File: Xaw.man

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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1999 by The XFree86 Project, Inc.
.\"
.\" Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
.\" copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
.\" to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
.\" the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
.\" and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
.\" Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
.\"
.\" The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
.\" all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
.\"
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
.\" IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.  IN NO EVENT SHALL
.\" THE XFREE86 PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
.\" WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF
.\" OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
.\" SOFTWARE.
.\"
.\" Except as contained in this notice, the name of the XFree86 Project shall
.\" not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other
.\" dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the
.\" XFree86 Project.
.\"
.\" Author: Paulo C├ęsar Pereira de Andrade
.\"
.de EX
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.ft CW
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.ft R
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.TP \\$1
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.TH Xaw __libmansuffix__ __vendorversion__
.SH NAME
 Xaw \- X Athena Widgets
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B Xaw
is a widget set based on the X Toolkit Intrinsics (Xt) Library.  This
release by the X.Org Foundation includes additions and modifications
originally made for The XFree86 Project, Inc.  This manual page describes
these changes as well as some of the common interfaces between its version
and the previous X Consortium release (Xaw6).
.PP
The bulk of the Xaw documentation is located in the API specification
which may be installed in __docdir__, or found on the X.Org website.
.SH ACTIONS
All of the \fIXaw\fR widgets now have the additional translations
.B call-proc, declare, get-values
and \fBset-values\fP. The syntax for these actions is:
.PP
.I action-name \fP(\fIboolean-expression\fP, \fIarguments\fP)
.PP
\fBAction-name\fP is one of \fIcall-proc\fP, \fIdeclare\fP,
\fIget-values\fP or \fIset-values\fP.
.PP
\fBBoolean-expression\fP is composed with the operators \fI|\fR (or), \fI&\fR
(and), \fI^\fR (xor), and \fI~\fR (not). The operands can be a variable name,
which starts with a \fI$\fR; a resource name without the bindings \fI.\fP
or \fI*\fP; or a constant name, including \fImine\fP (event->xany.window
== XtWindow(widget)), \fIfaked\fP (event->xany.send_event != 0), \fItrue\fP (1)
and \fIfalse\fP (0).
.PP
\fBArguments\fP are self-explanatory; when starting with a \fI$\fP they name
a variable, otherwise, they indicate a resource name.
.TP 8
.B call-proc \fP(\fIboolean-expression\fP, \fIprocedure-name\fP)
This action allows the evaluation of a boolean expression in the first
parameter before calling a action procedure.  The procedure is only called
if the expression evaluates as true.  Example:
.EX
call-proc("$inside & $pressed", notify)
.EE
.TP 8
.B declare \fP(\fIboolean-expression\fP, \fIvariable\fP, \fIvalue\fP, ...)
This action is used to create new variables or change their values.  Any
number of variable-value tuples may be specified.  Example:
.EX
declare(1, $pressed, 1)
.EE
.TP 8
.B get-values \fP(\fIboolean-expression\fP, \fIvariable\fP, \fIvalue\fP, ...)
This action reads a widget resource value into a variable.  Any number of
variable-value tuples may be specified.  Example:
.EX
get-values(1, $fg, foreground, $bg, background)
.EE
.TP 8
.B set-values \fP(\fIboolean-expression\fP, \fIvariable\fP, \fIvalue\fP, ...)
This action sets a widget resource to the given value, which may be a
variable.  Any number of variable-value tuples may be specified.  Example:
.EX
set-values(1, foreground, $bg, background, $fg)
.EE
.PP
Here is a sample translation to make a label widget behave like a button:
.PP
.nf
<Map>:      get-values(1, $fg, foreground, $bg, background)\en\e
<Btn1Down>: set-values(1, foreground, yellow, background, gray30)\en\e
<Btn1Up>:   set-values(1, foreground, $fg, background, $bg)
.fi
.SH DISPLAY LISTS
All of the \fBXaw\fP widgets have now the additional resource
\fIdisplayList\fP.  This resource allows drawing the widget decorations
using commands embedded in a resource string.  The displayList resource has
the syntax:
.PP
\fI[class-name:]function-name arguments[[{;\en}]...]\fP
.PP
\fBClass-name\fP is any registered set of functions to draw in the widget.
Currently the only existing class is \fIxlib\fP, which provides access to
the Xlib drawing primitives.
.PP
\fBFunction-name\fP is the drawing or configuration function to be called,
described bellow.
.PP
\fBArguments\fP may be anything suitable to the displayList function being
called. When the function requires a coordinate, the syntax is
\fI{+-}<integer>\fP or \fI<integer>/<integer>\fP. Examples:
.nf
	+0,+0      top, left
	-0,-0      bottom, right
	-+10,-+10  bottom+10, right+10
	+0,1/2     left, vertical-center
.fi
.TP 8
.B arc-mode \fPmode
Sets the arc mode.  Accepted \fImode\fPs are "pieslice" and "chord", which
set the arc to ArcPieSlice or ArcChord, respectively.  Example:
.EX
arc-mode chord
.EE
.TP 8
.B bg \fPcolor-spec
.TQ
.B background \fPcolor-spec
Sets the  background color.  \fIcolor-spec\fP must a valid color
specification.  Example:
.EX
background red
.EE
.TP 8
.B cap-style \fPstyle
Sets the cap style.  Accepted \fIstyle\fPs are "notlast", "butt", "round",
and "projecting", which set the cap style to CapNotLast, CapBut, CapRound
or CapProjecting, respectively.  Example:
.EX
cap-style round
.EE
.TP 8
.B clip-mask \fPpixmap-spec
Sets the pixmap for the clip mask.  Requires a pixmap parameter, as
described in the \fBPIXMAPS\fP section below.  Example:
.EX
clip-mask xlogo11
.EE
.TP 8
.B clip-origin \fPx,y
Sets the clip x and y origin.  Requires two arguments, the x and y
coordinates.  Example:
.EX
clip-origin 10,10
.EE
.TP 8
.B clip-rects \fPx1,y1,x2,y2 [...,xn,yn]
.TQ
.B clip-rectangles \fPx1,y1,x2,y2 [...,xn,yn]
Sets a list of rectangles to the clip mask.  The number of arguments must
be a multiple of four.  The arguments are coordinates.  The parser
calculates the width and height of the rectangles.  Example:
.EX
clip-rects 0,0,10,20, 20,10,30,30
.EE
.TP 8
.B coord-mode \fPmode
Changes the coord mode for \fIfill-polygon\fP, \fIdraw-lines\fP, and
\fIdraw-points\fP.  Accepted parameters are "modeorigin" and "previous",
that sets the coord mode to CoordModeOrigin or CoordModePrevious,
respectively.  Example:
.EX
coord-mode previous
.EE
.TP 8
.B copy-area \fP{pixmap-spec|.},dstx,dsty[,x2,y2,srcx,srcy]
Calls XCopyArea.  The character \fI.\fP means copy the window contents;
pixmap-spec is as defined in the \fBPIXMAPS\fP section below.  \fIX2\fP and
\fIy2\fP are the coordinates of the end copy, not the width and height; if
not defined, the parser calculates them. \fIsrc_x\fP and \fIsrc_y\fP
default to zero.  Example:
.EX
copy-area Term,10,10
.EE
.TP 8
.B copy-plane \fP{pixmap-spec|.},dstx,dsty[,x2,y2,srcx,srcy,plane]
Calls XCopyPlane. The character \fI.\fP means copy the window contents;
pixmap-spec is as defined in the \fBPIXMAPS\fP section below.  \fIX2\fP and
\fIy2\fP are the coordinates of the end copy, not the width and height; if
not defined, the parser calculates them.  \fIsrc_x\fP and \fIsrc_y\fP
default to zero. \fIPlane\fP defaults to one.  Example:
.EX
copy-plane star,10,10
.EE
.TP 8
.B dashes \fPi1[...,in]
Sets the dashes for line drawing.  Accepts up to 127 arguments.  Example:
.EX
dashes 3,7 9,10
.EE
.TP 8
.B draw-arc \fPx1,y1,x2,y2[,start-angle,end-angle]
Draws an arc.  The four first arguments are the rectangle enclosing the
arc.  The two remaining arguments, if specified, are the start and end
angle, in degrees.  Example:
.EX
draw-arc +0,+0,-1,-1,0,90
.EE
.TP 8
.B draw-rect \fPx1,y1,x2,y2
.TQ
.B draw-rectangle \fPx1,y1,x2,y2
Draws a rectangle.  Requires four arguments, which are the start and end
coordinate pairs.  Example:
.EX
draw-rect +1,+1,-5,-5
.EE
.TP 8
.B draw-string \fPx,y,"string"
Draws a text string.  Requires three arguments, a x coordinate, a y
coordinate, and a string.  Strings that have white space can be quoted with
the \fI"\fP character; the backslash character \fI\e\fP can also be used,
but it will be necessary escape it twice.  Example:
.EX
 draw-string 10,10, "Hello world!"\fP
.EE
.TP 8
.B exposures \fPboolean
Sets graphics exposures in the GC.  Allowed parameters are a integer or the
strings "true", "false", "on" and "off".  Example:
.EX
exposures true
.EE
.TP 8
.B fill-arc \fPx1,y1,x2,y2[,start-angle,end-angle]
Like \fIdraw-arc\fP, but fills the contents of the arc with the currently
selected foreground.  Example:
.EX
fill-arc +0,+0,-1,-1,0,180
.EE
.TP 8
.B fill-poly \fPx1,y1 [...,xn,yn]
.TQ
.B fill-polygon \fPx1,y1 [...,xn,yn]
Like \fIdraw-lines\fP, but fills the enclosed polygon and joins the first
and last point, if they are not at the same position.  Example:
.EX
fill-poly +0,+10, +10,+20, +30,+0
.EE
.TP
.B fill-rect \fPx1,y1,x2,y2
.TQ
.B fill-rectangle \fPx1,y1,x2,y2
Like \fIdraw-rect\fP, but fills the contents of the rectangle with the
selected foreground color.  Example:
.EX
fill-rect +10,+10,-20,-20
.EE
.TP 8
.B fill-rule \fPrule
Sets the fill rule.  Accepted parameters are "evenodd" and "winding", which
set the fill rule to EvenOddRule or WindingRule, respectively.  Example:
.EX
fill-rule winding
.EE
.TP 8
.B fill-style \fPstyle
Sets the fill style.  Allowed parameters are "solid", "tiled", "stippled" and
"opaquestippled", which set the fill style to FillSolid, FillTiled,
FillStippled or FillOpaqueStippled, respectively.  Example:
.EX
fill-style tiled
.EE
.TP 8
.B font \fPfont-spec
Sets the font for text functions.  Example:
.EX
font -*-*-*-R-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-ISO8859-1
.EE
.TP 8
.B fg \fPcolor-spec
.TQ
.B foreground \fPcolor-spec
Like \fIbackground\fP, but sets the current foreground color.  Example:
.EX
foreground blue
.EE
.TP 8
.B mask
This command is useful when you want to draw only in the region that really
needs to be repainted.  Requires no arguments.
.TP 8
.B function \fPfunction-spec
Sets the specific GC function.  Allowed parameters are "set", "clear", "and",
"andreverse", "copy", "andinverted", "noop", "xor", "or", "nor", "equiv",
"invert", "orreverse", "copyinverted" and "nand", which set the function to
GXset, GXclear, GXand, GXandReverse, GXcopy, GXandInverted, GXnoop, GXxor,
GXor, GXnor, GXequiv, GXinvert, GXorReverse, GXcopyInverted or GXnand,
respectively.  Example:
.EX
function xor
.EE
.TP 8
.B join-style \fPstyle
Sets the join style.  Allowed parameters are "miter", "round" and "bevel",
which set the join style to JoinMiter, JoinRound and JoinBevel,
respectively.  Example:
.EX
join-style round
.EE
.TP 8
.B image \fP{pixmap-spec},xs,ys,[xe,ye]
This function is implemented as a way to quickly compose complex
decorations in widgets.  \fIPixmap-spec\fP is as defined in the
\fBPIXMAPS\fP section below. \fIxs\fP and \fIys\fP are the coordinates from
where to start copying the pixmap; \fIxe\fP and \fIye\fP are optional (they
default to xs + pixmap.width and ys + pixmap.height, respectively).  If the
pixmap has a mask, the copy is masked accordingly.  Example:
.EX
image pixmap.xpm,0,0,20,20
.EE
.TP 8
.B line \fPx1,y1,x2,y2
.TQ
.B draw-line \fPx1,y1,x2,y2
Draws a line with the current foreground color.  Requires four arguments,
the starting and ending coordinate pairs.  Example:
.EX
line +0,+0, -1,-1
.EE
.TP 8
.B line-width \fPinteger
Selects a line width for drawing.  Example:
.EX
line-width 2
.EE
.TP 8
.B line-style \fPstyle
Sets the line style.  Accepted parameters are "solid", "onoffdash" and
"doubledash", which set the line style to LineSolid, LineOnOffDash or
LineDoubleDash, respectively.  Example:
.EX
line-style onoffdash
.EE
.TP 8
.B lines \fPx1,y1,x2,y2 [...,xn,yn]
.TQ
.B draw-lines \fPx1,y1,x2,y2 [...,xn,yn]
Draws a list of lines. Any number of argument pairs may be supplied.
Example:
.EX
lines +0,-1, -1,-1, -1,+0
.EE
.TP 8
.B paint-string \fPx,y,"string"
Identical to draw-string, but also uses the background color.  Example:
.EX
 paint-string 10,20, "Sample text"\fP
.EE
.TP 8
.B point \fPx,y
.TQ
.B draw-point \fPx,y
Draws a point.  Requires two arguments, a coordinate pair.  Example:
.EX
point +10,+10
.EE
.TP 8
.B plane-mask \fPinteger
Sets the plane mask.  Requires an integer parameter.  Example:
.EX
plane-mask -1
.EE
.TP 8
.B points \fPx1,y1 [...,xn,yn]
.TQ
.B draw-points \fPx1,y1 [...,xn,yn]
Draws a list of points at the specified coordinates.  Example:
.EX
points +1,+2, +1,+4, +1,+6
.EE
.TP 8
.B segments \fPx1,y1,x2,y2 [...,xn,yn]
.TQ
.B draw-segments \fPx1,y1,x2,y2 [...,xn,yn]
Draws a list of segment lines.  The number of parameters must be multiple
of 4.  Example:
.EX
segments +1,+2,+1,-3, +2,-2,-3,-2
.EE
.TP 8
.B shape-mode \fPmode
Sets the shape mode used in \fIfill-polygon\fP.  Accepted parameters are
"complex", "convex" or "nonconvex", which set the shape mode to Complex,
Convex or Nonconvex, accordingly.  Example:
.EX
shape-mode convex
.EE
.TP 8
.B stipple \fPpixmap-spec
Sets the pixmap for a stipple.  Requires a pixmap parameter, as described
in the \fBPIXMAPS\fP section below.  Example:
.EX
stipple plaid
.EE
.TP 8
.B subwindow-mode \fPmode
Sets the subwindow mode in the GC.  Accepted parameters are
"includeinferiors" and "clipbychildren", which set the subwindow mode to
IncludeInferiors or ClipByChildren, respectively.  Example:
.EX
subwindow-mode includeinferiors
.EE
.TP 8
.B tile \fPpixmap-spec
Sets the pixmap for a tile.  Requires a pixmap parameter, as described
in the \fBPIXMAPS\fP section below.  Example:
.EX
tile xlogo11?foreground=red&background=gray80
.EE
.TP 8
.B ts-origin \fPx,y
Sets the tile stipple x and y origin.  Requires two arguments, a x and y
coordinate.  Example:
.EX
ts-origin 10,10
.EE
.TP 8
.B umask
Disables the GC mask, if it has been set with the command \fImask\fP.
Requires no arguments.
.PP
Example for drawing a shadow effect in a widget:
.EX
foreground gray30;\e
draw-lines +1,-1,-1,-1,-1,+1;\e
foreground gray85;\e
draw-lines -1,+0,+0,+0,+0,-1
.EE
.SH PIXMAPS
A String to Pixmap converter has been  added to \fBXaw\fP.  This converter
is meant to be extended, and has enough abstraction to allow loading
several image formats.  It uses a format that resembles a \fIURL\fP, with
the syntax:
.PP
.I [type:]name[?arg=val[{&}...]]
.PP
\fBType\fP can be one of \fIbitmap\fP, \fIgradient\fP or \fIxpm\fP.
.PP
\fBName\fP may be a file name, or, in the case of type \fIgradient\fP, may be
either \fIvertical\fP or \fIhorizontal\fP.
.PP
\fBArg=val\fP is a list of arguments to the converter.  An argument list is
preceded by a question mark, and multiple arguments are separated by
ampersands.  The most common arguments are \fIforeground\fP and
\fIbackground\fP.  Gradients also support the arguments \fIstart\fP and
\fIend\fP (colors with which to start and end the gradient); the
\fPsteps\fP argument, to allow using less colors; and the \fIdimension\fP
argument to specify the size of the gradient.	The \fIxpm\fP converter
understands the \fIcloseness\fP argument, which aids in using fewer colors
(useful if you have a limited colormap).
.SH TEXT WIDGET
Most of the changes to this version of the Xaw library were done in the
TextWidget, TextSrcObject, TextSinkObject and related files.
.PP
A couple of highly visible changes in the Text widget are due to many bugs
in the Xaw6 implementation involving scrollbars and auto-resizing.
Scrollbars being added or removed caused several problems in keeping the
text cursor visible, and in Xaw6 it was very easy to have a widget thinking
the cursor was visible, when it was not.  Also, permitting automatic
resizing of the widget to a larger geometry created other problems, making
it difficult to have a consistent layout in the application, and, if the
window manager did not interfere, windows larger than the screen could
result.  Therefore, some functionality involving scrollbars and
auto-resizing has been disabled; see the section on new and modified
Text widget resources below.
.PP
The Text widget's default key bindings were originally based on the Emacs
text editor.  In this release, even more operations familiar to Emacs users
have been added.  New text actions include:
.TP 8
.B indent
Indents text blocks.  Not bound by default.  The Text widget also does not
attempt to perform auto-indentation of its source object by default.
.TP 8
.B keyboard-reset
Resets the keyboard state.  Reverts the action multiplier to 1, and if undo
is enabled, toggles between undo and redo.  Bound by default to
\fIControl<Key>G\fP.
.TP 8
.B kill-ring-yank
In this version of Xaw, text killed in any text field is kept in memory,
allowing cut and paste operations internally to the program between text
fields.  Bound by default to \fIMeta<Key>Y\fP.
.TP 8
.B numeric
Listed here only for purposes of documentation.  Called by default when one
of the characters \fI1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0,\fP or \fI-\fP is typed,
allowing composition of the multiplication number of text actions.
.TP 8
.B set-keyboard-focus
Sets the input focus of the top level widget to the text field.  Not
enabled by default, but bound to the \fI<Btn1Down>\fP event.
.TP 8
.B toggle-overwrite
Toggles overwrite mode.  In overwrite mode, any text inserted in a text
field will replace existing text.  Bound by default to \fI<Key>Insert\fP.
.TP 8
.B undo
Sets the \fIenableUndo\fP resource of the textSrcObject.  Not enabled by
default, but bound to \fIControl<Key>_\fP.
.PP
New and modified Text widget resources include:
.TP 8
.B justify (\fPClass\fB Justify)
Sets the text justification.  Can be one of \fIleft, right, center\fP, or
\fIfull\fP.  Only enabled when the \fIautoFill\fP resource is set, and the
resources \fIleftColumn\fP and \fIrightColumn\fP are correctly set.
.TP 8
.B leftColumn (\fPClass\fB Column)
Specifies the left column at which to break text.  Text lines started with
an alphanumeric character will automatically start at this column.
.TP 8
.B positionCallback (\fPClass\fB Callback)
Allows installation of a callback to be called every time the cursor is
moved, and/or the file changes its size.  The callback is called with a
pointer to a structure containing the following data:
.nf
typedef struct {
    int line_number;
    int column_number;
    XawTextPosition insert_position;
    XawTextPosition last_position;
    Boolean overwrite_mode;
} XawTextPositionInfo;
.fi
This callback is intended to help programmers write text editors based
on the Xaw widget set.
.TP 8
.B resize (\fPClass\fB Resize)
No longer supported, but recognized for backward compatibility with
resource specifications written for the Xaw6 Text widget.
.TP 8
.B rightColumn (\fPClass\fB Column)
Specifies the right column at which to break text.  Text lines started with
an alphanumeric character will automatically end at this column.
.TP 8
.B scrollHorizontal (\fPClass\fB Scroll)
.TQ
.B scrollVertical (\fPClass\fB Scroll)
These resources control the placement of scrollbars on the left and bottom
edges of the Text widget.  They accept the values \fIXawtextScrollAlways\fP
and \fIXawtextScrollNever\fP.  A converter is registered for this resource
that will convert the following strings: \fIalways\fP and \fInever\fP.  The
value \fIXawtextScrollWhenNeeded\fP (and \fIwhenNeeded\fP, recognized by
the converter), is accepted for backwards compatibility with resource
specifications written for the Xaw6 Text widget, but ignored (effectively
treated as \fIXawtextScrollNever\fP).
.SH TEXT SOURCE OBJECT
The textSrcObject allows display of its contents to more than one window,
and also stores undo information. The new resources for the textSrcObject
are:
.TP 8
.B callback (\fPClass\fB Callback)
Previous versions of Xaw had this resource in subclasses of the TextSource
object.  This was changed to make it possible to tell the callback the
state of the text when undo is enabled.
.TP 8
.B enableUndo (\fPClass\fB Undo)
A boolean resource that enables or disables the undo function.  The default
value is False.
.TP 8
.B sourceChanged (\fPClass\fB Changed)
Like the callback resource, this resource was previously in subclasses of
the TextSource object.  It is now in the textSrcObject to control the
changed/unchanged state when undo is enabled.
.SH TEXT SINK OBJECT
The textSinkObject subclasses asciiSinkObject and multiSinkObject have been
changed slightly to use a new cursor shape (no longer a caret at the
baseline) that indicates the input focus of the text widget, and allow
specification of the cursor color.  The new resource is:
.TP 8
.B cursorColor (\fPClass\fB Color)
Sets the cursor color of the text.  This color is also used to draw
selected text.
.SH SIMPLE MENU WIDGET
The simpleMenuWidget algorithm to lay out menu entries has been changed to
enable multiple columns when a single column does not fit on the screen.
It was also modified to enable submenus.
.SH SME BSB OBJECT
A new resource has been added to the smeBSBObject to allow binding submenus
to it.  The new resource is:
.TP 8
.B menuName (\fPClass\fB MenuName)
Specifies the name of the popup widget to be popped up when the pointer is
over the menu entry, or NULL.  Note that the named menu must be a child of
the popup parent of the smeBSBObject.
.SH AUTHORS
The original X Consortium version of the Athena Widget Set and its
documentation were the work of many people, including Chris D. Peterson,
Ralph Swick, Mark Ackerman, Donna Converse, Jim Fulton, Loretta
Guarino-Reid, Charles Haynes, Rich Hyde, Mary Larson, Joel McCormack, Ron
Newman, Jeanne Rich, Terry Weissman, Mike Gancarz, Phil Karlton, Kathleen
Langone, Ram Rao, Smokey Wallace, Al Mento, and Jean Diaz.
.PP
The additions and modifications to \fIXaw\fR which were
originally made for XFree86 were written by Paulo
C\('esar Pereira de Andrade.
.SH SEE ALSO
.I Athena Widget Set - C Language Interface