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libtypes-serialiser-perl 1.0-1
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NAME
    Types::Serialiser - simple data types for common serialisation formats

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
    This module provides some extra datatypes that are used by common
    serialisation formats such as JSON or CBOR. The idea is to have a
    repository of simple/small constants and containers that can be shared
    by different implementations so they become interoperable between each
    other.

SIMPLE SCALAR CONSTANTS
    Simple scalar constants are values that are overloaded to act like
    simple Perl values, but have (class) type to differentiate them from
    normal Perl scalars. This is necessary because these have different
    representations in the serialisation formats.

  BOOLEANS (Types::Serialiser::Boolean class)
    This type has only two instances, true and false. A natural
    representation for these in Perl is 1 and 0, but serialisation formats
    need to be able to differentiate between them and mere numbers.

    $Types::Serialiser::true, Types::Serialiser::true
        This value represents the "true" value. In most contexts is acts
        like the number 1. It is up to you whether you use the variable form
        ($Types::Serialiser::true) or the constant form
        ("Types::Serialiser::true").

        The constant is represented as a reference to a scalar containing 1
        - implementations are allowed to directly test for this.

    $Types::Serialiser::false, Types::Serialiser::false
        This value represents the "false" value. In most contexts is acts
        like the number 0. It is up to you whether you use the variable form
        ($Types::Serialiser::false) or the constant form
        ("Types::Serialiser::false").

        The constant is represented as a reference to a scalar containing 0
        - implementations are allowed to directly test for this.

    $is_bool = Types::Serialiser::is_bool $value
        Returns true iff the $value is either $Types::Serialiser::true or
        $Types::Serialiser::false.

        For example, you could differentiate between a perl true value and a
        "Types::Serialiser::true" by using this:

           $value && Types::Serialiser::is_bool $value

    $is_true = Types::Serialiser::is_true $value
        Returns true iff $value is $Types::Serialiser::true.

    $is_false = Types::Serialiser::is_false $value
        Returns false iff $value is $Types::Serialiser::false.

  ERROR (Types::Serialiser::Error class)
    This class has only a single instance, "error". It is used to signal an
    encoding or decoding error. In CBOR for example, and object that
    couldn't be encoded will be represented by a CBOR undefined value, which
    is represented by the error value in Perl.

    $Types::Serialiser::error, Types::Serialiser::error
        This value represents the "error" value. Accessing values of this
        type will throw an exception.

        The constant is represented as a reference to a scalar containing
        "undef" - implementations are allowed to directly test for this.

    $is_error = Types::Serialiser::is_error $value
        Returns false iff $value is $Types::Serialiser::error.

NOTES FOR XS USERS
    The recommended way to detect whether a scalar is one of these objects
    is to check whether the stash is the "Types::Serialiser::Boolean" or
    "Types::Serialiser::Error" stash, and then follow the scalar reference
    to see if it's 1 (true), 0 (false) or "undef" (error).

    While it is possible to use an isa test, directly comparing stash
    pointers is faster and guaranteed to work.

    For historical reasons, the "Types::Serialiser::Boolean" stash is just
    an alias for "JSON::PP::Boolean". When printed, the classname with
    usually be "JSON::PP::Boolean", but isa tests and stash pointer
    comparison will normally work correctly (i.e. Types::Serialiser::true
    ISA JSON::PP::Boolean, but also ISA Types::Serialiser::Boolean).

A GENERIC OBJECT SERIALIATION PROTOCOL
    This section explains the object serialisation protocol used by
    CBOR::XS. It is meant to be generic enough to support any kind of
    generic object serialiser.

    This protocol is called "the Types::Serialiser object serialisation
    protocol".

  ENCODING
    When the encoder encounters an object that it cannot otherwise encode
    (for example, CBOR::XS can encode a few special types itself, and will
    first attempt to use the special "TO_CBOR" serialisation protocol), it
    will look up the "FREEZE" method on the object.

    Note that the "FREEZE" method will normally be called *during* encoding,
    and *MUST NOT* change the data structure that is being encoded in any
    way, or it might cause memory corruption or worse.

    If it exists, it will call it with two arguments: the object to
    serialise, and a constant string that indicates the name of the data
    model. For example CBOR::XS uses "CBOR", and the JSON and JSON::XS
    modules (or any other JSON serialiser), would use "JSON" as second
    argument.

    The "FREEZE" method can then return zero or more values to identify the
    object instance. The serialiser is then supposed to encode the class
    name and all of these return values (which must be encodable in the
    format) using the relevant form for Perl objects. In CBOR for example,
    there is a registered tag number for encoded perl objects.

    The values that "FREEZE" returns must be serialisable with the
    serialiser that calls it. Therefore, it is recommended to use simple
    types such as strings and numbers, and maybe array references and hashes
    (basically, the JSON data model). You can always use a more complex
    format for a specific data model by checking the second argument, the
    data model.

    The "data model" is not the same as the "data format" - the data model
    indicates what types and kinds of return values can be returned from
    "FREEZE". For example, in "CBOR" it is permissible to return tagged CBOR
    values, while JSON does not support these at all, so "JSON" would be a
    valid (but too limited) data model name for "CBOR::XS". similarly, a
    serialising format that supports more or less the same data model as
    JSON could use "JSON" as data model without losing anything.

  DECODING
    When the decoder then encounters such an encoded perl object, it should
    look up the "THAW" method on the stored classname, and invoke it with
    the classname, the constant string to identify the data model/data
    format, and all the return values returned by "FREEZE".

  EXAMPLES
    See the "OBJECT SERIALISATION" section in the CBOR::XS manpage for more
    details, an example implementation, and code examples.

    Here is an example "FREEZE"/"THAW" method pair:

       sub My::Object::FREEZE {
          my ($self, $model) = @_;

          ($self->{type}, $self->{id}, $self->{variant})
       }

       sub My::Object::THAW {
          my ($class, $model, $type, $id, $variant) = @_;

          $class->new (type => $type, id => $id, variant => $variant)
       }

BUGS
    The use of overload makes this module much heavier than it should be (on
    my system, this module: 4kB RSS, overload: 260kB RSS).

SEE ALSO
    Currently, JSON::XS and CBOR::XS use these types.

AUTHOR
     Marc Lehmann <schmorp@schmorp.de>
     http://home.schmorp.de/