File: README.coding.md

package info (click to toggle)
libwebsockets 2.0.3-3
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: bullseye, buster, sid
  • size: 5,424 kB
  • ctags: 4,865
  • sloc: ansic: 33,281; perl: 1,656; sh: 872; cpp: 226; makefile: 77; awk: 5
file content (571 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 20,418 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
Daemonization
-------------

There's a helper api `lws_daemonize` built by default that does everything you
need to daemonize well, including creating a lock file.  If you're making
what's basically a daemon, just call this early in your init to fork to a
headless background process and exit the starting process.

Notice stdout, stderr, stdin are all redirected to /dev/null to enforce your
daemon is headless, so you'll need to sort out alternative logging, by, eg,
syslog.


Maximum number of connections
-----------------------------

The maximum number of connections the library can deal with is decided when
it starts by querying the OS to find out how many file descriptors it is
allowed to open (1024 on Fedora for example).  It then allocates arrays that
allow up to that many connections, minus whatever other file descriptors are
in use by the user code.

If you want to restrict that allocation, or increase it, you can use ulimit or
similar to change the available number of file descriptors, and when restarted
**libwebsockets** will adapt accordingly.


Libwebsockets is singlethreaded
-------------------------------

Directly performing websocket actions from other threads is not allowed.
Aside from the internal data being inconsistent in `forked()` processes,
the scope of a `wsi` (`struct websocket`) can end at any time during service
with the socket closing and the `wsi` freed.

Websocket write activities should only take place in the
`LWS_CALLBACK_SERVER_WRITEABLE` callback as described below.

Only live connections appear in the user callbacks, so this removes any
possibility of trying to used closed and freed wsis.

If you need to service other socket or file descriptors as well as the
websocket ones, you can combine them together with the websocket ones
in one poll loop, see "External Polling Loop support" below, and
still do it all in one thread / process context.

If you insist on trying to use it from multiple threads, take special care if
you might simultaneously create more than one context from different threads.

SSL_library_init() is called from the context create api and it also is not
reentrant.  So at least create the contexts sequentially.


Only send data when socket writeable
------------------------------------

You should only send data on a websocket connection from the user callback
`LWS_CALLBACK_SERVER_WRITEABLE` (or `LWS_CALLBACK_CLIENT_WRITEABLE` for
clients).

If you want to send something, do not just send it but request a callback
when the socket is writeable using

 - `lws_callback_on_writable(context, wsi)`` for a specific `wsi`, or
 - `lws_callback_on_writable_all_protocol(protocol)` for all connections
using that protocol to get a callback when next writeable.

Usually you will get called back immediately next time around the service
loop, but if your peer is slow or temporarily inactive the callback will be
delayed accordingly.  Generating what to write and sending it should be done
in the ...WRITEABLE callback.

See the test server code for an example of how to do this.


Do not rely on only your own WRITEABLE requests appearing
---------------------------------------------------------

Libwebsockets may generate additional `LWS_CALLBACK_CLIENT_WRITEABLE` events
if it met network conditions where it had to buffer your send data internally.

So your code for `LWS_CALLBACK_CLIENT_WRITEABLE` needs to own the decision
about what to send, it can't assume that just because the writeable callback
came it really is time to send something.

It's quite possible you get an 'extra' writeable callback at any time and
just need to `return 0` and wait for the expected callback later.


Closing connections from the user side
--------------------------------------

When you want to close a connection, you do it by returning `-1` from a
callback for that connection.

You can provoke a callback by calling `lws_callback_on_writable` on
the wsi, then notice in the callback you want to close it and just return -1.
But usually, the decision to close is made in a callback already and returning
-1 is simple.

If the socket knows the connection is dead, because the peer closed or there
was an affirmitive network error like a FIN coming, then **libwebsockets**  will
take care of closing the connection automatically.

If you have a silently dead connection, it's possible to enter a state where
the send pipe on the connection is choked but no ack will ever come, so the
dead connection will never become writeable.  To cover that, you can use TCP
keepalives (see later in this document)


Fragmented messages
-------------------

To support fragmented messages you need to check for the final
frame of a message with `lws_is_final_fragment`. This
check can be combined with `libwebsockets_remaining_packet_payload`
to gather the whole contents of a message, eg:

```
    case LWS_CALLBACK_RECEIVE:
    {
        Client * const client = (Client *)user;
        const size_t remaining = lws_remaining_packet_payload(wsi);

        if (!remaining && lws_is_final_fragment(wsi)) {
            if (client->HasFragments()) {
                client->AppendMessageFragment(in, len, 0);
                in = (void *)client->GetMessage();
                len = client->GetMessageLength();
            }

            client->ProcessMessage((char *)in, len, wsi);
            client->ResetMessage();
        } else
            client->AppendMessageFragment(in, len, remaining);
    }
    break;
```

The test app libwebsockets-test-fraggle sources also show how to
deal with fragmented messages.


Debug Logging
-------------

Also using `lws_set_log_level` api you may provide a custom callback to actually
emit the log string.  By default, this points to an internal emit function
that sends to stderr.  Setting it to `NULL` leaves it as it is instead.

A helper function `lwsl_emit_syslog()` is exported from the library to simplify
logging to syslog.  You still need to use `setlogmask`, `openlog` and `closelog`
in your user code.

The logging apis are made available for user code.

- `lwsl_err(...)`
- `lwsl_warn(...)`
- `lwsl_notice(...)`
- `lwsl_info(...)`
- `lwsl_debug(...)`

The difference between notice and info is that notice will be logged by default
whereas info is ignored by default.


External Polling Loop support
-----------------------------

**libwebsockets** maintains an internal `poll()` array for all of its
sockets, but you can instead integrate the sockets into an
external polling array.  That's needed if **libwebsockets** will
cooperate with an existing poll array maintained by another
server.

Four callbacks `LWS_CALLBACK_ADD_POLL_FD`, `LWS_CALLBACK_DEL_POLL_FD`,
`LWS_CALLBACK_SET_MODE_POLL_FD` and `LWS_CALLBACK_CLEAR_MODE_POLL_FD`
appear in the callback for protocol 0 and allow interface code to
manage socket descriptors in other poll loops.

You can pass all pollfds that need service to `lws_service_fd()`, even
if the socket or file does not belong to **libwebsockets** it is safe.

If **libwebsocket** handled it, it zeros the pollfd `revents` field before returning.
So you can let **libwebsockets** try and if `pollfd->revents` is nonzero on return,
you know it needs handling by your code.


Using with in c++ apps
----------------------

The library is ready for use by C++ apps.  You can get started quickly by
copying the test server

```bash
$ cp test-server/test-server.c test.cpp
```

and building it in C++ like this

```bash
$ g++ -DINSTALL_DATADIR=\"/usr/share\" -ocpptest test.cpp -lwebsockets
```

`INSTALL_DATADIR` is only needed because the test server uses it as shipped, if
you remove the references to it in your app you don't need to define it on
the g++ line either.


Availability of header information
----------------------------------

From v1.2 of the library onwards, the HTTP header content is `free()`d as soon
as the websocket connection is established.  For websocket servers, you can
copy interesting headers by handling `LWS_CALLBACK_FILTER_PROTOCOL_CONNECTION`
callback, for clients there's a new callback just for this purpose
`LWS_CALLBACK_CLIENT_FILTER_PRE_ESTABLISH`.


TCP Keepalive
-------------

It is possible for a connection which is not being used to send to die
silently somewhere between the peer and the side not sending.  In this case
by default TCP will just not report anything and you will never get any more
incoming data or sign the link is dead until you try to send.

To deal with getting a notification of that situation, you can choose to
enable TCP keepalives on all **libwebsockets** sockets, when you create the
context.

To enable keepalive, set the ka_time member of the context creation parameter
struct to a nonzero value (in seconds) at context creation time.  You should
also fill ka_probes and ka_interval in that case.

With keepalive enabled, the TCP layer will send control packets that should
stimulate a response from the peer without affecting link traffic.  If the
response is not coming, the socket will announce an error at `poll()` forcing
a close.

Note that BSDs don't support keepalive time / probes / interval per-socket
like Linux does.  On those systems you can enable keepalive by a nonzero
value in `ka_time`, but the systemwide kernel settings for the time / probes/
interval are used, regardless of what nonzero value is in `ka_time`.

Optimizing SSL connections
--------------------------

There's a member `ssl_cipher_list` in the `lws_context_creation_info` struct
which allows the user code to restrict the possible cipher selection at
context-creation time.

You might want to look into that to stop the ssl peers selecting a cipher which
is too computationally expensive.  To use it, point it to a string like

`"RC4-MD5:RC4-SHA:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:HIGH:!DSS:!aNULL"`

if left `NULL`, then the "DEFAULT" set of ciphers are all possible to select.


Async nature of client connections
----------------------------------

When you call `lws_client_connect_info(..)` and get a `wsi` back, it does not
mean your connection is active.  It just means it started trying to connect.

Your client connection is actually active only when you receive
`LWS_CALLBACK_CLIENT_ESTABLISHED` for it.

There's a 5 second timeout for the connection, and it may give up or die for
other reasons, if any of that happens you'll get a
`LWS_CALLBACK_CLIENT_CONNECTION_ERROR` callback on protocol 0 instead for the
`wsi`.

After attempting the connection and getting back a non-`NULL` `wsi` you should
loop calling `lws_service()` until one of the above callbacks occurs.

As usual, see [test-client.c](test-server/test-client.c) for example code.

Lws platform-independent file access apis
-----------------------------------------

lws now exposes his internal platform file abstraction in a way that can be
both used by user code to make it platform-agnostic, and be overridden or
subclassed by user code.  This allows things like handling the URI "directory
space" as a virtual filesystem that may or may not be backed by a regular
filesystem.  One example use is serving files from inside large compressed
archive storage without having to unpack anything except the file being
requested.

The test server shows how to use it, basically the platform-specific part of
lws prepares a file operations structure that lives in the lws context.

The user code can get a pointer to the file operations struct

LWS_VISIBLE LWS_EXTERN struct lws_plat_file_ops *
`lws_get_fops`(struct lws_context *context);

and then can use helpers to also leverage these platform-independent
file handling apis

static inline lws_filefd_type
`lws_plat_file_open`(struct lws *wsi, const char *filename, unsigned long *filelen, int flags)

static inline int
`lws_plat_file_close`(struct lws *wsi, lws_filefd_type fd)

static inline unsigned long
`lws_plat_file_seek_cur`(struct lws *wsi, lws_filefd_type fd, long offset_from_cur_pos)

static inline int
`lws_plat_file_read`(struct lws *wsi, lws_filefd_type fd, unsigned long *amount, unsigned char *buf, unsigned long len)

static inline int
`lws_plat_file_write`(struct lws *wsi, lws_filefd_type fd, unsigned long *amount, unsigned char *buf, unsigned long len)
		    
The user code can also override or subclass the file operations, to either
wrap or replace them.  An example is shown in test server.

ECDH Support
------------

ECDH Certs are now supported.  Enable the CMake option

cmake .. -DLWS_SSL_SERVER_WITH_ECDH_CERT=1 

**and** the info->options flag

LWS_SERVER_OPTION_SSL_ECDH

to build in support and select it at runtime.

SMP / Multithreaded service
---------------------------

SMP support is integrated into LWS without any internal threading.  It's
very simple to use, libwebsockets-test-server-pthread shows how to do it,
use -j <n> argument there to control the number of service threads up to 32.

Two new members are added to the info struct

	unsigned int count_threads;
	unsigned int fd_limit_per_thread;
	
leave them at the default 0 to get the normal singlethreaded service loop.

Set count_threads to n to tell lws you will have n simultaneous service threads
operating on the context.

There is still a single listen socket on one port, no matter how many
service threads.

When a connection is made, it is accepted by the service thread with the least
connections active to perform load balancing.

The user code is responsible for spawning n threads running the service loop
associated to a specific tsi (Thread Service Index, 0 .. n - 1).  See
the libwebsockets-test-server-pthread for how to do.

If you leave fd_limit_per_thread at 0, then the process limit of fds is shared
between the service threads; if you process was allowed 1024 fds overall then
each thread is limited to 1024 / n.

You can set fd_limit_per_thread to a nonzero number to control this manually, eg
the overall supported fd limit is less than the process allowance.

You can control the context basic data allocation for multithreading from Cmake
using -DLWS_MAX_SMP=, if not given it's set to 32.  The serv_buf allocation
for the threads (currently 4096) is made at runtime only for active threads.

Because lws will limit the requested number of actual threads supported
according to LWS_MAX_SMP, there is an api lws_get_count_threads(context) to
discover how many threads were actually allowed when the context was created.

It's required to implement locking in the user code in the same way that
libwebsockets-test-server-pthread does it, for the FD locking callbacks.

There is no knowledge or dependency in lws itself about pthreads.  How the
locking is implemented is entirely up to the user code.


Libev / Libuv support
---------------------

You can select either or both

-DLWS_WITH_LIBEV=1
-DLWS_WITH_LIBUV=1

at cmake configure-time.  The user application may use one of the
context init options flags

LWS_SERVER_OPTION_LIBEV
LWS_SERVER_OPTION_LIBUV

to indicate it will use either of the event libraries.


Extension option control from user code
---------------------------------------

User code may set per-connection extension options now, using a new api
"lws_set_extension_option()".

This should be called from the ESTABLISHED callback like this

 lws_set_extension_option(wsi, "permessage-deflate",
                          "rx_buf_size", "12"); /* 1 << 12 */

If the extension is not active (missing or not negotiated for the
connection, or extensions are disabled on the library) the call is
just returns -1.  Otherwise the connection's extension has its
named option changed.

The extension may decide to alter or disallow the change, in the
example above permessage-deflate restricts the size of his rx
output buffer also considering the protocol's rx_buf_size member.

Client connections as HTTP[S] rather than WS[S]
-----------------------------------------------

You may open a generic http client connection using the same
struct lws_client_connect_info used to create client ws[s]
connections.

To stay in http[s], set the optional info member "method" to
point to the string "GET" instead of the default NULL.

After the server headers are processed, when payload from the
server is available the callback LWS_CALLBACK_RECEIVE_CLIENT_HTTP
will be made.

You can choose whether to process the data immediately, or
queue a callback when an outgoing socket is writeable to provide
flow control, and process the data in the writable callback.

Either way you use the api `lws_http_client_read()` to access the
data, eg


	case LWS_CALLBACK_RECEIVE_CLIENT_HTTP:
		{
			char buffer[1024 + LWS_PRE];
			char *px = buffer + LWS_PRE;
			int lenx = sizeof(buffer) - LWS_PRE;

			lwsl_notice("LWS_CALLBACK_RECEIVE_CLIENT_HTTP\n");

			/*
			 * Often you need to flow control this by something
			 * else being writable.  In that case call the api
			 * to get a callback when writable here, and do the
			 * pending client read in the writeable callback of
			 * the output.
			 */
			if (lws_http_client_read(wsi, &px, &lenx) < 0)
				return -1;
			while (lenx--)
				putchar(*px++);
		}
		break;
		
Using lws v2 vhosts
-------------------

If you set LWS_SERVER_OPTION_EXPLICIT_VHOSTS options flag when you create
your context, it won't create a default vhost using the info struct
members for compatibility.  Instead you can call lws_create_vhost()
afterwards to attach one or more vhosts manually.

```
LWS_VISIBLE struct lws_vhost *
lws_create_vhost(struct lws_context *context,
		 struct lws_context_creation_info *info,
		 struct lws_http_mount *mounts);
```

lws_create_vhost() uses the same info struct as lws_create_context(),
it ignores members related to context and uses the ones meaningful
for vhost (marked with VH in libwebsockets.h).

```
struct lws_context_creation_info {
	int port;					/* VH */
	const char *iface;				/* VH */
	const struct lws_protocols *protocols;		/* VH */
	const struct lws_extension *extensions;		/* VH */
...
```

When you attach the vhost, if the vhost's port already has a listen socket
then both vhosts share it and use SNI (is SSL in use) or the Host: header
from the client to select the right one.  Or if no other vhost already
listening the a new listen socket is created.

There are some new members but mainly it's stuff you used to set at
context creation time.


How lws matches hostname or SNI to a vhost
------------------------------------------

LWS first strips any trailing :port number.

Then it tries to find an exact name match for a vhost listening on the correct
port, ie, if SNI or the Host: header provided abc.com:1234, it will match on a
vhost named abc.com that is listening on port 1234.

If there is no exact match, lws will consider wildcard matches, for example
if cats.abc.com:1234 is provided by the client by SNI or Host: header, it will
accept a vhost "abc.com" listening on port 1234.  If there was a better, exact,
match, it will have been chosen in preference to this.

Connections with SSL will still have the client go on to check the
certificate allows wildcards and error out if not.
 


Using lws v2 mounts on a vhost
------------------------------

The last argument to lws_create_vhost() lets you associate a linked
list of lws_http_mount structures with that vhost's URL 'namespace', in
a similar way that unix lets you mount filesystems into areas of your /
filesystem how you like and deal with the contents transparently.

```
struct lws_http_mount {
	struct lws_http_mount *mount_next;
	const char *mountpoint; /* mountpoint in http pathspace, eg, "/" */
	const char *origin; /* path to be mounted, eg, "/var/www/warmcat.com" */
	const char *def; /* default target, eg, "index.html" */

	struct lws_protocol_vhost_options *cgienv;

	int cgi_timeout;
	int cache_max_age;

	unsigned int cache_reusable:1;
	unsigned int cache_revalidate:1;
	unsigned int cache_intermediaries:1;

	unsigned char origin_protocol;
	unsigned char mountpoint_len;
};
```

The last mount structure should have a NULL mount_next, otherwise it should
point to the 'next' mount structure in your list.

Both the mount structures and the strings must persist until the context is
destroyed, since they are not copied but used in place.

`.origin_protocol` should be one of

```
enum {
	LWSMPRO_HTTP,
	LWSMPRO_HTTPS,
	LWSMPRO_FILE,
	LWSMPRO_CGI,
	LWSMPRO_REDIR_HTTP,
	LWSMPRO_REDIR_HTTPS,
};
```

LWSMPRO_FILE is used for mapping url namespace to a filesystem directory and
serve it automatically.