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libio-all-perl 0.87-1
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NAME

    IO::All - IO::All to Larry Wall!

VERSION

    This document describes IO::All version 0.87.

SYNOPSIS

    First, some safe examples:

        use IO::All;
    
        # Some of the many ways to read a whole file into a scalar
        $contents = io->file('file.txt')->slurp;    # Read an entire file
        @files    = io->dir('lib')->all;            # Get a list of files
        $tail     = io->pipe('-| tail app.log');    # Open a pipe to a command
        $line     = $tail->getline;                 # Read from the pipe

    That said, there are a lot more things that are very convenient and
    will help you write code very quickly, though they should be used
    judiciously:

        use IO::All;                                # Let the madness begin...
    
        # Some of the many ways to read a whole file into a scalar
        io('file.txt') > $contents;                 # Overloaded "arrow"
        $contents < io 'file.txt';                  # Flipped but same operation
        $io = io 'file.txt';                        # Create a new IO::All object
        $contents = $$io;                           # Overloaded scalar dereference
        $contents = $io->all;                       # A method to read everything
        $contents = $io->slurp;                     # Another method for that
        $contents = join '', $io->getlines;         # Join the separate lines
        $contents = join '', map "$_\n", @$io;      # Same. Overloaded array deref
        $io->tie;                                   # Tie the object as a handle
        $contents = join '', <$io>;                 # And use it in builtins
        # and the list goes on ...
    
        # Other file operations:
        @lines = io('file.txt')->slurp;             # List context slurp
        $content > io('file.txt');                  # Print to a file
        io('file.txt')->print($content, $more);     # (ditto)
        $content >> io('file.txt');                 # Append to a file
        io('file.txt')->append($content);           # (ditto)
        $content << $io;                            # Append to a string
        io('copy.txt') < io('file.txt');            $ Copy a file
        io('file.txt') > io('copy.txt');            # Invokes File::Copy
        io('more.txt') >> io('all.txt');            # Add on to a file
        io('dir/') < io('file.txt');                $ Copy a file to a directory
        io('file.txt') > io('dir/');                # Invokes File::Copy
        io('more.txt') >> io('dir/');               # Add on to a file in the dir
    
        # UTF-8 Support
        $contents = io('file.txt')->utf8->all;      # Turn on utf8
        use IO::All -utf8;                          # Turn on utf8 for all io
        $contents = io('file.txt')->all;            #   by default in this package.
    
        # General Encoding Support
        $contents = io('file.txt')->encoding('big5')->all;
        use IO::All -encoding => 'big5';            # Turn on big5 for all io
        $contents = io('file.txt')->all;            #   by default in this package.
    
        # Print the path name of a file:
        print $io->name;                            # The direct method
        print "$io";                                # Object stringifies to name
        print $io;                                  # Quotes not needed here
        print $io->filename;                        # The file portion only
        $io->os('win32');                           # change the object to be a
                                                    # win32 path
        print $io->ext;                             # The file extension only
        print $io->mimetype;                        # The mimetype, requires a
                                                    #  working File::MimeType
    
    
        # Read all the files/directories in a directory:
        $io = io('my/directory/');                  # Create new directory object
        @contents = $io->all;                       # Get all contents of dir
        @contents = @$io;                           # Directory as an array
        @contents = values %$io;                    # Directory as a hash
        push @contents, $subdir                     # One at a time
          while $subdir = $io->next;
    
        # Print the name and file type for all the contents above:
        print "$_ is a " . $_->type . "\n"          # Each element of @contents
          for @contents;                            # is an IO::All object!!
    
        # Print first line of each file:
        print $_->getline                           # getline gets one line
          for io('dir')->all_files;                 # Files only
    
        # Print names of all files/dirs three directories deep:
        print "$_\n" for $io->all(3);               # Pass in the depth. Default=1
    
        # Print names of all files/dirs recursively:
        print "$_\n" for $io->all(0);               # Zero means all the way down
        print "$_\n" for $io->All;                  # Capitalized shortcut
        print "$_\n" for $io->deep->all;            # Another way
    
        # There are some special file names:
        print io('-');                              # Print STDIN to STDOUT
        io('-') > io('-');                          # Do it again
        io('-') < io('-');                          # Same. Context sensitive.
        "Bad puppy" > io('=');                      # Message to STDERR
        $string_file = io('$');                     # Create string based filehandle
        $temp_file = io('?');                       # Create a temporary file
    
        # Socket operations:
        $server = io('localhost:5555')->fork;       # Create a daemon socket
        $connection = $server->accept;              # Get a connection socket
        $input < $connection;                       # Get some data from it
        "Thank you!" > $connection;                 # Thank the caller
        $connection->close;                         # Hang up
        io(':6666')->accept->slurp > io->devnull;   # Take a complaint and file it
    
        # DBM database operations:
        $dbm = io 'my/database';                    # Create a database object
        print $dbm->{grocery_list};                 # Hash context makes it a DBM
        $dbm->{todo} = $new_list;                   # Write to database
        $dbm->dbm('GDBM_file');                     # Demand specific DBM
        io('mydb')->mldbm->{env} = \%ENV;           # MLDBM support
    
        # Tie::File support:
        $io = io 'file.txt';
        $io->[42] = 'Line Forty Three';             # Change a line
        print $io->[@$io / 2];                      # Print middle line
        @$io = reverse @$io;                        # Reverse lines in a file
    
        # Stat functions:
        printf "%s %s %s\n",                        # Print name, uid and size of
          $_->name, $_->uid, $_->size               # contents of current directory
            for io('.')->all;
        print "$_\n" for sort                       # Use mtime method to sort all
          {$b->mtime <=> $a->mtime}                 # files under current directory
            io('.')->All_Files;                     # by recent modification time.
    
        # File::Spec support:
        $contents < io->catfile(qw(dir file.txt));  # Portable IO operation
    
        # Miscellaneous:
        @lines = io('file.txt')->chomp->slurp;      # Chomp as you slurp
        @chunks =
          io('file.txt')->separator('xxx')->slurp;  # Use alternnate record sep
        $binary = io('file.bin')->binary->all;      # Read a binary file
        io('a-symlink')->readlink->slurp;           # Readlink returns an object
        print io('foo')->absolute->pathname;        # Print absolute path of foo
    
        # IO::All External Plugin Methods
        io("myfile") > io->("ftp://store.org");     # Upload a file using ftp
        $html < io->http("www.google.com");         # Grab a web page
        io('mailto:worst@enemy.net')->print($spam); # Email a "friend"
    
        # This is just the beginning, read on...

DESCRIPTION

    IO::All combines all of the best Perl IO modules into a single nifty
    object oriented interface to greatly simplify your everyday Perl IO
    idioms. It exports a single function called io, which returns a new
    IO::All object. And that object can do it all!

    The IO::All object is a proxy for IO::File, IO::Dir, IO::Socket,
    Tie::File, File::Spec, File::Path, File::MimeInfo and
    File::ReadBackwards; as well as all the DBM and MLDBM modules. You can
    use most of the methods found in these classes and in IO::Handle (which
    they inherit from). IO::All adds dozens of other helpful idiomatic
    methods including file stat and manipulation functions.

    IO::All is pluggable, and modules like IO::All::LWP and IO::All::Mailto
    add even more functionality. Optionally, every IO::All object can be
    tied to itself. This means that you can use most perl IO builtins on
    it: readline, <>, getc, print, printf, syswrite, sysread, close.

    The distinguishing magic of IO::All is that it will automatically open
    (and close) files, directories, sockets and other IO things for you.
    You never need to specify the mode (<, >>, etc), since it is determined
    by the usage context. That means you can replace this:

        open STUFF, '<', './mystuff'
          or die "Can't open './mystuff' for input:\n$!";
        local $/;
        my $stuff = <STUFF>;
        close STUFF;

    with this:

        my $stuff < io './mystuff';

    And that is a good thing!

USAGE

    Normally just say:

        use IO::All;

    and IO::All will export a single function called io, which constructs
    all IO objects.

 Note on io

    The io function is a magic constructor. It is easy to use and will
    usually do the right thing, but can also blow up easily.

    It takes a single optional argument and determines what type of IO::All
    subclass object to return. With no arguments it returns an IO::All
    object, which has no I/O methods, but has methods to construct subclass
    objects like IO::All::File.

    In other words, these 2 statements are usually the same:

        $content = io('file.txt')->all;
        $content = io->file('file.txt')->all;

    Use the first form when you are demonstrating your Perl virtues of
    laziness and impatience, and use the second form when your job is on
    the line.

METHOD ROLE CALL

    Here is an alphabetical list of all the public methods that you can
    call on an IO::All object.

    "abs2rel", "absolute", "accept", "All", "all", "All_Dirs", "all_dirs",
    "All_Files", "all_files", "All_Links", "all_links", "append",
    "appendf", "appendln", "assert", "atime", "autoclose", "autoflush",
    "backwards", "bcc", "binary", "binmode", "blksize", "blocks",
    "block_size", "buffer", "canonpath", "case_tolerant", "catdir",
    "catfile", "catpath", "cc", "chdir", "chomp", "clear", "close",
    "confess", "content", "copy", "ctime", "curdir", "dbm", "deep",
    "device", "device_id", "devnull", "dir", "domain", "empty", "ext",
    "encoding", "eof", "errors", "file", "filename", "fileno", "filepath",
    "filter", "fork", "from", "ftp", "get", "getc", "getline", "getlines",
    "gid", "glob", "handle", "head", "http", "https", "inode", "io_handle",
    "is_absolute", "is_dir", "is_dbm", "is_executable", "is_file",
    "is_link", "is_mldbm", "is_open", "is_pipe", "is_readable",
    "is_socket", "is_stdio", "is_string", "is_temp", "is_writable", "join",
    "length", "link", "lock", "mailer", "mailto", "mimetype", "mkdir",
    "mkpath", "mldbm", "mode", "modes", "mtime", "name", "new", "next",
    "nlink", "open", "os" "password", "path", "pathname", "perms", "pipe",
    "port", "print", "printf", "println", "put", "rdonly", "rdwr", "read",
    "readdir", "readlink", "recv", "rel2abs", "relative", "rename",
    "request", "response", "rmdir", "rmtree", "rootdir", "scalar", "seek",
    "send", "separator", "shutdown", "size", "slurp", "socket", "sort",
    "splitdir", "splitpath", "stat", "stdio", "stderr", "stdin", "stdout",
    "string", "string_ref", "subject", "sysread", "syswrite", "tail",
    "tell", "temp", "tie", "tmpdir", "to", "touch", "truncate", "type",
    "user", "uid", "unlink", "unlock", "updir", "uri", "utf8", "utime" and
    "write".

    Each method is documented further below.

OPERATOR OVERLOADING

    IO::All objects overload a small set of Perl operators to great effect.
    The overloads are limited to <, <<, >, >>, dereferencing operations,
    and stringification.

    Even though relatively few operations are overloaded, there is actually
    a huge matrix of possibilities for magic. That's because the
    overloading is sensitive to the types, position and context of the
    arguments, and an IO::All object can be one of many types.

    The most important overload to become familiar with is stringification.
    IO::All objects stringify to their file or directory name. Here we
    print the contents of the current directory:

        perl -MIO::All -le 'print for io(".")->all'

    is the same as:

        perl -MIO::All -le 'print $_->name for io(".")->all'

    Stringification is important because it allows IO::All operations to
    return objects when they might otherwise return file names. Then the
    recipient can use the result either as an object or a string.

    > and < move data between objects in the direction pointed to by the
    operator.

        $content1 < io('file1');
        $content1 > io('file2');
        io('file2') > $content3;
        io('file3') < $content3;
        io('file3') > io('file4');
        io('file5') < io('file4');

    >> and << do the same thing except the recipient string or file is
    appended to.

    An IO::All file used as an array reference becomes tied using
    Tie::File:

        $file = io "file";
        # Print last line of file
        print $file->[-1];
        # Insert new line in middle of file
        $file->[$#$file / 2] = 'New line';

    An IO::All file used as a hash reference becomes tied to a DBM class:

        io('mydbm')->{ingy} = 'YAML';

    An IO::All directory used as an array reference, will expose each file
    or subdirectory as an element of the array.

        print "$_\n" for @{io 'dir'};

    IO::All directories used as hash references have file names as keys,
    and IO::All objects as values:

        print io('dir')->{'foo.txt'}->slurp;

    Files used as scalar references get slurped:

        print ${io('dir')->{'foo.txt'}};

    Not all combinations of operations and object types are supported. Some
    just haven't been added yet, and some just don't make sense. If you use
    an invalid combination, an error will be thrown.

COOKBOOK

    This section describes some various things that you can easily cook up
    with IO::All.

 File Locking

    IO::All makes it very easy to lock files. Just use the lock method.
    Here's a standalone program that demonstrates locking for both write
    and read:

        use IO::All;
        my $io1 = io('myfile')->lock;
        $io1->println('line 1');
    
        fork or do {
          my $io2 = io('myfile')->lock;
          print $io2->slurp;
          exit;
        };
    
        sleep 1;
        $io1->println('line 2');
        $io1->println('line 3');
        $io1->unlock;

    There are a lot of subtle things going on here. An exclusive lock is
    issued for $io1 on the first println. That's because the file isn't
    actually opened until the first IO operation.

    When the child process tries to read the file using $io2, there is a
    shared lock put on it. Since $io1 has the exclusive lock, the slurp
    blocks.

    The parent process sleeps just to make sure the child process gets a
    chance. The parent needs to call unlock or close to release the lock.
    If all goes well the child will print 3 lines.

 In-place Editing

    Because an IO::All object can be used as an array reference, operations
    on arrays are supported transparently (using Tie::File) so a file can
    be modified in the same way you would modify an array.

        > cat > x.txt
        The sexy saxophone,
    
        got the axe.
        ^d
    
        > perl -MIO::All -e 'map { s/x/X/g; $_ } @{ io(shift) }' x.txt
        > cat x.txt
        The seXy saXophone,
    
        got the aXe.
    
     This one liner uses shift() to grab the file from STDIN and create an io
     object that is dereferenced using @{ } and fed to map() like any perl array
     reference.

 Round Robin

    This simple example will read lines from a file forever. When the last
    line is read, it will reopen the file and read the first one again.

        my $io = io 'file1.txt';
        $io->autoclose(1);
        while (my $line = $io->getline || $io->getline) {
          print $line;
        }

 Reading Backwards

    If you call the backwards method on an IO::All object, the getline and
    getlines will work in reverse. They will read the lines in the file
    from the end to the beginning.

        my @reversed;
        my $io = io('file1.txt');
        $io->backwards;
        while (my $line = $io->getline) {
          push @reversed, $line;
        }

    or more simply:

        my @reversed = io('file1.txt')->backwards->getlines;

    The backwards method returns the IO::All object so that you can chain
    the calls.

    NOTE: This operation requires that you have the File::ReadBackwards
    module installed.

 Client/Server Sockets

    IO::All makes it really easy to write a forking socket server and a
    client to talk to it.

    In this example, a server will return 3 lines of text, to every client
    that calls it. Here is the server code:

        use IO::All;
    
        my $socket = io(':12345')->fork->accept;
        $socket->print($_) while <DATA>;
        $socket->close;
    
        __DATA__
        On your mark,
        Get set,
        Go!

    Here is the client code:

        use IO::All;
    
        my $io = io('localhost:12345');
        print while $_ = $io->getline;

    You can run the server once, and then run the client repeatedly (in
    another terminal window). It should print the 3 data lines each time.

    Note that it is important to close the socket if the server is forking,
    or else the socket won't go out of scope and close.

 A Tiny Web Server

    Here is how you could write a simplistic web server that works with
    static and dynamic pages:

        perl -MIO::All -e 'io(":8080")->fork->accept->(sub { $_[0] < io(-x $1 ? "./$1 |" : $1) if /^GET \/(.*) / })'

    There is are a lot of subtle things going on here. First we accept a
    socket and fork the server. Then we overload the new socket as a code
    ref. This code ref takes one argument, another code ref, which is used
    as a callback.

    The callback is called once for every line read on the socket. The line
    is put into $_ and the socket itself is passed in to the callback.

    Our callback is scanning the line in $_ for an HTTP GET request. If one
    is found it parses the file name into $1. Then we use $1 to create an
    new IO::All file object... with a twist. If the file is executable
    (-x), then we create a piped command as our IO::All object. This
    somewhat approximates CGI support.

    Whatever the resulting object is, we direct the contents back at our
    socket which is in $_[0]. Pretty simple, eh?

 DBM Files

    IO::All file objects used as a hash reference, treat the file as a DBM
    tied to a hash. Here I write my DB record to STDERR:

        io("names.db")->{ingy} > io('=');

    Since their are several DBM formats available in Perl, IO::All picks
    the first one of these that is installed on your system:

        DB_File GDBM_File NDBM_File ODBM_File SDBM_File

    You can override which DBM you want for each IO::All object:

        my @keys = keys %{io('mydbm')->dbm('SDBM_File')};

 File Subclassing

    Subclassing is easy with IO::All. Just create a new module and use
    IO::All as the base class, like this:

        package NewModule;
        use IO::All -base;

    You need to do it this way so that IO::All will export the io function.
    Here is a simple recipe for subclassing:

    IO::Dumper inherits everything from IO::All and adds an extra method
    called dump, which will dump a data structure to the file we specify in
    the io function. Since it needs Data::Dumper to do the dumping, we
    override the open method to require Data::Dumper and then pass control
    to the real open.

    First the code using the module:

        use IO::Dumper;
    
        io('./mydump')->dump($hash);

    And next the IO::Dumper module itself:

        package IO::Dumper;
        use IO::All -base;
        use Data::Dumper;
    
        sub dump {
          my $self = shift;
          Dumper(@_) > $self;
        }
    
        1;

 Inline Subclassing

    This recipe does the same thing as the previous one, but without
    needing to write a separate module. The only real difference is the
    first line. Since you don't "use" IO::Dumper, you need to still call
    its import method manually.

        IO::Dumper->import;
        io('./mydump')->dump($hash);
    
        package IO::Dumper;
        use IO::All -base;
        use Data::Dumper;
    
        sub dump {
          my $self = shift;
          Dumper(@_) > $self;
        }

THE IO::ALL METHODS

    This section gives a full description of all of the methods that you
    can call on IO::All objects. The methods have been grouped into
    subsections based on object construction, option settings,
    configuration, action methods and support for specific modules.

 Object Construction and Initialization Methods

    new

      There are three ways to create a new IO::All object. The first is
      with the special function io which really just calls IO::All->new.
      The second is by calling new as a class method. The third is calling
      new as an object instance method. In this final case, the new objects
      attributes are copied from the instance object.

          io(file-descriptor);
          IO::All->new(file-descriptor);
          $io->new(file-descriptor);

      All three forms take a single argument, a file descriptor. A file
      descriptor can be any of the following:

          - A file name
          - A file handle
          - A directory name
          - A directory handle
          - A typeglob reference
          - A piped shell command. eg '| ls -al'
          - A socket domain/port.  eg 'perl.com:5678'
          - '-' means STDIN or STDOUT (depending on usage)
          - '=' means STDERR
          - '$' means an in memory filehandle object
          - '?' means a temporary file
          - A URI including: http, https, ftp and mailto
          - An IO::All object

      If you provide an IO::All object, you will simply get that same
      object returned from the constructor.

      If no file descriptor is provided, an object will still be created,
      but it must be defined by one of the following methods before it can
      be used for I/O:

    file

          io->file("path/to/my/file.txt");

      Using the file method sets the type of the object to file and sets
      the pathname of the file if provided.

      It might be important to use this method if you had a file whose name
      was '- ', or if the name might otherwise be confused with a directory
      or a socket. In this case, either of these statements would work the
      same:

          my $file = io('-')->file;
          my $file = io->file('-');

    dir

          io->dir($dir_name);

      Make the object be of type directory.

    socket

          io->socket("${domain}:${port}");

      Make the object be of type socket.

    link

          io->link($link_name);

      Make the object be of type link.

    pipe

          io->pipe($pipe_command);

      Make the object be of type pipe. The following three statements are
      equivalent:

          my $io = io('ls -l |');
          my $io = io('ls -l')->pipe;
          my $io = io->pipe('ls -l');

    dbm

      This method takes the names of zero or more DBM modules. The first
      one that is available is used to process the dbm file.

          io('mydbm')->dbm('NDBM_File', 'SDBM_File')->{author} = 'ingy';

      If no module names are provided, the first available of the following
      is used:

          DB_File GDBM_File NDBM_File ODBM_File SDBM_File

    mldbm

      Similar to the dbm method, except create a Multi Level DBM object
      using the MLDBM module.

      This method takes the names of zero or more DBM modules and an
      optional serialization module. The first DBM module that is available
      is used to process the MLDBM file. The serialization module can be
      Data::Dumper, Storable or FreezeThaw.

          io('mymldbm')->mldbm('GDBM_File', 'Storable')->{author} =
            {nickname => 'ingy'};

    string

      Make the object be an in memory filehandle. These are equivalent:

          my $io = io('$');
          my $io = io->string;

    temp

      Make the object represent a temporary file. It will automatically be
      open for both read and write.

    stdio

      Make the object represent either STDIN or STDOUT depending on how it
      is used subsequently. These are equivalent:

          my $io = io('-');
          my $io = io->stdin;

    stdin

      Make the object represent STDIN.

    stdout

      Make the object represent STDOUT.

    stderr

      Make the object represent STDERR.

    handle

          io->handle($io_handle);

      Forces the object to be created from an pre-existing IO handle. You
      can chain calls together to indicate the type of handle:

          my $file_object = io->file->handle($file_handle);
          my $dir_object = io->dir->handle($dir_handle);

    http

      Make the object represent an HTTP URI. Requires IO-All-LWP.

    https

      Make the object represent an HTTPS URI. Requires IO-All-LWP.

    ftp

      Make the object represent an FTP URI. Requires IO-All-LWP.

    mailto

      Make the object represent a mailto: URI. Requires IO-All-Mailto.

    If you need to use the same options to create a lot of objects, and
    don't want to duplicate the code, just create a dummy object with the
    options you want, and use that object to spawn other objects.

        my $lt = io->lock->tie;
        ...
        my $io1 = $lt->new('file1');
        my $io2 = $lt->new('file2');

    Since the new method copies attributes from the calling object, both
    $io1 and $io2 will be locked and tied.

 Option Setting Methods

    The following methods don't do any actual IO, but they specify options
    about how the IO should be done.

    Each option can take a single argument of 0 or 1. If no argument is
    given, the value 1 is assumed. Passing 0 turns the option off.

    All of these options return the object reference that was used to
    invoke them. This is so that the option methods can be chained
    together. For example:

        my $io = io('path/file')->tie->assert->chomp->lock;

    absolute

      Indicates that the pathname for the object should be made absolute.

          # Print the full path of the current working directory
          # (like pwd).
      
          use IO::All;
      
          print io->curdir->absolute;

    assert

      This method ensures that the path for a file or directory actually
      exists before the file is open. If the path does not exist, it is
      created.

      For example, here is a program called "create-cat-to" that outputs to
      a file that it creates.

          #!/usr/bin/perl
      
          # create-cat-to.pl
          # cat to a file that can be created.
      
          use strict;
          use warnings;
      
          use IO::All;
      
          my $filename = shift(@ARGV);
      
          # Create a file called $filename, including all leading components.
          io('-') > io->file($filename)->assert;

      Here's an example use of it:

          $ ls -l
          total 0
          $ echo "Hello World" | create-cat-to one/two/three/four.txt
          $ ls -l
          total 4
          drwxr-xr-x 3 shlomif shlomif 4096 2010-10-14 18:03 one/
          $ cat one/two/three/four.txt
          Hello World
          $

    autoclose

      By default, IO::All will close an object opened for input when EOF is
      reached. By closing the handle early, one can immediately do other
      operations on the object without first having to close it.

      This option is on by default, so if you don't want this behaviour,
      say so like this:

          $io->autoclose(0);

      The object will then be closed when $io goes out of scope, or you
      manually call $io->close.

    autoflush

      Proxy for IO::Handle::autoflush

    backwards

      Sets the object to 'backwards' mode. All subsequent getline
      operations will read backwards from the end of the file.

      Requires the File::ReadBackwards CPAN module.

    binary

      Adds :raw to the list of PerlIO layers applied after open, and
      applies it immediately on an open handle.

    chdir

      chdir() to the pathname of a directory object. When object goes out
      of scope, chdir back to starting directory.

    chomp

      Indicates that all operations that read lines should chomp the lines.
      If the separator method has been called, chomp will remove that value
      from the end of each record.

      Note that chomp may cause the following idiom to halt prematurely
      (e.g., if separator is \n (the default) and chomp is in effect, then
      this command will stop reading at the first blank line):

          while ( my $line = $io->getline ) {...}

      Try the following instead:

          while ( defined(my $line = $io->getline) ) {...}

    confess

      Errors should be reported with the very detailed Carp::confess
      function.

    deep

      Indicates that calls to the all family of methods should search
      directories as deep as possible.

    fork

      Indicates that the process should automatically be forked inside the
      accept socket method.

    lock

      Indicate that operations on an object should be locked using flock.

    rdonly

      This option indicates that certain operations like DBM and Tie::File
      access should be done in read-only mode.

    rdwr

      This option indicates that DBM and MLDBM files should be opened in
      read/write mode.

    relative

      Indicates that the pathname for the object should be made relative.
      If passed an argument, path will be made relative to passed argument.

    sort

      Indicates whether objects returned from one of the all methods will
      be in sorted order by name. True by default.

    tie

      Indicate that the object should be tied to itself, thus allowing it
      to be used as a filehandle in any of Perl's builtin IO operations.

          my $io = io('foo')->tie;
          @lines = <$io>;

    utf8

      Adds :encoding(UTF-8) to the list of PerlIO layers applied after
      open, and applies it immediately on an open handle.

 Configuration Methods

    The following methods don't do any actual I/O, but they set specific
    values to configure the IO::All object.

    If these methods are passed no argument, they will return their current
    value. If arguments are passed they will be used to set the current
    value, and the object reference will be returned for potential method
    chaining.

    bcc

      Set the Bcc field for a mailto object.

    binmode

      Adds the specified layer to the list of PerlIO layers applied after
      open, and applies it immediately on an open handle. Does a bare
      binmode when called without argument.

    block_size

      The default length to be used for read and sysread calls. Defaults to
      1024.

    buffer

      Returns a reference to the internal buffer, which is a scalar. You
      can use this method to set the buffer to a scalar of your choice.
      (You can just pass in the scalar, rather than a reference to it.)

      This is the buffer that read and write will use by default.

      You can easily have IO::All objects use the same buffer:

          my $input = io('abc');
          my $output = io('xyz');
          my $buffer;
          $output->buffer($input->buffer($buffer));
          $output->write while $input->read;

    cc

      Set the Cc field for a mailto object.

    content

      Get or set the content for an LWP operation manually.

    domain

      Set the domain name or ip address that a socket should use.

    encoding

      Adds the specified encoding to the list of PerlIO layers applied
      after open, and applies it immediately on an open handle. Requires an
      argument.

    errors

      Use this to set a subroutine reference that gets called when an
      internal error is thrown.

    filter

      Use this to set a subroutine reference that will be used to grep
      which objects get returned on a call to one of the all methods. For
      example:

          my @odd = io->curdir->filter(sub {$_->size % 2})->All_Files;

      @odd will contain all the files under the current directory whose
      size is an odd number of bytes.

    from

      Indicate the sender for a mailto object.

    mailer

      Set the mailer program for a mailto transaction. Defaults to
      'sendmail'.

    mode

      Set the mode for which the file should be opened. Examples:

          $io->mode('>>')->open;
          $io->mode(O_RDONLY);
      
          my $log_appender = io->file('/var/log/my-application.log')
                               ->mode('>>')->open();
      
          $log_appender->print("Stardate 5987.6: Mission accomplished.");

    name

      Set or get the name of the file or directory represented by the
      IO::All object.

    password

      Set the password for an LWP transaction.

    perms

      Sets the permissions to be used if the file/directory needs to be
      created.

    port

      Set the port number that a socket should use.

    request

      Manually specify the request object for an LWP transaction.

    response

      Returns the resulting response object from an LWP transaction.

    separator

      Sets the record (line) separator to whatever value you pass it.
      Default is \n. Affects the chomp setting too.

    string_ref

      Returns a reference to the internal string that is acting like a
      file.

    subject

      Set the subject for a mailto transaction.

    to

      Set the recipient address for a mailto request.

    uri

      Direct access to the URI used in LWP transactions.

    user

      Set the user name for an LWP transaction.

 IO Action Methods

    These are the methods that actually perform I/O operations on an
    IO::All object. The stat methods and the File::Spec methods are
    documented in separate sections below.

    accept

      For sockets. Opens a server socket (LISTEN => 1, REUSE => 1). Returns
      an IO::All socket object that you are listening on.

      If the fork method was called on the object, the process will
      automatically be forked for every connection.

    all

      Read all contents into a single string.

          compare(io('file1')->all, io('file2')->all);

    all (For directories)

      Returns a list of IO::All objects for all files and subdirectories in
      a directory.

      '.' and '..' are excluded.

      Takes an optional argument telling how many directories deep to
      search. The default is 1. Zero (0) means search as deep as possible.

      The filter method can be used to limit the results.

      The items returned are sorted by name unless ->sort(0) is used.

    All

      Same as all(0).

    all_dirs

      Same as all, but only return directories.

    All_Dirs

      Same as all_dirs(0).

    all_files

      Same as all, but only return files.

    All_Files

      Same as all_files(0).

    all_links

      Same as all, but only return links.

    All_Links

      Same as all_links(0).

    append

      Same as print, but sets the file mode to '>>'.

    appendf

      Same as printf, but sets the file mode to '>>'.

    appendln

      Same as println, but sets the file mode to '>>'.

    clear

      Clear the internal buffer. This method is called by write after it
      writes the buffer. Returns the object reference for chaining.

    close

      Close will basically unopen the object, which has different meanings
      for different objects. For files and directories it will close and
      release the handle. For sockets it calls shutdown. For tied things it
      unties them, and it unlocks locked things.

    copy

      Copies the object to the path passed. Works on both files and
      directories, but directories require File::Copy::Recursive to be
      installed.

    empty

      Returns true if a file exists but has no size, or if a directory
      exists but has no contents.

    eof

      Proxy for IO::Handle::eof

    ext

      Returns the extension of the file. Can also be spelled as extension

    exists

      Returns whether or not the file or directory exists.

    filename

      Return the name portion of the file path in the object. For example:

          io('my/path/file.txt')->filename;

      would return file.txt.

    fileno

      Proxy for IO::Handle::fileno

    filepath

      Return the path portion of the file path in the object. For example:

          io('my/path/file.txt')->filepath;

      would return my/path.

    get

      Perform an LWP GET request manually.

    getc

      Proxy for IO::Handle::getc

    getline

      Calls IO::File::getline. You can pass in an optional record
      separator.

    getlines

      Calls IO::File::getlines. You can pass in an optional record
      separator.

    glob

      Creates IO::All objects for the files matching the glob in the
      IO::All::Dir. For example:

          io->dir($ENV{HOME})->glob('*.txt')

    head

      Return the first 10 lines of a file. Takes an optional argument which
      is the number of lines to return. Works as expected in list and
      scalar context. Is subject to the current line separator.

    io_handle

      Direct access to the actual IO::Handle object being used on an opened
      IO::All object.

    is_dir

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a directory.

    is_executable

      Returns true if file or directory is executable.

    is_dbm

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a dbm file.

    is_file

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a file.

    is_link

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a symlink.

    is_mldbm

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a mldbm file.

    is_open

      Indicates whether the IO::All is currently open for input/output.

    is_pipe

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a pipe operation.

    is_readable

      Returns true if file or directory is readable.

    is_socket

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a socket.

    is_stdio

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a STDIO file handle.

    is_string

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      an in memory filehandle.

    is_temp

      Returns boolean telling whether or not the IO::All object represents
      a temporary file.

    is_writable

      Returns true if file or directory is writable. Can also be spelled as
      is_writeable.

    length

      Return the length of the internal buffer.

    mimetype

      Return the mimetype of the file.

      Requires a working installation of the File::MimeInfo CPAN module.

    mkdir

      Create the directory represented by the object.

    mkpath

      Create the directory represented by the object, when the path
      contains more than one directory that doesn't exist. Proxy for
      File::Path::mkpath.

    next

      For a directory, this will return a new IO::All object for each file
      or subdirectory in the directory. Return undef on EOD.

    open

      Open the IO::All object. Takes two optional arguments mode and perms,
      which can also be set ahead of time using the mode and perms methods.

      NOTE: Normally you won't need to call open (or mode/perms), since
      this happens automatically for most operations.

    os

      Change the object's os representation. Valid options are: win32,
      unix, vms, mac, os2.

    pathname

      Return the absolute or relative pathname for a file or directory,
      depending on whether object is in absolute or relative mode.

    print

      Proxy for IO::Handle::print

    printf

      Proxy for IO::Handle::printf

    println

      Same as print, but adds newline to each argument unless it already
      ends with one.

    put

      Perform an LWP PUT request manually.

    read

      This method varies depending on its context. Read carefully (no pun
      intended).

      For a file, this will proxy IO::File::read. This means you must pass
      it a buffer, a length to read, and optionally a buffer offset for
      where to put the data that is read. The function returns the length
      actually read (which is zero at EOF).

      If you don't pass any arguments for a file, IO::All will use its own
      internal buffer, a default length, and the offset will always point
      at the end of the buffer. The buffer can be accessed with the buffer
      method. The length can be set with the block_size method. The default
      length is 1024 bytes. The clear method can be called to clear the
      buffer.

      For a directory, this will proxy IO::Dir::read.

    readdir

      Similar to the Perl readdir builtin. In scalar context, return the
      next directory entry (ie file or directory name), or undef on end of
      directory. In list context, return all directory entries.

      Note that readdir does not return the special . and .. entries.

    readline

      Same as getline.

    readlink

      Calls Perl's readlink function on the link represented by the object.
      Instead of returning the file path, it returns a new IO::All object
      using the file path.

    recv

      Proxy for IO::Socket::recv

    rename

          my $new = $io->rename('new-name');

      Calls Perl's rename function and returns an IO::All object for the
      renamed file. Returns false if the rename failed.

    rewind

      Proxy for IO::Dir::rewind

    rmdir

      Delete the directory represented by the IO::All object.

    rmtree

      Delete the directory represented by the IO::All object and all the
      files and directories beneath it. Proxy for File::Path::rmtree.

    scalar

      Deprecated. Same as all().

    seek

      Proxy for IO::Handle::seek. If you use seek on an unopened file, it
      will be opened for both read and write.

    send

      Proxy for IO::Socket::send

    shutdown

      Proxy for IO::Socket::shutdown

    slurp

      Read all file content in one operation. Returns the file content as a
      string. In list context returns every line in the file.

    stat

      Proxy for IO::Handle::stat

    sysread

      Proxy for IO::Handle::sysread

    syswrite

      Proxy for IO::Handle::syswrite

    tail

      Return the last 10 lines of a file. Takes an optional argument which
      is the number of lines to return. Works as expected in list and
      scalar context. Is subject to the current line separator.

    tell

      Proxy for IO::Handle::tell

    throw

      This is an internal method that gets called whenever there is an
      error. It could be useful to override it in a subclass, to provide
      more control in error handling.

    touch

      Update the atime and mtime values for a file or directory. Creates an
      empty file if the file does not exist.

    truncate

      Proxy for IO::Handle::truncate

    type

      Returns a string indicated the type of io object. Possible values
      are:

          file
          dir
          link
          socket
          string
          pipe

      Returns undef if type is not determinable.

    unlink

      Unlink (delete) the file represented by the IO::All object.

      NOTE: You can unlink a file after it is open, and continue using it
      until it is closed.

    unlock

      Release a lock from an object that used the lock method.

    utime

      Proxy for the utime Perl function.

    write

      Opposite of read for file operations only.

      NOTE: When used with the automatic internal buffer, write will clear
      the buffer after writing it.

 Stat Methods

    This methods get individual values from a stat call on the file,
    directory or handle represented by the IO::All object.

    atime

      Last access time in seconds since the epoch

    blksize

      Preferred block size for file system I/O

    blocks

      Actual number of blocks allocated

    ctime

      Inode change time in seconds since the epoch

    device

      Device number of filesystem

    device_id

      Device identifier for special files only

    gid

      Numeric group id of file's owner

    inode

      Inode number

    modes

      File mode - type and permissions

    mtime

      Last modify time in seconds since the epoch

    nlink

      Number of hard links to the file

    size

      Total size of file in bytes

    uid

      Numeric user id of file's owner

 File::Spec Methods

    These methods are all adaptations from File::Spec. Each method actually
    does call the matching File::Spec method, but the arguments and return
    values differ slightly. Instead of being file and directory names, they
    are IO::All objects. Since IO::All objects stringify to their names,
    you can generally use the methods just like File::Spec.

    abs2rel

      Returns the relative path for the absolute path in the IO::All
      object. Can take an optional argument indicating the base path.

    canonpath

      Returns the canonical path for the IO::All object. The canonical path
      is the fully resolved path if the file exists, so any symlinks will
      be resolved.

    case_tolerant

      Returns 0 or 1 indicating whether the file system is case tolerant.
      Since an active IO::All object is not needed for this function, you
      can code it like:

          IO::All->case_tolerant;

      or more simply:

          io->case_tolerant;

    catdir

      Concatenate the directory components together, and return a new
      IO::All object representing the resulting directory.

    catfile

      Concatenate the directory and file components together, and return a
      new IO::All object representing the resulting file.

          my $contents = io->catfile(qw(dir subdir file))->slurp;

      This is a very portable way to read dir/subdir/file.

    catpath

      Concatenate the volume, directory and file components together, and
      return a new IO::All object representing the resulting file.

    curdir

      Returns an IO::All object representing the current directory.

    devnull

      Returns an IO::All object representing the /dev/null file.

    is_absolute

      Returns 0 or 1 indicating whether the name field of the IO::All
      object is an absolute path.

    join

      Same as catfile.

    path

      Returns a list of IO::All directory objects for each directory in
      your path.

    rel2abs

      Returns the absolute path for the relative path in the IO::All
      object. Can take an optional argument indicating the base path.

    rootdir

      Returns an IO::All object representing the root directory on your
      file system.

    splitdir

      Returns a list of the directory components of a path in an IO::All
      object.

    splitpath

      Returns a volume directory and file component of a path in an IO::All
      object.

    tmpdir

      Returns an IO::All object representing a temporary directory on your
      file system.

    updir

      Returns an IO::All object representing the current parent directory.

OPERATIONAL NOTES

    Reblessing

      Each IO::All object gets reblessed into an IO::All::* object as soon
      as IO::All can determine what type of object it should be. Sometimes
      it gets reblessed more than once:

          my $io = io('mydbm.db');
          $io->dbm('DB_File');
          $io->{foo} = 'bar';

      In the first statement, $io has a reference value of 'IO::All::File',
      if mydbm.db exists. In the second statement, the object is reblessed
      into class 'IO::All::DBM'.

    Auto-Open

      An IO::All object will automatically be opened as soon as there is
      enough contextual information to know what type of object it is, and
      what mode it should be opened for. This is usually when the first
      read or write operation is invoked but might be sooner.

    Auto-Mode

      The mode for an object to be opened with is determined heuristically
      unless specified explicitly.

    Auto-Close

      For input, IO::All objects will automatically be closed after EOF (or
      EOD). For output, the object closes when it goes out of scope.

      To keep input objects from closing at EOF, do this:

          $io->autoclose(0);

    Explicit open and close

      You can always call open and close explicitly, if you need that level
      of control. To test if an object is currently open, use the is_open
      method.

    Overload

      Overloaded operations return the target object, if one exists.

      This would set $xxx to the IO::All object:

          my $xxx = $contents > io('file.txt');

      While this would set $xxx to the content string:

          my $xxx = $contents < io('file.txt');

STABILITY

    The goal of the IO::All project is to continually refine the module to
    be as simple and consistent to use as possible. Therefore, in the early
    stages of the project, I will not hesitate to break backwards
    compatibility with other versions of IO::All if I can find an easier
    and clearer way to do a particular thing.

    IO is tricky stuff. There is definitely more work to be done. On the
    other hand, this module relies heavily on very stable existing IO
    modules; so it may work fairly well.

    I am sure you will find many unexpected "features". Please send all
    problems, ideas and suggestions to ingy@cpan.org.

 Known Bugs and Deficiencies

    Not all possible combinations of objects and methods have been tested.
    There are many many combinations. All of the examples have been tested.
    If you find a bug with a particular combination of calls, let me know.

    If you call a method that does not make sense for a particular object,
    the result probably won't make sense. Little attempt is made to check
    for improper usage.

CREDITS

    A lot of people have sent in suggestions, that have become a part of
    IO::All. Thank you.

    Special thanks to Ian Langworth for continued testing and patching.

    Thank you Simon Cozens for tipping me off to the overloading
    possibilities.

    Finally, thanks to Autrijus Tang, for always having one more good idea.

    (It seems IO::All of it to a lot of people!)

REPOSITORY AND COMMUNITY

    The IO::All module can be found on CPAN and on GitHub:
    http://github.com/ingydotnet/io-all-pm.

    Please join the IO::All discussion on #io-all on irc.perl.org.

SEE ALSO

      * File::Spec

      * File::Path

      * File::ReadBackwards

      * File::MimeInfo

      * IO::Handle

      * IO::File

      * IO::Dir

      * IO::Socket

      * Tie::File

AUTHOR

    Ingy döt Net <ingy@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Copyright 2004-2017. Ingy döt Net.

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself.

    See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html