between(s, e, ticks, overflow) STMT_START { \
    overflow = 0; \
    ticks = ((e.tv_sec - s.tv_sec) * CLOCKS_PER_TICK + (e.tv_nsec / 100) - (s.tv_nsec / 100)); \
} STMT_END

#else                                             /* !HAS_CLOCK_GETTIME */

#ifdef HAS_MACH_TIME

#include <mach/mach.h>
#include <mach/mach_time.h>

mach_timebase_info_data_t  our_timebase;
typedef uint64_t time_of_day_t;

#  define CLOCKS_PER_TICK 10000000                /* 10 million - 100ns */
#  define get_time_of_day(into) into = mach_absolute_time()
#  define get_ticks_between(s, e, ticks, overflow) STMT_START { \
    overflow = 0; \
    if( our_timebase.denom == 0 ) mach_timebase_info(&our_timebase); \
    ticks = (e-s) * our_timebase.numer / our_timebase.denom / 100; \
} STMT_END

#else                                             /* !HAS_MACH_TIME */

#ifdef HAS_GETTIMEOFDAY
typedef struct timeval time_of_day_t;
#  define CLOCKS_PER_TICK 1000000                 /* 1 million */
#  define get_time_of_day(into) gettimeofday(&into, NULL)
#  define get_ticks_between(s, e, ticks, overflow) STMT_START { \
    overflow = 0; \
    ticks = ((e.tv_sec - s.tv_sec) * CLOCKS_PER_TICK + e.tv_usec - s.tv_usec); \
} STMT_END
#else
static int (*u2time)(pTHX_ UV *) = 0;
typedef UV time_of_day_t[2];
#  define CLOCKS_PER_TICK 1000000                 /* 1 million */
#  define get_time_of_day(into) (*u2time)(aTHX_ into)
#  define get_ticks_between(s, e, ticks, overflow)  STMT_START { \
    overflow = 0; \
    ticks = ((e[0] - s[0]) * CLOCKS_PER_TICK + e[1] - s[1]); \
} STMT_END
#endif
#endif
#endif

static time_of_day_t start_time;
static time_of_day_t end_time;

static unsigned int last_executed_line;
static unsigned int last_executed_fid;
static        char *last_executed_fileptr;
static unsigned int last_block_line;
static unsigned int last_sub_line;
static bool         last_sawampersand;
static unsigned int is_profiling;       /* disable_profile() & enable_profile() */
static Pid_t last_pid;
static NV cumulative_overhead_ticks = 0.0;
static NV cumulative_subr_secs = 0.0;
static UV cumulative_subr_seqn = 0;
static int main_runtime_used = 0;
static SV *DB_CHECK_cv;
static SV *DB_INIT_cv;
static SV *DB_END_cv;
static SV *DB_fin_cv;

static unsigned int ticks_per_sec = 0;            /* 0 forces error if not set */

static AV *slowop_name_cache;

/* prototypes */
static void output_header(pTHX);
static unsigned int read_int(NYTP_file ifile);
static SV *read_str(pTHX_ NYTP_file ifile, SV *sv);
static unsigned int get_file_id(pTHX_ char*, STRLEN, int created_via);
static void DB_stmt(pTHX_ COP *cop, OP *op);
static void set_option(pTHX_ const char*, const char*);
static int enable_profile(pTHX_ char *file);
static int disable_profile(pTHX);
static void finish_profile(pTHX);
static void open_output_file(pTHX_ char *);
static int reinit_if_forked(pTHX);
static int parse_DBsub_value(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *filename_len_p, UV *first_line_p, UV *last_line_p);
static void write_cached_fids(void);
static void write_src_of_files(pTHX);
static void write_sub_line_ranges(pTHX);
static void write_sub_callers(pTHX);
static AV *store_profile_line_entry(pTHX_ SV *rvav, unsigned int line_num,
                                    NV time, int count, unsigned int fid);

/* copy of original contents of PL_ppaddr */
typedef OP * (CPERLscope(*orig_ppaddr_t))(pTHX);
orig_ppaddr_t *PL_ppaddr_orig;
#define run_original_op(type) CALL_FPTR(PL_ppaddr_orig[type])(aTHX)
static OP *pp_entersub_profiler(pTHX);
static OP *pp_subcall_profiler(pTHX_ int type);
static OP *pp_leave_profiler(pTHX);
static HV *sub_callers_hv;
static HV *pkg_fids_hv;     /* currently just package names */

#define CHECK_SAWAMPERSAND(fid,line) STMT_START { \
    if (PL_sawampersand != last_sawampersand) { \
        if (trace_level >= 1) \
            logwarn("Slow regex match variable seen (first noted at %u:%u)\n", fid, line); \
        NYTP_write_sawampersand(out, fid, line); \
        last_sawampersand = PL_sawampersand; \
    } \
} STMT_END

/* macros for outputing profile data */
#ifndef HAS_GETPPID
#define getppid() 0
#endif

static FILE *logfh;

/* predeclare to set attribute */
static void logwarn(const char *pat, ...) __attribute__format__(__printf__,1,2);
static void
logwarn(const char *pat, ...)
{
    /* we avoid using any perl mechanisms here */
    va_list args;
    va_start(args, pat);
    if (!logfh)
        logfh = stderr;
    vfprintf(logfh, pat, args);
    /* Flush to ensure the log message gets pushed out to the kernel.
     * This flush will be expensive but is needed to ensure the log has recent info
     * if there's a core dump. Could add an option to disable flushing if needed.
     */
    fflush(logfh);
    va_end(args);
}


/***********************************
 * Devel::NYTProf Functions        *
 ***********************************/

static NV
gettimeofday_nv(void)
{
#ifdef HAS_GETTIMEOFDAY
    struct timeval when;
    gettimeofday(&when, (struct timezone *) 0);
    return when.tv_sec + (when.tv_usec / 1000000.0);
#else
    if (u2time) {
        UV time_of_day[2];
        (*u2time)(aTHX_ &time_of_day);
        return time_of_day[0] + (time_of_day[1] / 1000000.0);
    }
    return (NV)time();
#endif
}

/**
 * output file header
 */
static void
output_header(pTHX)
{
    /* $0 - application name */
    SV *const sv = get_sv("0",GV_ADDWARN);
    time_t basetime = PL_basetime;
    /* This comes back with a terminating \n, and we don't want that.  */
    const char *const basetime_str = ctime(&basetime);
    const STRLEN basetime_str_len = strlen(basetime_str);
    const char version[] = STRINGIFY(PERL_REVISION) "."
        STRINGIFY(PERL_VERSION) "." STRINGIFY(PERL_SUBVERSION);
    STRLEN len;
    const char *argv0 = SvPV(sv, len);

    assert(out != NULL);
    /* File header with "magic" string, with file major and minor version */
    NYTP_write_header(out, NYTP_FILE_MAJOR_VERSION, NYTP_FILE_MINOR_VERSION);
    /* Human readable comments and attributes follow
     * comments start with '#', end with '\n', and are discarded
     * attributes start with ':', a word, '=', then the value, then '\n'
     */
    NYTP_write_comment(out, "Perl profile database. Generated by Devel::NYTProf on %.*s",
                       (int)basetime_str_len - 1, basetime_str);

    /* XXX add options, $0, etc, but beware of embedded newlines */
    /* XXX would be good to adopt a proper charset & escaping for these */
    /* $^T */
    NYTP_write_attribute_unsigned(out, STR_WITH_LEN("basetime"), (unsigned long)PL_basetime);
    NYTP_write_attribute_string(out, STR_WITH_LEN("xs_version"), STR_WITH_LEN(XS_VERSION));
    NYTP_write_attribute_string(out, STR_WITH_LEN("perl_version"), version, sizeof(version) - 1);
    NYTP_write_attribute_signed(out, STR_WITH_LEN("clock_id"), profile_clock);
    NYTP_write_attribute_unsigned(out, STR_WITH_LEN("ticks_per_sec"), ticks_per_sec);
    NYTP_write_attribute_unsigned(out, STR_WITH_LEN("nv_size"), sizeof(NV));
    NYTP_write_attribute_unsigned(out, STR_WITH_LEN("PL_perldb"), PL_perldb);
    NYTP_write_attribute_string(out, STR_WITH_LEN("application"), argv0, len);

#ifdef HAS_ZLIB
    if (compression_level) {
        NYTP_start_deflate_write_tag_comment(out, compression_level);
    }
#endif

    NYTP_write_process_start(out, getpid(), getppid(), gettimeofday_nv());

    write_cached_fids();                          /* empty initially, non-empty after fork */

    NYTP_flush(out);
}

static SV *
read_str(pTHX_ NYTP_file ifile, SV *sv) {
    STRLEN len;
    char *buf;
    unsigned char tag;

    NYTP_read(ifile, &tag, sizeof(tag), "string prefix");

    if (NYTP_TAG_STRING != tag && NYTP_TAG_STRING_UTF8 != tag)
        croak("File format error at offset %ld%s, expected string tag but found %d ('%c')",
              NYTP_tell(ifile)-1, NYTP_type_of_offset(ifile), tag, tag);

    len = read_int(ifile);
    if (sv) {
        SvGROW(sv, len+1);  /* forces SVt_PV */
    }
    else {
        sv = newSV(len+1); /* +1 to force SVt_PV even for 0 length string */
    }
    SvPOK_on(sv);

    buf = SvPV_nolen(sv);
    NYTP_read(ifile, buf, len, "string");
    SvCUR_set(sv, len);
    *SvEND(sv) = '\0';

    if (NYTP_TAG_STRING_UTF8 == tag)
        SvUTF8_on(sv);

    if (trace_level >= 19) {
        STRLEN len2 = len;
        char *newline = "";
        if (buf[len2-1] == '\n') {
            --len2;
            newline = "\\n";
        }
        logwarn("  read string '%.*s%s'%s\n", (int)len2, SvPV_nolen(sv),
            newline, (SvUTF8(sv)) ? " (utf8)" : "");
    }

    return sv;
}


/**
 * An implementation of the djb2 hash function by Dan Bernstein.
 */
static unsigned long
hash (char* _str, unsigned int len)
{
    char* str = _str;
    unsigned long hash = 5381;

    while (len--) {
        /* hash * 33 + c */
        hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + *str++;
    }
    return hash;
}

/**
 * Returns a pointer to the ')' after the digits in the (?:re_)?eval prefix.
 * As the prefix length is known, this gives the length of the digits.
 */
static const char *
eval_prefix(const char *filename, const char *prefix, STRLEN prefix_len) {
    if (memEQ(filename, prefix, prefix_len)
        && isdigit(filename[prefix_len])) {
        const char *s = filename + prefix_len + 1;

        while (isdigit(*s))
            ++s;
        if (s[0] == ')')
            return s;
    }
    return NULL;
}

/**
 * Return true if filename looks like an eval
 */
static int
filename_is_eval(const char *filename, STRLEN filename_len)
{
    if (filename_len < 6)
        return 0;
    /* typically "(eval N)[...]" sometimes just "(eval N)" */
    if (filename[filename_len - 1] != ']' && filename[filename_len - 1] != ')')
        return 0;
    if (eval_prefix(filename, "(eval ", 6))
        return 1;
    if (eval_prefix(filename, "(re_eval ", 9))
        return 1;
    return 0;
}


/**
 * Fetch/Store on hash table.  entry must always be defined.
 * hash_op will find hash_entry in the hash table.
 * hash_entry not in table, insert is false: returns NULL
 * hash_entry not in table, insert is true: inserts hash_entry and returns hash_entry
 * hash_entry in table, insert IGNORED: returns pointer to the actual hash entry
 */
static char
hash_op (Hash_entry entry, Hash_entry** retval, bool insert)
{
    unsigned long h = hash(entry.key, entry.key_len) % hashtable.size;

    Hash_entry* found = hashtable.table[h];
    while(NULL != found) {

        if (found->key_len == entry.key_len
        && memEQ(found->key, entry.key, entry.key_len)
        ) {
            *retval = found;
            return 0;
        }

        if (NULL == (Hash_entry*)found->next_entry) {
            if (insert) {

                Hash_entry* e;
                Newz(0, e, 1, Hash_entry);
                e->id = next_fid++;
                e->next_entry = NULL;
                e->key_len = entry.key_len;
                e->key = (char*)safemalloc(sizeof(char) * e->key_len + 1);
                e->key[e->key_len] = '\0';
                memcpy(e->key, entry.key, e->key_len);
                found->next_entry = e;
                *retval = (Hash_entry*)found->next_entry;
                if (hashtable.last_inserted)
                    hashtable.last_inserted->next_inserted = e;
                hashtable.last_inserted = e;
                return 1;
            }
            else {
                *retval = NULL;
                return -1;
            }
        }
        found = (Hash_entry*)found->next_entry;
    }

    if (insert) {
        Hash_entry* e;
        Newz(0, e, 1, Hash_entry);
        e->id = next_fid++;
        e->next_entry = NULL;
        e->key_len = entry.key_len;
        e->key = (char*)safemalloc(sizeof(char) * e->key_len + 1);
        e->key[e->key_len] = '\0';
        memcpy(e->key, entry.key, e->key_len);

        *retval =   hashtable.table[h] = e;

        if (!hashtable.first_inserted)
            hashtable.first_inserted = e;
        if (hashtable.last_inserted)
            hashtable.last_inserted->next_inserted = e;
        hashtable.last_inserted = e;

        return 1;
    }

    *retval = NULL;
    return -1;
}


static void
emit_fid (Hash_entry *fid_info)
{
    char  *file_name     = fid_info->key;
    STRLEN file_name_len = fid_info->key_len;
    if (fid_info->key_abs) {
        file_name = fid_info->key_abs;
        file_name_len = strlen(file_name);
    }

#ifdef WIN32
    /* Make sure we only use forward slashes in filenames */
    if (memchr(file_name, '\\', file_name_len)) {
        STRLEN i;
        char *file_name_copy = (char*)safemalloc(file_name_len);
        for (i=0; i<file_name_len; ++i) {
            char ch = file_name[i];
            file_name_copy[i] = ch == '\\' ? '/' : ch;
        }
        NYTP_write_new_fid(out, fid_info->id, fid_info->eval_fid,
                           fid_info->eval_line_num, fid_info->fid_flags,
                           fid_info->file_size, fid_info->file_mtime,
                           file_name_copy, (I32)file_name_len);
        Safefree(file_name_copy);
        return;
    }
#endif

    NYTP_write_new_fid(out, fid_info->id, fid_info->eval_fid,
                       fid_info->eval_line_num, fid_info->fid_flags,
                       fid_info->file_size, fid_info->file_mtime,
                       file_name, (I32)file_name_len);
}


/* return true if file is a .pm that was actually loaded as a .pmc */
static int
fid_is_pmc(pTHX_ Hash_entry *fid_info)
{
    int is_pmc = 0;
    char  *file_name     = fid_info->key;
    STRLEN len = fid_info->key_len;
    if (fid_info->key_abs) {
        file_name = fid_info->key_abs;
        len = strlen(file_name);
    }

    if (len > 3 && memEQs(file_name + len - 3, 3, ".pm")) {
        /* ends in .pm, ok, does a newer .pmc exist? */
        /* based on doopen_pm() in perl's pp_ctl.c */
        SV *const pmcsv = newSV(len + 2);
        char *const pmc = SvPVX(pmcsv);
        Stat_t pmstat;
        Stat_t pmcstat;

        memcpy(pmc, file_name, len);
        pmc[len] = 'c';
        pmc[len + 1] = '\0';

        if (PerlLIO_lstat(pmc, &pmcstat) == 0) {
            /* .pmc exists, is it newer than the .pm (if that exists) */

            /* Keys in the fid_info are explicitly written with a terminating
               '\0', so it is safe to pass file_name to a system call.  */
            if (PerlLIO_lstat(file_name, &pmstat) < 0 ||
            pmstat.st_mtime < pmcstat.st_mtime) {
                is_pmc = 1; /* hey, maybe it's Larry working on the perl6 comiler */
            }
        }
        SvREFCNT_dec(pmcsv);
    }

    return is_pmc;
}


static char *
fmt_fid_flags(pTHX_ int fid_flags, char *buf, Size_t len) {
    *buf = '\0';
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL)      my_strlcat(buf, "eval,",      len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_FAKE)      my_strlcat(buf, "fake,",      len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT) my_strlcat(buf, "autosplit,", len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_ALIAS)     my_strlcat(buf, "alias,",     len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_PMC)       my_strlcat(buf, "pmc,",       len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_VIA_STMT)     my_strlcat(buf, "viastmt,",   len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB)      my_strlcat(buf, "viasub,",    len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC)      my_strlcat(buf, "hassrc,",    len);
    if (fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_SAVE_SRC)     my_strlcat(buf, "savesrc,",   len);
    if (*buf) /* trim trailing comma */
        buf[ my_strlcat(buf,"",len)-1 ] = '\0';
    return buf;
}


static void
write_cached_fids()
{
    Hash_entry *e = hashtable.first_inserted;
    while (e) {
        if ( !(e->fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_ALIAS) )
            emit_fid(e);
        e = (Hash_entry *)e->next_inserted;
    }
}


static Hash_entry *
find_autosplit_parent(pTHX_ char* file_name)
{
    /* extract basename from file_name, then search for most recent entry
     * in hashtable that has the same basename
     */
    Hash_entry *e = hashtable.first_inserted;
    Hash_entry *match = NULL;
    const char *sep = "/";
    char *base_end   = strstr(file_name, " (autosplit");
    char *base_start = rninstr(file_name, base_end, sep, sep+1);
    STRLEN base_len;
    base_start = (base_start) ? base_start+1 : file_name;
    base_len = base_end - base_start;

    if (trace_level >= 3)
        logwarn("find_autosplit_parent of '%.*s' (%s)\n",
            (int)base_len, base_start, file_name);

    for ( ; e; e = (Hash_entry *)e->next_inserted) {
        char *e_name;

        if (e->fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT)
            continue;
        if (trace_level >= 4)
            logwarn("find_autosplit_parent: checking '%.*s'\n", e->key_len, e->key);

        /* skip if key is too small to match */
        if (e->key_len < base_len)
            continue;
        /* skip if the last base_len bytes don't match the base name */
        e_name = e->key + e->key_len - base_len;
        if (memcmp(e_name, base_start, base_len) != 0)
            continue;
        /* skip if the char before the matched key isn't a separator */
        if (e->key_len > base_len && *(e_name-1) != *sep)
            continue;

        if (trace_level >= 3)
            logwarn("matched autosplit '%.*s' to parent fid %d '%.*s' (%c|%c)\n",
                (int)base_len, base_start, e->id, e->key_len, e->key, *(e_name-1),*sep);
        match = e;
        /* keep looking, so we'll return the most recently profiled match */
    }

    return match;
}


static Hash_entry *
lookup_file_entry(pTHX_ char* file_name, STRLEN file_name_len) {
    Hash_entry entry, *found;

    entry.key = file_name;
    entry.key_len = (unsigned int)file_name_len;
    if (hash_op(entry, &found, 0) == 0)
        return found;

    return NULL;
}


/**
 * Return a unique persistent id number for a file.
 * If file name has not been seen before
 * then, if created_via is false it returns 0 otherwise it
 * assigns a new id and outputs the file and id to the stream.
 * If the file name is a synthetic name for an eval then
 * get_file_id recurses to process the 'embedded' file name first.
 * The created_via flag bit is stored in the fid info
 * (currently only used as a diagnostic tool)
 */
static unsigned int
get_file_id(pTHX_ char* file_name, STRLEN file_name_len, int created_via)
{

    Hash_entry entry, *found, *parent_entry;
    AV *src_av = Nullav;

    if (0) memset(&entry, 0, sizeof(entry)); /* handy if debugging */
    entry.key = file_name;
    entry.key_len = (unsigned int)file_name_len;

    if (1 != hash_op(entry, &found, (bool)(created_via ? 1 : 0))) {
        /* found existing entry or else didn't but didn't create new one either */
        if (trace_level >= 7) {
            if (found)
                 logwarn("fid %d: %.*s\n",  found->id, found->key_len, found->key);
            else logwarn("fid -: %.*s not profiled\n",  entry.key_len,  entry.key);
        }
        return (found) ? found->id : 0;
    }
    /* inserted new entry */

    /* if this is a synthetic filename for a string eval
     * ie "(eval 42)[/some/filename.pl:line]"
     * then ensure we've already generated a fid for the underlying
     * filename, and associate that fid with this eval fid
     */
    if ('(' == file_name[0]) {                      /* first char is '(' */
        if (']' == file_name[file_name_len-1]) {    /* last char is ']' */
            char *start = strchr(file_name, '[');
            const char *colon = ":";
            /* can't use strchr here (not nul terminated) so use rninstr */
            char *end = rninstr(file_name, file_name+file_name_len-1, colon, colon+1);

            if (!start || !end || start > end) {    /* should never happen */
                logwarn("NYTProf unsupported filename syntax '%s'\n", file_name);
                return 0;
            }
            ++start;                                /* move past [ */
            /* recurse */
            found->eval_fid = get_file_id(aTHX_ start, end - start,
                NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL | created_via);
            found->eval_line_num = atoi(end+1);
        }
        else if (filename_is_eval(file_name, file_name_len)) {
            /* strange eval that doesn't have a filename associated */
            /* seen in mod_perl, possibly from eval_sv(sv) api call */
            /* also when nameevals=0 option is in effect */
            char eval_file[] = "/unknown-eval-invoker";
            found->eval_fid = get_file_id(aTHX_ eval_file, sizeof(eval_file) - 1,
                NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL | NYTP_FIDf_IS_FAKE | created_via
            );
            found->eval_line_num = 1;
        }
    }

    /* is the file is an autosplit, e.g., has a file_name like
     * "../../lib/POSIX.pm (autosplit into ../../lib/auto/POSIX/errno.al)"
     */
    if ( ')' == file_name[file_name_len-1] && strstr(file_name, " (autosplit ")) {
        found->fid_flags |= NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT;
    }

    /* if the file is an autosplit
     * then we want it to have the same fid as the file it was split from.
     * Thankfully that file will almost certainly be in the fid hash,
     * so we can find it and copy the details.
     * We do this after the string eval check above in the (untested) hope
     * that string evals inside autoloaded subs get treated properly! XXX
     */
    if (found->fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT
        && (parent_entry = find_autosplit_parent(aTHX_ file_name))
    ) {
        /* copy some details from parent_entry to found */
        found->id            = parent_entry->id;
        found->eval_fid      = parent_entry->eval_fid;
        found->eval_line_num = parent_entry->eval_line_num;
        found->file_size     = parent_entry->file_size;
        found->file_mtime    = parent_entry->file_mtime;
        found->fid_flags     = parent_entry->fid_flags;
        /* prevent write_cached_fids() from writing this fid */
        found->fid_flags |= NYTP_FIDf_IS_ALIAS;
        /* avoid a gap in the fid sequence */
        --next_fid;
        /* write a log message if tracing */
        if (trace_level >= 2)
            logwarn("Use fid %2u (after %2u:%-4u) %x e%u:%u %.*s %s\n",
                found->id, last_executed_fid, last_executed_line,
                found->fid_flags, found->eval_fid, found->eval_line_num,
                found->key_len, found->key, (found->key_abs) ? found->key_abs : "");
        /* bail out without calling emit_fid() */
        return found->id;
    }

    /* determine absolute path if file_name is relative */
    found->key_abs = NULL;
    if (!found->eval_fid &&
        !(file_name[0] == '-'
         && (file_name_len==1
             || (file_name[1] == 'e' && file_name_len==2))) &&
#ifdef WIN32
        /* XXX should we check for UNC names too? */
        (file_name_len < 3 || !isALPHA(file_name[0]) || file_name[1] != ':' ||
            (file_name[2] != '/' && file_name[2] != '\\'))
#else
        *file_name != '/'
#endif
        )
    {
        char file_name_abs[MAXPATHLEN * 2];
        /* Note that the current directory may have changed
            * between loading the file and profiling it.
            * We don't use realpath() or similar here because we want to
            * keep the view of symlinks etc. as the program saw them.
            */
        if (!getcwd(file_name_abs, sizeof(file_name_abs))) {
            /* eg permission */
            logwarn("getcwd: %s\n", strerror(errno));
        }
        else {
#ifdef WIN32
            char *p = file_name_abs;
            while (*p) {
                if ('\\' == *p)
                    *p = '/';
                ++p;
            }
            if (p[-1] != '/')
#else
            if (strNE(file_name_abs, "/"))
#endif
            {
                if (strnEQ(file_name, "./", 2)) {
                    ++file_name;
                } else {
#ifndef VMS
                    strcat(file_name_abs, "/");
#endif
                }
            }
            strncat(file_name_abs, file_name, file_name_len);
            found->key_abs = strdup(file_name_abs);
        }
    }

    if (fid_is_pmc(aTHX_ found))
        found->fid_flags |= NYTP_FIDf_IS_PMC;
    found->fid_flags |= created_via; /* NYTP_FIDf_VIA_STMT or NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB */

    /* is source code available? */
    /* source only available if PERLDB_LINE or PERLDB_SAVESRC is true */
    /* which we set if savesrc option is enabled */
    if ( (src_av = GvAV(gv_fetchfile_flags(found->key, found->key_len, 0))) )
        if (av_len(src_av) > -1)
            found->fid_flags |= NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC;

    /* flag "perl -e '...'" and "perl -" as string evals */
    if (found->key[0] == '-' && (found->key_len == 1 ||
                                (found->key[1] == 'e' && found->key_len == 2)))
        found->fid_flags |= NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL;

    /* if it's a string eval or a synthetic filename from CODE ref in @INC,
     * then we'd like to save the src (NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC) if it's available
     */
    if (found->eval_fid
    || (found->fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL)
    || (profile_opts & NYTP_OPTf_SAVESRC)
    || (found->key_len > 10 && found->key[9] == 'x' && strnEQ(found->key, "/loader/0x", 10))
    ) {
        found->fid_flags |= NYTP_FIDf_SAVE_SRC;
    }

    emit_fid(found);

    if (trace_level >= 2) {
        char buf[80];
        /* including last_executed_fid can be handy for tracking down how
            * a file got loaded */
        logwarn("New fid %2u (after %2u:%-4u) 0x%02x e%u:%u %.*s %s %s\n",
            found->id, last_executed_fid, last_executed_line,
            found->fid_flags, found->eval_fid, found->eval_line_num,
            found->key_len, found->key, (found->key_abs) ? found->key_abs : "",
            fmt_fid_flags(aTHX_ found->fid_flags, buf, sizeof(buf))
        );
    }

    return found->id;
}

static UV
uv_from_av(pTHX_ AV *av, int idx, UV default_uv)
{
    SV **svp = av_fetch(av, idx, 0);
    UV uv = (!svp || !SvOK(*svp)) ? default_uv : SvUV(*svp);
    return uv;
}

static NV
nv_from_av(pTHX_ AV *av, int idx, NV default_nv)
{
    SV **svp = av_fetch(av, idx, 0);
    NV nv = (!svp || !SvOK(*svp)) ? default_nv : SvNV(*svp);
    return nv;
}


static const char *
cx_block_type(PERL_CONTEXT *cx) {
    static char buf[20];
    switch (CxTYPE(cx)) {
    case CXt_NULL:              return "CXt_NULL";
    case CXt_SUB:               return "CXt_SUB";
    case CXt_FORMAT:            return "CXt_FORMAT";
    case CXt_EVAL:              return "CXt_EVAL";
    case CXt_SUBST:             return "CXt_SUBST";
#ifdef CXt_WHEN
    case CXt_WHEN:              return "CXt_WHEN";
#endif
    case CXt_BLOCK:             return "CXt_BLOCK";
#ifdef CXt_GIVEN
    case CXt_GIVEN:             return "CXt_GIVEN";
#endif
#ifdef CXt_LOOP
    case CXt_LOOP:              return "CXt_LOOP";
#endif
#ifdef CXt_LOOP_FOR
    case CXt_LOOP_FOR:          return "CXt_LOOP_FOR";
#endif
#ifdef CXt_LOOP_PLAIN
    case CXt_LOOP_PLAIN:        return "CXt_LOOP_PLAIN";
#endif
#ifdef CXt_LOOP_LAZYSV
    case CXt_LOOP_LAZYSV:       return "CXt_LOOP_LAZYSV";
#endif
#ifdef CXt_LOOP_LAZYIV
    case CXt_LOOP_LAZYIV:       return "CXt_LOOP_LAZYIV";
#endif
    }
    /* short-lived and not thread safe but we only use this for tracing
     * and it should never be reached anyway
     */
    sprintf(buf, "CXt_%ld", (long)CxTYPE(cx));
    return buf;
}


/* based on S_dopoptosub_at() from perl pp_ctl.c */
static int
dopopcx_at(pTHX_ PERL_CONTEXT *cxstk, I32 startingblock, UV cx_type_mask)
{
    I32 i;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    for (i = startingblock; i >= 0; i--) {
        UV type_bit;
        cx = &cxstk[i];
        type_bit = 1 << CxTYPE(cx);
        if (type_bit & cx_type_mask)
            return i;
    }
    return i;                                     /* == -1 */
}


static COP *
start_cop_of_context(pTHX_ PERL_CONTEXT *cx)
{
    OP *start_op, *o;
    int type;
    int trace = 6;

    switch (CxTYPE(cx)) {
        case CXt_EVAL:
            start_op = (OP*)cx->blk_oldcop;
            break;
        case CXt_FORMAT:
            start_op = CvSTART(cx->blk_sub.cv);
            break;
        case CXt_SUB:
            start_op = CvSTART(cx->blk_sub.cv);
            break;
#ifdef CXt_LOOP
        case CXt_LOOP:
#  if (PERL_VERSION < 10) || (PERL_VERSION == 9 && !defined(CX_LOOP_NEXTOP_GET))
            start_op = cx->blk_loop.redo_op;
#  else
            start_op = cx->blk_loop.my_op->op_redoop;
#  endif
            break;
#else
#  if defined (CXt_LOOP_PLAIN) && defined (CXt_LOOP_FOR) && defined(CXt_LOOP_LAZYIV) && defined (CXt_LOOP_LAZYSV)
            /* This is Perl 5.11.0 or later */
        case CXt_LOOP_LAZYIV:
        case CXt_LOOP_LAZYSV:
        case CXt_LOOP_PLAIN:
        case CXt_LOOP_FOR:
            start_op = cx->blk_loop.my_op->op_redoop;
            break;
#  else
#    warning "The perl you are using is missing some essential defines.  Your results may not be accurate."
#  endif
#endif
        case CXt_BLOCK:
            /* this will be NULL for the top-level 'main' block */
            start_op = (OP*)cx->blk_oldcop;
            break;
        case CXt_SUBST:                           /* FALLTHRU */
        case CXt_NULL:                            /* FALLTHRU */
        default:
            start_op = NULL;
            break;
    }
    if (!start_op) {
        if (trace_level >= trace)
            logwarn("\tstart_cop_of_context: can't find start of %s\n",
                cx_block_type(cx));
        return NULL;
    }
    /* find next cop from OP */
    o = start_op;
    while ( o && (type = (o->op_type) ? o->op_type : (int)o->op_targ) ) {
        if (type == OP_NEXTSTATE || type == OP_SETSTATE || type == OP_DBSTATE) {
            if (trace_level >= trace)
                logwarn("\tstart_cop_of_context %s is %s line %d of %s\n",
                    cx_block_type(cx), OP_NAME(o), (int)CopLINE((COP*)o),
                    OutCopFILE((COP*)o));
            return (COP*)o;
        }
        if (trace_level >= trace)
            logwarn("\tstart_cop_of_context %s op '%s' isn't a cop, giving up\n",
                cx_block_type(cx), OP_NAME(o));
        return NULL;
#if 0   /* old code that never worked very well anyway */
        if (CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_LOOP) /* e.g. "eval $_ for @ary" */
            return NULL;
        /* should never get here but we do */
        if (trace_level >= trace) {
            logwarn("\tstart_cop_of_context %s op '%s' isn't a cop\n",
                cx_block_type(cx), OP_NAME(o));
            if (trace_level >  trace)
                do_op_dump(1, PerlIO_stderr(), o);
        }
        o = o->op_next;
#endif
    }
    if (trace_level >= 3) {
        logwarn("\tstart_cop_of_context: can't find next cop for %s line %ld\n",
            cx_block_type(cx), (long)CopLINE(PL_curcop_nytprof));
        do_op_dump(1, PerlIO_stderr(), start_op);
    }
    return NULL;
}


/* Walk up the context stack calling callback
 * return first context that callback returns true for
 * else return null.
 * UV cx_type_mask is a bit flag that specifies what kinds of contexts the
 * callback should be called for: (cx_type_mask & (1 << CxTYPE(cx)))
 * Use ~0 to stop at all contexts.
 * The callback is called with the context pointer and a pointer to
 * a copy of the UV cx_type_mask argument (so it can change it on the fly).
 */
static PERL_CONTEXT *
visit_contexts(pTHX_ UV cx_type_mask, int (*callback)(pTHX_ PERL_CONTEXT *cx,
UV *cx_type_mask_ptr))
{
    /* modelled on pp_caller() in pp_ctl.c */
    register I32 cxix = cxstack_ix;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx = NULL;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *ccstack = cxstack;
    PERL_SI *top_si = PL_curstackinfo;

    if (trace_level >= 6)
        logwarn("visit_contexts: \n");

    while (1) {
        /* we may be in a higher stacklevel, so dig down deeper */
        /* XXX so we'll miss code in sort blocks and signals?   */
        /* callback should perhaps be moved to dopopcx_at */
        while (cxix < 0 && top_si->si_type != PERLSI_MAIN) {
            if (trace_level >= 6)
                logwarn("Not on main stack (type %d); digging top_si %p->%p, ccstack %p->%p\n",
                    (int)top_si->si_type, (void*)top_si, (void*)top_si->si_prev,
                    (void*)ccstack, (void*)top_si->si_cxstack);
            top_si  = top_si->si_prev;
            ccstack = top_si->si_cxstack;
            cxix = dopopcx_at(aTHX_ ccstack, top_si->si_cxix, cx_type_mask);
        }
        if (cxix < 0 || (cxix == 0 && !top_si->si_prev)) {
            /* cxix==0 && !top_si->si_prev => top-level BLOCK */
            if (trace_level >= 5)
                logwarn("visit_contexts: reached top of context stack\n");
            return NULL;
        }
        cx = &ccstack[cxix];
        if (trace_level >= 5)
            logwarn("visit_context: %s cxix %d (si_prev %p)\n",
                cx_block_type(cx), (int)cxix, (void*)top_si->si_prev);
        if (callback(aTHX_ cx, &cx_type_mask))
            return cx;
        /* no joy, look further */
        cxix = dopopcx_at(aTHX_ ccstack, cxix - 1, cx_type_mask);
    }
    return NULL;                                  /* not reached */
}


static int
_cop_in_same_file(COP *a, COP *b)
{
    int same = 0;
    char *a_file = OutCopFILE(a);
    char *b_file = OutCopFILE(b);
    if (a_file == b_file)
        same = 1;
    else
        /* fallback to strEQ, surprisingly common (check why) XXX expensive */
    if (strEQ(a_file, b_file))
        same = 1;
    return same;
}


static int
_check_context(pTHX_ PERL_CONTEXT *cx, UV *cx_type_mask_ptr)
{
    COP *near_cop;
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(cx_type_mask_ptr);

    if (CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_SUB) {
        if (PL_debstash && CvSTASH(cx->blk_sub.cv) == PL_debstash)
            return 0;                             /* skip subs in DB package */

        near_cop = start_cop_of_context(aTHX_ cx);

        /* only use the cop if it's in the same file */
        if (_cop_in_same_file(near_cop, PL_curcop_nytprof)) {
            last_sub_line = CopLINE(near_cop);
            /* treat sub as a block if we've not found a block yet */
            if (!last_block_line)
                last_block_line = last_sub_line;
        }

        if (trace_level >= 8) {
            GV *sv = CvGV(cx->blk_sub.cv);
            logwarn("\tat %d: block %d sub %d for %s %s\n",
                last_executed_line, last_block_line, last_sub_line,
                cx_block_type(cx), (sv) ? GvNAME(sv) : "");
            if (trace_level >= 99)
                sv_dump((SV*)cx->blk_sub.cv);
        }

        return 1;                                 /* stop looking */
    }

    /* NULL, EVAL, LOOP, SUBST, BLOCK context */
    if (trace_level >= 6)
        logwarn("\t%s\n", cx_block_type(cx));

    /* if we've got a block line, skip this context and keep looking for a sub */
    if (last_block_line)
        return 0;

    /* if we can't get a line number for this context, skip it */
    if ((near_cop = start_cop_of_context(aTHX_ cx)) == NULL)
        return 0;

    /* if this context is in a different file... */
    if (!_cop_in_same_file(near_cop, PL_curcop_nytprof)) {
        /* if we started in a string eval ... */
        if ('(' == *OutCopFILE(PL_curcop_nytprof)) {
            /* give up XXX could do better here */
            last_block_line = last_sub_line = last_executed_line;
            return 1;
        }
        /* shouldn't happen! */
        if (trace_level >= 5)
            logwarn("at %d: %s in different file (%s, %s)\n",
                last_executed_line, cx_block_type(cx),
                OutCopFILE(near_cop), OutCopFILE(PL_curcop_nytprof));
        return 1;                                 /* stop looking */
    }

    last_block_line = CopLINE(near_cop);
    if (trace_level >= 5)
        logwarn("\tat %d: block %d for %s\n",
            last_executed_line, last_block_line, cx_block_type(cx));
    return 0;
}


/* copied from perl's S_closest_cop in util.c as used by warn(...) */

static const COP*
closest_cop(pTHX_ const COP *cop, const OP *o)
{
    dVAR;
    /* Look for PL_op starting from o.  cop is the last COP we've seen. */
    if (!o || o == PL_op)
        return cop;
    if (o->op_flags & OPf_KIDS) {
        const OP *kid;
        for (kid = cUNOPo->op_first; kid; kid = kid->op_sibling) {
            const COP *new_cop;
            /* If the OP_NEXTSTATE has been optimised away we can still use it
             * the get the file and line number. */
            if (kid->op_type == OP_NULL && kid->op_targ == OP_NEXTSTATE)
                cop = (const COP *)kid;
            /* Keep searching, and return when we've found something. */
            new_cop = closest_cop(aTHX_ cop, kid);
            if (new_cop)
                return new_cop;
        }
    }
    /* Nothing found. */
    return NULL;
}


/**
 * Main statement profiling function. Called before each breakable statement.
 */
static void
DB_stmt(pTHX_ COP *cop, OP *op)
{
    int saved_errno;
    char *file;
    long elapsed, overflow;

    if (!is_profiling || !profile_stmts)
        return;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    if (orig_my_perl && my_perl != orig_my_perl)
        return;
#endif

    saved_errno = errno;

    if (profile_usecputime) {
        times(&end_ctime);
        overflow = 0;                             /* XXX */
        elapsed = end_ctime.tms_utime - start_ctime.tms_utime
                + end_ctime.tms_stime - start_ctime.tms_stime;
    }
    else {
        get_time_of_day(end_time);
        get_ticks_between(start_time, end_time, elapsed, overflow);
    }
    if (overflow)                                 /* XXX later output overflow to file */
        logwarn("profile time overflow of %ld seconds discarded!\n", overflow);

    reinit_if_forked(aTHX);

    CHECK_SAWAMPERSAND(last_executed_fid, last_executed_line);

    if (last_executed_fid) {
        if (profile_blocks)
            NYTP_write_time_block(out, elapsed, last_executed_fid,
                                  last_executed_line, last_block_line,
                                  last_sub_line);
        else 
            NYTP_write_time_line(out, elapsed, last_executed_fid,
                                 last_executed_line);

        if (trace_level >= 5)
            logwarn("\t@%d:%-4d %2ld ticks (%u, %u)\n",
                last_executed_fid, last_executed_line,
                elapsed, last_block_line, last_sub_line);
    }

    if (!cop)
        cop = PL_curcop_nytprof;
    if ( (last_executed_line = CopLINE(cop)) == 0 ) {
        /* Might be a cop that has been optimised away.  We can try to find such a
         * cop by searching through the optree starting from the sibling of PL_curcop.
         * See Perl_vmess in perl's util.c for how warn("...") finds the line number.
         */
        cop = (COP*)closest_cop(aTHX_ cop, cop->op_sibling);
        if (!cop)
            cop = PL_curcop_nytprof;
        last_executed_line = CopLINE(cop);
        if (!last_executed_line) {
            /* perl options, like -n, -p, -Mfoo etc can cause this because perl effectively
             * treats those as 'line 0', so we try not to warn in those cases.
             */
            char *pkg_name = CopSTASHPV(cop);
            int is_preamble = (PL_scopestack_ix <= 7 && strEQ(pkg_name,"main"));

            /* op is null when called via finish_profile called by END */
            if (!is_preamble && op) {
                /* warn() can't either, in the cases I've encountered */
                logwarn("Unable to determine line number in %s (ssix%d)\n",
                    OutCopFILE(cop), (int)PL_scopestack_ix);
                if (trace_level > 5)
                    do_op_dump(1, PerlIO_stderr(), (OP*)cop);
            }
            last_executed_line = 1;               /* don't want zero line numbers in data */
        }
    }

    file = OutCopFILE(cop);
    if (!last_executed_fid) {                     /* first time */
        if (trace_level >= 1) {
            logwarn("~ first statement profiled at line %d of %s, pid %ld\n",
                (int)CopLINE(cop), OutCopFILE(cop), (long)getpid());
        }
    }
    if (file != last_executed_fileptr) { /* cache (hit ratio ~50% e.g. for perlcritic) */
        last_executed_fileptr = file;
        last_executed_fid = get_file_id(aTHX_ file, strlen(file), NYTP_FIDf_VIA_STMT);
    }

    if (trace_level >= 7)
        logwarn("     @%d:%-4d %s\n", last_executed_fid, last_executed_line,
            (profile_blocks) ? "looking for block and sub lines" : "");

    if (profile_blocks) {
        last_block_line = 0;
        last_sub_line   = 0;
        if (op) {
            visit_contexts(aTHX_ ~0, &_check_context);
        }
        /* if we didn't find block or sub scopes then use current line */
        if (!last_block_line) last_block_line = last_executed_line;
        if (!last_sub_line)   last_sub_line   = last_executed_line;
    }

    if (profile_usecputime) {
        times(&start_ctime);
        /* insufficient accuracy for cumulative_overhead_ticks */
    }
    else {
        get_time_of_day(start_time);

        /* measure time we've spent measuring so we can discount it */
        get_ticks_between(end_time, start_time, elapsed, overflow);
        cumulative_overhead_ticks += elapsed;
    }

    SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);
    return;
}


static void
DB_leave(pTHX_ OP *op)
{
    int saved_errno = errno;
    unsigned int prev_last_executed_fid  = last_executed_fid;
    unsigned int prev_last_executed_line = last_executed_line;

    /* Called _after_ ops that indicate we've completed a statement
     * and are returning into the middle of some outer statement.
     * Used to ensure that time between now and the _next_ statement
     * being entered, is allocated to the outer statement we've
     * returned into and not the previous statement.
     * PL_curcop has already been updated.
     */

    if (!is_profiling || !out || !profile_stmts)
        return;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    if (orig_my_perl && my_perl != orig_my_perl)
        return;
#endif

    /* measure and output end time of previous statement
     * (earlier than it would have been done)
     * and switch back to measuring the 'calling' statement
     */
    DB_stmt(aTHX_ NULL, op);

    /* output a 'discount' marker to indicate the next statement time shouldn't
     * increment the count (because the time is not for a new statement but simply
     * a continuation of a previously counted statement).
     */
    NYTP_write_discount(out);

    /* special cases */
    if (last_executed_line == prev_last_executed_line
    &&  last_executed_fid  == prev_last_executed_fid
    ) {
        /* XXX OP_UNSTACK needs help */
    }

    if (trace_level >= 5) {
        logwarn("\tleft %u:%u back to %s at %u:%u (b%u s%u) - discounting next statement%s\n",
            prev_last_executed_fid, prev_last_executed_line,
            OP_NAME_safe(op),
            last_executed_fid, last_executed_line, last_block_line, last_sub_line,
            (op) ? "" : ", LEAVING PERL"
        );
    }

    SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);
}


/**
 * Sets or toggles the option specified by 'option'.
 */
static void
set_option(pTHX_ const char* option, const char* value)
{

    if (strEQ(option, "file")) {
        strncpy(PROF_output_file, value, MAXPATHLEN);
    }
    else if (strEQ(option, "log")) {
        FILE *fp = fopen(value, "a");
        if (!fp) {
            logwarn("Can't open log file '%s' for writing: %s\n",
                value, strerror(errno));
            return;
        }
        logfh = fp;
    }
    else if (strEQ(option, "start")) {
        if      (strEQ(value,"begin")) profile_start = NYTP_START_BEGIN;
        else if (strEQ(value,"init"))  profile_start = NYTP_START_INIT;
        else if (strEQ(value,"end"))   profile_start = NYTP_START_END;
        else if (strEQ(value,"no"))    profile_start = NYTP_START_NO;
        else croak("NYTProf option 'start' has invalid value '%s'\n", value);
    }
    else if (strEQ(option, "addpid")) {
        profile_opts = (atoi(value))
            ? profile_opts |  NYTP_OPTf_ADDPID
            : profile_opts & ~NYTP_OPTf_ADDPID;
    }
    else if (strEQ(option, "optimize") || strEQ(option, "optimise")) {
        profile_opts = (atoi(value))
            ? profile_opts |  NYTP_OPTf_OPTIMIZE
            : profile_opts & ~NYTP_OPTf_OPTIMIZE;
    }
    else if (strEQ(option, "savesrc")) {
        profile_opts = (atoi(value))
            ? profile_opts |  NYTP_OPTf_SAVESRC
            : profile_opts & ~NYTP_OPTf_SAVESRC;
    }
    else if (strEQ(option, "endatexit")) {
        if (atoi(value))
            PL_exit_flags |= PERL_EXIT_DESTRUCT_END;
    }
    else {
        struct NYTP_int_options_t *opt_p = options;
        const struct NYTP_int_options_t *const opt_end
            = options + sizeof(options) / sizeof (struct NYTP_int_options_t);
        bool found = FALSE;
        do {
            if (strEQ(option, opt_p->option_name)) {
                opt_p->option_value = strtol(value, NULL, 0);
                found = TRUE;
                break;
            }
        } while (++opt_p < opt_end);
        if (!found) {
            logwarn("Unknown NYTProf option: '%s'\n", option);
            return;
        }
    }
    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("# %s=%s\n", option, value);
}


/**
 * Open the output file. This is encapsulated because the code can be reused
 * without the environment parsing overhead after each fork.
 */
static void
open_output_file(pTHX_ char *filename)
{
    char filename_buf[MAXPATHLEN];
    /* 'x' is a GNU C lib extension for O_EXCL which gives us a little
     * extra protection, but it isn't POSIX compliant */
    const char *mode = "wbx";
    /* most systems that don't support it will silently ignore it
     * but for some we need to remove it to avoid an error */
#ifdef WIN32
    mode = "wb";
#endif
#ifdef VMS
    mode = "wb";
#endif

    if ((profile_opts & NYTP_OPTf_ADDPID)
    || out /* already opened so assume forking */
    ) {  
        sprintf(filename_buf, "%s.%d", filename, getpid());
        filename = filename_buf;
        /* caller is expected to have purged/closed old out if appropriate */
    }

    /* some protection against multiple processes writing to the same file */
    unlink(filename);   /* throw away any previous file */

    out = NYTP_open(filename, mode);
    if (!out) {
        int fopen_errno = errno;
        const char *hint = "";
        if (fopen_errno==EEXIST && !(profile_opts & NYTP_OPTf_ADDPID))
            hint = " (enable addpid option to protect against concurrent writes)";
        disable_profile(aTHX);
        croak("Failed to open output '%s': %s%s", filename, strerror(fopen_errno), hint);
    }
    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ opened %s\n", filename);

    output_header(aTHX);
}


static void
close_output_file(pTHX) {
    int result;

    if (!out)
        return;

    write_src_of_files(aTHX);
    write_sub_line_ranges(aTHX);
    write_sub_callers(aTHX);
    /* mark end of profile data for last_pid pid
     * which is the pid that this file relates to
     */
    NYTP_write_process_end(out, last_pid, gettimeofday_nv());

    if ((result = NYTP_close(out, 0)))
        logwarn("Error closing profile data file: %s\n", strerror(result));
    out = NULL;

    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ closed file.\n");
}


static int
reinit_if_forked(pTHX)
{
    int open_new_file;

    if (getpid() == last_pid)
        return 0; /* not forked */

    /* we're now the child process */
    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ new pid %d (was %d) forkdepth %d\n", getpid(), last_pid, profile_forkdepth);

    /* reset state */
    last_pid = getpid();
    last_executed_fileptr = NULL;
    last_executed_fid = 0; /* don't count the fork in the child */
    if (sub_callers_hv)
        hv_clear(sub_callers_hv);

    open_new_file = (out) ? 1 : 0;
    if (open_new_file) {
        /* data that was unflushed in the parent when it forked
        * is now duplicated unflushed in this child,
        * so discard it when we close the inherited filehandle.
        */
        int result = NYTP_close(out, 1);
        if (result)
            logwarn("Error closing profile data file: %s\n", strerror(result));
        out = NULL;
        /* if we fork while profiling then ensure we'll get a distinct filename */
        profile_opts |= NYTP_OPTf_ADDPID;
    }

    if (profile_forkdepth == 0) { /* parent doesn't want children profiled */
        disable_profile(aTHX);
        open_new_file = 0;
    }
    else /* count down another generation */
        --profile_forkdepth;

    if (open_new_file)
        open_output_file(aTHX_ PROF_output_file);

    return 1;                                     /* have forked */
}


/******************************************
 * Sub caller and inclusive time tracking
 ******************************************/

static AV *
new_sub_call_info_av(pTHX)
{
    AV *av = newAV();
    av_store(av, NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT, newSVuv(1));
    av_store(av, NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME, newSVnv(0.0));
    av_store(av, NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME, newSVnv(0.0));
    /* others allocated when needed */
    return av;
}

/* subroutine profiler subroutine entry structure. Represents a call
 * from one sub to another (the arc between the nodes, if you like)
 */
typedef struct subr_entry_st subr_entry_t;
struct subr_entry_st {
    unsigned int  already_counted;
    unsigned int  subr_prof_depth;
    long unsigned subr_call_seqn;
    I32 prev_subr_entry_ix; /* ix to callers subr_entry */

    time_of_day_t initial_call_timeofday;
    struct tms    initial_call_cputimes;
    NV            initial_overhead_ticks;
    NV            initial_subr_secs;

    unsigned int  caller_fid;
    int           caller_line;
    const char   *caller_subpkg_pv;
    SV           *caller_subnam_sv;

    CV           *called_cv;
    int           called_cv_depth;
    const char   *called_is_xs;         /* NULL, "xsub", or "syop" */
    const char   *called_subpkg_pv;
    SV           *called_subnam_sv;
    /* ensure all items are initialized in first phase of pp_subcall_profiler */
};

/* save stack index to the current subroutine entry structure */
static I32 subr_entry_ix = 0;

#define subr_entry_ix_ptr(ix) ((ix) ? SSPTR(ix, subr_entry_t *) : NULL)


static void
append_linenum_to_begin(pTHX_ subr_entry_t *subr_entry) {
    UV line = 0;
    SV *fullnamesv;
    SV *DBsv;
    char *subname = SvPVX(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv);
    STRLEN pkg_len;
    STRLEN total_len;

    /* If sub is a BEGIN then append the line number to our name
     * so multiple BEGINs (either explicit or implicit, e.g., "use")
     * in the same file/package can be distinguished.
     */
    if (!subname || *subname != 'B' || strNE(subname,"BEGIN"))
        return;

    /* get, and delete, the entry for this sub in the PL_DBsub hash */
    pkg_len = strlen(subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv);
    total_len = pkg_len + 2 /* :: */  + 5; /* BEGIN */
    fullnamesv = newSV(total_len + 1); /* +1 for '\0' */
    memcpy(SvPVX(fullnamesv), subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv, pkg_len);
    memcpy(SvPVX(fullnamesv) + pkg_len, "::BEGIN", 7 + 1); /* + 1 for '\0' */
    SvCUR_set(fullnamesv, total_len);
    SvPOK_on(fullnamesv);
    DBsv = hv_delete(GvHV(PL_DBsub), SvPVX(fullnamesv), (I32)total_len, 1);

    if (DBsv && parse_DBsub_value(aTHX_ DBsv, NULL, &line, NULL)) {
        SvREFCNT_inc(DBsv); /* was made mortal by hv_delete */
        sv_catpvf(fullnamesv,                   "@%u", (unsigned int)line);
        if (hv_fetch(GvHV(PL_DBsub), SvPV_nolen(fullnamesv), (I32)SvCUR(fullnamesv), 0)) {
            static unsigned int dup_begin_seqn;
            sv_catpvf(fullnamesv, ".%u", ++dup_begin_seqn);
        }
        (void) hv_store(GvHV(PL_DBsub), SvPV_nolen(fullnamesv), (I32)SvCUR(fullnamesv), DBsv, 0);

        /* As we know the length of fullnamesv *before* the concatenation, we
           can calculate the length and offset of the formatted addition, and
           hence directly string append it, rather than duplicating the call to
           a *printf function.  */
        sv_catpvn(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, SvPVX(fullnamesv) + total_len,
                  SvCUR(fullnamesv) - total_len);
    }
    SvREFCNT_dec(fullnamesv);
}


static char *
subr_entry_summary(pTHX_ subr_entry_t *subr_entry, int state)
{
    static char buf[80]; /* XXX */
    sprintf(buf, "(seix %d%s%d, ac%u)",
        (int)subr_entry->prev_subr_entry_ix,
        (state) ? "<-" : "->",
        (int)subr_entry_ix,
        subr_entry->already_counted
    );
    return buf;
}


static void
subr_entry_destroy(pTHX_ subr_entry_t *subr_entry)
{
    if ((trace_level >= 6 || subr_entry->already_counted>1)
        /* ignore the typical second (fallback) destroy */
        && !(subr_entry->prev_subr_entry_ix == subr_entry_ix && subr_entry->already_counted==1)
    ) {
        logwarn("%2d <<     %s::%s done %s\n",
            subr_entry->subr_prof_depth,
            subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv,
            (subr_entry->called_subnam_sv && SvOK(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv))
                ? SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv)
                : "?",
            subr_entry_summary(aTHX_ subr_entry, 1));
    }
    if (subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv) {
        sv_free(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv);
        subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv = Nullsv;
    }
    if (subr_entry->called_subnam_sv) {
        sv_free(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv);
        subr_entry->called_subnam_sv = Nullsv;
    }
    if (subr_entry->prev_subr_entry_ix <= subr_entry_ix)
        subr_entry_ix = subr_entry->prev_subr_entry_ix;
    else
        logwarn("skipped attempt to raise subr_entry_ix from %d to %d\n",
            (int)subr_entry_ix, (int)subr_entry->prev_subr_entry_ix);
}


static void
incr_sub_inclusive_time(pTHX_ subr_entry_t *subr_entry)
{
    int saved_errno = errno;
    char called_subname_pv[500];    /* XXX */
    char *called_subname_pv_end = called_subname_pv;
    char subr_call_key[500]; /* XXX */
    int subr_call_key_len;
    NV  overhead_ticks, called_sub_secs;
    SV *incl_time_sv, *excl_time_sv;
    NV  incl_subr_sec, excl_subr_sec;
    SV *sv_tmp;
    AV *subr_call_av;

    if (subr_entry->called_subnam_sv == &PL_sv_undef) {
        if (trace_level)
            logwarn("Don't know name of called sub, assuming xsub/builtin exited via an exception (which isn't handled yet)\n");
        subr_entry->already_counted++;
    }

    /* For xsubs we get called both explicitly when the xsub returns, and by
     * the destructor. (That way if the xsub leaves via an exception then we'll
     * still get called, albeit a little later than we'd like.)
     */
    if (subr_entry->already_counted) {
        subr_entry_destroy(aTHX_ subr_entry);
        return;
    }
    subr_entry->already_counted++;

    /* statement overheads we've accumulated since we entered the sub */
    overhead_ticks = cumulative_overhead_ticks - subr_entry->initial_overhead_ticks;
    /* seconds spent in subroutines called by this subroutine */
    called_sub_secs = (cumulative_subr_secs - subr_entry->initial_subr_secs);

    if (profile_usecputime) {
        struct tms call_end_ctime;
        long ticks;

        times(&call_end_ctime);
        ticks = (call_end_ctime.tms_utime - subr_entry->initial_call_cputimes.tms_utime)
              + (call_end_ctime.tms_stime - subr_entry->initial_call_cputimes.tms_stime);
        /* ignore overhead_ticks when using cputime because the resolution is so poor */
        incl_subr_sec = (ticks / (NV)PL_clocktick);
    }
    else {
        time_of_day_t sub_end_time;
        long ticks, overflow;

        /* calculate ticks since we entered the sub */
        get_time_of_day(sub_end_time);
        get_ticks_between(subr_entry->initial_call_timeofday, sub_end_time, ticks, overflow);

        incl_subr_sec = overflow + (ticks / (NV)CLOCKS_PER_TICK);
        /* subtract statement measurement overheads */
        incl_subr_sec -= (overhead_ticks / CLOCKS_PER_TICK);
    }
    /* exclusive = inclusive - time spent in subroutines called by this subroutine */
    excl_subr_sec = incl_subr_sec - called_sub_secs;

    subr_call_key_len = sprintf(subr_call_key, "%s::%s[%u:%d]",
        subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv,
        (subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv) ? SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv) : "(null)",
        subr_entry->caller_fid, subr_entry->caller_line);
    if (subr_call_key_len >= sizeof(subr_call_key))
        croak("panic: NYTProf buffer overflow on %s\n", subr_call_key);

    /* compose called_subname_pv as "${pkg}::${sub}" avoiding sprintf */
    STMT_START {
        STRLEN len;
        const char *p;

        p = subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv;
        while (*p)
            *called_subname_pv_end++ = *p++;
        *called_subname_pv_end++ = ':';
        *called_subname_pv_end++ = ':';
        if (subr_entry->called_subnam_sv) {
            /* We create this SV, so we know that it is well-formed, and has a
               trailing '\0'  */
            p = SvPV(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, len);
        }
        else {
            /* C string constants have a trailing '\0'.  */
            p = "(null)"; len = 6;
        }
        memcpy(called_subname_pv_end, p, len + 1);
        called_subname_pv_end += len;
        if (called_subname_pv_end >= called_subname_pv+sizeof(called_subname_pv))
            croak("panic: called_subname_pv buffer overflow on '%s'\n", called_subname_pv);
    } STMT_END;

    /* { called_subname => { "caller_subname[fid:line]" => [ count, incl_time, ... ] } } */
    sv_tmp = *hv_fetch(sub_callers_hv, called_subname_pv, (I32)(called_subname_pv_end - called_subname_pv), 1);

    if (!SvROK(sv_tmp)) { /* autoviv hash ref - is first call of this called subname from anywhere */
        HV *hv = newHV();
        sv_setsv(sv_tmp, newRV_noinc((SV *)hv));

        if (subr_entry->called_is_xs) {
            /* create dummy item with fid=0 & line=0 to act as flag to indicate xs */
            AV *av = new_sub_call_info_av(aTHX);
            av_store(av, NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT, newSVuv(0));
            sv_setsv(*hv_fetch(hv, "[0:0]", 5, 1), newRV_noinc((SV *)av));

            if (   ('s' == *subr_entry->called_is_xs) /* "sop" (slowop) */
                || (subr_entry->called_cv && SvTYPE(subr_entry->called_cv) == SVt_PVCV)
            ) {
                /* We just use an empty string as the filename for xsubs
                    * because CvFILE() isn't reliable on perl 5.8.[78]
                    * and the name of the .c file isn't very useful anyway.
                    * The reader can try to associate the xsubs with the
                    * corresonding .pm file using the package part of the subname.
                    */
                SV *sv = *hv_fetch(GvHV(PL_DBsub), called_subname_pv, (I32)(called_subname_pv_end - called_subname_pv), 1);
                if (!SvOK(sv))
                    sv_setpvs(sv, ":0-0"); /* empty file name */
                if (trace_level >= 2)
                    logwarn("Marking '%s' as %s\n", called_subname_pv, subr_entry->called_is_xs);
            }
        }
    }

    /* drill-down to array of sub call information for this subr_call_key */
    sv_tmp = *hv_fetch((HV*)SvRV(sv_tmp), subr_call_key, subr_call_key_len, 1);
    if (!SvROK(sv_tmp)) { /* first call from this subname[fid:line] - autoviv array ref */
        subr_call_av = new_sub_call_info_av(aTHX);

        sv_setsv(sv_tmp, newRV_noinc((SV *)subr_call_av));

        if (subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv) { /* note that a sub in this package was called */
            SV *pf_sv = *hv_fetch(pkg_fids_hv, subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv, (I32)strlen(subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv), 1);
            if (SvTYPE(pf_sv) == SVt_NULL) { /* log when first created */
                sv_upgrade(pf_sv, SVt_PV);
                if (trace_level >= 3)
                    logwarn("Noting that subs in package '%s' were called\n",
                        subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv);
            }
        }
    }
    else {
        subr_call_av = (AV *)SvRV(sv_tmp);
        sv_inc(AvARRAY(subr_call_av)[NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT]);
    }

    if (trace_level >= 5)
        logwarn("%2d <-     %s %"NVff"s excl = %"NVff"s incl - %"NVff"s (%"NVff"-%"NVff"), oh %"NVff"-%"NVff"=%"NVff"t, d%d @%d:%d #%lu %p\n",
            subr_entry->subr_prof_depth,
            called_subname_pv,
            excl_subr_sec, incl_subr_sec, called_sub_secs,
            cumulative_subr_secs, subr_entry->initial_subr_secs,
            cumulative_overhead_ticks, subr_entry->initial_overhead_ticks, overhead_ticks,
            (int)subr_entry->called_cv_depth,
            subr_entry->caller_fid, subr_entry->caller_line,
            subr_entry->subr_call_seqn, (void*)subr_entry);

    /* only count inclusive time for the outer-most calls */
    if (subr_entry->called_cv_depth <= 1) {
        incl_time_sv = *av_fetch(subr_call_av, NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME, 1);
        sv_setnv(incl_time_sv, SvNV(incl_time_sv)+incl_subr_sec);
    }
    else {
        /* recursing into an already entered sub */
        /* measure max depth and accumulate incl time separately */
        SV *reci_time_sv = *av_fetch(subr_call_av, NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME, 1);
        SV *max_depth_sv = *av_fetch(subr_call_av, NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH, 1);
        sv_setnv(reci_time_sv, (SvOK(reci_time_sv)) ? SvNV(reci_time_sv)+incl_subr_sec : incl_subr_sec);
        /* we track recursion depth here, which is called_cv_depth-1 */
        if (!SvOK(max_depth_sv) || subr_entry->called_cv_depth-1 > SvIV(max_depth_sv))
            sv_setiv(max_depth_sv, subr_entry->called_cv_depth-1);
    }
    excl_time_sv = *av_fetch(subr_call_av, NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME, 1);
    sv_setnv(excl_time_sv, SvNV(excl_time_sv)+excl_subr_sec);

    subr_entry_destroy(aTHX_ subr_entry);

    cumulative_subr_secs += excl_subr_sec;
    SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);
}

static void         /* wrapper called at scope exit due to save_destructor below */
incr_sub_inclusive_time_ix(pTHX_ void *subr_entry_ix_void)
{
    /* recover the I32 ix that was stored as a void pointer */
    I32 save_ix = (I32)PTR2IV(subr_entry_ix_void);
    incr_sub_inclusive_time(aTHX_ subr_entry_ix_ptr(save_ix));
}


static CV *
resolve_sub_to_cv(pTHX_ SV *sv, GV **subname_gv_ptr)
{
    GV *dummy_gv;
    HV *stash;
    CV *cv;

    if (!subname_gv_ptr)
        subname_gv_ptr = &dummy_gv;
    else
        *subname_gv_ptr = Nullgv;

    /* copied from top of perl's pp_entersub */
    /* modified to return either CV or else a GV */
    /* or a NULL in cases that pp_entersub would croak */
    switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
        default:
            if (!SvROK(sv)) {
                char *sym;

                if (sv == &PL_sv_yes) {           /* unfound import, ignore */
                    return NULL;
                }
                if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
                    mg_get(sv);
                    if (SvROK(sv))
                        goto got_rv;
                    sym = SvPOKp(sv) ? SvPVX(sv) : Nullch;
                }
                else
                    sym = SvPV_nolen(sv);
                if (!sym)
                    return NULL;
                if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS)
                    return NULL;
                cv = get_cv(sym, TRUE);
                break;
            }
            got_rv:
            {
                SV **sp = &sv;                    /* Used in tryAMAGICunDEREF macro. */
                tryAMAGICunDEREF(to_cv);
            }
            cv = (CV*)SvRV(sv);
            if (SvTYPE(cv) == SVt_PVCV)
                break;
            /* FALL THROUGH */
        case SVt_PVHV:
        case SVt_PVAV:
            return NULL;
        case SVt_PVCV:
            cv = (CV*)sv;
            break;
        case SVt_PVGV:
            if (!(isGV_with_GP(sv) && (cv = GvCVu((GV*)sv))))
                cv = sv_2cv(sv, &stash, subname_gv_ptr, FALSE);
            if (!cv)                              /* would autoload in this situation */
                return NULL;
            break;
    }
    if (cv && !*subname_gv_ptr && CvGV(cv) && isGV_with_GP(CvGV(cv))) {
        *subname_gv_ptr = CvGV(cv);
    }
    return cv;
}



static CV*
current_cv(pTHX_ I32 ix, PERL_SI *si)
{
    /* returning the current cv */
    /* logic based on perl's S_deb_curcv in dump.c */
    /* see also http://search.cpan.org/dist/Devel-StackBlech/ */
    PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    if (!si)
        si = PL_curstackinfo;

    if (ix < 0) {
        /* caller isn't on the same stack so we'll walk the stacks as well */
        if (si->si_type != PERLSI_MAIN)
            return current_cv(aTHX_ si->si_prev->si_cxix, si->si_prev);
        if (trace_level >= 9)
            logwarn("finding current_cv(%d,%p) si_type %d - context stack empty\n",
                (int)ix, (void*)si, (int)si->si_type);
        return Nullcv;  /* PL_main_cv ? */
    }

    cx = &si->si_cxstack[ix];

    if (trace_level >= 9)
        logwarn("finding current_cv(%d,%p) - cx_type %d %s, si_type %d\n",
            (int)ix, (void*)si, CxTYPE(cx), cx_block_type(cx), (int)si->si_type);

    /* the common case of finding the caller on the same stack */
    if (CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_SUB || CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_FORMAT)
        return cx->blk_sub.cv;
    else if (CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_EVAL && !CxTRYBLOCK(cx))
        return current_cv(aTHX_ ix - 1, si); /* recurse up stack */
    else if (ix == 0 && si->si_type == PERLSI_MAIN)
        return PL_main_cv;
    else if (ix > 0)                         /* more on this stack? */
        return current_cv(aTHX_ ix - 1, si); /* recurse up stack */

    /* caller isn't on the same stack so we'll walk the stacks as well */
    if (si->si_type != PERLSI_MAIN) {
        return current_cv(aTHX_ si->si_prev->si_cxix, si->si_prev);
    }
    return Nullcv;
}


static I32
subr_entry_setup(pTHX_ COP *prev_cop, subr_entry_t *clone_subr_entry, OPCODE op_type, SV *subr_sv)
{
    int saved_errno = errno;
    subr_entry_t *subr_entry;
    I32 prev_subr_entry_ix;
    subr_entry_t *caller_subr_entry;
    const char *found_caller_by;
    char *file;

    /* allocate struct to save stack (very efficient) */
    /* XXX "warning: cast from pointer to integer of different size" with use64bitall=define */
    prev_subr_entry_ix = subr_entry_ix;
    subr_entry_ix = SSNEWa(sizeof(*subr_entry), MEM_ALIGNBYTES);

    if (subr_entry_ix <= prev_subr_entry_ix) {
        /* one cause of this is running NYTProf with threads */
        logwarn("NYTProf panic: stack is confused, giving up!\n");
        /* limit the damage */
        disable_profile(aTHX);
        return prev_subr_entry_ix;
    }

    subr_entry = subr_entry_ix_ptr(subr_entry_ix);
    Zero(subr_entry, 1, subr_entry_t);

    subr_entry->prev_subr_entry_ix = prev_subr_entry_ix;
    caller_subr_entry = subr_entry_ix_ptr(prev_subr_entry_ix);
    subr_entry->subr_prof_depth = (caller_subr_entry)
        ? caller_subr_entry->subr_prof_depth+1 : 1;

    if (profile_usecputime)
        times(&subr_entry->initial_call_cputimes);
    else
        get_time_of_day(subr_entry->initial_call_timeofday);
    subr_entry->initial_overhead_ticks = cumulative_overhead_ticks;
    subr_entry->initial_subr_secs      = cumulative_subr_secs;
    subr_entry->subr_call_seqn         = (unsigned long)(++cumulative_subr_seqn);

    /* try to work out what sub's being called in advance
     * mainly for xsubs because otherwise they're transparent
     * because xsub calls don't get a new context
     */
    if (op_type == OP_ENTERSUB || op_type == OP_GOTO) {
        GV *called_gv = Nullgv;
        subr_entry->called_cv = resolve_sub_to_cv(aTHX_ subr_sv, &called_gv);
        if (called_gv) {
            char *p = HvNAME(GvSTASH(called_gv));
            subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv = p;
            subr_entry->called_subnam_sv = newSVpv(GvNAME(called_gv), 0);

            /* detect calls to POSIX::_exit */
            if ('P'==*p++ && 'O'==*p++ && 'S'==*p++ && 'I'==*p++ && 'X'==*p++ && 0==*p) {
                char *s = GvNAME(called_gv);
                if ('_'==*s++ && 'e'==*s++ && 'x'==*s++ && 'i'==*s++ && 't'==*s++ && 0==*s) {
                    finish_profile(aTHX);
                }
            }
        }
        else {
            subr_entry->called_subnam_sv = newSV(0); /* see incr_sub_inclusive_time */
        }
        subr_entry->called_is_xs = NULL; /* work it out later */
    }
    else { /* slowop */

        /* pretend slowops (builtins) are xsubs */
        const char *slowop_name = PL_op_name[op_type];
        if (profile_slowops == 1) { /* 1 == put slowops into 1 package */
            subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv = "CORE";
            subr_entry->called_subnam_sv = newSVpv(slowop_name, 0);
        }
        else {                     /* 2 == put slowops into multiple packages */
            SV **opname = NULL;
            SV *sv;
            if (!slowop_name_cache)
                slowop_name_cache = newAV();
            opname = av_fetch(slowop_name_cache, op_type, TRUE);
            if (!opname)
                croak("panic: opname cache read for '%s' (%d)\n", slowop_name, op_type);
            sv = *opname;

            if(!SvOK(sv)) {
                const STRLEN len = strlen(slowop_name);
                sv_grow(sv, 5 + len + 1);
                memcpy(SvPVX(sv), "CORE:", 5);
                memcpy(SvPVX(sv) + 5, slowop_name, len + 1);
                SvCUR_set(sv, 5 + len);
                SvPOK_on(sv);
            }
            subr_entry->called_subnam_sv = SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
            subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv = CopSTASHPV(PL_curcop);
        }
        subr_entry->called_cv_depth = 1; /* an approximation for slowops */
        subr_entry->called_is_xs = "sop";
    }

    /* These refer to the last perl statement executed, so aren't
     * strictly correct where an opcode or xsub is making the call,
     * but they're still more useful than nothing.
     * In reports the references line shows calls made by the
     * opcode or xsub that's called at that line.
     */
    file = OutCopFILE(prev_cop);
    subr_entry->caller_fid = (file == last_executed_fileptr)
        ? last_executed_fid
        : get_file_id(aTHX_ file, strlen(file), NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB);
    subr_entry->caller_line = CopLINE(prev_cop);

    /* Gather details about the calling subroutine */
    if (clone_subr_entry) {
        subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = clone_subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv;
        subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv = SvREFCNT_inc(clone_subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv);
        found_caller_by = "(cloned)";
    }
    else
    /* Should we calculate the caller or can we reuse the caller_subr_entry?
     * Sometimes we'll have a caller_subr_entry but it won't have the name yet.
     * For example if the caller is an xsub that's callback into perl.
     */
    if (profile_findcaller             /* user wants us to calculate each time */
    || !caller_subr_entry                     /* we don't have a caller struct */
    || !caller_subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv   /* we don't have caller details  */
    || !caller_subr_entry->called_subnam_sv
    || !SvOK(caller_subr_entry->called_subnam_sv)
    ) {

        /* get the current CV and determine the current sub name from that */
        CV *caller_cv = current_cv(aTHX_ cxstack_ix, NULL);
        subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv = newSV(0); /* XXX add cache/stack thing for these SVs */

        if (0) {
            logwarn(" .. caller_subr_entry %p(%s::%s) cxstack_ix=%d: caller_cv=%p\n",
                (void*)caller_subr_entry,
                caller_subr_entry ? caller_subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv : "(null)",
                (caller_subr_entry && caller_subr_entry->called_subnam_sv && SvOK(caller_subr_entry->called_subnam_sv))
                    ? SvPV_nolen(caller_subr_entry->called_subnam_sv) : "(null)",
                (int)cxstack_ix, (void*)caller_cv
            );
        }

        if (caller_cv == PL_main_cv) {
            /* PL_main_cv is run-time main (compile-time, eg 'use', is a main::BEGIN) */
            /* We don't record timing data for main::RUNTIME because timing data
             * is stored per calling location, and there is no calling location.
             * XXX Currently we don't output a subinfo for main::RUNTIME unless
             * some sub is called from main::RUNTIME. That may change.
             */
            subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = "main";
            sv_setpvs(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv, "RUNTIME"); /* *cough* */
            ++main_runtime_used;
        }
        else if (caller_cv == 0) {
            /* should never happen - but does in PostgreSQL 8.4.1 plperl
             * possibly because perl_run() has already returned
             */
            subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = "main";
            sv_setpvs(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv, "NULL"); /* *cough* */
        }
        else {
            HV *stash_hv = NULL;
            GV *gv = CvGV(caller_cv);
            GV *egv = GvEGV(gv);
            if (!egv)
                gv = egv;

            if (gv && (stash_hv = GvSTASH(gv))) {
                subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = HvNAME(stash_hv);
                sv_setpvn(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv,GvNAME(gv),GvNAMELEN(gv));
            }
            else {
                logwarn("Can't determine name of calling sub (GV %p, Stash %p, CV flags %d) at %s line %d\n",
                    (void*)gv, (void*)stash_hv, (int)CvFLAGS(caller_cv),
                    OutCopFILE(prev_cop), (int)CopLINE(prev_cop));
                sv_dump((SV*)caller_cv);

                subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = "__UNKNOWN__";
                sv_setpvs(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv, "__UNKNOWN__");
            }
        }
        found_caller_by = (profile_findcaller) ? "" : "(calculated)";
    }
    else {
        subr_entry_t *caller_se = caller_subr_entry;
        int caller_is_op = caller_se->called_is_xs && strEQ(caller_se->called_is_xs,"sop");
        /* if the caller is an op then use the caller of that op as our caller.
         * that makes more sense from the users perspective (and is consistent
         * with the findcaller=1 option).
         * XXX disabled for now because (I'm pretty sure) it needs a corresponding
         * change in incr_sub_inclusive_time otherwise the incl/excl times are distorted.
         */
        if (0 && caller_is_op) {
            subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = caller_se->caller_subpkg_pv;
            subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv = SvREFCNT_inc(caller_se->caller_subnam_sv);
        }
        else {
            subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv = caller_se->called_subpkg_pv;
            subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv = SvREFCNT_inc(caller_se->called_subnam_sv);
        }
        found_caller_by = "(inherited)";
    }

    if (trace_level >= 4) {
        logwarn("%2d >> %s at %u:%d from %s::%s %s %s\n",
            subr_entry->subr_prof_depth,
            PL_op_name[op_type],
            subr_entry->caller_fid, subr_entry->caller_line,
            subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv,
            SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv),
            found_caller_by,
            subr_entry_summary(aTHX_ subr_entry, 0)
        );
    }

    /* This is our safety-net destructor. For perl subs an identical destructor
     * will be pushed onto the stack _inside_ the scope we're interested in.
     * That destructor will be more accurate than this one. This one is here
     * mainly to catch exceptions thrown from xs subs and slowops.
     */
    save_destructor_x(incr_sub_inclusive_time_ix, INT2PTR(void *, (IV)subr_entry_ix));

    SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);

    return subr_entry_ix;
}


static OP *
pp_entersub_profiler(pTHX)
{
    return pp_subcall_profiler(aTHX_ 0);
}

static OP *
pp_slowop_profiler(pTHX)
{
    return pp_subcall_profiler(aTHX_ 1);
}

static OP *
pp_subcall_profiler(pTHX_ int is_slowop)
{
    int saved_errno = errno;
    OP *op;
    COP *prev_cop = PL_curcop;                    /* not PL_curcop_nytprof here */
    OP *next_op = PL_op->op_next;                 /* op to execute after sub returns */
    /* pp_entersub can be called with PL_op->op_type==0 */
    OPCODE op_type = (is_slowop || (opcode) PL_op->op_type == OP_GOTO) ? (opcode) PL_op->op_type : OP_ENTERSUB;

    CV *called_cv;
    dSP;
    SV *sub_sv = *SP;
    I32 this_subr_entry_ix = 0; /* local copy (needed for goto) */

    subr_entry_t *subr_entry;

    /* pre-conditions */
    if (!profile_subs   /* not profiling subs */
        /* don't profile if currently disabled */
    ||  !is_profiling
        /* don't profile calls to non-existant import() methods */
        /* or our DB::_INIT as that makes tests perl version sensitive */
    || (op_type==OP_ENTERSUB && (sub_sv == &PL_sv_yes || sub_sv == DB_CHECK_cv || sub_sv == DB_INIT_cv
                                 || sub_sv == DB_END_cv || sub_sv == DB_fin_cv))
        /* don't profile other kinds of goto */
    || (op_type==OP_GOTO &&
        (  !(SvROK(sub_sv) && SvTYPE(SvRV(sub_sv)) == SVt_PVCV)
        || !subr_entry_ix ) /* goto out of sub whose entry wasn't profiled */
       )
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    || (orig_my_perl && my_perl != orig_my_perl)
#endif
    ) {
        return run_original_op(op_type);
    }

    if (!profile_stmts) {
        reinit_if_forked(aTHX);
        CHECK_SAWAMPERSAND(last_executed_fid, last_executed_line);
    }

    if (trace_level >= 99) {
        logwarn("profiling a call [op %ld, %s, seix %d]\n",
            (long)op_type, PL_op_name[op_type], (int)subr_entry_ix);
        /* crude, but the only way to deal with the miriad logic at the
         * start of pp_entersub (which ought to be available as separate sub)
         */
        sv_dump(sub_sv);
    }
    

    /* Life would be so much simpler if we could reliably tell, at this point,
     * what sub was going to get called. But we can't in many cases.
     * So we gather up as much into as possible before the call.
     */

    if (op_type != OP_GOTO) {

        /* For normal subs, pp_entersub enters the sub and returns the
         * first op *within* the sub (typically a nextstate/dbstate).
         * For XS subs, pp_entersub executes the entire sub
         * and returns the op *after* the sub (PL_op->op_next).
         * Other ops we profile (eg slowops) act like xsubs.
         */

        called_cv = NULL;
        this_subr_entry_ix = subr_entry_setup(aTHX_ prev_cop, NULL, op_type, sub_sv);

        /* This call may exit via an exception, in which case the
        * remaining code below doesn't get executed and the sub call
        * details are discarded. For perl subs that just means we don't
        * see calls the failed with "Unknown sub" errors, etc.
        * For xsubs it's a more significant issue. Especially if the
        * xsub calls back into perl.
        */
        SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);
        op = run_original_op(op_type);
        saved_errno = errno;

    }
    else {

        /* goto &sub opcode acts like a return followed by a call all in one.
         * When this op starts executing, the 'current' subr_entry that was
         * pushed onto the savestack by pp_subcall_profiler will be 'already_counted'
         * so the profiling of that call will be handled naturally for us.
         * So far so good.
         * Before it gets destroyed we'll take a copy of the subr_entry.
         * Then tell subr_entry_setup() to use our copy as a template so it'll
         * seem like the sub we goto'd was called by the same sub that called
         * the one that executed the goto. Except that we do use the fid:line
         * of the goto statement. That way the call graph makes sense and the
         * 'calling location' make sense. Got all that?
         */
        /* save a copy of prev_cop - see t/test18-goto2.p */
        COP prev_cop_copy = *prev_cop;
        /* save a copy of the subr_entry of the sub we're goto'ing out of */
        /* so we can reuse the caller _* info after it's destroyed */
        subr_entry_t goto_subr_entry;
        subr_entry_t *src = subr_entry_ix_ptr(subr_entry_ix);
        Copy(src, &goto_subr_entry, 1, subr_entry_t);

        /* XXX if the goto op or goto'd xsub croaks then this'll leak */
        /* we can't mortalize here because we're about to leave scope */
        SvREFCNT_inc(goto_subr_entry.caller_subnam_sv);
        SvREFCNT_inc(goto_subr_entry.called_subnam_sv);
        SvREFCNT_inc(sub_sv);

        /* grab the CvSTART of the called sub since it's available */
        called_cv = (CV*)SvRV(sub_sv);

        /* if goto &sub  then op will be the first op of the called sub
         * if goto &xsub then op will be the first op after the call to the
         * op we're goto'ing out of.
         */
        SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);
        op = run_original_op(op_type);  /* perform the goto &sub */
        saved_errno = errno;

        /* now we're in goto'd sub, mortalize the REFCNT_inc's done above */
        sv_2mortal(goto_subr_entry.caller_subnam_sv);
        sv_2mortal(goto_subr_entry.called_subnam_sv);
        this_subr_entry_ix = subr_entry_setup(aTHX_ &prev_cop_copy, &goto_subr_entry, op_type, sub_sv);
        SvREFCNT_dec(sub_sv);
    }

    subr_entry = subr_entry_ix_ptr(this_subr_entry_ix);

    /* detect wierdness/corruption */
    assert(subr_entry->caller_fid < next_fid);

    /* Check if this call has already been counted because the op performed
     * a leave_scope(). E.g., OP_SUBSTCONT at end of s/.../\1/
     * or Scope::Upper's unwind()
     */
    if (subr_entry->already_counted) {
        if (trace_level >= 9)
            logwarn("%2d --     %s::%s already counted %s\n",
                subr_entry->subr_prof_depth,
                subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv,
                (subr_entry->called_subnam_sv && SvOK(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv))
                    ? SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv)
                    : "?",
                subr_entry_summary(aTHX_ subr_entry, 1));
        assert(subr_entry->already_counted < 3);
        goto skip_sub_profile;
    }

    if (is_slowop) {
        /* already fully handled by subr_entry_setup */
    }
    else {
        char *stash_name = NULL;
        const char *is_xs = NULL;

        if (op_type == OP_GOTO) {
            /* use the called_cv that was the arg to the goto op */
            is_xs = (CvISXSUB(called_cv)) ? "xsub" : NULL;
        }
        else
        if (op != next_op) {   /* have entered a sub */
            /* use cv of sub we've just entered to get name */
            called_cv = cxstack[cxstack_ix].blk_sub.cv;
            is_xs = NULL;
        }
        else {                 /* have returned from XS so use sub_sv for name */
            /* determine the original fully qualified name for sub */
            /* CV or NULL */
            GV *gv = NULL;
            called_cv = resolve_sub_to_cv(aTHX_ sub_sv, &gv);
            
            if (!called_cv && gv) { /* XXX no test case  for this */
                stash_name = HvNAME(GvSTASH(gv));
                sv_setpv(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, GvNAME(gv));
                if (trace_level >= 0)
                    logwarn("Assuming called sub is named %s::%s at %s line %d (please report as a bug)\n",
                        stash_name, SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv),
                        OutCopFILE(prev_cop), (int)CopLINE(prev_cop));
            }
            is_xs = "xsub";
        }

        if (called_cv && CvGV(called_cv)) {
            GV *gv = CvGV(called_cv);
            /* Class::MOP can create CvGV where SvTYPE of GV is SVt_NULL */
            if (SvTYPE(gv) == SVt_PVGV && GvSTASH(gv)) {
                /* for a plain call of an imported sub the GV is of the current
                * package, so we dig to find the original package
                */
                stash_name = HvNAME(GvSTASH(gv));
                sv_setpv(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, GvNAME(gv));
            }
            else if (trace_level >= 1) {
                logwarn("NYTProf is confused about CV %p called as %s at %s line %d (please report as a bug)\n",
                    (void*)called_cv, SvPV_nolen(sub_sv), OutCopFILE(prev_cop), (int)CopLINE(prev_cop));
                /* looks like Class::MOP doesn't give the CV GV stash a name */
                if (trace_level >= 2)
                    sv_dump((SV*)called_cv); /* coredumps in Perl_do_gvgv_dump, looks line GvXPVGV is false, presumably on a Class::MOP wierdo sub */
            }
        }

        /* called_subnam_sv should have been set by now - else we're getting desperate */
        if (!SvOK(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv)) {
            const char *what = (is_xs) ? is_xs : "sub";

            if (!called_cv) { /* should never get here as pp_entersub would have croaked */
                logwarn("unknown entersub %s '%s' (please report this as a bug)\n", what, SvPV_nolen(sub_sv));
                stash_name = CopSTASHPV(PL_curcop);
                sv_setpvf(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, "__UNKNOWN__[%s,%s])", what, SvPV_nolen(sub_sv));
            }
            else { /* unnamed CV, e.g. seen in mod_perl/Class::MOP. XXX do better? */
                stash_name = HvNAME(CvSTASH(called_cv));
                sv_setpvf(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, "__UNKNOWN__[%s,0x%p]", what, (void*)called_cv);
                if (trace_level)
                    logwarn("unknown entersub %s assumed to be anon called_cv '%s'\n",
                        what, SvPV_nolen(sub_sv));
            }
            if (trace_level >= 9)
                sv_dump(sub_sv);
        }
        
        subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv = stash_name;
        if (*SvPVX(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv) == 'B')
            append_linenum_to_begin(aTHX_ subr_entry);

        /* if called was xsub then we've already left it, so use depth+1 */
        subr_entry->called_cv_depth = (called_cv) ? CvDEPTH(called_cv)+(is_xs?1:0) : 0;
        subr_entry->called_cv = called_cv;
        subr_entry->called_is_xs = is_xs;
    }

    /* ignore our own DB::_INIT sub - only shows up with 5.8.9+ & 5.10.1+ */
    if (subr_entry->called_is_xs
    && subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv[0] == 'D'
    && subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv[1] == 'B'
    && subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv[2] == '\0'
    ) {
        STRLEN len;
        char *p = SvPV(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv, len);

        if(*p == '_' && (memEQs(p, len, "_CHECK") || memEQs(p, len, "_INIT") || memEQs(p, len, "_END"))) {
            subr_entry->already_counted++;
            goto skip_sub_profile;
        }
    }
    /* catch profile_subs being turned off by disable_profile call */
    if (!profile_subs)
        subr_entry->already_counted++;

    if (trace_level >= 4) {
        logwarn("%2d ->%4s %s::%s from %s::%s @%u:%u (d%d, oh %"NVff"t, sub %"NVff"s) #%lu\n",
            subr_entry->subr_prof_depth,
            (subr_entry->called_is_xs) ? subr_entry->called_is_xs : "sub",
            subr_entry->called_subpkg_pv,
            subr_entry->called_subnam_sv ? SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->called_subnam_sv) : "(null)",
            subr_entry->caller_subpkg_pv,
            subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv ? SvPV_nolen(subr_entry->caller_subnam_sv) : "(null)",
            subr_entry->caller_fid, subr_entry->caller_line,
            subr_entry->called_cv_depth,
            subr_entry->initial_overhead_ticks,
            subr_entry->initial_subr_secs,
            subr_entry->subr_call_seqn
        );
    }

    if (subr_entry->called_is_xs) {
        /* for xsubs/builtins we've already left the sub, so end the timing now
         * rather than wait for the calling scope to get cleaned up.
         */
        incr_sub_inclusive_time(aTHX_ subr_entry);
    }
    else {
        /* push a destructor hook onto the context stack to ensure we account
         * for time in the sub when we leave it, even if via an exception.
         */
        save_destructor_x(incr_sub_inclusive_time_ix, INT2PTR(void *, (IV)this_subr_entry_ix));
    }

    skip_sub_profile:
    SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);

    return op;
}


static OP *
pp_stmt_profiler(pTHX)                            /* handles OP_DBSTATE, OP_SETSTATE, etc */
{
    OP *op = run_original_op(PL_op->op_type);
    DB_stmt(aTHX_ NULL, op);
    return op;
}

static OP *
pp_leave_profiler(pTHX)                           /* handles OP_LEAVESUB, OP_LEAVEEVAL, etc */
{
    OP *op = run_original_op(PL_op->op_type);
    DB_leave(aTHX_ op);
    return op;
}

static OP *
pp_fork_profiler(pTHX)                            /* handles OP_FORK */
{
    OP *op = run_original_op(PL_op->op_type);
    reinit_if_forked(aTHX);
    return op;
}

static OP *
pp_exit_profiler(pTHX)                            /* handles OP_EXIT, OP_EXEC, etc */
{
    DB_leave(aTHX_ NULL);                         /* call DB_leave *before* run_original_op() */
    if (PL_op->op_type == OP_EXEC)
        finish_profile(aTHX);                     /* this is the last chance we'll get */
    return run_original_op(PL_op->op_type);
}


static int
enable_profile(pTHX_ char *file)
{
    /* enable the run-time aspects to profiling */
    int prev_is_profiling = is_profiling;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    if (orig_my_perl && my_perl != orig_my_perl) {
        if (trace_level)
            logwarn("~ enable_profile call from different interpreter ignored\n");
        return 0;
    }
#endif

    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("~ enable_profile (previously %s) to %s\n",
            prev_is_profiling ? "enabled" : "disabled",
            (file && *file) ? file : PROF_output_file);

    reinit_if_forked(aTHX);

    if (file && *file && strNE(file, PROF_output_file)) {
        /* caller wants output to go to a new file */
        close_output_file(aTHX);
        strncpy(PROF_output_file, file, sizeof(PROF_output_file)-1);
    }

    if (!out) {
        open_output_file(aTHX_ PROF_output_file);
    }

    last_executed_fileptr = NULL;   /* discard cached OutCopFILE   */
    is_profiling = 1;               /* enable NYTProf profilers    */
    if (opt_use_db_sub)             /* set PL_DBsingle if required */
        sv_setiv(PL_DBsingle, 1);

    /* discard time spent since profiler was disabled */
    if (profile_usecputime) {
        times(&start_ctime);
    }
    else {
        get_time_of_day(start_time);
    }

    return prev_is_profiling;
}


static int
disable_profile(pTHX)
{
    int prev_is_profiling = is_profiling;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    if (orig_my_perl && my_perl != orig_my_perl) {
        if (trace_level)
            logwarn("~ disable_profile call from different interpreter ignored\n");
        return 0;
    }
#endif
    if (is_profiling) {
        if (opt_use_db_sub)
            sv_setiv(PL_DBsingle, 0);
        if (out)
            NYTP_flush(out);
        is_profiling = 0;
    }
    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("~ disable_profile (previously %s, pid %d, trace %d)\n",
            prev_is_profiling ? "enabled" : "disabled", getpid(), trace_level);
    return prev_is_profiling;
}


static void
finish_profile(pTHX)
{
    int saved_errno = errno;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    if (orig_my_perl && my_perl != orig_my_perl)
        if (trace_level) {
            logwarn("~ finish_profile call from different interpreter ignored\n");
        return;
    }
#endif

    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ finish_profile (overhead %"NVff"s, is_profiling %d)\n",
            cumulative_overhead_ticks/ticks_per_sec, is_profiling);

    /* write data for final statement, unless DB_leave has already */
    if (!profile_leave || opt_use_db_sub)
        DB_stmt(aTHX_ NULL, NULL);

    disable_profile(aTHX);

    close_output_file(aTHX);

    /* reset sub profiler data  */
    hv_clear(sub_callers_hv);
    /* reset other state */
    cumulative_overhead_ticks = 0;
    cumulative_subr_secs = 0;

    SETERRNO(saved_errno, 0);
}


/* Initial setup - should only be called once */
static int
init_profiler(pTHX)
{
#ifndef HAS_GETTIMEOFDAY
    SV **svp;
#endif

#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    if (!orig_my_perl) {
        if (1)
            orig_my_perl = my_perl;
    }
    else if (orig_my_perl && orig_my_perl != my_perl) {
        logwarn("NYTProf: perl interpreter address changed after init (threads/multiplicity not supported)\n");
        return 0;
    }
#endif

    /* Save the process id early. We monitor it to detect forks */
    last_pid = getpid();
    ticks_per_sec = (profile_usecputime) ? PL_clocktick : CLOCKS_PER_TICK;
    DB_CHECK_cv = (SV*)GvCV(gv_fetchpv("DB::_CHECK",        FALSE, SVt_PVCV));
    DB_INIT_cv = (SV*)GvCV(gv_fetchpv("DB::_INIT",          FALSE, SVt_PVCV));
    DB_END_cv  = (SV*)GvCV(gv_fetchpv("DB::_END",           FALSE, SVt_PVCV));
    DB_fin_cv  = (SV*)GvCV(gv_fetchpv("DB::finish_profile", FALSE, SVt_PVCV));

    if (opt_use_db_sub) {
        PL_perldb |= PERLDBf_LINE;    /* line-by-line profiling via DB::DB (if $DB::single true) */
        PL_perldb |= PERLDBf_SINGLE; /* start (after BEGINs) with single-step on XXX still needed? */
    }

    if (profile_opts & NYTP_OPTf_OPTIMIZE)
         PL_perldb &= ~PERLDBf_NOOPT;
    else PL_perldb |=  PERLDBf_NOOPT;

    if (profile_opts & NYTP_OPTf_SAVESRC) {
        /* ask perl to keep the source lines so we can copy them */
        PL_perldb |= PERLDBf_SAVESRC | PERLDBf_SAVESRC_NOSUBS;
    }

    if (!opt_nameevals)
        PL_perldb &= PERLDBf_NAMEEVAL;
    if (!opt_nameanonsubs)
        PL_perldb &= PERLDBf_NAMEANON;

    if (opt_perldb) /* force a PL_perldb value - for testing only, not documented */
        PL_perldb = opt_perldb;

#ifdef HAS_CLOCK_GETTIME
    if (profile_clock == -1) { /* auto select */
#  ifdef CLOCK_MONOTONIC
        profile_clock = CLOCK_MONOTONIC;
#  else
        profile_clock = CLOCK_REALTIME;
#  endif
    }
    /* downgrade to CLOCK_REALTIME if desired clock not available */
    if (clock_gettime(profile_clock, &start_time) != 0) {
        if (trace_level)
            logwarn("~ clock_gettime clock %d not available (%s) using CLOCK_REALTIME instead\n",
                profile_clock, strerror(errno));
        profile_clock = CLOCK_REALTIME;
        /* check CLOCK_REALTIME as well, just in case */
        if (clock_gettime(profile_clock, &start_time) != 0)
            croak("clock_gettime CLOCK_REALTIME not available (%s), aborting",
                strerror(errno));
    }
#else
    if (profile_clock != -1) {  /* user tried to select different clock */
        logwarn("clock %d not available (clock_gettime not supported on this system)\n", profile_clock);
        profile_clock = -1;
    }
#endif

    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("~ init_profiler for pid %d, clock %d, start %d, perldb 0x%lx, exitf 0x%lx\n",
            last_pid, profile_clock, profile_start,
            (long unsigned)PL_perldb, (long unsigned)PL_exit_flags);

    if (get_hv("DB::sub", 0) == NULL) {
        logwarn("NYTProf internal error - perl not in debug mode\n");
        return 0;
    }

#ifndef HAS_GETTIMEOFDAY
    require_pv("Time/HiRes.pm");                  /* before opcode redirection */
    svp = hv_fetch(PL_modglobal, "Time::U2time", 12, 0);
    if (!svp || !SvIOK(*svp)) croak("Time::HiRes is required");
    u2time = INT2PTR(int(*)(pTHX_ UV*), SvIV(*svp));
    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("NYTProf using Time::HiRes %p\n", u2time);
#endif

    /* create file id mapping hash */
    hashtable.table = (Hash_entry**)safemalloc(sizeof(Hash_entry*) * hashtable.size);
    memset(hashtable.table, 0, sizeof(Hash_entry*) * hashtable.size);

    open_output_file(aTHX_ PROF_output_file);

    /* redirect opcodes for statement profiling */
    Newxc(PL_ppaddr_orig, OP_max, void *, orig_ppaddr_t);
    Copy(PL_ppaddr, PL_ppaddr_orig, OP_max, void *);
    if (profile_stmts && !opt_use_db_sub) {
        PL_ppaddr[OP_NEXTSTATE]  = pp_stmt_profiler;
        PL_ppaddr[OP_DBSTATE]    = pp_stmt_profiler;
#ifdef OP_SETSTATE
        PL_ppaddr[OP_SETSTATE]   = pp_stmt_profiler;
#endif
        if (profile_leave) {
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVESUB]   = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVESUBLV] = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVE]      = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVELOOP]  = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVEWRITE] = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVEEVAL]  = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_LEAVETRY]   = pp_leave_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_RETURN]     = pp_leave_profiler;
            /* natural end of simple loop */
            PL_ppaddr[OP_UNSTACK]    = pp_leave_profiler;
            /* OP_NEXT is missing because that jumps to OP_UNSTACK */
            /* OP_EXIT and OP_EXEC need special handling */
            PL_ppaddr[OP_EXIT]       = pp_exit_profiler;
            PL_ppaddr[OP_EXEC]       = pp_exit_profiler;
        }
    }
    /* calls reinit_if_forked() asap after a fork */
    PL_ppaddr[OP_FORK] = pp_fork_profiler;

    if (profile_slowops) {
        /* XXX this should turn into a loop over an array that maps
         * opcodes to the subname we'll use: OP_PRTF => "printf"
         */
#include "slowops.h"
    }

    /* redirect opcodes for caller tracking */
    if (!sub_callers_hv)
        sub_callers_hv = newHV();
    if (!pkg_fids_hv)
        pkg_fids_hv = newHV();
    PL_ppaddr[OP_ENTERSUB] = pp_entersub_profiler;
    PL_ppaddr[OP_GOTO]     = pp_entersub_profiler;

    if (!PL_checkav) PL_checkav = newAV();
    if (!PL_initav)  PL_initav  = newAV();
    if (!PL_endav)   PL_endav   = newAV();
    /* pre-extend PL_endav to reduce the chance of DB::_END realloc'ing
     * it while END blocks are executed (which could upset some embedded
     * applications that don't handle PL_endav carefully, like mod_perl)
     */
    av_extend(PL_endav, av_len(PL_endav)+30);

    if (profile_start == NYTP_START_BEGIN) {
        enable_profile(aTHX_ NULL);
    } else {
        /* handled by _INIT */
        av_push(PL_initav, SvREFCNT_inc(get_cv("DB::_INIT", GV_ADDWARN)));
    }
    if (PL_minus_c) {
        av_push(PL_checkav, SvREFCNT_inc(get_cv("DB::_CHECK", GV_ADDWARN)));
    } else {
        av_push(PL_endav, SvREFCNT_inc(get_cv("DB::_END", GV_ADDWARN)));
    }

    /* seed first run time */
    if (profile_usecputime) {
        times(&start_ctime);
    }
    else {
        get_time_of_day(start_time);
    }

    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ init_profiler done\n");

    return 1;
}


/************************************
 * Devel::NYTProf::Reader Functions *
 ************************************/

static void
add_entry(pTHX_ AV *dest_av, unsigned int file_num, unsigned int line_num,
NV time, unsigned int eval_file_num, unsigned int eval_line_num, int count)
{
    /* get ref to array of per-line data */
    unsigned int fid = (eval_line_num) ? eval_file_num : file_num;
    SV *line_time_rvav = *av_fetch(dest_av, fid, 1);

    if (!SvROK(line_time_rvav))                   /* autoviv */
        sv_setsv(line_time_rvav, newRV_noinc((SV*)newAV()));

    store_profile_line_entry(aTHX_ line_time_rvav, line_num, time, count, fid);
}


static AV *
store_profile_line_entry(pTHX_ SV *rvav, unsigned int line_num, NV time,
int count, unsigned int fid)
{
    SV *time_rvav = *av_fetch((AV*)SvRV(rvav), line_num, 1);
    AV *line_av;
    if (!SvROK(time_rvav)) {                      /* autoviv */
        line_av = newAV();
        sv_setsv(time_rvav, newRV_noinc((SV*)line_av));
        av_store(line_av, 0, newSVnv(time));
        av_store(line_av, 1, newSViv(count));
        /* if eval then   2  is used for lines within the string eval */
        if (embed_fid_line) {                     /* used to optimize reporting */
            av_store(line_av, 3, newSVuv(fid));
            av_store(line_av, 4, newSVuv(line_num));
        }
    }
    else {
        SV *time_sv;
        line_av = (AV*)SvRV(time_rvav);
        time_sv = *av_fetch(line_av, 0, 1);
        sv_setnv(time_sv, time + SvNV(time_sv));
        if (count) {
            SV *sv = *av_fetch(line_av, 1, 1);
            (count == 1) ? sv_inc(sv) : sv_setiv(sv, (IV)time + SvIV(sv));
        }
    }
    return line_av;
}


/* Given a fully-qualified sub_name lookup the package name portion in
 * the pkg_fids_hv hash.  Return Nullsv if there's no package name or no
 * correponding entry else returns the SV.
 *
 * pkg_fids_hv:
 * pp_subcall_profiler() creates undef entries for a package
 *      name the first time a sub in the package is called.
 * write_sub_line_ranges() updates the SV with the filename associated
 *      with the package, or at least its best guess.
 *
 * As most callers get len via the hash API, they will have an I32, where
 * "negative" length signifies UTF-8. As we're only dealing with looking for
 * ASCII here, it doesn't matter to use which encoding sub_name is in, but it
 * reduces total code by doing the abs(len) in here.
 */
static SV *
sub_pkg_filename_sv(pTHX_ char *sub_name, I32 len)
{
    SV **svp;
    const char *delim = "::";
    /* find end of package name */
    char *colon = rninstr(sub_name, sub_name+(len > 0 ? len : -len), delim, delim+2);
    if (!colon || colon == sub_name)
        return Nullsv;   /* no :: delimiter */
    svp = hv_fetch(pkg_fids_hv, sub_name, (I32)(colon-sub_name), 0);
    if (!svp)
        return Nullsv;   /* not a package we've profiled sub calls into */
    return *svp;
}


static int
parse_DBsub_value(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *filename_len_p, UV *first_line_p, UV *last_line_p) {
    /* "filename:first-last" */
    char *filename = SvPV_nolen(sv);
    char *first = strrchr(filename, ':');
    char *last = (first) ? strchr(first, '-') : NULL;

    if (!first || !last || !grok_number(first+1, last-first-1, first_line_p))
        return 0;
    if (last_line_p)
        *last_line_p = atoi(++last);
    if (filename_len_p)
        *filename_len_p = first - filename;

    return 1;
}


static void
write_sub_line_ranges(pTHX)
{
    char *sub_name;
    I32 sub_name_len;
    SV *file_lines_sv;
    HV *hv = GvHV(PL_DBsub);
    unsigned int fid;

    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ writing sub line ranges - prescan\n");

    /* Skim through PL_DBsub hash to build a package to filename hash
     * by associating the package part of the sub_name in the key
     * with the filename part of the value.
     * but only for packages we already know we're interested in
     */
    hv_iterinit(hv);
    while (NULL != (file_lines_sv = hv_iternextsv(hv, &sub_name, &sub_name_len))) {
        STRLEN file_lines_len;
        char *filename = SvPV(file_lines_sv, file_lines_len);
        char *first;
        STRLEN filename_len;
        SV *pkg_filename_sv;

        /* This is a heuristic, and might not be robust, but it seems that
           it's possible to get problematically bogus entries in this hash.
           Specifically, setting the 'lvalue' attribute on an XS subroutine
           during a bootstrap can cause op.c to load attributes, and in turn
           cause a DynaLoader::BEGIN entry in %DB::sub associated with the
           .pm file of the XS sub's module, not DynaLoader. This has the result
           that if we try to associate XSUBs with filenames using %DB::sub,
           we can go very wrong.

           Fortunately all "wrong" entries so far spotted have a line range
           with a non-zero start, and a zero end. This cannot be legal, so we
           ignore those.
         */

        if (file_lines_len > 4
            && filename[file_lines_len - 2] == '-' && filename[file_lines_len - 1] == '0'
            && filename[file_lines_len - 4] != ':' && filename[file_lines_len - 3] != '0')
            continue;   /* ignore filenames from %DB::sub that end in ":0-0" */

        first = strrchr(filename, ':');
        filename_len = (first) ? first - filename : 0;

        /* get sv for package-of-subname to filename mapping */
        pkg_filename_sv = sub_pkg_filename_sv(aTHX_ sub_name, sub_name_len);

        if (!pkg_filename_sv) /* we don't know package */
            continue;

        /* already got a cached filename for this package XXX should allow multiple */
        if (SvOK(pkg_filename_sv)) {
            STRLEN cached_len;
            char *cached_filename = SvPV(pkg_filename_sv, cached_len);

            /*
             * if the cached filename is an eval and the current one isn't
             * then we should cache the current one instead
             */
            if (filename_len > 0
            &&  filename_is_eval(cached_filename, cached_len)
            && !filename_is_eval(filename, filename_len)
            ) {
                if (trace_level >= 3)
                    logwarn("Sub %.*s package prompted from %.*s to %.*s\n",
                        (int)sub_name_len, sub_name,
                        (int)cached_len, cached_filename,
                        (int)filename_len, filename);
                sv_setpvn(pkg_filename_sv, filename, filename_len);
                continue;
            }

            if (trace_level >= 3
            && strnNE(SvPV_nolen(pkg_filename_sv), filename, filename_len)
            && !filename_is_eval(filename, filename_len)
            ) {
                /* eg utf8::SWASHNEW is already associated with .../utf8.pm not .../utf8_heavy.pl */
                logwarn("Package of sub %.*s is already associated with %s not %.*s\n",
                    (int)sub_name_len, sub_name,
                    SvPV_nolen(pkg_filename_sv), (int)filename_len, filename);
            }
            continue;
        }

        /* ignore if filename is empty (eg xs) */
        if (!filename_len) {
            if (trace_level >= 3)
                logwarn("Sub %.*s has no filename associated (%s)\n",
                    (int)sub_name_len, sub_name, filename);
            continue;
        }

        /* associate the filename with the package */
        sv_setpvn(pkg_filename_sv, filename, filename_len);

        /* ensure a fid is assigned since we don't allow it below */
        fid = get_file_id(aTHX_ filename, filename_len, NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB);

        if (trace_level >= 3)
            logwarn("Associating package of %s with %.*s (fid %d)\n",
                 sub_name, (int)filename_len, filename, fid );
    }

    if (main_runtime_used) { /* Create fake entry for main::RUNTIME sub */
        char runtime[] = "main::RUNTIME";
        const I32 runtime_len = sizeof(runtime) - 1;
        SV *sv = *hv_fetch(hv, runtime, runtime_len, 1);

        /* get name of file that contained first profiled sub in 'main::' */
        SV *pkg_filename_sv = sub_pkg_filename_sv(aTHX_ runtime, runtime_len);
        if (!pkg_filename_sv) { /* no subs in main, so guess */
            sv_setpvn(sv, hashtable.first_inserted->key, hashtable.first_inserted->key_len);
        }
        else if (SvOK(pkg_filename_sv)) {
            sv_setsv(sv, pkg_filename_sv);
        }
        else {
            sv_setpvn(sv, "", 0);
        }
        sv_catpvs(sv, ":1-1");
    }

    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ writing sub line ranges of %ld subs\n", (long)HvKEYS(hv));

    /* Iterate over PL_DBsub writing out fid and source line range of subs.
     * If filename is missing (i.e., because it's an xsub so has no source file)
     * then use the filename of another sub in the same package.
     */
    while (NULL != (file_lines_sv = hv_iternextsv(hv, &sub_name, &sub_name_len))) {
        /* "filename:first-last" */
        char *filename = SvPV_nolen(file_lines_sv);
        STRLEN filename_len;
        UV first_line, last_line;

        if (!parse_DBsub_value(aTHX_ file_lines_sv, &filename_len, &first_line, &last_line)) {
            logwarn("Can't parse %%DB::sub entry for %s '%s'\n", sub_name, filename);
            continue;
        }

        if (!filename_len) {    /* no filename, so presumably a fake entry for xsub */
            /* do we know a filename that contains subs in the same package */
            SV *pkg_filename_sv = sub_pkg_filename_sv(aTHX_ sub_name, sub_name_len);
            if (pkg_filename_sv && SvOK(pkg_filename_sv)) {
                filename = SvPV(pkg_filename_sv, filename_len);
            if (trace_level >= 2)
                logwarn("Sub %s is xsub, we'll associate it with filename %.*s\n",
                    sub_name, (int)filename_len, filename);
            }
        }

        fid = get_file_id(aTHX_ filename, filename_len, 0);
        if (!fid) {
            if (trace_level >= 4)
                logwarn("Sub %s has no fid assigned (for file '%.*s')\n",
                    sub_name, (int)filename_len, filename);
            continue; /* no point in writing subs in files we've not profiled */
        }

        if (trace_level >= 2)
            logwarn("Sub %s fid %u lines %lu..%lu\n",
                sub_name, fid, (unsigned long)first_line, (unsigned long)last_line);

        NYTP_write_sub_info(out, fid, sub_name, sub_name_len, (unsigned long)first_line,
                            (unsigned long)last_line);
    }
}


static void
write_sub_callers(pTHX)
{
    char *called_subname;
    I32 called_subname_len;
    SV *fid_line_rvhv;
    int negative_time_calls = 0;

    if (!sub_callers_hv)
        return;
    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ writing sub callers for %ld subs\n", (long)HvKEYS(sub_callers_hv));

    hv_iterinit(sub_callers_hv);
    while (NULL != (fid_line_rvhv = hv_iternextsv(sub_callers_hv, &called_subname, &called_subname_len))) {
        HV *fid_lines_hv;
        char *caller_subname;
        I32 caller_subname_len;
        SV *sv;

        if (!SvROK(fid_line_rvhv) || SvTYPE(SvRV(fid_line_rvhv))!=SVt_PVHV) {
            logwarn("bad entry %s in sub_callers_hv\n", called_subname);
            continue;
        }
        fid_lines_hv = (HV*)SvRV(fid_line_rvhv);

        if (0) {
            logwarn("Callers of %s:\n", called_subname);
            /* level, *file, *sv, I32 nest, I32 maxnest, bool dumpops, STRLEN pvlim */
            do_sv_dump(0, Perl_debug_log, fid_line_rvhv, 0, 5, 0, 100);
        }

        /* iterate over callers to this sub ({ "subname[fid:line]" => [ ... ] })  */
        hv_iterinit(fid_lines_hv);
        while (NULL != (sv = hv_iternextsv(fid_lines_hv, &caller_subname, &caller_subname_len))) {
            NV sc[NYTP_SCi_elements];
            AV *av = (AV *)SvRV(sv);
            int trace = (trace_level >= 3);
            UV count;
            UV depth;

            unsigned int fid = 0, line = 0;
            const char *fid_line_delim = "[";
            char *fid_line_start = rninstr(caller_subname, caller_subname+caller_subname_len, fid_line_delim, fid_line_delim+1);
            if (!fid_line_start) {
                logwarn("bad fid_lines_hv key '%s'\n", caller_subname);
                continue;
            }
            if (2 != sscanf(fid_line_start+1, "%u:%u", &fid, &line)) {
                logwarn("bad fid_lines_hv format '%s'\n", caller_subname);
                continue;
            }
            /* trim length to effectively hide the [fid:line] suffix */
            caller_subname_len = (I32)(fid_line_start-caller_subname);

            count = uv_from_av(aTHX_ av, NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT, 0);
            sc[NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT] = count * 1.0;
            sc[NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME] = nv_from_av(aTHX_ av, NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME, 0.0);
            sc[NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME] = nv_from_av(aTHX_ av, NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME, 0.0);
            sc[NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME] = nv_from_av(aTHX_ av, NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME, 0.0);
            depth = uv_from_av(aTHX_ av, NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH , 0);
            sc[NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH]  = depth * 1.0;

            NYTP_write_sub_callers(out, fid, line,
                                   caller_subname, caller_subname_len,
                                   (unsigned int)count,
                                   sc[NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME],
                                   sc[NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME],
                                   sc[NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME],
                                   (unsigned int)depth,
                                   called_subname, called_subname_len);

            /* sanity check - early warning */
            if (sc[NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME] < 0.0 || sc[NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME] < 0.0) {
                ++negative_time_calls;
                if (trace_level) {
                    logwarn("%s call has negative time: incl %"NVff"s, excl %"NVff"s:\n",
                        called_subname, sc[NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME], sc[NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME]);
                    trace = 1;
                }
            }

            if (trace) {
                if (!fid && !line) {
                    logwarn("%s is xsub\n", called_subname);
                }
                else {
                    logwarn("%s called by %.*s at %u:%u: count %ld (i%"NVff"s e%"NVff"s, d%d ri%"NVff"s)\n",
                        called_subname, (int)caller_subname_len, caller_subname, fid, line,
                        (long)sc[NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT], sc[NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME], sc[NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME],
                        (int)sc[NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH], sc[NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME]);
                }
            }
        }
    }
    if (negative_time_calls) {
        logwarn("Warning: %d subroutine calls had negative time! The clock being used (%d) is probably unstable, so the results will be as well.\n",
            negative_time_calls, profile_clock);
    }
}


static void
write_src_of_files(pTHX)
{
    Hash_entry *e;
    int t_has_src  = 0;
    int t_save_src = 0;
    int t_no_src = 0;
    long t_lines = 0;

    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ writing file source code\n");

    for (e = hashtable.first_inserted; e; e = (Hash_entry *)e->next_inserted) {
        I32 lines;
        int line;
        AV *src_av = GvAV(gv_fetchfile_flags(e->key, e->key_len, 0));

        if ( !(e->fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC) ) {
            char *hint = "";
            ++t_no_src;
            if (src_av && av_len(src_av) > -1) /* sanity check */
                hint = " (NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC not set but src available!)";
            if (trace_level >= 4 || *hint)
                logwarn("fid %d has no src saved for %.*s%s\n",
                    e->id, e->key_len, e->key, hint);
            continue;
        }
        if (!src_av) { /* sanity check */
            ++t_no_src;
            logwarn("fid %d has no src but NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC is set! (%.*s)\n",
                e->id, e->key_len, e->key);
            continue;
        }
        ++t_has_src;

        if ( !(e->fid_flags & NYTP_FIDf_SAVE_SRC) ) {
            continue;
        }
        ++t_save_src;

        lines = av_len(src_av); /* -1 is empty, 1 is 1 line etc, 0 shouldn't happen */
        if (trace_level >= 4)
            logwarn("fid %d has %ld src lines for %.*s\n",
                e->id, (long)lines, e->key_len, e->key);
        for (line = 1; line <= lines; ++line) { /* lines start at 1 */
            SV **svp = av_fetch(src_av, line, 0);
            STRLEN len = 0;
            const char *src = (svp) ? SvPV(*svp, len) : "";
            /* outputting the tag and fid for each (non empty) line
             * is a little inefficient, but not enough to worry about */
            NYTP_write_src_line(out, e->id, line, src, (I32)len);    /* includes newline */
            if (trace_level >= 8) {
                logwarn("fid %d src line %d: %s%s", e->id, line, src,
                    (len && src[len-1]=='\n') ? "" : "\n");
            }
            ++t_lines;
        }
    }

    if (trace_level >= 2)
        logwarn("~ wrote %ld source lines for %d files (%d skipped without savesrc option, %d others had no source available)\n",
            t_lines, t_save_src, t_has_src-t_save_src, t_no_src);
}


/**
 * Read an integer by decompressing the next 1 to 4 bytes of binary into a 32-
 * bit integer. See output_int() for the compression details.
 */
static unsigned int
read_int(NYTP_file ifile)
{
    unsigned char d;
    unsigned int newint;

    NYTP_read(ifile, &d, sizeof(d), "integer prefix");

    if (d < 0x80) {                               /* 7 bits */
        newint = d;
    }
    else {
        unsigned char buffer[4];
        unsigned char *p = buffer;
        unsigned int length;

        if (d < 0xC0) {                          /* 14 bits */
            newint = d & 0x7F;
            length = 1;
        }
        else if (d < 0xE0) {                          /* 21 bits */
            newint = d & 0x1F;
            length = 2;
        }
        else if (d < 0xFF) {                          /* 28 bits */
            newint = d & 0xF;
            length = 3;
        }
        else if (d == 0xFF) {                         /* 32 bits */
            newint = 0;
            length = 4;
        }
        NYTP_read(ifile, buffer, length, "integer");
        while (length--) {
            newint <<= 8;
            newint |= *p++;
        }
    }
    return newint;
}


/**
 * Read an NV by simple byte copy to memory
 */
static NV
read_nv(NYTP_file ifile)
{
    NV nv;
    /* no error checking on the assumption that a later token read will
     * detect the error/eof condition
     */
    NYTP_read(ifile, (unsigned char *)&nv, sizeof(NV), "float");
    return nv;
}


static void
normalize_eval_seqn(pTHX_ SV *sv) {
    /* in-place-edit any eval sequence numbers to 0 */
    STRLEN len;
    char *start = SvPV(sv, len);
    char *first_space;

    return; /* disabled, again */

    /* effectively does
       s/(
          \(                  # first character is literal (
          (?:re_)?eval\       # eval or re_eval followed by space
         )                    # [capture that]
         [0-9]+               # digits
         (?=\))               # look ahead for literal )
         /$1 0/xg             # and rebuild, replacing the digts with 0
    */

    /* Assumption is that space is the least common character in a filename.  */

    for (; len >= 8 && (first_space = (char *)memchr(start, ' ', len));
         (len -= first_space +1 - start), (start = first_space + 1)) {
        char *first_digit;
        char *close;

        if (!((first_space - start >= 5
               && memEQ(first_space - 5, "(eval", 5))
              || (first_space - start >= 8
                  && memEQ(first_space - 8, "(re_eval", 8)))) {
            /* Fixed string not found. Try again.  */
            continue;
        }

        first_digit = first_space + 1;
        if (*first_digit < '0' || *first_digit > '9')
            continue;

        close = first_digit + 1;

        while (*close >= '0' && *close <= '9')
            ++close;

        if (*close != ')')
            continue;

        if (trace_level >= 15)
            logwarn("recognized eval in name at '%s' in %s\n", first_digit, start);

        *first_digit++ = '0';

        /* first_digit now points to the target of the move.  */

        if (close != first_digit) {
            /* 2 or more digits */
            memmove(first_digit, close,
                    start + len + 1 /* pointer beyond the trailing '\0'  */
                    - close);       /* pointer to the )  */

            len -= (close - first_digit);
            SvCUR_set(sv, SvCUR(sv) - (close - first_digit));
        }

        if (trace_level >= 15)
            logwarn("edited it to: %s\n", start);
    }
}


static AV *
lookup_subinfo_av(pTHX_ SV *subname_sv, HV *sub_subinfo_hv)
{
    /* { 'pkg::sub' => [
     *      fid, first_line, last_line, incl_time
     *    ], ... }
     */
    HE *he = hv_fetch_ent(sub_subinfo_hv, subname_sv, 1, 0);
    SV *sv = HeVAL(he);
    if (!SvROK(sv)) {                             /* autoviv */
        AV *av = newAV();
        SV *rv = newRV_noinc((SV *)av);
        /* 0: fid - may be undef
         * 1: start_line - may be undef if not known and not known to be xs
         * 2: end_line - ditto
         * typically due to an xsub that was called but exited via an exception
         */
        sv_setsv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_SUB_NAME,   1), newSVsv(subname_sv));
        sv_setuv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_CALL_COUNT, 1),   0); /* call count */
        sv_setnv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_INCL_RTIME, 1), 0.0); /* incl_time */
        sv_setnv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_EXCL_RTIME, 1), 0.0); /* excl_time */
        sv_setsv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_PROFILE,    1), &PL_sv_undef); /* ref to profile */
        sv_setuv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_REC_DEPTH,  1),   0); /* rec_depth */
        sv_setnv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_RECI_RTIME, 1), 0.0); /* reci_time */
        sv_setsv(sv, rv);
    }
    return (AV *)SvRV(sv);
}


static void
store_attrib_sv(pTHX_ HV *attr_hv, const char *text, I32 text_len, SV *value_sv)
{
    (void)hv_store(attr_hv, text, text_len, value_sv, 0);
    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn(": %.*s = '%s'\n", (int) text_len, text, SvPV_nolen(value_sv));
}

static int
eval_outer_fid(pTHX_
    AV *fid_fileinfo_av,
    unsigned int fid,
    int recurse,
    unsigned int *eval_file_num_ptr,
    unsigned int *eval_line_num_ptr
) {
    unsigned int outer_fid;
    AV *av;
    SV *fid_info_rvav = *av_fetch(fid_fileinfo_av, fid, 1);
    if (!SvROK(fid_info_rvav)) /* should never happen */
        return 0;
    av = (AV *)SvRV(fid_info_rvav);
    outer_fid = (unsigned int)SvUV(*av_fetch(av,NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FID,1));
    if (!outer_fid)
        return 0;
    if (outer_fid == fid) {
        logwarn("Possible corruption: eval_outer_fid of %d is %d!\n", fid, outer_fid);
        return 0;
    }
    if (eval_file_num_ptr)
        *eval_file_num_ptr = outer_fid;
    if (eval_line_num_ptr)
        *eval_line_num_ptr = (unsigned int)SvUV(*av_fetch(av,NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_LINE,1));
    if (recurse)
        eval_outer_fid(aTHX_ fid_fileinfo_av, outer_fid, recurse, eval_file_num_ptr, eval_line_num_ptr);
    return 1;
}

typedef struct loader_state_base {
    unsigned long input_chunk_seqn;
} Loader_state_base;

typedef void (*loader_callback)(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...);

typedef struct loader_state_callback {
    Loader_state_base base_state;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    PerlInterpreter *interp;
#endif
    CV *cb[nytp_tag_max];
    SV *cb_args[11];  /* must be large enough for the largest callback argument list */
    SV *tag_names[nytp_tag_max];
    SV *input_chunk_seqn_sv;
} Loader_state_callback;

typedef struct loader_state_profiler {
    Loader_state_base base_state;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    PerlInterpreter *interp;
#endif
    unsigned int last_file_num;
    unsigned int last_line_num;
    int statement_discount;
    UV total_stmts_discounted;
    UV total_stmts_measured;
    NV total_stmts_duration;
    UV total_sub_calls;
    AV *fid_line_time_av;
    AV *fid_block_time_av;
    AV *fid_sub_time_av;
    AV *fid_srclines_av;
    AV *fid_fileinfo_av;
    HV *sub_subinfo_hv;
    HV *live_pids_hv;
    HV *attr_hv;
    HV *file_info_stash;
    /* these times don't reflect profile_enable & profile_disable calls */
    NV profiler_start_time;
    NV profiler_end_time;
    NV profiler_duration;
} Loader_state_profiler;

static void
load_discount_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;

    if (trace_level >= 4)
        logwarn("discounting next statement after %u:%d\n",
                state->last_file_num, state->last_line_num);
    if (state->statement_discount)
        logwarn("multiple statement discount after %u:%d\n",
                state->last_file_num, state->last_line_num);
    ++state->statement_discount;
    ++state->total_stmts_discounted;
}

static void
load_time_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    char trace_note[80] = "";
    SV *fid_info_rvav;
    NV seconds;
    unsigned int eval_file_num = 0;
    unsigned int eval_line_num = 0;
    unsigned int ticks;
    unsigned int file_num;
    unsigned int line_num;

    va_start(args, tag);

    ticks = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    file_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    line_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);

    seconds = (NV)ticks / ticks_per_sec;

    fid_info_rvav = *av_fetch(state->fid_fileinfo_av, file_num, 1);
    if (!SvROK(fid_info_rvav)) {    /* should never happen */
        if (!SvOK(fid_info_rvav)) { /* only warn once */
            logwarn("Fid %u used but not defined\n", file_num);
            sv_setsv(fid_info_rvav, &PL_sv_no);
        }
    }

    if (trace_level >= 4) {
        const char *new_file_name = "";
        if (file_num != state->last_file_num && SvROK(fid_info_rvav))
            new_file_name = SvPV_nolen(*av_fetch((AV *)SvRV(fid_info_rvav), NYTP_FIDi_FILENAME, 1));
        logwarn("Read %d:%-4d %2u ticks%s %s\n",
                file_num, line_num, ticks, trace_note, new_file_name);
    }

    add_entry(aTHX_ state->fid_line_time_av, file_num, line_num,
              seconds, eval_file_num, eval_line_num,
              1 - state->statement_discount
        );

    if (tag == nytp_time_block) {
        unsigned int block_line_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
        unsigned int sub_line_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);

        if (!state->fid_block_time_av)
            state->fid_block_time_av = newAV();
        add_entry(aTHX_ state->fid_block_time_av, file_num, block_line_num,
                seconds, eval_file_num, eval_line_num,
                1 - state->statement_discount
        );

        if (!state->fid_sub_time_av)
            state->fid_sub_time_av = newAV();
        add_entry(aTHX_ state->fid_sub_time_av, file_num, sub_line_num,
                seconds, eval_file_num, eval_line_num,
                1 - state->statement_discount
        );

        if (trace_level >= 4)
            logwarn("\tblock %u, sub %u\n", block_line_num, sub_line_num);
    }

    va_end(args);

    state->total_stmts_measured++;
    state->total_stmts_duration += seconds;
    state->statement_discount = 0;
    state->last_file_num = file_num;
    state->last_line_num = line_num;
}

static void
load_new_fid_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    AV *av;
    SV *rv;
    SV **svp;
    SV *filename_sv;
    unsigned int file_num;
    unsigned int eval_file_num;
    unsigned int eval_line_num;
    unsigned int fid_flags;
    unsigned int file_size;
    unsigned int file_mtime;

    va_start(args, tag);

    file_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    eval_file_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    eval_line_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    fid_flags = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    file_size = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    file_mtime = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    filename_sv = va_arg(args, SV *);

    va_end(args);

    if (trace_level >= 2) {
        char buf[80];
        char parent_fid[80];
        if (eval_file_num || eval_line_num)
            sprintf(parent_fid, " (is eval at %u:%u)", eval_file_num, eval_line_num);
        else 
            sprintf(parent_fid, " (file sz%d mt%d)", file_size, file_mtime);

        logwarn("Fid %2u is %s%s 0x%x(%s)\n",
                file_num, SvPV_nolen(filename_sv), parent_fid,
                fid_flags, fmt_fid_flags(aTHX_ fid_flags, buf, sizeof(buf)));
    }

    /* [ name, eval_file_num, eval_line_num, fid, flags, size, mtime, ... ]
     */
    av = newAV();
    rv = newRV_noinc((SV*)av);
    sv_bless(rv, state->file_info_stash);

    svp = av_fetch(state->fid_fileinfo_av, file_num, 1);
    if (SvOK(*svp)) { /* should never happen, perhaps file is corrupt */
        AV *old_av = (AV *)SvRV(*av_fetch(state->fid_fileinfo_av, file_num, 1));
        SV *old_name = *av_fetch(old_av, 0, 1);
        logwarn("Fid %d redefined from %s to %s\n", file_num,
                SvPV_nolen(old_name), SvPV_nolen(filename_sv));
    }
    sv_setsv(*svp, rv);

    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_FILENAME, filename_sv); /* av now owns the sv */
    if (eval_file_num) {
        SV *has_evals;
        /* this eval fid refers to the fid that contained the eval */
        SV *eval_fi = *av_fetch(state->fid_fileinfo_av, eval_file_num, 1);
        if (!SvROK(eval_fi)) { /* should never happen */
            char buf[80];
            logwarn("Eval '%s' (fid %d, flags:%s) has unknown invoking fid %d\n",
                SvPV_nolen(filename_sv), file_num,
                fmt_fid_flags(aTHX_ fid_flags, buf, sizeof(buf)), eval_file_num);
            /* so make it look like a real file instead of an eval */
            av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FI,   &PL_sv_undef);
            eval_file_num = 0;
            eval_line_num = 0;
        }
        else {
            av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FI, sv_rvweaken(newSVsv(eval_fi)));
            /* the fid that contained the eval has a list of eval fids */
            has_evals = *av_fetch((AV *)SvRV(eval_fi), NYTP_FIDi_HAS_EVALS, 1);
            if (!SvROK(has_evals)) /* autoviv */
                sv_setsv(has_evals, newRV_noinc((SV*)newAV()));
            av_push((AV *)SvRV(has_evals), sv_rvweaken(newSVsv(rv)));
        }
    }
    else {
        av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FI,   &PL_sv_undef);
    }
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FID,  (eval_file_num) ? newSVuv(eval_file_num) : &PL_sv_no);
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_LINE, (eval_file_num) ? newSVuv(eval_line_num) : &PL_sv_no);
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_FID,       newSVuv(file_num));
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_FLAGS,     newSVuv(fid_flags));
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_FILESIZE,  newSVuv(file_size));
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_FILEMTIME, newSVuv(file_mtime));
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_PROFILE,   &PL_sv_undef);
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_HAS_EVALS, &PL_sv_undef);
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED, newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV()));
    av_store(av, NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_CALLED,  newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV()));
}

static void
load_src_line_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    unsigned int file_num;
    unsigned int line_num;
    SV *src;
    AV *file_av;

    va_start(args, tag);

    file_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    line_num = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    src = va_arg(args, SV *);

    va_end(args);

    /* first line in the file seen */
    if (!av_exists(state->fid_srclines_av, file_num)) {
        file_av = newAV();
        av_store(state->fid_srclines_av, file_num, newRV_noinc((SV*)file_av));
    }
    else {
        file_av = (AV *)SvRV(*av_fetch(state->fid_srclines_av, file_num, 1));
    }
    
    av_store(file_av, line_num, src);

    if (trace_level >= 8) {
        logwarn("Fid %2u:%u src: %s\n", file_num, line_num, SvPV_nolen(src));
    }
}

static void
load_sub_info_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    unsigned int fid;
    unsigned int first_line;
    unsigned int last_line;
    SV *subname_sv;
    int skip_subinfo_store = 0;
    STRLEN subname_len;
    char *subname_pv;
    AV *av;
    SV *sv;

    va_start(args, tag);

    fid = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    first_line = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    last_line = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    subname_sv = va_arg(args, SV *);

    va_end(args);

    normalize_eval_seqn(aTHX_ subname_sv);

    subname_pv = SvPV(subname_sv, subname_len);
    if (trace_level >= 2)
        logwarn("Sub %s fid %u lines %u..%u\n",
                subname_pv, fid, first_line, last_line);

    av = lookup_subinfo_av(aTHX_ subname_sv, state->sub_subinfo_hv);
    if (SvOK(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_FID, 1))) {
        /* We've already seen this subroutine name.
         * Should only happen for anon subs in string evals so we warn
         * for other cases.
         */
        if (!instr(subname_pv, "__ANON__[(eval"))
            logwarn("Sub %s already defined!\n", subname_pv);

        /* We could always discard the fid+first_line+last_line here,
         * because we already have them stored, but for consistency
         * (and for the stability of the tests) we'll prefer the lowest fid
         */
        if (fid > SvUV(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_FID, 1)))
            skip_subinfo_store = 1;

        /* Finally, note that the fileinfo NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED hash,
         * updated below, does get an entry for the sub *from each fid*
         * (ie string eval) that defines the subroutine.
         */
    }
    if (!skip_subinfo_store) {
        sv_setuv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_FID,        1), fid);
        sv_setuv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_FIRST_LINE, 1), first_line);
        sv_setuv(*av_fetch(av, NYTP_SIi_LAST_LINE,  1), last_line);
    }

    /* add sub to NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED hash */
    sv = SvRV(*av_fetch(state->fid_fileinfo_av, fid, 1));
    sv = SvRV(*av_fetch((AV *)sv, NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED, 1));
    (void)hv_store((HV *)sv, subname_pv, (I32)subname_len, newRV_inc((SV*)av), 0);
}

static void
load_sub_callers_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    unsigned int fid;
    unsigned int line;
    SV *caller_subname_sv;
    unsigned int count;
    NV incl_time;
    NV excl_time;
    NV reci_time;
    unsigned int rec_depth;
    SV *called_subname_sv;
    char text[MAXPATHLEN*2];
    SV *sv;
    AV *subinfo_av;
    int len;

    va_start(args, tag);

    fid = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    line = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    count = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    incl_time = va_arg(args, NV);
    excl_time = va_arg(args, NV);
    reci_time = va_arg(args, NV);
    rec_depth = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    called_subname_sv = va_arg(args, SV *);
    caller_subname_sv = va_arg(args, SV *);

    va_end(args);

    normalize_eval_seqn(aTHX_ caller_subname_sv);
    normalize_eval_seqn(aTHX_ called_subname_sv);

    if (trace_level >= 3)
        logwarn("Sub %s called by %s %u:%u: count %d, incl %"NVff", excl %"NVff"\n",
                SvPV_nolen(called_subname_sv), SvPV_nolen(caller_subname_sv),
                fid, line, count, incl_time, excl_time);

    subinfo_av = lookup_subinfo_av(aTHX_ called_subname_sv, state->sub_subinfo_hv);

    /* subinfo_av's NYTP_SIi_CALLED_BY element is a hash ref:
     * { caller_fid => { caller_line => [ count, incl_time, ... ] } }
     */
    sv = *av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_CALLED_BY, 1);
    if (!SvROK(sv))                   /* autoviv */
        sv_setsv(sv, newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV()));

    len = sprintf(text, "%u", fid);
    sv = *hv_fetch((HV*)SvRV(sv), text, len, 1);
    if (!SvROK(sv))                   /* autoviv */
        sv_setsv(sv, newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV()));

    /* XXX gets called with fid=0 to indicate is_xsub
     * That's a hack that should be removed once we have per-sub flags
     */
    if (fid) {
        SV *fi;
        AV *av;
        len = sprintf(text, "%u", line);

        sv = *hv_fetch((HV*)SvRV(sv), text, len, 1);
        if (!SvROK(sv))               /* autoviv */
            sv_setsv(sv, newRV_noinc((SV*)newAV()));
        else if (trace_level)
            /* calls to sub1 from the same fid:line could have different caller
             * subs due to evals or if profile_findcaller is off.
             */
            logwarn("Merging extra sub caller info for %s called at %d:%d\n",
                    SvPV_nolen(called_subname_sv), fid, line);

        av = (AV *)SvRV(sv);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT, 1);
        sv_setuv(sv, (SvOK(sv)) ? SvUV(sv) + count : count);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME, 1);
        sv_setnv(sv, (SvOK(sv)) ? SvNV(sv) + incl_time : incl_time);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME, 1);
        sv_setnv(sv, (SvOK(sv)) ? SvNV(sv) + excl_time : excl_time);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_spare_3, 1);
        sv_setnv(sv, 0.0);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_spare_4, 1);
        sv_setnv(sv, 0.0);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME, 1);
        sv_setnv(sv, (SvOK(sv)) ? SvNV(sv) + reci_time : reci_time);
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH,  1);
        if (!SvOK(sv) || SvUV(sv) < rec_depth) /* max() */
            sv_setuv(sv, rec_depth);
        /* XXX temp hack way to store calling subname */
        sv = *av_fetch(av, NYTP_SCi_CALLING_SUB, 1);
        if (!SvROK(sv))               /* autoviv */
            sv_setsv(sv, newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV()));
        (void)hv_fetch_ent((HV *)SvRV(sv), caller_subname_sv, 1, 0);

        /* also reference this sub call info array from the calling fileinfo
         * fi->[NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_CALLED] => { line => { subname => [ ... ] } }
         */
        fi = SvRV(*av_fetch(state->fid_fileinfo_av, fid, 1));
        fi = *av_fetch((AV *)fi, NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_CALLED, 1);
        fi = *hv_fetch((HV*)SvRV(fi), text, len, 1);
        if (!SvROK(fi))               /* autoviv */
            sv_setsv(fi, newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV()));
        fi = HeVAL(hv_fetch_ent((HV *)SvRV(fi), called_subname_sv, 1, 0));
        if (1) { /* ref a clone of the sub call info array */
            AV *av2 = av_make(AvFILL(av)+1, AvARRAY(av));
            av = av2;
        }
        sv_setsv(fi, newRV_inc((SV *)av));
    }
    else {                            /* is meta-data about sub */
        /* line == 0: is_xs - set line range to 0,0 as marker */
        sv_setiv(*av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_FIRST_LINE, 1), 0);
        sv_setiv(*av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_LAST_LINE,  1), 0);
    }

    /* accumulate per-sub totals into subinfo */
    sv = *av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_CALL_COUNT, 1);
    sv_setuv(sv, count     + (SvOK(sv) ? SvUV(sv) : 0));
    sv = *av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_INCL_RTIME, 1);
    sv_setnv(sv, incl_time + (SvOK(sv) ? SvNV(sv) : 0.0));
    sv = *av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_EXCL_RTIME, 1);
    sv_setnv(sv, excl_time + (SvOK(sv) ? SvNV(sv) : 0.0));
    /* sub rec_depth - record the maximum */
    sv = *av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_REC_DEPTH, 1);
    if (!SvOK(sv) || rec_depth > SvUV(sv))
        sv_setuv(sv, rec_depth);
    sv = *av_fetch(subinfo_av, NYTP_SIi_RECI_RTIME, 1);
    sv_setnv(sv, reci_time + (SvOK(sv) ? SvNV(sv) : 0.0));

    state->total_sub_calls += count;
}

static void
load_pid_start_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    unsigned int pid;
    unsigned int ppid;
    NV start_time;
    char text[MAXPATHLEN*2];
    int len;

    va_start(args, tag);

    pid = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    ppid = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    start_time = va_arg(args, NV);

    va_end(args);

    state->profiler_start_time = start_time;

    len = sprintf(text, "%d", pid);
    (void)hv_store(state->live_pids_hv, text, len, newSVuv(ppid), 0);
    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("Start of profile data for pid %s (ppid %d, %"IVdf" pids live) at %"NVff"\n",
                text, ppid, HvKEYS(state->live_pids_hv), start_time);

    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state->attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("profiler_start_time"),
                    newSVnv(start_time));
}

static void
load_pid_end_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    unsigned int pid;
    NV end_time;
    char text[MAXPATHLEN*2];
    int len;

    va_start(args, tag);

    pid = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
    end_time = va_arg(args, NV);

    va_end(args);

    state->profiler_end_time = end_time;

    len = sprintf(text, "%d", pid);
    if (!hv_delete(state->live_pids_hv, text, len, 0))
        logwarn("Inconsistent pids in profile data (pid %d not introduced)\n",
                pid);
    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("End of profile data for pid %s (%"IVdf" remaining) at %"NVff"\n", text,
                HvKEYS(state->live_pids_hv), state->profiler_end_time);

    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state->attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("profiler_end_time"),
                    newSVnv(end_time));
    state->profiler_duration += end_time - state->profiler_start_time;
    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state->attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("profiler_duration"),
                    newSVnv(state->profiler_duration));

}

static void
load_attribute_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_profiler *state = (Loader_state_profiler *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    va_list args;
    char *key;
    unsigned long key_len;
    unsigned int key_utf8;
    char *value;
    unsigned long value_len;
    unsigned int value_utf8;

    va_start(args, tag);

    key = va_arg(args, char *);
    key_len = va_arg(args, unsigned long);
    key_utf8 = va_arg(args, unsigned int);

    value = va_arg(args, char *);
    value_len = va_arg(args, unsigned long);
    value_utf8 = va_arg(args, unsigned int);

    va_end(args);

    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state->attr_hv, key,
                    key_utf8 ? -(I32)key_len : key_len,
                    newSVpvn_flags(value, value_len,
                                   value_utf8 ? SVf_UTF8 : 0));
}

struct perl_callback_info_t {
    const char *description;
    STRLEN len;
    const char *args;
};

static struct perl_callback_info_t callback_info[nytp_tag_max] =
{
    {STR_WITH_LEN("[no tag]"), NULL},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("VERSION"), "uu"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("ATTRIBUTE"), "33"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("COMMENT"), "3"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("TIME_BLOCK"), "uuuuu"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("TIME_LINE"), "uuu"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("DISCOUNT"), ""},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("NEW_FID"), "uuuuuuS"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("SRC_LINE"), "uuS"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("SUB_INFO"), "uuus"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("SUB_CALLERS"), "uuunnnuss"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("PID_START"), "uun"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("PID_END"), "un"},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("[string]"), NULL},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("[string utf8]"), NULL},
    {STR_WITH_LEN("START_DEFLATE"), ""}
};

static void
load_perl_callback(Loader_state_base *cb_data, const nytp_tax_index tag, ...)
{
    Loader_state_callback *state = (Loader_state_callback *)cb_data;
    dTHXa(state->interp);
    dSP;
    va_list args;
    SV **cb_args = state->cb_args;
    int i = 0;
    char type;
    const char *arglist = callback_info[tag].args;
    const char *const description = callback_info[tag].description;

    if (!arglist) {
        if (description)
            croak("Type '%s' passed to perl callback incorrectly", description);
        else
            croak("Unknown type %d passed to perl callback", tag);
    }

    if (!state->cb[tag])
        return;

    if (trace_level >= 9) {
        logwarn("\tcallback %s[%s] \n", description, arglist);
    }

    sv_setuv_mg(state->input_chunk_seqn_sv, state->base_state.input_chunk_seqn);

    va_start(args, tag);

    PUSHMARK(SP);

    XPUSHs(state->tag_names[tag]);

    while ((type = *arglist++)) {
        switch(type) {
        case 'u':
        {
            unsigned int u = va_arg(args, unsigned int);

            sv_setuv(cb_args[i], u);
            XPUSHs(cb_args[i++]);
            break;
        }
        case 'n':
        {
            NV n = va_arg(args, NV);

            sv_setnv(cb_args[i], n);
            XPUSHs(cb_args[i++]);
            break;
        }
        case 's':
        {
            SV *sv = va_arg(args, SV *);

            sv_setsv(cb_args[i], sv);
            XPUSHs(cb_args[i++]);
            break;
        }
        case 'S':
        {
            SV *sv = va_arg(args, SV *);

            XPUSHs(sv_2mortal(sv));
            break;
        }
        case '3':
        {
            char *p = va_arg(args, char *);
            unsigned long len = va_arg(args, unsigned long);
            unsigned int utf8 = va_arg(args, unsigned int);
            
            sv_setpvn(cb_args[i], p, len);
            if (utf8)
                SvUTF8_on(cb_args[i]);
            else
                SvUTF8_off(cb_args[i]);

            XPUSHs(cb_args[i++]);
            break;
        }

        default:
            croak("Bad type '%c' in perl callback", type);
        }
    }
    va_end(args);
    assert(i <= C_ARRAY_LENGTH(state->cb_args));

    PUTBACK;
    call_sv((SV *)state->cb[tag], G_DISCARD);
}


static loader_callback perl_callbacks[nytp_tag_max] =
{
    0,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback,
    load_perl_callback
};
static loader_callback processing_callbacks[nytp_tag_max] =
{
    0,
    0, /* version */
    load_attribute_callback,
    0, /* comment */
    load_time_callback,
    load_time_callback,
    load_discount_callback,
    load_new_fid_callback,
    load_src_line_callback,
    load_sub_info_callback,
    load_sub_callers_callback,
    load_pid_start_callback,
    load_pid_end_callback,
    0, /* string */
    0, /* string utf8 */
    0  /* start deflate */
};

/**
 * Process a profile output file and return the results in a hash like
 * { fid_fileinfo  => [ [file, other...info ], ... ], # index by [fid]
 *   fid_line_time  => [ [...],[...],..  ] # index by [fid][line]
 * }
 * The value of each [fid][line] is an array ref containing:
 * [ number of calls, total time spent ]
 * lines containing string evals also get an extra element
 * [ number of calls, total time spent, [...] ]
 * which is an reference to an array containing the [calls,time]
 * data for each line of the string eval.
 */
static void
load_profile_data_from_stream(loader_callback *callbacks,
                              Loader_state_base *state, NYTP_file in)
{
    dTHX;
    int file_major, file_minor;

    SV *tmp_str1_sv = newSVpvn("",0);
    SV *tmp_str2_sv = newSVpvn("",0);

    size_t buffer_len = MAXPATHLEN * 2;
    char *buffer = (char *)safemalloc(buffer_len);

    if (1) {
        if (!NYTP_gets(in, &buffer, &buffer_len))
            croak("NYTProf data format error while reading header");
        if (2 != sscanf(buffer, "NYTProf %d %d\n", &file_major, &file_minor))
            croak("NYTProf data format error while parsing header");
        if (file_major != NYTP_FILE_MAJOR_VERSION)
            croak("NYTProf data format version %d.%d is not supported by NYTProf %s (which expects version %d.%d)",
                file_major, file_minor, XS_VERSION, NYTP_FILE_MAJOR_VERSION, NYTP_FILE_MINOR_VERSION);

        if (file_minor > NYTP_FILE_MINOR_VERSION)
            warn("NYTProf data format version %d.%d is newer than that understood by this NYTProf %s, so errors are likely",
                file_major, file_minor, XS_VERSION);
    }

    if (callbacks[nytp_version])
        callbacks[nytp_version](state, nytp_version, file_major, file_minor);

    while (1) {
        /* Loop "forever" until EOF. We can only check the EOF flag *after* we
           attempt a read.  */
        char c;

        if (NYTP_read_unchecked(in, &c, sizeof(c)) != sizeof(c)) {
          if (NYTP_eof(in))
            break;
          croak("Profile format error '%s' whilst reading tag at %ld",
                NYTP_fstrerror(in), NYTP_tell(in));
        }

        state->input_chunk_seqn++;
        if (trace_level >= 9)
            logwarn("Chunk %lu token is %d ('%c') at %ld%s\n",
                    state->input_chunk_seqn, c, c, NYTP_tell(in)-1,
                    NYTP_type_of_offset(in));

        switch (c) {
            case NYTP_TAG_DISCOUNT:
            {
                callbacks[nytp_discount](state, nytp_discount);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_TIME_LINE:                       /*FALLTHRU*/
            case NYTP_TAG_TIME_BLOCK:
            {
                unsigned int ticks    = read_int(in);
                unsigned int file_num = read_int(in);
                unsigned int line_num = read_int(in);
                unsigned int block_line_num = 0;
                unsigned int sub_line_num = 0;
                nytp_tax_index tag = nytp_time_line;

                if (c == NYTP_TAG_TIME_BLOCK) {
                    block_line_num = read_int(in);
                    sub_line_num = read_int(in);
                    if (profile_blocks)
                        tag = nytp_time_block;
                }

                /* Because it happens that the two "optional" arguments are
                   last, a single call will work.  */
                callbacks[tag](state, tag, ticks, file_num, line_num,
                               block_line_num, sub_line_num);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_NEW_FID:                             /* file */
            {
                SV *filename_sv;
                unsigned int file_num      = read_int(in);
                unsigned int eval_file_num = read_int(in);
                unsigned int eval_line_num = read_int(in);
                unsigned int fid_flags     = read_int(in);
                unsigned int file_size     = read_int(in);
                unsigned int file_mtime    = read_int(in);

                filename_sv = read_str(aTHX_ in, NULL);

                callbacks[nytp_new_fid](state, nytp_new_fid, file_num,
                                        eval_file_num, eval_line_num,
                                        fid_flags, file_size, file_mtime,
                                        filename_sv);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_SRC_LINE:
            {
                unsigned int file_num = read_int(in);
                unsigned int line_num = read_int(in);
                SV *src = read_str(aTHX_ in, NULL);

                callbacks[nytp_src_line](state, nytp_src_line, file_num,
                                         line_num, src);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_SUB_INFO:
            {
                unsigned int fid        = read_int(in);
                SV *subname_sv = read_str(aTHX_ in, tmp_str1_sv);
                unsigned int first_line = read_int(in);
                unsigned int last_line  = read_int(in);

                callbacks[nytp_sub_info](state, nytp_sub_info, fid,
                                         first_line, last_line, subname_sv);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_SUB_CALLERS:
            {
                unsigned int fid   = read_int(in);
                unsigned int line  = read_int(in);
                SV *caller_subname_sv = read_str(aTHX_ in, tmp_str2_sv);
                unsigned int count = read_int(in);
                NV incl_time       = read_nv(in);
                NV excl_time       = read_nv(in);
                NV reci_time       = read_nv(in);
                unsigned int rec_depth = read_int(in);
                SV *called_subname_sv = read_str(aTHX_ in, tmp_str1_sv);

                callbacks[nytp_sub_callers](state, nytp_sub_callers, fid,
                                            line, count, incl_time, excl_time,
                                            reci_time, rec_depth,
                                            called_subname_sv,
                                            caller_subname_sv);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_PID_START:
            {
                unsigned int pid  = read_int(in);
                unsigned int ppid = read_int(in);
                NV start_time = read_nv(in);

                callbacks[nytp_pid_start](state, nytp_pid_start, pid, ppid,
                                          start_time);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_PID_END:
            {
                unsigned int pid = read_int(in);
                NV end_time = read_nv(in);

                callbacks[nytp_pid_end](state, nytp_pid_end, pid, end_time);
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_ATTRIBUTE:
            {
                char *value, *key_end;
                char *end = NYTP_gets(in, &buffer, &buffer_len);
                if (NULL == end)
                    /* probably EOF */
                    croak("Profile format error reading attribute");
                --end; /* End, as returned, points 1 after the \n  */
                if ((NULL == (value = (char *)memchr(buffer, '=', end - buffer)))) {
                    logwarn("attribute malformed '%s'\n", buffer);
                    continue;
                }
                key_end = value++;

                callbacks[nytp_attribute](state, nytp_attribute, buffer,
                                          (unsigned long)(key_end - buffer),
                                          0, value,
                                          (unsigned long)(end - value), 0);

                if (memEQs(buffer, key_end - buffer, "ticks_per_sec")) {
                    ticks_per_sec = (unsigned int)atoi(value);
                }
                else if (memEQs(buffer, key_end - buffer, "nv_size")) {
                    if (sizeof(NV) != atoi(value))
                        croak("Profile data created by incompatible perl config (NV size %d but ours is %d)",
                            atoi(value), (int)sizeof(NV));
                }
                    
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_COMMENT:
            {
                char *end = NYTP_gets(in, &buffer, &buffer_len);
                if (!end)
                    /* probably EOF */
                    croak("Profile format error reading comment");

                if (callbacks[nytp_comment])
                    callbacks[nytp_comment](state, nytp_comment, buffer,
                                            (unsigned long)(end - buffer), 0);

                if (trace_level >= 1)
                    logwarn("# %s", buffer); /* includes \n */
                break;
            }

            case NYTP_TAG_START_DEFLATE:
            {
#ifdef HAS_ZLIB
                if (callbacks[nytp_start_deflate]) {
                    callbacks[nytp_start_deflate](state, nytp_start_deflate);
                }
                NYTP_start_inflate(in);
#else
                croak("File uses compression but compression is not supported by this build of NYTProf");
#endif
                break;
            }

            default:
                croak("File format error: token %d ('%c'), chunk %lu, pos %ld%s",
                      c, c, state->input_chunk_seqn, NYTP_tell(in)-1,
                      NYTP_type_of_offset(in));
        }
    }

    sv_free(tmp_str1_sv);
    sv_free(tmp_str2_sv);
    Safefree(buffer);
}

static HV*
load_profile_to_hv(pTHX_ NYTP_file in)
{
    Loader_state_profiler state;
    HV *profile_hv;
    HV *profile_modes;

    Zero(&state, 1, Loader_state_profiler);
    state.total_stmts_duration = 0.0;
    state.profiler_start_time = 0.0;
    state.profiler_start_time = 0.0;
    state.profiler_end_time = 0.0;
    state.profiler_duration = 0.0;
#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    state.interp = my_perl;
#endif
    state.fid_line_time_av = newAV();
    state.fid_srclines_av = newAV();
    state.fid_fileinfo_av = newAV();
    state.sub_subinfo_hv = newHV();
    state.live_pids_hv = newHV();
    state.attr_hv = newHV();
    state.file_info_stash = gv_stashpv("Devel::NYTProf::FileInfo", GV_ADDWARN);

    av_extend(state.fid_fileinfo_av, 64);   /* grow them up front. */
    av_extend(state.fid_srclines_av, 64);
    av_extend(state.fid_line_time_av, 64);

    load_profile_data_from_stream(processing_callbacks,
                                  (Loader_state_base *)&state, in);


    if (HvKEYS(state.live_pids_hv)) {
        logwarn("Profile data incomplete, no terminator for %"IVdf" pids %s\n",
            HvKEYS(state.live_pids_hv),
            "(refer to TROUBLESHOOTING in the documentation)");
        store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state.attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("complete"),
                        &PL_sv_no);
    }
    else {
        store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state.attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("complete"),
                        &PL_sv_yes);
    }

    sv_free((SV*)state.live_pids_hv);

    if (state.statement_discount) /* discard unused statement_discount */
        state.total_stmts_discounted -= state.statement_discount;
    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state.attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("total_stmts_measured"),
                    newSVnv(state.total_stmts_measured));
    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state.attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("total_stmts_discounted"),
                    newSVnv(state.total_stmts_discounted));
    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state.attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("total_stmts_duration"),
                    newSVnv(state.total_stmts_duration));
    store_attrib_sv(aTHX_ state.attr_hv, STR_WITH_LEN("total_sub_calls"),
                    newSVnv(state.total_sub_calls));

    if (1) {
        int show_summary_stats = (trace_level >= 1);

        if (state.profiler_end_time
            && state.total_stmts_duration > state.profiler_duration * 1.1) {
            logwarn("The sum of the statement timings is %.1"NVff"%% of the total time profiling."
                 " (Values slightly over 100%% can be due simply to cumulative timing errors,"
                 " whereas larger values can indicate a problem with the clock used.)\n",
                state.total_stmts_duration / state.profiler_duration * 100);
            show_summary_stats = 1;
        }

        if (show_summary_stats)
            logwarn("Summary: statements profiled %lu (=%lu-%lu), sum of time %"NVff"s, profile spanned %"NVff"s\n",
                (unsigned long)(state.total_stmts_measured - state.total_stmts_discounted),
                (unsigned long)state.total_stmts_measured, (unsigned long)state.total_stmts_discounted,
                state.total_stmts_duration,
                state.profiler_end_time - state.profiler_start_time);
    }

    profile_hv = newHV();
    profile_modes = newHV();
    (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "attribute",         
                    newRV_noinc((SV*)state.attr_hv));
    (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "fid_fileinfo",
                    newRV_noinc((SV*)state.fid_fileinfo_av));
    (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "fid_srclines",
            newRV_noinc((SV*)state.fid_srclines_av));
    (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "fid_line_time",
                    newRV_noinc((SV*)state.fid_line_time_av));
    (void)hv_stores(profile_modes, "fid_line_time", newSVpvs("line"));
    if (state.fid_block_time_av) {
        (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "fid_block_time",
                        newRV_noinc((SV*)state.fid_block_time_av));
        (void)hv_stores(profile_modes, "fid_block_time", newSVpvs("block"));
    }
    if (state.fid_sub_time_av) {
        (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "fid_sub_time",
                        newRV_noinc((SV*)state.fid_sub_time_av));
        (void)hv_stores(profile_modes, "fid_sub_time", newSVpvs("sub"));
    }
    (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "sub_subinfo",
                    newRV_noinc((SV*)state.sub_subinfo_hv));
    (void)hv_stores(profile_hv, "profile_modes",
                    newRV_noinc((SV*)profile_modes));
    return profile_hv;
}

static void
load_profile_to_callback(pTHX_ NYTP_file in, SV *cb)
{
    Loader_state_callback state;
    int i;
    HV *cb_hv = NULL;
    CV *default_cb = NULL;

    if (SvTYPE(cb) == SVt_PVHV) {
        /* A default callback is stored with an empty key.  */
        SV **svp;

        cb_hv = (HV *)cb;
        svp = hv_fetch(cb_hv, "", 0, 0);

        if (svp) {
            if (!SvROK(*svp) && SvTYPE(SvRV(*svp)) != SVt_PVCV)
                croak("Default callback is not a CODE reference");
            default_cb = (CV *)SvRV(*svp);
        }
    } else if (SvTYPE(cb) == SVt_PVCV) {
        default_cb = (CV *) cb;
    } else
        croak("Not a CODE or HASH reference");

#ifdef MULTIPLICITY
    state.interp = my_perl;
#endif

    state.base_state.input_chunk_seqn = 0;

    state.input_chunk_seqn_sv = save_scalar(gv_fetchpv(".", GV_ADD, SVt_IV));

    i = C_ARRAY_LENGTH(state.tag_names);
    while (--i) {
        if (callback_info[i].args) {
            state.tag_names[i]
                = newSVpvn_flags(callback_info[i].description,
                                 callback_info[i].len, SVs_TEMP);
            SvREADONLY_on(state.tag_names[i]);
                /* Don't steal the string buffer.  */
            SvTEMP_off(state.tag_names[i]);
        } else
            state.tag_names[i] = NULL;

        if (cb_hv) {
            SV **svp = hv_fetch(cb_hv, callback_info[i].description,
                                (I32)(callback_info[i].len), 0);

            if (svp) {
                if (!SvROK(*svp) && SvTYPE(SvRV(*svp)) != SVt_PVCV)
                    croak("Callback for %s is not a CODE reference",
                          callback_info[i].description);
                state.cb[i] = (CV *)SvRV(*svp);
            } else
                state.cb[i] = default_cb;
        } else
            state.cb[i] = default_cb;
    }
    for (i = 0; i < C_ARRAY_LENGTH(state.cb_args); i++)
        state.cb_args[i] = sv_newmortal();

    load_profile_data_from_stream(perl_callbacks, (Loader_state_base *)&state,
                                  in);
}

struct int_constants_t {
    const char *name;
    int value;
};

static struct int_constants_t int_constants[] = {
    /* NYTP_FIDf_* */
    {"NYTP_FIDf_IS_PMC",       NYTP_FIDf_IS_PMC},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_VIA_STMT",     NYTP_FIDf_VIA_STMT},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB",      NYTP_FIDf_VIA_SUB},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT", NYTP_FIDf_IS_AUTOSPLIT},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC",      NYTP_FIDf_HAS_SRC},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_SAVE_SRC",     NYTP_FIDf_SAVE_SRC},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_IS_ALIAS",     NYTP_FIDf_IS_ALIAS},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_IS_FAKE",      NYTP_FIDf_IS_FAKE},
    {"NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL",      NYTP_FIDf_IS_EVAL},
    /* NYTP_FIDi_* */
    {"NYTP_FIDi_FILENAME",  NYTP_FIDi_FILENAME},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FID",  NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FID},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_LINE", NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_LINE},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_FID",       NYTP_FIDi_FID},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_FLAGS",     NYTP_FIDi_FLAGS},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_FILESIZE",  NYTP_FIDi_FILESIZE},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_FILEMTIME", NYTP_FIDi_FILEMTIME},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_PROFILE",   NYTP_FIDi_PROFILE},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FI",   NYTP_FIDi_EVAL_FI},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_HAS_EVALS", NYTP_FIDi_HAS_EVALS},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED", NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_DEFINED},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_CALLED",  NYTP_FIDi_SUBS_CALLED},
    {"NYTP_FIDi_elements",     NYTP_FIDi_elements},
    /* NYTP_SIi_* */
    {"NYTP_SIi_FID",          NYTP_SIi_FID},
    {"NYTP_SIi_FIRST_LINE",   NYTP_SIi_FIRST_LINE},
    {"NYTP_SIi_LAST_LINE",    NYTP_SIi_LAST_LINE},
    {"NYTP_SIi_CALL_COUNT",   NYTP_SIi_CALL_COUNT},
    {"NYTP_SIi_INCL_RTIME",   NYTP_SIi_INCL_RTIME},
    {"NYTP_SIi_EXCL_RTIME",   NYTP_SIi_EXCL_RTIME},
    {"NYTP_SIi_SUB_NAME",     NYTP_SIi_SUB_NAME},
    {"NYTP_SIi_PROFILE",      NYTP_SIi_PROFILE},
    {"NYTP_SIi_REC_DEPTH",    NYTP_SIi_REC_DEPTH},
    {"NYTP_SIi_RECI_RTIME",   NYTP_SIi_RECI_RTIME},
    {"NYTP_SIi_CALLED_BY",    NYTP_SIi_CALLED_BY},
    {"NYTP_SIi_elements",     NYTP_SIi_elements},
    /* NYTP_SCi_* */
    {"NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT",   NYTP_SCi_CALL_COUNT},
    {"NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME",   NYTP_SCi_INCL_RTIME},
    {"NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME",   NYTP_SCi_EXCL_RTIME},
    {"NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME",   NYTP_SCi_RECI_RTIME},
    {"NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH",    NYTP_SCi_REC_DEPTH},
    {"NYTP_SCi_CALLING_SUB",  NYTP_SCi_CALLING_SUB},
    {"NYTP_SCi_elements",     NYTP_SCi_elements},
    /* others */
    {"NYTP_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION", default_compression_level},
    {"NYTP_FILE_MAJOR_VERSION",  NYTP_FILE_MAJOR_VERSION},
    {"NYTP_FILE_MINOR_VERSION",  NYTP_FILE_MINOR_VERSION},
};

/***********************************
 * Perl XS Code Below Here         *
 ***********************************/

MODULE = Devel::NYTProf     PACKAGE = Devel::NYTProf::Constants

PROTOTYPES: DISABLE

BOOT:
{
    HV *stash = gv_stashpv("Devel::NYTProf::Constants", GV_ADDWARN);
    struct int_constants_t *constant = int_constants;
    const struct int_constants_t *end = constant + C_ARRAY_LENGTH(int_constants);

    do {
        /* 5.8.x and earlier don't declare newCONSTSUB() as const char *, even
           though it is.  */
        newCONSTSUB(stash, (char *) constant->name, newSViv(constant->value));
    } while (++constant < end);
    newCONSTSUB(stash, "NYTP_ZLIB_VERSION",     newSVpv(ZLIB_VERSION, 0));
}


MODULE = Devel::NYTProf     PACKAGE = Devel::NYTProf::Util

PROTOTYPES: DISABLE

void
trace_level()
   PPCODE: 
   XSRETURN_IV(trace_level);


MODULE = Devel::NYTProf     PACKAGE = Devel::NYTProf::Test

PROTOTYPES: DISABLE

void
example_xsub(const char *unused="", SV *action=Nullsv, SV *arg=Nullsv)
    CODE:
    if (!action)
        XSRETURN(0);
    if (SvROK(action) && SvTYPE(SvRV(action))==SVt_PVCV) {
        /* perl <= 5.8.8 doesn't use OP_ENTERSUB so won't be seen by NYTProf */
        PUSHMARK(SP);
        call_sv(action, G_VOID|G_DISCARD);
    }
    else if (strEQ(SvPV_nolen(action),"eval"))
        eval_pv(SvPV_nolen(arg), TRUE);
    else if (strEQ(SvPV_nolen(action),"die"))
        croak("example_xsub(die)");
    logwarn("example_xsub: unknown action '%s'\n", SvPV_nolen(action));

void
example_xsub_eval(...)
    CODE:
    PERL_UNUSED_VAR(items);
    /* to enable testing of string evals in embedded environments
     * where there's no caller file information available.
     * Only it doesn't actually do that because perl knows
     * what it's executing at the time eval_pv() gets called.
     * We need a better test, closer to true embedded.
     */
    eval_pv("Devel::NYTProf::Test::example_xsub()", 1);

void
set_errno(int e)
    CODE:
    SETERRNO(e, 0);


MODULE = Devel::NYTProf     PACKAGE = DB

PROTOTYPES: DISABLE

void
DB_profiler(...)
CODE:
    /* this sub gets aliased as "DB::DB" by NYTProf.pm if use_db_sub is true */
    PERL_UNUSED_VAR(items);
    if (opt_use_db_sub)
        DB_stmt(aTHX_ NULL, PL_op);
    else
        logwarn("DB::DB called unexpectedly\n");

void
set_option(const char *opt, const char *value)
    C_ARGS:
    aTHX_ opt, value

int
init_profiler()
    C_ARGS:
    aTHX

int
enable_profile(char *file = NULL)
    C_ARGS:
    aTHX_ file
    POSTCALL:
    /* if profiler was previously disabled */
    /* then arrange for the enable_profile call to be noted */
    if (!RETVAL) {
        DB_stmt(aTHX_ PL_curcop, PL_op);
    }


int
disable_profile()
    C_ARGS:
    aTHX

void
finish_profile(...)
    ALIAS:
    _finish = 1
    C_ARGS:
    aTHX
    INIT:
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(ix);
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(items);

void
_INIT()
    CODE:
    if (profile_start == NYTP_START_INIT)  {
        enable_profile(aTHX_ NULL);
    }
    else if (profile_start == NYTP_START_END) {
        SV *enable_profile_sv = (SV *)get_cv("DB::enable_profile", GV_ADDWARN);
        if (trace_level >= 1)
            logwarn("~ enable_profile deferred until END\n");
        if (!PL_endav)
            PL_endav = newAV();
        av_unshift(PL_endav, 1);  /* we want to be first */
        av_store(PL_endav, 0, SvREFCNT_inc(enable_profile_sv));
    }
    av_extend(PL_endav, av_len(PL_endav)+20); /* see PL_endav in init_profiler() */
    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ INIT done\n");

void
_END()
    ALIAS:
        _CHECK = 1
    CODE:
    /* we want to END { finish_profile() } but we want it to be the last END
     * block run, so we don't push it into PL_endav until END phase has started,
     * so it's likely to be the last thing run. Do this once, else we could end
     * up in an infinite loop arms race with something else trying the same
     * strategy.
     */
    CV *finish_profile_cv = get_cv("DB::finish_profile", GV_ADDWARN);
    if (1) {    /* defer */
        if (!PL_checkav) PL_checkav = newAV();
        if (!PL_endav)   PL_endav   = newAV();
        av_push((ix == 1 ? PL_checkav : PL_endav), SvREFCNT_inc(finish_profile_cv));
    }
    else {      /* immediate */
        call_sv((SV *)finish_profile_cv, G_VOID);
    }
    if (trace_level >= 1)
        logwarn("~ %s done\n", ix == 1 ? "CHECK" : "END");



MODULE = Devel::NYTProf     PACKAGE = Devel::NYTProf::Data

PROTOTYPES: DISABLE

HV*
load_profile_data_from_file(file,cb=NULL)
char *file;
SV* cb;
    PREINIT:
    int result;
    NYTP_file in;
    CODE:
    if (trace_level)
        logwarn("reading profile data from file %s\n", file);
    in = NYTP_open(file, "rb");
    if (in == NULL) {
        croak("Failed to open input '%s': %s", file, strerror(errno));
    }
    if (cb && SvROK(cb)) {
        load_profile_to_callback(aTHX_ in, SvRV(cb));
        RETVAL = (HV*) &PL_sv_undef;
    }
    else {
        RETVAL = load_profile_to_hv(aTHX_ in);
    }

    if ((result = NYTP_close(in, 0)))
        logwarn("Error closing profile data file: %s\n", strerror(result));

    OUTPUT:
    RETVAL