File: mklocale

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#!perl
#
# This auxiliary script makes locale .pl files and copes with Korean.pm
# used by Unicode::Collate::Locale.
#
# Usage:
#    <do './mklocale'> in perl, or <perl mklocale> in command line
#
# Input files:
#    data/*.txt
#    Collate/CJK/Korean.pm
#    Collate/allkeys.txt
#
# Output files:
#    Locale/*.pl (need to be moved to Collate/Locale/*.pl to install them)
#    Korean.pm   (need to be moved to Collate/CJK/Korean.pm to install it)
#
# What to do:
#   * convert data/*.txt to Locale/*.pl
#   * rewrite %jamo2prim in Korean.pm
#
# == Examples of the Rules for data/*.txt ==
#
# 00F1;n+1 ===> primary weight of 00F1 is greater than that of n by 1.
#    Among literals, only [A-Za-z'"] can be the base.
#    +1 for primary weight (greater by 1),
#    -1 for primary weight (less by 1),
#    ++1 and --1 for secondary weight,
#    +++1 and ---1 for tertiary weight.
#    A number followed by + or - is decimal integer.
#
# 0491;<0433>+1
# 1D2D;<00C6>+++12
#    XXXX is hexadecimal for U+XXXX.
#    <XXXX> can be the base followed by +1 etc.
#
# 3220;<0028 4E00 0029>+++?
#    '+++?' means implicit tertiary weights and borrows them from DUCET.
#    The lefthand (3220) and the righthand (0028 4E00 0029) *must* be
#    secondary equal in DUCET too (usually compatibility equivalent).
#    The example shown works like "3220;<0028>+++2 <4E00>+++2 <0029>+++29",
#    since the tertiary weights of U+3200 are (0x4,0x4,0x1F), those of
#    <0028 4E00 0029> are (0x2,0x2,0x2), and the difference is (+2,+2,+29).
#    Limitation: cannot be combined with other rules in the same line.
#
# 01FD;<00E6><0301> ===> U+01FD eq U+00E6,U+0301
#    simple decomposition (without + and -): identical each other.
#
# 0902;<0950>+0 [.FFF1.0.0.0]
#     [...] means constant weights in hexadecimal.
#
# 0064 0335;=
# 0111;d++1<0335>
#    '=' saves DUCET weights as it is.
#    0064 0335;= prevents 0064 0335 from being equal to 0111.
#
# {ch};c+1   ===> 0063 0068;c+1
# {K'};Q++1  ===> 004B 0027;Q++1
#     { } before ; encloses a literal: [A-Za-z'] (alphabets or apostrophe).
#
# {gh}0335;<{g}0127> ===> U+0067,U+0068,U+0335 eq U+0067,U+0127
# {dZ}030C;<{d}017D> ===> U+0064,U+005A,U+030C eq U+0064,U+017D
#     < > after ; can enclose a unit comprising plural XXXX or {literal}.
#
# alternate
#    "alternate XXX" gives "variable => 'XXX'," and "alternate => 'XXX',".
#
# backwards
#    It gives "backwards => 2,".
#
# upper
#    It gives "upper_before_lower => 1,".
#
# suppress
#    "suppress XXXX YYYY" gives "suppress => [0xXXXX, 0xYYYY],",
#    "suppress XXXX-YYYY" gives "suppress => [0xXXXX..0xYYYY],".
#    Values XXXX etc. should be hexadecimal, and may be listed in few lines.
#
# use
#    "use PACKAGE" gives "use PACKAGE;".  The PACKAGE stands for a module,
#    such as CJK/*.pm for overrideCJK, to be loaded from Locale/*.pl.
#
# overrideCJK and overrideHangul
#    "overrideCJK FUNCNAME" or "overrideCJK \&FUNCNAME" gives
#    "overrideCJK => \&FUNCNAME,", where FUNCNAME should be visible
#    from Locale/*.pl. As well, overrideHangul works similar.
#
# locale_version
#    The version number of Locale/*.pl. It should be updated when a *.pl file
#    will be changed. The default value is $DEFAULT_LOCALE_VERSION.
#
use 5.006;
use strict;
use warnings;
use Carp;
use File::Spec;

my $Use4th; # Use 4th level (Unicode 6.2.0 or before)
my $DEFAULT_LOCALE_VERSION = '1.27'; # should be same as $VERSION of Collate.pm

BEGIN {
    unless ("A" eq pack('U', 0x41)) {
	die "Unicode::Collate cannot stringify a Unicode code point\n";
    }
    unless (0x41 == unpack('U', 'A')) {
	die "Unicode::Collate cannot get a Unicode code point\n";
    }
}

sub _getHexArray { map hex, $_[0] =~ /([0-9A-Fa-f]+)/g }
sub trim { $_[0] =~ s/^\ +//; $_[0] =~ s/\ +\z// }

sub ce {
    my $var = shift;
    my $vc = $var ? '*' : '.';
    my $hx = join '.', map { sprintf '%04X', $_ } @_;
    return "[$vc$hx]";
}

our $PACKAGE = 'Unicode::Collate, locale';
our $ENT_FMT = "%-9s ; %s # %s\n";
our $RE_CE   = '(?:\[[0-9A-Fa-f\.\*]+\])';
our $CUR_DIR = File::Spec->curdir();

use constant SBase  => 0xAC00;
use constant SFinal => 0xD7A3;
use constant NCount =>    588;
use constant TCount =>     28;
use constant LBase  => 0x1100;
use constant VBase  => 0x1161;
use constant TBase  => 0x11A7;

use constant Min2Wt => 0x20;
use constant Min3Wt => 0x02;

our $OvCJK  = 'overrideCJK';
our $OvHang = 'overrideHangul';

sub decHangul {
    my $code = shift;
    my $si = $code - SBase;
    my $li = int( $si / NCount);
    my $vi = int(($si % NCount) / TCount);
    my $ti =      $si % TCount;
    return (
	LBase + $li,
	VBase + $vi,
	$ti ? (TBase + $ti) : (),
    );
}

use constant CJK_UidFr =>  0x4E00;
use constant CJK_UidTo =>  0x9FFF;

sub simple_cjk_deriv { # $u should be CJK U.I. or Ext.
    my $u = hex shift;
    my $base = (CJK_UidFr <= $u && $u <= CJK_UidTo) ? 0xFB40 : 0xFB80;
    my $aaaa = $base + ($u >> 15);
    my $bbbb = ($u & 0x7FFF) | 0x8000;
    my @u = $Use4th ? ($u) : ();
    return ce(0, $aaaa, Min2Wt, Min3Wt, @u).ce(0, $bbbb, 0, 0, @u);
}

my %Keys;        # "0300" => "[.0000.0035.0002.0300]"
my %Code;        # "[.0000.0035.0002.0300]" => "0300"
my %Name;        # "0300" => "COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT"
my %Equiv;       # "[.0000.0035.0002.0300]" => ["0340", "0953"]
my $vDUCET;      # from @version, such as "6.0.0"
my %JamoWt1;     # primary weights of modern jamo (codept => wt) decimal
my $JamoWt2 = 0; # the maximum secondary weight of modern jamo (decimal)
my @CompId;      # decomp. mapping of CJK compat. id. like ["FA00", 0x5207]

my @OtherEquiv = split /\n=/, <<'OTHEREQUIV';
=00C2= (A-circ)
1EA7;<00E2><0300>
1EA6;<00C2><0300>
1EA5;<00E2><0301>
1EA4;<00C2><0301>
1EAB;<00E2><0303>
1EAA;<00C2><0303>
1EA9;<00E2><0309>
1EA8;<00C2><0309>
1EAD;<00E2><0323>
1EAC;<00C2><0323>
=00C4= (A-uml)
01DF;<00E4><0304>
01DE;<00C4><0304>
=00C5= (A-ring)
01FB;<00E5><0301>
01FA;<00C5><0301>
=00C6= (AE-lig)
1D2D;<00C6>+++12
01FD;<00E6><0301>
01FC;<00C6><0301>
01E3;<00E6><0304>
01E2;<00C6><0304>
=00CA= (E-circ)
1EC1;<00EA><0300>
1EC0;<00CA><0300>
1EBF;<00EA><0301>
1EBE;<00CA><0301>
1EC5;<00EA><0303>
1EC4;<00CA><0303>
1EC3;<00EA><0309>
1EC2;<00CA><0309>
1EC7;<00EA><0323>
1EC6;<00CA><0323>
=00D4= (O-circ)
1ED3;<00F4><0300>
1ED2;<00D4><0300>
1ED1;<00F4><0301>
1ED0;<00D4><0301>
1ED7;<00F4><0303>
1ED6;<00D4><0303>
1ED5;<00F4><0309>
1ED4;<00D4><0309>
1ED9;<00F4><0323>
1ED8;<00D4><0323>
=00D5= (O-tilde)
1E4D;<00F5><0301>
1E4C;<00D5><0301>
022D;<00F5><0304>
022C;<00D5><0304>
1E4F;<00F5><0308>
1E4E;<00D5><0308>
1EE1;<00F5><031B>
1EE0;<00D5><031B>
=00D6= (O-uml)
022B;<00F6><0304>
022A;<00D6><0304>
=00D8= (O-slash)
01FF;<00F8><0301>
01FE;<00D8><0301>
=00DC= (U-uml)
01DC;<00FC><0300>
01DB;<00DC><0300>
01D8;<00FC><0301>
01D7;<00DC><0301>
01D6;<00FC><0304>
01D5;<00DC><0304>
01DA;<00FC><030C>
01D9;<00DC><030C>
=0102= (A-breve)
1EB1;<0103><0300>
1EB0;<0102><0300>
1EAF;<0103><0301>
1EAE;<0102><0301>
1EB5;<0103><0303>
1EB4;<0102><0303>
1EB3;<0103><0309>
1EB2;<0102><0309>
1EB7;<0103><0323>
1EB6;<0102><0323>
=0186= (open-O)
1D53;<0186>+++?
=0190= (open-E)
2107;<0190>+++?
1D4B;<0190>+++?
=01A0= (O-horn)
1EDD;<01A1><0300>
1EDC;<01A0><0300>
1EDB;<01A1><0301>
1EDA;<01A0><0301>
1EE1;<01A1><0303>
1EE0;<01A0><0303>
1EDF;<01A1><0309>
1EDE;<01A0><0309>
1EE3;<01A1><0323>
1EE2;<01A0><0323>
=01AF= (U-horn)
1EEB;<01B0><0300>
1EEA;<01AF><0300>
1EE9;<01B0><0301>
1EE8;<01AF><0301>
1EEF;<01B0><0303>
1EEE;<01AF><0303>
1EED;<01B0><0309>
1EEC;<01AF><0309>
1EF1;<01B0><0323>
1EF0;<01AF><0323>
=0300= (grave)
00E0;a<0300>
00C0;A<0300>
00E8;e<0300>
00C8;E<0300>
00EC;i<0300>
00CC;I<0300>
00F2;o<0300>
00D2;O<0300>
00F9;u<0300>
00D9;U<0300>
1EF3;y<0300>
1EF2;Y<0300>
=0301= (acute)
00E1;a<0301>
00C1;A<0301>
00E9;e<0301>
00C9;E<0301>
00ED;i<0301>
00CD;I<0301>
00F3;o<0301>
00D3;O<0301>
00FA;u<0301>
00DA;U<0301>
00FD;y<0301>
00DD;Y<0301>
=0302= (circum)
00E2;a<0302>
00C2;A<0302>
00EA;e<0302>
00CA;E<0302>
00EE;i<0302>
00CE;I<0302>
00F4;o<0302>
00D4;O<0302>
00FB;u<0302>
00DB;U<0302>
0177;y<0302>
0176;Y<0302>
=0303= (tilde)
00E3;a<0303>
00C3;A<0303>
1EBD;e<0303>
1EBC;E<0303>
0129;i<0303>
0128;I<0303>
00F5;o<0303>
00D5;O<0303>
0169;u<0303>
0168;U<0303>
1EF9;y<0303>
1EF8;Y<0303>
=0308= (diaeresis)
00E4;a<0308>
00C4;A<0308>
00EB;e<0308>
00CB;E<0308>
00EF;i<0308>
00CF;I<0308>
00F6;o<0308>
00D6;O<0308>
00FC;u<0308>
00DC;U<0308>
00FF;y<0308>
0178;Y<0308>
=0309= (hook-above)
1EA3;a<0309>
1EA2;A<0309>
1EBB;e<0309>
1EBA;E<0309>
1EC9;i<0309>
1EC8;I<0309>
1ECF;o<0309>
1ECE;O<0309>
1EE7;u<0309>
1EE6;U<0309>
1EF7;y<0309>
1EF6;Y<0309>
=0323= (dot-below)
1EA1;a<0323>
1EA0;A<0323>
1EB9;e<0323>
1EB8;E<0323>
1ECB;i<0323>
1ECA;I<0323>
1ECD;o<0323>
1ECC;O<0323>
1EE5;u<0323>
1EE4;U<0323>
1EF5;y<0323>
1EF4;Y<0323>
=0406= (Cyrillic-Byelorussian-Ukrainian-I)
0457;<0456><0308>
A676;<0456>+++2 <0308>+++2
0407;<0406><0308>
=041E= (Cyrillic-O)
04E7;<043E><0308>
04E6;<041E><0308>
=0423= (Cyrillic-U)
045E;<0443><0306>
040E;<0423><0306>
04F1;<0443><0308>
04F0;<0423><0308>
04F3;<0443><030B>
04F2;<0423><030B>
04EF;<0443><0304>
04EE;<0423><0304>
=0933= (Devanagari-LLA)
0934;<0933><093C>
=0A3C= (Gurmukhi-Nukta)
0A33;<0A32><0A3C>
0A36;<0A38><0A3C>
0A59;<0A16><0A3C>
0A5A;<0A17><0A3C>
0A5B;<0A1C><0A3C>
0A5E;<0A2B><0A3C>
=1EB8= (E-dot-below)
1EC7;<1EB9><0302>
1EC6;<1EB8><0302>
=1ECC= (O-dot-below)
1ED9;<1ECD><0302>
1ED8;<1ECC><0302>
1EE3;<1ECD><031B>
1EE2;<1ECC><031B>
=1EE4= (U-dot-below)
1EF1;<1EE5><031B>
1EF0;<1EE4><031B>
OTHEREQUIV

my %OtherEquiv;
for my $o (@OtherEquiv) {
    my @ln = split /\n/, $o;
    my $uv = shift @ln;
    $uv =~ s/ *\([a-zA-Z-]+\) *//;
    $uv =~ tr/=//d;
    croak "$PACKAGE: $uv is invalid in OTHEREQUIV" if $uv !~ /^[0-9A-F]+\z/;
    $OtherEquiv{$uv} = \@ln;
}

##### read DUCET #####

{
    my($f, $fh);
    foreach my $d ($CUR_DIR) {
	$f = File::Spec->catfile($d, "Collate", "allkeys.txt");
	last if open($fh, $f);
	$f = undef;
    }
    croak "$PACKAGE: Collate/allkeys.txt is not found" if !defined $f;

    while (my $line = <$fh>) {
	chomp $line;
	next if $line =~ /^\s*#/;
	$vDUCET = $1 if $line =~ /^\@version\s*(\S*)/;

	next if $line !~ /^\s*[0-9A-Fa-f]/;

	my $name = ($line =~ s/[#%]\s*(.*)//) ? $1 : '';

	# gets element
	my($e, $k) = split /;/, $line;
	trim($e);
	trim($k);
	$name =~ s/; QQ[A-Z]+//;
	$name =~ s/^ ?\[[0-9A-F]+\] ?//;

	if ($k =~ /\[\.0000\.0000\.0000(\.?0*)\]/) {
	    $Use4th = 1 if $1;
	    $Name{$e} = $name;
	    next;
	}
	croak "Wrong Entry: <charList> must be separated by ';' ".
	      "from <collElement>" if ! $k;
	push @{ $Equiv{$k} }, $e if exists $Code{$k};

	$Keys{$e} = $k;
	$Code{$k} = $e if !exists $Code{$k};
	$Name{$e} = $name;

	# Hangul Jamo (modern only)
	if ($e =~ /^11[0-9A-F]{2}\z/) {
	    my @ec = _getHexArray($e);
	    my @kc = _getHexArray($k);
	    if (@ec == 1) {
		$JamoWt1{$ec[0]} = $kc[0]; # each jamo
		$JamoWt2 = $kc[1] if $JamoWt2 < $kc[1]; # max
	    }
	}

	# CJK compatibility ideographs
	if ($k =~ /^\[\.F[0-9A-F]+\.[0-9A-F]+\.0002[\.\]]/) {
	    my @p = map hex($_), $k =~ /\[\.([0-9A-F]+)\./g;
	    if (@p == 2) {
		my $ui = ((($p[0] & 0x3F) << 15) | ($p[1] & 0x7FFF));
		my $h = sprintf "%04X", $ui;
		push @CompId, [$e, $ui] if $e ne $h; # should be decomposable
	    }
	}
    }
    close $fh;
}

# $Code{$k} : precomposed (such as 04D1, CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE)
# $eqs      : equivalent sequence (such as <0430><0306>)
# $starter  : starter codepoint (integer such as hex '0430')
my @Contractions; # store Cyrillic, currently required, and others.
for my $k (sort keys %Equiv) {
    if ($Code{$k} !~ / / && $Equiv{$k}[0] =~ / /) {
	(my $eqs = "<$Equiv{$k}[0]>") =~ s/ /></g;
	my $starter = $eqs =~ /^<([0-9A-Fa-f]+)>/ ? hex($1) : '';
	push @Contractions, [$starter, "$Code{$k};$eqs"];
    }
}

##### Korean.pm #####

{
    my($f, $fh);
    foreach my $d ($CUR_DIR) {
	$f = File::Spec->catfile($d, "Collate", "CJK", "Korean.pm");
	last if open($fh, $f);
	$f = undef;
    }
    croak "$PACKAGE: Collate/CJK/Korean.pm is not found" if !defined $f;

    my %KO_jamo; # (codepoint => 1) for jamo that a syllable comprises.
    my $KO_head = ''; # before /^my %jamo2prim/
    my $KO_foot = ''; # after /^\); # for DUCET/
    while (my $line = <$fh>) {
	chomp $line;

	# check jamo that a syllable in __DATA__ comprises.
	if (($line =~ /^__DATA__/) .. ($line =~ /^__END__/)) {
	    if ($line =~ /^[A-D]/) { # Hangul syllable
		$line =~ s/:.*//;
		my @u = _getHexArray($line);
		croak "unexpected $line" if @u != 1;
		my $uv = $u[0];
		croak "unexpected $line" unless SBase <= $uv && $uv <= SFinal;
		my @dec = decHangul($uv);
		$KO_jamo{$_} = 1 for @dec;
		$line .= ':'.join '-', map sprintf('%04X', $_), @dec;
	    }
	}

	$line .= "\n"; # guarantee the last LF at the file end.
	$KO_head .= $line if 1 .. ($line =~ /^my %jamo2prim/);
	$KO_foot .= $line if ($line =~ /^\); # for DUCET/) .. 1; # eof($fh)
    }
    close $fh;

    open my $pm, ">Korean.pm" or die 'Korean.pm';
    binmode $pm;
    print $pm $KO_head;

    my $count = 0;
    for (sort keys %KO_jamo) {
	print $pm ' ' if ($count % 4) == 0;
	++$count;
	print $pm '   ';
	print $pm sprintf q!'%04X', 0x%04X,!, $_, $JamoWt1{$_};
	print $pm "\n" if ($count % 4) == 0;
    }
    print $pm "\n" if $count % 4 != 0;

    $JamoWt2 = sprintf "0x%02X", $JamoWt2;
    $KO_foot =~ s/(\$wt = )[0-9x]+/$1$JamoWt2/;
    $KO_foot =~ s/^(\); # for DUCET).*/$1 v$vDUCET/;
    print $pm $KO_foot;
    close $pm;
}

##### Locale/*.pl #####

my $source = 'data';
opendir DIR, $source or croak "no $source";
my @txts = grep /^[a-zA-Z]/, readdir DIR;
closedir DIR;

my $target = 'Locale';
mkdir $target;
for my $txt (@txts) {
    my %locale_keys;
    my $txtfile = File::Spec->catfile($source, $txt);
    my $pl = $txt;
       $pl =~ s/\.txt\z/.pl/ or croak "$PACKAGE: $source/$txt is not .txt";
    my $plfile = File::Spec->catfile($target, $pl);

    open my $fh,  $txtfile  or croak "$PACKAGE: $source/$txt is not found: $!";
    open my $ph, ">$plfile" or croak "$PACKAGE: $target/$pl can't be made: $!";
    binmode $ph;

    my $ptxt  = '';
    my $entry = '';
    my $locale_version = $DEFAULT_LOCALE_VERSION;

    while (<$fh>) {
	chomp;
	next if /^\s*\z/;
	if (s/^locale_version//) {
	    $locale_version = $1 if /(\S+)/;
	    next;
	}
	if (/^use/) {
	    print $ph "$_;\n";
	    s/^[^:]+:://; # assume that will be located under ./Collate,
			  # then omit the first identifier (Unicode::).
	    s/\s*\z/.pm/;
	    my $f = File::Spec->catfile($CUR_DIR, split /::/, $_);
	    $f = 'Korean.pm' if /::Korean\.pm/; # using the newer one
	    require "./$f"; # File::Spec->catfile($CUR_DIR, $f) seems not work.
	    next;
	}
	if (/^(alternate)\s+(\S+)/) {
	    my $v = "variable";
	    $ptxt .= "   $v => '$2',\n";
	    $ptxt .= "   $1 => '$2',\n";
	    next;
	}
	if (/^backwards$/) {
	    $ptxt .= "   backwards => 2,\n";
	    next;
	}
	if (s/^(override)(CJK|Hangul)[ \t]+(?:\\&|)/\\&/) {
	    my $key = $1.$2;
	    $ptxt .= "   $key => $_,\n";
	    $locale_keys{$key} = eval $_;
	    next;
	}
	if (/^upper$/) {
	    $ptxt .= "   upper_before_lower => 1,\n";
	    next;
	}
	if (s/^suppress//) {
	    s/\s*-\s*/../g;
	    my @c = split;
	    s/(?:0[Xx])?([0-9A-Fa-f]+)/0x$1/g for @c;
	    my $list = join ", ", @c;
	    $ptxt .= "   suppress => [$list],\n";
	    next;
	}
	if (/^([\s\-0-9A-Fa-fXx]+)\z/) { # continue the last list
	    s/\s*-\s*/../g;
	    my @c = split;
	    s/(?:0[Xx])?([0-9A-Fa-f]+)/0x$1/g for @c;
	    my $list = join ", ", @c;
	    $ptxt =~ s/\](,$)/$1/;
	    $ptxt .= "\t\t$list],\n";
	    next;
	}
	if (/^\s*(#\s*)/) {
	    $ptxt .= "$_\n" if $1 ne '#';
	    next;
	}

	$entry .= parse_entry($_, \%locale_keys);
    }

    # precomposed chars to be suppressed as additional equivalents
    if ($ptxt =~ /suppress => \[(.*)\]/s) {
	my @suplist = eval $1;
	my %suppressed;
	@suppressed{@suplist} = (1) x @suplist;

	for my $contract (@Contractions) {
	    my $starter = $contract->[0];
	    my $addline = $contract->[1];
	    next if ! $suppressed{$starter};
	    $entry .= parse_entry($addline, \%locale_keys);
	}
    }

    # Compatibility ideographs are tailored as equivalent unified ideographs.
    if ($locale_keys{$OvCJK}) {
	for my $c (@CompId) {
	    my $r = $locale_keys{$OvCJK}->($c->[1]);
	    next if !defined $r;
	    my $addline = sprintf '%s;<%04X>', $c->[0], $c->[1];
	    $entry .= parse_entry($addline, \%locale_keys);
	}
    }

    if ($entry) {
	my $v = $vDUCET ? " # for DUCET v$vDUCET" : '';
	$ptxt .= "   entry => <<'ENTRY',$v\n";
	$ptxt .= $entry;
	$ptxt .= "ENTRY\n";
    }

    my $lv = "   locale_version => $locale_version,\n";
    print $ph "+{\n$lv$ptxt};\n";
    close $fh;
    close $ph;
}

sub parse_entry {
    my $line = shift;
    my $lockeys = shift;

    my($e,$rule) = split_e_rule($line);
    my $name = getname($e);
    my $eq_rule = $rule eq '=';
    $rule = join '', map "<$_>", split ' ', $e if $eq_rule;
    my ($newce, $simpdec) = parse_rule($e, $rule, $lockeys);

    my $newentry = '';

    if (!$lockeys->{$e}) {
	$newentry .= sprintf $ENT_FMT, $e, $newce, $name if !$eq_rule;
	$lockeys->{$e} = $newce;
    } else {
	$newentry .= "# already tailored: $_\n";
    }

    if (!$simpdec && $Keys{$e}) { # duplicate for the decomposition
	my $key = $Keys{$e};
	my @ce = $key =~ /$RE_CE/go;
	if (@ce > 1) {
	    my $ok = 1;
	    my $ee = '';
	    for my $c (@ce) {
		$ok = 0, last if !$Code{$c};
		$ee .= ' ' if $ee ne '';
		$ee .= $Code{$c};
	    }
	    if ($ok && !$lockeys->{$ee}) {
		$newentry .= sprintf $ENT_FMT, $ee, $newce, $name;
		$lockeys->{$ee} = $newce;
	    }
	    if ($ee =~ s/ 030([01])/ 034$1/ &&
		$ok && !$lockeys->{$ee}) {
		$newentry .= sprintf $ENT_FMT, $ee, $newce, $name;
		$lockeys->{$ee} = $newce;
	    }
	}
	if ($Equiv{$key}) {
	    for my $eq (@{ $Equiv{$key} }) {
		next if $key =~ /^\[\.0000\.[^]]+\]\z/; # primary ignorable
		next if $lockeys->{$eq};
		next if $eq eq '3038'; # 3038 is identical to 2F17 in DUCET,
				       # but not canonical equivalent.
		$newentry .= sprintf $ENT_FMT, $eq, $newce, $Name{$eq};
		$lockeys->{$eq} = $newce;
	    }
	}
    }

    if ($OtherEquiv{$e}) {
	for my $o (@{ $OtherEquiv{$e} }) {
	    my($e,$rule) = split_e_rule($o);
	    my $name = getname($e);
	    (my $newce, undef) = parse_rule($e, $rule, $lockeys);
	    next if $lockeys->{$e};
	    $newentry .= sprintf $ENT_FMT, $e, $newce, $name;
	    $lockeys->{$e} = $newce;
	}
    }

    return $newentry;
}

sub getunicode {
    return join ' ', map { sprintf '%04X', $_ } unpack 'U*', shift;
}

sub parse_element {
    my $e = shift;
    $e =~ s/\{([A-Za-z']+)\}/' '.getunicode($1).' '/ge;
    $e =~ s/ +/ /g;
    trim($e);
    return $e;
}

sub split_e_rule {
    my $line = shift;
    my($e, $r) = split /;/, $line;
    return (parse_element($e), $r);
}

sub getname {
    my $e = shift;
    return $Name{$e} if $Name{$e};  # single collation element (without <>)
    my @e = split ' ', $e;
    my @name = map { $Name{$_} ? $Name{$_} :
		     /^FD[DE][0-9A-F]\z/ ? "noncharacter-$_" :
		     'unknown' } @e;
    return sprintf '<%s>', join ', ', @name;
}

sub parse_rule {
    my $e    = shift;
    my $e1   = $e =~ /^([0-9A-F]+)/ ? $1 : '';
    my $rule = shift;
    my $lockeys = shift;
    my $result = '';
    my $simple_decomp = 1; # rules containing only [A-Za-z'"] or <XXXX>

    for (my $prerule = $rule; $rule ne ''; $prerule = $rule) {
	$rule =~ s/^ +//;
	last if $rule =~ /^#/;
	if ($rule =~ s/^($RE_CE)//o) {
	    my $k = $1;
	    my $var = $k =~ /^\[\*/ ? 1 : 0;
	    my @c = _getHexArray($k);
	    @c = @c[0..2] if !$Use4th;
	    $result .= ce($var, @c);
	    next;
	}

	if ($rule =~ s/^(<([0-9A-F ]+)>\+\+\+\?)//) {
	    my $cr = $1;
	    my @c = split ' ', $2;
	    my $compat = $Keys{$e};
	    my $decomp = join '', map {
			$Keys{$_} ? $Keys{$_} : simple_cjk_deriv($_)
		    } @c;
	    my $regexp = $decomp;
	    $regexp =~ s/([\[\]\.\*])/\\$1/g;
	    $regexp =~ s/\.00(?:0[1-9A-F]|1[0-9A-F])(?:\\\.[0-9A-F]+|)\\\]
			/.(00(?:0[1-9A-F]|1[0-9A-F]))(?:\\.[0-9A-F]+|)\\\]/gx;
			# tertiary weights of 01-1F (excluding 00)
	    my @tD = map hex($_), $decomp =~ /^$regexp\z/;
	    my @tC = map hex($_), $compat =~ /^$regexp\z/;
	    croak "wrong at $cr" unless @c == @tD && @c == @tC;
	    my $r = join ' ', map "<$c[$_]>+++".($tC[$_] - $tD[$_]), 0..@c-1;
	    $rule = $r.$rule;
	    next;
	}

	my $key;
	if ($rule =~ s/^(<[0-9A-Za-z'{ }]+>|[A-Za-z'"])//) {
	    my $e = $1;
	    my $c = $e =~ tr/<>//d ? parse_element($e) : getunicode($e);
	    croak "<$c> is too short" if 4 > length $c;
	    $key = $lockeys->{$c} || $Keys{$c};
	    if (!defined $key) {
		my $u = hex $c;
		my @u = $Use4th ? ($u) : ();
		my @r;
		if (SBase <= $u && $u <= SFinal) {
		    @r = $lockeys->{$OvHang}->($u) if $lockeys->{$OvHang};
		} else {
		    # but no check if $u is in CJK ideographs
		    @r = $lockeys->{$OvCJK} ->($u) if $lockeys->{$OvCJK};
		}
		if (@r) {
		    $key = join '', map {
			ref $_ ? ce(0, @$_) : ce(0, $_, Min2Wt, Min3Wt, @u)
			    } @r;
		}
	    }
	}

	my @base;
	for my $k ($key =~ /$RE_CE/go) {
	    my $var = $k =~ /^\[\*/ ? 1 : 0;
	    push @base, [$var, _getHexArray($k)];
	}
	croak "the rule seems wrong at $prerule" if !@base;

	my $replaced = 0;
	while ($rule =~ s/^(([+-])\2*)(\d+)//) {
	    my $idx = length($1);
	    my $num = $2 eq '-' ? -$3 : $3;
	    $base[0][$idx] += $num;
	    ++$replaced;
	}

	$simple_decomp = 0 if $replaced;
	for my $c (@base) {
	    $c->[4] = hex $e1 if $replaced && $Use4th;
	    $result .= ce(@$c);
	}
	croak "something wrong at $rule" if $prerule eq $rule;
    }
    return($result, $simple_decomp);
}