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libindirect-perl 0.39-1
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NAME
    indirect - Lexically warn about using the indirect method call syntax.

VERSION
    Version 0.39

SYNOPSIS
    In a script :

        no indirect;               # lexically enables the pragma
        my $x = new Apple 1, 2, 3; # warns
        {
         use indirect;     # lexically disables the pragma
         my $y = new Pear; # legit, does not warn
         {
          # lexically specify an hook called for each indirect construct
          no indirect hook => sub {
           die "You really wanted $_[0]\->$_[1] at $_[2]:$_[3]"
          };
          my $z = new Pineapple 'fresh'; # croaks 'You really wanted...'
         }
        }
        try { ... }; # warns if try() hasn't been declared in this package

        no indirect 'fatal';     # or ':fatal', 'FATAL', ':Fatal' ...
        if (defied $foo) { ... } # croaks, note the typo

    Global uses :

        # Globally enable the pragma from the command-line
        perl -M-indirect=global -e 'my $x = new Banana;' # warns

        # Globally enforce the pragma each time perl is executed
        export PERL5OPT="-M-indirect=global,fatal"
        perl -e 'my $y = new Coconut;' # croaks

DESCRIPTION
    When enabled, this pragma warns about indirect method calls that are
    present in your code.

    The indirect syntax is now considered harmful, since its parsing has
    many quirks and its use is error prone : when the subroutine "foo" has
    not been declared in the current package, "foo $x" actually compiles to
    "$x->foo", and "foo { key => 1 }" to "'key'->foo(1)". Please refer to
    the "REFERENCES" section for a more complete list of reasons for
    avoiding this construct.

    This pragma currently does not warn for core functions ("print", "say",
    "exec" or "system"). This may change in the future, or may be added as
    optional features that would be enabled by passing options to
    "unimport".

    This module is not a source filter.

METHODS
  "unimport"
        no indirect;
        no indirect 'fatal';
        no indirect hook => sub { my ($obj, $name, $file, $line) = @_; ... };
        no indirect 'global';
        no indirect 'global, 'fatal';
        no indirect 'global', hook => sub { ... };

    Magically called when "no indirect @opts" is encountered. Turns the
    module on. The policy to apply depends on what is first found in @opts :

    *   If it is a string that matches "/^:?fatal$/i", the compilation will
        croak when the first indirect method call is found.

        This option is mutually exclusive with the 'hook' option.

    *   If the key/value pair "hook => $hook" comes first, $hook will be
        called for each error with a string representation of the object as
        $_[0], the method name as $_[1], the current file as $_[2] and the
        line number as $_[3]. If and only if the object is actually a block,
        $_[0] is assured to start by '{'.

        This option is mutually exclusive with the 'fatal' option.

    *   If none of "fatal" and "hook" are specified, a warning will be
        emitted for each indirect method call.

    *   If @opts contains a string that matches "/^:?global$/i", the pragma
        will be globally enabled for all code compiled after the current "no
        indirect" statement, except for code that is in the lexical scope of
        "use indirect". This option may come indifferently before or after
        the "fatal" or "hook" options, in the case they are also passed to
        "unimport".

        The global policy applied is the one resulting of the "fatal" or
        "hook" options, thus defaults to a warning when none of those are
        specified :

            no indirect 'global';                # warn for any indirect call
            no indirect qw<global fatal>;        # die on any indirect call
            no indirect 'global', hook => \&hook # custom global action

        Note that if another policy is installed by a "no indirect"
        statement further in the code, it will overrule the global policy :

            no indirect 'global';  # warn globally
            {
             no indirect 'fatal';  # throw exceptions for this lexical scope
             ...
             require Some::Module; # the global policy will apply for the
                                   # compilation phase of this module
            }

  "import"
        use indirect;

    Magically called at each "use indirect". Turns the module off.

    As explained in "unimport"'s description, an "use indirect" statement
    will lexically override a global policy previously installed by "no
    indirect 'global', ..." (if there's one).

FUNCTIONS
  "msg"
        my $msg = msg($object, $method, $file, $line);

    Returns the default error message that "indirect" generates when an
    indirect method call is reported.

CONSTANTS
  "I_THREADSAFE"
    True iff the module could have been built with thread-safety features
    enabled.

  "I_FORKSAFE"
    True iff this module could have been built with fork-safety features
    enabled. This will always be true except on Windows where it's false for
    perl 5.10.0 and below .

DIAGNOSTICS
  "Indirect call of method "%s" on object "%s" at %s line %d."
    The default warning/exception message thrown when an indirect method
    call on an object is found.

  "Indirect call of method "%s" on a block at %s line %d."
    The default warning/exception message thrown when an indirect method
    call on a block is found.

ENVIRONMENT
  "PERL_INDIRECT_PM_DISABLE"
    If this environment variable is set to true when the pragma is used for
    the first time, the XS code won't be loaded and, although the 'indirect'
    lexical hint will be set to true in the scope of use, the pragma itself
    won't do anything. In this case, the pragma will always be considered to
    be thread-safe, and as such "I_THREADSAFE" will be true. This is useful
    for disabling "indirect" in production environments.

    Note that clearing this variable after "indirect" was loaded has no
    effect. If you want to re-enable the pragma later, you also need to
    reload it by deleting the 'indirect.pm' entry from %INC.

CAVEATS
    The implementation was tweaked to work around several limitations of
    vanilla "perl" pragmas : it's thread safe, and does not suffer from a
    "perl 5.8.x-5.10.0" bug that causes all pragmas to propagate into
    "require"d scopes.

    Before "perl" 5.12, "meth $obj" (no semicolon) at the end of a file is
    not seen as an indirect method call, although it is as soon as there is
    another token before the end (as in "meth $obj;" or "meth $obj 1"). If
    you use "perl" 5.12 or greater, those constructs are correctly reported.

    With 5.8 perls, the pragma does not propagate into "eval STRING". This
    is due to a shortcoming in the way perl handles the hints hash, which is
    addressed in perl 5.10.

    The search for indirect method calls happens before constant folding.
    Hence "my $x = new Class if 0" will be caught.

REFERENCES
    Numerous articles have been written about the quirks of the indirect
    object construct :

    *   <http://markmail.org/message/o7d5sxnydya7bwvv> : Far More Than
        Everything You've Ever Wanted to Know about the Indirect Object
        syntax, Tom Christiansen, 1998-01-28.

        This historical post to the "perl5-porters" mailing list raised
        awareness about the perils of this syntax.

    *   <http://www.shadowcat.co.uk/blog/matt-s-trout/indirect-but-still-fat
        al> : Indirect but still fatal, Matt S. Trout, 2009-07-29.

        In this blog post, the author gives an example of an undesirable
        indirect method call on a block that causes a particularly
        bewildering error.

DEPENDENCIES
    perl 5.8.1.

    A C compiler. This module may happen to build with a C++ compiler as
    well, but don't rely on it, as no guarantee is made in this regard.

    Carp (standard since perl 5), XSLoader (since perl 5.6.0).

AUTHOR
    Vincent Pit "<vpit@cpan.org>".

    You can contact me by mail or on "irc.perl.org" (vincent).

BUGS
    Please report any bugs or feature requests to "bug-indirect at
    rt.cpan.org", or through the web interface at
    <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=indirect>. I will be
    notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your
    bug as I make changes.

SUPPORT
    You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

        perldoc indirect

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    Bram, for motivation and advices.

    Andrew Main and Florian Ragwitz, for testing on real-life code and
    reporting issues.

COPYRIGHT & LICENSE
    Copyright 2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2019 Vincent
    Pit, all rights reserved.

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself.