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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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    <title>libvirt: Logging in the library and the daemon</title>
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        <h1>Logging in the library and the daemon</h1>
        <p>Libvirt includes logging facilities starting from version 0.6.0,
       this complements the <a href="errors.html">error handling</a>
       mechanism and APIs to allow tracing through the execution of the
       library as well as in the libvirtd daemon.</p>
        <ul>
          <li>
            <a href="#log_library">Logging in the library</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <a href="#log_config">Configuring logging in the library</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <a href="#log_daemon">Logging in the daemon</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <a href="#log_syntax">Syntax for filters and output values</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <a href="#journald">Systemd journal fields</a>
            <ul>
              <li>
                <a href="#journaldids">Well known message ID values</a>
              </li>
            </ul>
          </li>
          <li>
            <a href="#log_examples">Examples</a>
          </li>
        </ul>
        <h2>
          <a id="log_library">Logging in the library</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#log_library" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h2>
        <p>The logging functionalities in libvirt are based on 3 key concepts,
       similar to the one present in other generic logging facilities like
       log4j:</p>
        <ul>
          <li><b>log messages</b>: they are information generated at runtime by
          the libvirt code. Each message includes a priority level (DEBUG = 1,
          INFO = 2, WARNING = 3, ERROR = 4), a category, function name and
          line number, indicating where it originated from, and finally
          a formatted message.  In addition the library adds a timestamp
          at the beginning of the message</li>
          <li><b>log filters</b>: a set of patterns and priorities to accept
          or reject a log message.  If the message category matches a filter,
          the message priority is compared to the filter priority, if lower
          the message is discarded, if higher the message is output. If
          no filter matches, then a general priority level is applied to
          all remaining messages. This allows, for example, capturing all
          debug messages for the QEMU driver, but otherwise only allowing
          errors to show up from other parts.</li>
          <li><b>log outputs</b>: once a message has gone through filtering a set of
          output defines where to send the message, they can also filter
          based on the priority, for example it may be useful to output
          all messages to a debugging file but only allow errors to be
          logged through syslog.</li>
        </ul>
        <h2>
          <a id="log_config">Configuring logging in the library</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#log_config" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h2>
        <p>The library configuration of logging is through 3 environment variables
    allowing to control the logging behaviour:</p>
        <ul>
          <li>LIBVIRT_DEBUG: it can take the four following values:
      <ul><li>1 or "debug": asking the library to log every message emitted,
            though the filters can be used to avoid filling up the output</li><li>2 or "info": log all non-debugging information</li><li>3 or "warn": log warnings and errors, that's the default value</li><li>4 or "error": log only error messages</li></ul></li>
          <li>LIBVIRT_LOG_FILTERS: defines logging filters</li>
          <li>LIBVIRT_LOG_OUTPUTS: defines logging outputs</li>
        </ul>
        <p>Note that, for example, setting LIBVIRT_DEBUG= is the same as unset. If
       you specify an invalid value, it will be ignored with a warning. If you
       have an error in a filter or output string, some of the settings may be
       applied up to the point at which libvirt encountered the error.</p>
        <h2>
          <a id="log_daemon">Logging in the daemon</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#log_daemon" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h2>
        <p>Similarly the daemon logging behaviour can be tuned using 3 config
    variables, stored in the configuration file:</p>
        <ul>
          <li>log_level: accepts the following values:
      <ul><li>4: only errors</li><li>3: warnings and errors</li><li>2: information, warnings and errors</li><li>1: debug and everything</li></ul></li>
          <li>log_filters: defines logging filters</li>
          <li>log_outputs: defines logging outputs</li>
        </ul>
        <p>When starting the libvirt daemon, any logging environment variable
       settings will override settings in the config file. Command line options
       take precedence over all. If no outputs are defined for libvirtd, it
       will try to use</p>
        <ul>
          <li>0.10.0 or later: systemd journal, if <code>/run/systemd/journal/socket</code> exists</li>
          <li>0.9.0 or later: file <code>/var/log/libvirt/libvirtd.log</code> if running as a daemon</li>
          <li>before 0.9.0: syslog if running as a daemon</li>
          <li>all versions: to stderr stream if running in the foreground</li>
        </ul>
        <p>Libvirtd does not reload its logging configuration when issued a SIGHUP.
       If you want to reload the configuration, you must do a <code>service
       libvirtd restart</code> or manually stop and restart the daemon
       yourself.</p>
        <p>Starting from 0.9.0, the daemon can save all the content of the debug
       buffer to the defined error channels (or /var/log/libvirt/libvirtd.log
       by default) in case of crash, this can also be activated explicitly
       for debugging purposes by sending the daemon a USR2 signal:</p>
        <pre>killall -USR2 libvirtd</pre>
        <h2>
          <a id="log_syntax">Syntax for filters and output values</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#log_syntax" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h2>
        <p>The syntax for filters and outputs is the same for both types of
       variables.</p>
        <p>The format for a filter is one of:</p>
        <pre>
x:name  (log message only)
x:+name (log message + stack trace)</pre>
        <p>where <code>name</code> is a string which is matched against
    the category given in the VIR_LOG_INIT() at the top of each
    libvirt source file, e.g., <code>remote</code>, <code>qemu</code>,
    or <code>util.json</code> (the name in the filter can be a
    substring of the full category name, in order to match multiple
    similar categories), the optional <code>+</code> prefix tells
    libvirt to log stack trace for each message
    matching <code>name</code>, and <code>x</code> is the minimal
    level where matching messages should be logged:</p>
        <ul>
          <li>1: DEBUG</li>
          <li>2: INFO</li>
          <li>3: WARNING</li>
          <li>4: ERROR</li>
        </ul>
        <p>Multiple filters can be defined in a single string, they just need to be
    separated by spaces, e.g: <code>"3:remote 4:event"</code> to only get
    warning or errors from the remote layer and only errors from the event
    layer.</p>
        <p>If you specify a log priority in a filter that is below the default log
       priority level, messages that match that filter will still be logged,
       while others will not. In order to see those messages, you must also have
       an output defined that includes the priority level of your filter.</p>
        <p>The format for an output can be one of those 3 forms:</p>
        <ul>
          <li><code>x:stderr</code> output goes to stderr</li>
          <li><code>x:syslog:name</code> use syslog for the output and use the
      given <code>name</code> as the ident</li>
          <li><code>x:file:file_path</code> output to a file, with the given
      filepath</li>
          <li><code>x:journald</code> output goes to systemd journal</li>
        </ul>
        <p>In all cases the x prefix is the minimal level, acting as a filter:</p>
        <ul>
          <li>1: DEBUG</li>
          <li>2: INFO</li>
          <li>3: WARNING</li>
          <li>4: ERROR</li>
        </ul>
        <p>Multiple output can be defined, they just need to be separated by
       spaces, e.g.: <code>"3:syslog:libvirtd 1:file:/tmp/libvirt.log"</code>
       will log all warnings and errors to syslog under the libvirtd ident
       but also log all debug and information included in the
       file <code>/tmp/libvirt.log</code></p>
        <h2>
          <a id="journald">Systemd journal fields</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#journald" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h2>
        <p>
      When logging to the systemd journal, the following fields
      are defined, in addition to any automatically recorded
      <a href="http://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/systemd.journal-fields.html">standard fields</a>:
    </p>
        <dl>
          <dt>
            <code>MESSAGE</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The log message string</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>PRIORITY</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The log priority value</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>LIBVIRT_SOURCE</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The source type, one of "file", "error", "audit", "trace", "library"</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>CODE_FILE</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The name of the file emitting the log record</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>CODE_LINE</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The line number of the file emitting the log record</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>CODE_FUNC</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The name of the function emitting the log record</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>LIBVIRT_DOMAIN</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The libvirt error domain (values from virErrorDomain enum), if LIBVIRT_SOURCE="error"</dd>
          <dt>
            <code>LIBVIRT_CODE</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>The libvirt error code (values from virErrorCode enum), if LIBVIRT_SOURCE="error"</dd>
        </dl>
        <h3>
          <a id="journaldids">Well known message ID values</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#journaldids" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h3>
        <p>
      Certain areas of the code will emit log records tagged with well known
      unique id values, which are guaranteed never to change in the future.
      This allows applications to identify critical log events without doing
      string matching on the <code>MESSAGE</code> field.
    </p>
        <dl>
          <dt>
            <code>MESSAGE_ID=8ae2f3fb-2dbe-498e-8fbd-012d40afa361</code>
          </dt>
          <dd>Generated by the QEMU driver when it identifies a QEMU system
        emulator binary, but is unable to extract information about its
        capabilities. This is usually an indicator of a broken QEMU
        build or installation. When this is emitted, the <code>LIBVIRT_QEMU_BINARY</code>
        message field will provide the full path of the QEMU binary that failed.
      </dd>
        </dl>
        <p>
      The <code>journalctl</code> command can be used to search the journal
      matching on specific message ID values
    </p>
        <pre>
$ journalctl MESSAGE_ID=8ae2f3fb-2dbe-498e-8fbd-012d40afa361 --output=json
{ ...snip...
  "LIBVIRT_SOURCE" : "file",
  "PRIORITY" : "3",
  "CODE_FILE" : "qemu/qemu_capabilities.c",
  "CODE_LINE" : "2770",
  "CODE_FUNC" : "virQEMUCapsLogProbeFailure",
  "MESSAGE_ID" : "8ae2f3fb-2dbe-498e-8fbd-012d40afa361",
  "LIBVIRT_QEMU_BINARY" : "/bin/qemu-system-xtensa",
  "MESSAGE" : "Failed to probe capabilities for /bin/qemu-system-xtensa:" \
              "internal error: Child process (LC_ALL=C LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/home/berrange" \
              "/src/virt/libvirt/src/.libs PATH=/usr/lib64/ccache:/usr/local/sbin:" \
              "/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin HOME=/root " \
              "USER=root LOGNAME=root /bin/qemu-system-xtensa -help) unexpected " \
              "exit status 127: /bin/qemu-system-xtensa: error while loading shared " \
              "libraries: libglapi.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such " \
              "file or directory\n" }
    </pre>
        <h2>
          <a id="log_examples">Examples</a>
          <a class="headerlink" href="#log_examples" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a>
        </h2>
        <p>For example setting up the following:</p>
        <pre>export LIBVIRT_DEBUG=1
export LIBVIRT_LOG_OUTPUTS="1:file:virsh.log"</pre>
        <p>and then running virsh will accumulate the logs in the
    <code>virsh.log</code> file in a way similar to:</p>
        <pre>14:29:04.771: debug : virInitialize:278 : register drivers
14:29:04.771: debug : virRegisterDriver:618 : registering Test as driver 0</pre>
        <p>the messages are timestamped, there is also the level recorded,
    if debug the name of the function is also printed and then the formatted
    message. This should be sufficient to at least get a precise idea of
    what is happening and where things are going wrong, allowing to then
    put the correct breakpoints when running under a debugger.</p>
        <p>To activate full debug of the libvirt entry points, utility
    functions and the QEMU/KVM driver, set:</p>
        <pre>log_filters="1:libvirt 1:util 1:qemu"
log_outputs="1:file:/var/log/libvirt/libvirtd.log"</pre>
        <p>in libvirtd.conf and restart the daemon will allow to
    gather a copious amount of debugging traces for the operations done
    in those areas.</p>
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