/* _______ ____ __ ___ ___
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* | | | | | | || || | | . .
* | |_/ / \ \__// || | |
* /_______/ynamic \____/niversal /__\ /____\usic /| . . ibliotheque
* / \
* / . \
* howto.txt - How To Use DUMB. / / \ \
* | < / \_
* See readme.txt for general information on | \/ /\ /
* DUMB and how to set it up. \_ / > /
* | \ / /
* | ' /
*** Introduction ***
Welcome to the DUMB How-To! It is assumed here that you have already set DUMB
up on your system, with or without Allegro. If not, please see readme.txt.
*** Adding music to your game ***
These instructions will help you add a piece of music to your game, assuming
your music is stored in a stand-alone IT, XM, S3M or MOD file. If you wish to
use a different method (such as putting the music file in an Allegro
datafile), please follow these instructions first, test your program, and
then follow the instructions further down for adapting your code.
1. You need to include DUMB's header file. If you have Allegro, add the
following line to the top of your source file (or at the top of each file
where you wish to use DUMB):
If you do not have Allegro or do not wish to use it, use dumb.h instead.
2. You need to link with DUMB's library file or files. If you are compiling
with GCC from a command line on any platform, you need to add the
following to the command line:
If you are using Allegro: -laldmd -ldumbd
If you are not using Allegro: -ldumbd
If you are using MSVC from the command line:
If you are using Allegro: /link aldmd.lib dumbd.lib
If you are not using Allegro: /link dumbd.lib
With MSVC, you must also add /MD to the command line when compiling (not
Note that -laldmd or aldmd.lib must PRECEDE alleg.lib, -lalleg_s,
`allegro-config --libs`, or whatever you are already using to link with
Allegro. For MSVC users, the /MD flag selects the multithreaded DLL
implementation of the standard libraries; since DUMB is statically linked,
you have to use the same library DUMB uses. You would also need this flag
to link statically with Allegro; if you already have it, there's no need
to put it twice.
(If anyone would like to contribute instructions for doing the above using
MSVC's IDE, please contact me. Contact details are at the end of this
If you are using RHIDE, go to Options -> Libraries. You will need to type
'aldmd' and 'dumbd' in two boxes, making sure 'aldmd' comes above whatever
you are using to link with Allegro (or just put 'dumbd' if you are not
using Allegro). Make sure the box next to each of these libraries is
The above are the debugging libraries. It is VERY HIGHLY RECOMMENDED that
you use the debugging libraries at first. The reason is as follows.
Although DUMB is supposedly robust against corrupt music files and things
like lack of memory, it will NOT tolerate programmer error. If you write
faulty code, DUMB will probably crash rather than returning an error code
for you. However, the debugging libraries will abort in many cases,
enabling you to find out what the cause is.
Once your program is up and running reliably, you can replace 'aldmd' with
'aldmb' and 'dumbd' with 'dumb'. Don't forget to do this, or DUMB will be
a lot slower than it should be!
3. As you use DUMB, it may claim system resources (memory in particular). You
will need to arrange for these resources to be freed at the end. Doing so
is very easy. Simply write the following line at the top of your main
function, but below allegro_init() if you are using Allegro:
This arranges for the function dumb_exit() to be called when your program
exits; you do not need to call dumb_exit() yourself. This method is
preferable to calling dumb_exit() manually, as it will free resources even
if your program aborts unexpectedly.
If you are happy with this, please skip ahead to Step 4. If you are
interested in alternative methods, read on, but read on carefully.
In fact it mostly doesn't matter where you put the above atexit() line,
provided it gets called only once, and before you do anything with DUMB.
If you are using DUMB with Allegro, it is recommended that you write the
functions in this order:
And then you must NOT call allegro_exit() yourself (because it has to be
called after dumb_exit()). Alternatively, if you prefer not to use
atexit() (or you cannot), you will have to do the following before
4. DUMB does not automatically know how to open files. If you are loading
stand-alone files, you have to tell it how to open them. Don't worry, it's
easy. Simply call the following function near the beginning of your
program, after your atexit() call:
Once you've done this, a stdio FILE will be opened each time DUMB wants to
open a file (specifically, when dumbfile_open() is called). If you are
using Allegro and would rather DUMB used PACKFILEs, call the following
In the latter case, DUMB will be affected by any password you set with
packfile_password() in the same way that other PACKFILEs are.
Note that the procedure for loading datafiles with embedded music is
independent of these two functions; even if you will be loading datafiles,
you can use either of these functions. dumb_register_stdfiles() will
probably be faster. If you are only ever going to load datafiles and never
stand-alone files, you can actually leave this step out; but I would
recommend you put this in, test your code with a stand-alone file, then
follow the instructions in the next section in order to adapt your code to
use the datafile (the instructions will remind you that you can remove the
5. If you are using Allegro, you will have to initialise Allegro's sound
system. In most cases the following line will do the job:
install_sound(DIGI_AUTODETECT, MIDI_NONE, NULL);
Put this line after allegro_init(). See Allegro's documentation if you
want to initialise a MIDI driver too.
6. All pieces of music are stored in memory in DUH structs. To handle these,
you must define pointers to them. Such pointers look like this:
You can of course replace 'myduh' with anything you like. If you are
unfamiliar with pointers, please see ptr.txt. It is very important that
you understand these if you wish to use DUMB correctly.
You do not have direct access to the contents of a DUH struct, because
they are liable to change. It is hoped that DUMB's functions will provide
everything you need; if you need something else, please let me know and I
shall see what I can do. Contact details are at the end of this file.
Given the above definition, you can load a piece of music using one of the
following lines, depending on what file format you want to load:
myduh = dumb_load_it_quick("a_one.it");
myduh = dumb_load_xm_quick("a_two.xm");
myduh = dumb_load_s3m_quick("a_one_two.s3m");
myduh = dumb_load_mod_quick("three_four.mod");
You can use relative or absolute paths as normal. You should always use
forward slash (/), not backslash (\), when coding in C and similar
There are non-"quick" versions of the functions too; for information on
what this means, please see dumb.txt.
Every piece of music you load must be unloaded when you've finished with
it. When you type the above line in, it is good practice to type the
following line in at the same time, but put it at the end of the program:
You will now be able to use the DUH struct anywhere in between the two
lines you just added. There is no need to check the return value; if the
DUH failed to load for one reason or another (this could be due to lack of
memory as well as the file not being there), then DUMB will do nothing -
7. From this step onwards, it will be assumed you're using Allegro. If not,
please read these steps anyway, and then see the section entitled
"Rendering music into a buffer". You will have to write your own playback
code using whatever sound output system is available. Alternatively you
may like to write data to a file (especially if you have a module that
consumes a lot of processor time).
In order to play the DUH you loaded, you need to define a pointer to an
Two of the functions you will need are prototyped as follows:
AL_DUH_PLAYER *al_start_duh(DUH *duh, int n_channels, long pos,
float volume, long bufsize, int freq);
void al_stop_duh(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
As you can see, al_start_duh() returns a pointer to an AL_DUH_PLAYER
struct when you call it. You then pass this pointer to all the other
functions. Again, if it is a NULL pointer for whatever reason (usually
lack of memory), DUMB will safely do nothing. When you call al_stop_duh(),
the pointer becomes invalid and you should not use it again; if there's
any risk of the pointer being used again, it is wise to set it to NULL at
this point. You can reassign the variable with a new call to
al_start_duh() of course.
Set 'n_channels' to 1 or 2 for mono or stereo respectively. Note that this
parameter has nothing to do with the number of samples that can play at
once in a music module. Set 'pos' to 0 to play from the beginning; each
time you add 65536, you will have advanced one second into the piece. (If
you use the non-"quick" loaders, seeking like this will be faster.) As a
general rule, set the volume to 1.0f and adjust it later if the music is
too loud or too quiet - but see Allegro's set_volume_per_voice() function
'bufsize' can generally be set to 4096. If your music stutters, try
increasing it; if your game freezes periodically, try reducing it. Find a
happy medium. Set 'freq' to 48000 for the best quality, though 44100 will
do in most cases. 22050 will be fine for a lot of music, though 11025 may
sound muffled. You can choose any other value, higher, lower or in
between. If your music stutters, and increasing 'bufsize' doesn't fix it,
try reducing this value.
Once you have put in a call to al_start_duh(), it is good practice to
insert the call to al_stop_duh() at the same time. You must call
al_stop_duh() before the DUH is unloaded (unload_duh(), Step 6 above).
Don't get impetuous, your program is not ready yet! Proceed to Step 8.
8. DUMB does not play music in the background for you; if you were expecting
it to do so, please see the explanation at the end of this step. For your
music to be played, you have to call another function at regular
intervals. Here is its prototype:
int al_poll_duh(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
Do NOT call this function from inside a timer function unless you really
know what you are doing. The reasons why this is bad are explained
further down. You should call it from your main program.
Simply writing the following line will be sufficient in general, if you
have a variable 'dp' that points to your AL_DUH_PLAYER struct.
As a general rule, calling this once for each logic update will do the
trick. If, however, you are executing time-consuming algorithms such as
software 3D rendering, you may wish to insert calls to this function in
the middle of those algorithms. You cannot call this function too often
(within reason); if it has nothing to do it will return immediately.
Exactly how often you need to call the function depends on the values for
'bufsize' and 'freq' that you passed to al_start_duh():
n = freq / bufsize;
You have to call al_poll_duh() at least n times a second. Do not hesitate
to call it more often for safety; if the sound stutters, you may need to
do just that. (Or you may need to increase the buffer size or reduce the
quality settings; the only way to find out is to try.)
For now, don't worry about al_poll_duh()'s return value. As soon as you
need it, it will be explained.
If you are happy, please skip to Step 9. If you were expecting DUMB to
play your music in the background, please read on.
The natural way to play music in the background on most operating systems
nowadays is to use threads. DOS was not built with multithreading in mind,
and its system operations (notably disk access) assume they will only be
used from a single thread.
Interrupts are the next best thing to threads. A DOS hardware interrupt
could be triggered at any moment, and a handler function will be called.
This is how Allegro's timer functions work. Unfortunately, what you can do
inside an interrupt handler is very limited. For one thing, all code and
data used by the handler must be locked in memory; if not, it could get
written to disk (virtual memory). If the main program was accessing the
disk when it got interrupted, the system would then die a horrible death.
This precludes the possibility of allocating extra memory inside the
handler, and DUMB does a lot of that in al_poll_duh().
Given DUMB's architecture, which cannot change for reasons which will
become apparent in future versions, this renders it impossible to come up
with a portable solution for making DUMB play music in the background.
Having said that, if you wish to write your own wrapper for al_poll_duh()
and use it in a thread, there is nothing stopping you. If you do do this,
you will have to be very careful when stopping the music; see the
description of al_poll_duh() in dumb.txt for more information.
So why not remove DOS support from DUMB? It is all too common a practice
among programmers to quote the phrase, "DOS is as dead as the dodo."
Despite being a decidedly derisible demonstation of the dreary device of
alliteration, it shows a distinct lack of experience. Many embedded
systems still use DOS because it provides hardware access capabilities and
real-time possibilities unparalleled by any current multitasking operating
system. For an argument closer to home, I used to use RHIDE for DOS before
I switched to Linux, and I have not found a single Freeware Windows IDE
that measures up to RHIDE. I'm sure many people are in the same boat, and
really appreciate DUMB's DOS port.
That, and the fact that you don't have to use the DOS support just because
it is there. Shame on you for not thinking this through. :)
We will not be removing DOS support from DUMB. Any blind suggestions to do
so will be met with fiery flames. You have been warned.
9. Test your program!
If you have trouble, check through the above steps to make sure you didn't
miss one out. Refer to faq.txt to see if your problem is addressed there.
If you still have trouble, contact me; details are at the end of this
*** Controlling music playback ***
Here I describe some common operations you may wish to perform. The method
for doing so will seem a bit strange sometimes, as will the names of the
structs. However, there is a reason behind everything. If you would like to
do more exotic things, or better understand some of the methods used here,
then see dumb.txt, which covers everything from the ground up.
To control playback quality:
extern int dumb_resampling_quality;
extern int dumb_it_max_to_mix;
Please note that dumb_resampling_quality was changed in DUMB v0.9.2. See
deprec.txt for more details on the change.
dumb_resampling_quality can be set to any of the DUMB_RQ_* constants
(except DUMB_RQ_N_LEVELS; see below). Resampling is the term given to the
process of adjusting a sample's pitch (in this context).
dumb_resampling_quality defaults to DUMB_RQ_CUBIC, which sounds nice but
may take too much processor power on slower systems. Try reducing it if
you have an older computer (less than 300 MHz) or if you are trying to mix
an insane number of samples (or both!). See dumb.txt for details on what
the different values actually do.
If you wish to give this option to your user, you can use
DUMB_RQ_N_LEVELS. All the values from 0 to DUMB_RQ_N_LEVELS - 1 will be
valid resampling levels. If a value outside this range is chosen, it is
not the end of the world; DUMB will behave as if you had chosen the value
at whichever extreme you went beyond.
dumb_it_max_to_mix, defaulting to 64, is the maximum number of samples
DUMB will ever mix together when playing an IT, XM, S3M or MOD file.
Unlike many other music systems, DUMB will still keep track of all samples
(up to a fixed maximum of 256 of them, roughly speaking), and then will
just render as many of them as this variable permits, starting with the
loudest ones. When samples are cut or come back in, the exact timings will
not generally be predictable - but it is hoped this will not be important!
dumb_it_max_to_mix applies to each currently playing module file
independently. So if you set it to 64, but render two modules
simultaneously, DUMB could end up mixing up to 128 samples.
To pause and resume playback, set the volume, get the current playback
position, or get the length of time a DUH will play for before either looping
or freezing (effect F00 in XM and MOD files, which means no new notes will be
played but any existing notes will continue):
void al_pause_duh(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
void al_resume_duh(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
void al_duh_set_volume(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp, float volume);
long al_duh_get_position(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
long duh_get_length(DUH *duh);
These functions are pretty self-explanatory. The volume passed to
al_duh_set_volume() and the position returned by al_duh_get_position() are
in the same units as those you passed to al_start_duh(). Be careful with
al_duh_get_position(); it will return a position slightly ahead of what
you can hear, because the system has to keep ahead slightly to avoid
duh_get_length() returns the playback length, in the same units as the
aforementioned position, but beware: the length will not be known if you
have used the "quick" loader functions, and this function will return -1.
If you want to calculate the length later, use
dumb_it_do_initial_runthrough(). See dumb.txt for more information.
To prevent the music from looping and/or freezing:
DUH_SIGRENDERER *al_duh_get_sigrenderer(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *duh_get_it_sigrenderer(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer);
void dumb_it_set_loop_callback(DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer,
int (*callback)(void *data), void *data);
void dumb_it_set_xm_speed_zero_callback(DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer,
int (*callback)(void *data), void *data);
int dumb_it_callback_terminate(void *data);
If you are unfamiliar with function pointers, please see fnptr.txt.
Note that these functions apply to IT, XM, S3M and MOD files - not just to
IT files. This holds true throughout DUMB, for all functions with "it" in
the name. The xm_speed_zero event can only occur with XM and MOD files.
The first two functions will return a pointer to a struct contained by the
struct you pass. This system is necessary to ensure that these operations
are possible when not using Allegro. Typically you would write the
DUH_SIGRENDERER *sr = al_duh_get_sigrenderer(dp);
DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *itsr = duh_get_it_sigrenderer(sigrenderer);
dumb_it_set_loop_callback(itsr, &dumb_it_callback_terminate, NULL);
(itsr, &dumb_it_callback_terminate, NULL);
Once you have done this, the return value of al_poll_duh() becomes
significant. It will be 0 as long as the music is playing. When the music
stops, al_poll_duh() will return nonzero. You can call al_stop_duh() and
do something else as soon as you wish, but calling al_poll_duh() some more
will not do any harm.
al_poll_duh() will also return 1 if the music could not be loaded, or if
memory was short when trying to play it, or if it was a quirky music file
with no music in it (technically one with an empty order list). This
happens regardless of whether or not you execute the above code to disable
looping. Normally you shouldn't need to worry about this.
To undo the above and make DUMB loop or freeze again, pass NULL instead of
&dumb_it_callback_terminate. If you would like to fade on looping, or loop
a finite number of times, or display a message when looping, or whatever,
you will have to write your own callback function. In this case, please
Note that the above code can safely be applied for a DUH that doesn't
contain a music module but contains some other kind of music.
duh_get_it_sigrenderer() will return NULL, and the code will do nothing.
To analyse the audio as it is generated:
typedef int sample_t;
typedef void (*DUH_SIGRENDERER_SAMPLE_ANALYSER_CALLBACK)(void *data,
const sample_t *const *samples, int n_channels, long length);
DUH_SIGRENDERER_SAMPLE_ANALYSER_CALLBACK callback, void *data);
If the above confuses you, see fnptr.txt. These functions, along with
al_duh_get_sigrenderer() from the last section, enable you to register a
callback function. Every time some samples are generated, they will be
passed to this function. This enables you to display an oscilloscope or
spectrum analyser, for example.
Beware: your callback function may occasionally be called with
samples == NULL. This means the main program has decided to skip through
the music without generating any data. You should handle this case
elegantly, typically by returning immediately, but you may wish to make a
note of the fact that the music is being skipped, for whatever reason.
Beware again: if the main program ever calls
duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples() on a buffer that isn't all silence,
this callback function will be passed the existing buffer after mixing,
and thus it will include the original data. This will not be an issue if
you stick to duh_render(), which always starts with a buffer filled with
The samples array is two-dimensional, but the first index will always be 0
for mono and stereo sound. Refer to it as follows:
n_channels == 1: samples[sample_position]
n_channels == 2: samples[sample_position*2+channel_number]
where 0 <= channel_number < n_channels,
and 0 <= sample_position < length.
There is a more thorough explanation in dumb.txt.
In addition you can pass any 'data' pointer you like to
duh_sigrenderer_set_sample_analyser_callback(), and this pointer will be
relayed to your callback function each time.
To remove the callback function, pass NULL to
Everything below this point assumes some knowledge of how a music module is
constructed. If you do not have this knowledge, talk to whoever is writing
music for you, or download a tracking program and play with it (see
To start playing an IT, XM, S3M or MOD from an arbitrary order number (the
default being 0, the beginning of the song), use the following:
(DUH *duh, int n_channels, int startorder);
(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer, float volume, long bufsize, int freq);
The usage of these functions is as follows:
DUH_SIGRENDERER *sr = dumb_it_start_at_order
(duh, n_channels, startorder);
dp = al_duh_encapsulate_sigrenderer(sr, volume, bufsize, freq);
if (!dp) duh_end_sigrenderer(sr);
Replace 'dp' with whatever your AL_DUH_PLAYER pointer is. You also need
to insert suitable values for n_channels, startorder, volume, bufsize and
freq. These have the same meaning as those passed to al_start_duh().
Whenever you call al_duh_encapsulate_sigrenderer(), be sure to check the
return value. If an AL_DUH_PLAYER was returned, then the encapsulated
DUH_SIGRENDERER will be destroyed when you destroy the AL_DUH_PLAYER. If
not, you will have to destroy the DUH_SIGRENDERER yourself. The above code
includes this check.
The above functions will fail (safely) if you try to use them with a DUH
that contains a different type of music. No music will play.
Notice that there is no 'pos' parameter. If you would like to skip through
the music, you can use this function:
float volume, float delta,
long size, sample_t **samples
Pass 0 for volume and NULL for samples, and this function will skip
through the music nice and quickly. So insert the following between the
two above statements:
duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples(sr, 0, 65536.0f / freq, pos, NULL);
Substitute for 'freq' and 'pos'. An explanation of the 'delta' parameter
can be found further down in this file.
Finally, note that duh_get_length() is only meaningful when you start
playing music from order 0.
If an IT file contains Zxx effects, DUMB will generate MIDI messages, which
will control the low-pass resonant filters unless the IT file actively
specifies something else. In rare cases this may not be what the Zxx effects
were intended to do; if this is the case, you can block the MIDI messages as
follows. Note that this does NOT mean filters are disabled; if an instrument
specifies initial cut-off and resonance values, or has a filter envelope,
then filters will be applied. It only makes sense to use this procedure at
the beginning of playback.
void dumb_it_set_midi_callback(DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer,
int (*callback)(void *data, int channel, unsigned char byte),
int dumb_it_callback_midi_block(void *data, int channel,
unsigned char byte);
Using some functions described in the previous section, we arrive at the
DUH_SIGRENDERER *sr = al_duh_get_sigrenderer(dp);
DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *itsr = duh_get_it_sigrenderer(sigrenderer);
dumb_it_set_midi_callback(itsr, &dumb_it_callback_midi_block, NULL);
DUMB offers no way of disabling filters completely. Disabling filters is not
recommended as a means to reduce processor usage, as it will completely
damage any piece of music that uses the filters. If you want lower processor
consumption, use a piece of music that does not use filters.
Finally, DUMB offers a myriad of functions for querying and adjusting
module playback. Those beginning with "dumb_it_sd" operate on the
DUMB_IT_SIGDATA struct, which represents the piece of music before it starts
to play. Those beginning with "dumb_it_sr" operate on the DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER
struct, which represents a currently playing instance of the music. Note that
duh_get_length(), described above, becomes meaningless after some of these
functions are used, although you can correct this by calling
The method for getting a DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER struct has already been given,
but the function prototypes are repeated here for convenience:
DUH_SIGRENDERER *al_duh_get_sigrenderer(AL_DUH_PLAYER *dp);
DUMB_IT_SIGRENDERER *duh_get_it_sigrenderer(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer);
Getting a DUMB_IT_SIGDATA struct is simpler:
DUMB_IT_SIGDATA *duh_get_it_sigdata(DUH *duh);
For a list of dumb_it_sd_*() and dumb_it_sr_*() functions, please see
dumb.txt. These functions are new, and may not provide exactly what you need;
if not, please let me know.
*** Embedding music files in Allegro datafiles ***
In this section it is assumed you are already reasonably familiar with how
Allegro datafiles are used. If not, please refer to Allegro's documentation.
At the time of writing, the documentation you need is off the beaten track,
so to speak, in allegro/tools/grabber.txt.
To add a piece of music to a datafile, you need to create an object of type
"IT ", "XM ", "S3M " or "MOD " (note the spaces used as padding, although
you do not need to type these into the grabber). Then grab the piece of music
in. The grabber will treat it as a binary object. Save the datafile as usual.
To use a piece of music you added to the datafile, follow these steps:
1. Before loading the datafile, call one or more of these functions,
depending on which music format or formats you'd like to support:
There are non-"quick" versions too.
Remember, do not call multiple functions unless you want to support
multiple formats. Calling more functions will add unused code to your
It is important that you call these before loading the datafile, since
they tell Allegro how to load the respective files straight from datafiles
in the future. They will not help Allegro interpret any module files that
have already been loaded as binary objects. If you ever need to interpret
a module that has been loaded in this fashion, have a look at
dumbfile_open_memory() in dumb.txt.
If for whatever reason your music objects are identified by a different
type in the datafile, you can tell DUMB what that type is by changing the
parameter to the registration function above. Use Allegro's DAT_ID()
macro, e.g. DAT_ID('B','L','A','H'). This is not really recommended
though, since it would prevent a hypothetical grabber plug-in from being
able to play your music files. Use the above types if possible.
2. Whenever you need a pointer to a DUH struct, simply use the 'dat' field.
Do this in the same way you would for a pointer to a BITMAP struct or
anything else. If it makes you feel more comfortable, you can extract the
pointer in advance:
DATAFILE *dat = load_datafile("smurf.dat");
if (!dat) abort(); /* There are much nicer ways of handling failure! */
DUH *myduh = (DUH *)dat[GAME_MUSIC].dat;
The explicit (DUH *) cast is only necessary for C++, not for C. However,
it does no harm.
Be sure that you do NOT call unload_duh() for anything stored in the
datafile. These DUHs will be freed when you call unload_datafile(), and
freeing them twice is practically guaranteed to crash your program. (But
do call unload_duh() if you have used dumbfile_open_memory().)
3. If you only ever load music as part of a datafile, and you never load any
stand-alone music files, you do not need to register a file input system
for DUMB to use. If you followed the instructions for the first section
you will have one of these two lines in your program:
You can safely delete this line - but only if you never load any
stand-alone music files. The debugging library will bale you out if you
delete it when you shouldn't; the optimised library won't.
*** Rendering music into a buffer ***
NOTE: much of the API formerly described in this section has been deprecated,
and you will need to alter your code. See deprec.txt for details. If
you are reading this section for the first time, you can ignore this
Rendering to a buffer is similar to playing using an AL_DUH_PLAYER. However,
you must use a DUH_SIGRENDERER struct instead. Here are the functions:
(DUH *duh, int sig, int n_channels, long pos);
int duh_sigrenderer_get_n_channels(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer);
long duh_sigrenderer_get_position(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer);
long duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer,
float volume, float delta, long size, sample_t **samples);
void duh_sigrenderer_get_current_sample(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer,
float volume, sample_t *samples);
long duh_render(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer,
int bits, int unsign, float volume, float delta, long size, void *sptr);
void duh_end_sigrenderer(DUH_SIGRENDERER *sigrenderer);
The parameters to duh_start_sigrenderer() have the same meanings as those to
al_start_duh(). However, note that the volume is not set at this stage. You
pass the desired volume each time you want to render a block. The 'sig'
parameter should be set to 0 for now.
Notice that there are two rendering functions.
duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples() will generate samples in the internal
32-bit format, with a normal range from -0x800000 to 0x7FFFFF; duh_render()
will convert to 8 or 16 bits, signed or unsigned. Both functions will
interleave stereo samples, left first.
When you call duh_render(), pass 8 or 16 for 'bits'. If you pass 8, 'sptr' is
expected to be an array of chars. If you pass 16, 'sptr' is expected to be an
array of shorts. Endianness therefore depends on the platform, and you should
not try to interpret 16-bit wave data as an array of chars (unless you're
writing highly system-specific code anyway). Because DUMB renders internally
with 32 bits, there is no significant speed increase in rendering an 8-bit
If you are rendering in stereo, make sure your 'sptr' array is twice as big!
If you set 'unsign' to a nonzero value, then the samples generated will be
centred on 0x80 or 0x8000, suitably stored in an array of unsigned chars or
unsigned shorts. If 'unsign' is zero, the samples will be centred on 0,
suitably stored in an array of signed chars or signed shorts. Note that 8-bit
WAV files are unsigned while 16-bit WAV files are signed. This convention was
used by the SoundBlaster 16 when receiving samples to be sent to the
speakers. If you wish to write 16-bit sample data to a WAV file, don't use
fwrite(); instead, take the shorts one at a time, split them up into chars as
follows, and write the chars to the file.
char lsb = (char)sptr[n];
char msb = (char)(sptr[n] >> 8);
For a 16-bit WAV file, write the LSB (less significant byte) first.
The following applies equally to duh_render() and
duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples(), except where otherwise stated.
If you set 'delta' to 1.0f, the sound generated will be suitable for playback
at 65536 Hz. Increasing 'delta' causes the wave to speed up, given a constant
sampling rate for playback. Supposing you want to vary the playback sampling
rate but keep the pitch constant, here's the equation for 'delta':
delta = 65536.0f / sampling_rate;
'size' is the number of samples you want rendered. For duh_render(), they
will be rendered into an array which you pass as 'sptr'. Note that stereo
samples count as one; so if you set n_channels to 2, your array must contain
(2 * size) elements.
For duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples() you will have to use the following
sample_t **allocate_sample_buffer(int n_channels, long length);
void destroy_sample_buffer(sample_t **samples);
void dumb_silence(sample_t *samples, long length);
allocate_sample_buffer() allocates the buffers sequentially in memory in the
hypothetical future case where there are more than two channels, so the
following technique is valid and officially supported:
sample_t **samples = allocate_sample_buffer(n_channels, length);
dumb_silence(samples, n_channels * length);
It is necessary to fill the buffer with silence like this because
duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples() mixes what it renders with the existing
contents of the buffer.
The return values from duh_render() and duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples()
tell you how many samples were actually generated. In most cases, this will
be the same as the 'size' parameter. However, if you reach the end of the DUH
(which will happen if you disable looping or freezing as described further
up), this function will return less. When that happens, you can assume the
stream has finished. In the case of duh_render(), the remainder of the array
will not have been initialised, so you either have to initialise it yourself
or avoid using it.
If for whatever reason duh_start_sigrenderer() returns NULL, then
duh_render() and duh_sigrenderer_generate_samples() will generate exactly 0
samples, duh_sigrenderer_get_n_channels() will return 0,
duh_sigrenderer_get_position() will return -1, and duh_end_sigrenderer() will
safely do nothing.
duh_sigrenderer_get_current_sample() is used by the click removal algorithm.
It simply returns the current sample without updating the position, so you
can use it to sniff what is coming next.
*** Miscellaneous ***
Please see dumb.txt for an API reference and for information on thread safety
with DUMB. The API reference has been stripped down, since some functions and
variables are subject to change. If something does not appear in dumb.txt,
please do not use it.
*** Conclusion ***
If you have any difficulties, or if you use DUMB successfully, please don't
hesitate to contact me (see below).