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<chapter id='Text_Widgets'>
<title>Text Widgets</title>

<para>
The Text widget provides a window that will allow an application
to display and edit one or more lines of text.  Options are provided to
allow the user to add Scrollbars to its window, search for a specific
string, and modify the text in the buffer.
</para>
<para>
The Text widget is made up of a number of pieces; it was modularized to
ease customization.  The AsciiText widget class (actually not limited to
ASCII but so named for compatibility) is be general enough to most
needs.  If more flexibility, special features, or extra functionality is
needed, they can be added by implementing a new TextSource or TextSink, or
by subclassing the Text Widget (See Section 5.8 for customization
details.) <!-- xref -->
</para>
<para>
The words <emphasis remap='I'>insertion point</emphasis> are used in this chapter to refer to the text
caret.  This is the symbol that is displayed between two characters in
the file.  The insertion point marks the location where any new characters
will be added to the file.  To avoid confusion the pointer cursor will
always be referred to as the <emphasis remap='I'>pointer</emphasis>.
</para>
<para>
The text widget supports three edit modes, controlling the types of
modifications a user is allowed to make:
</para>
<para>
<itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para>Append-only</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>Editable</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>Read-only</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
Read-only mode does not allow the user or the programmer to modify the text
in the widget.  While the entire string may be reset in
read-only mode with <xref linkend='XtSetValues' xrefstyle='select: title'/>, it cannot be modified via
with <xref linkend='XawTextReplace' xrefstyle='select: title'/>.  Append-only and editable modes allow
the text at the insertion point to be modified.  The only difference is
that text may only be added to or removed from the end of a buffer in
append-only mode.
</para>
<sect1 id="Text_Widget_for_Users">
<title>Text Widget for Users</title>
<!-- .IN "Text widget" "User's Guide to the Text widget" -->
<!-- .XS -->
<!-- 	Text Widget for Users -->
<!-- .XE -->
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
The Text widget provides many of the common keyboard editing commands.
These commands allow users to move around and edit the buffer.  If an
illegal operation is attempted, (such as deleting characters in a
read-only text widget), the X server will beep.
</para>
<sect2 id="Default_Key_Bindings">
<title>Default Key Bindings</title>
<!-- .IN "Text widget" "default key bindings" -->
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
The default key bindings are patterned after those in the EMACS text editor:
<!-- .sp -->
<literallayout class="monospaced">
<!-- .TA 1.0i 3.0i 4.5i -->
<!-- .ta 1.0i 3.0i 4.5i -->
Ctrl-a	Beginning Of Line	Meta-b	Backward Word
Ctrl-b	Backward Character	Meta-f	Forward Word
Ctrl-d	Delete Next Character	Meta-i	Insert File
Ctrl-e	End Of Line	Meta-k	Kill To End Of Paragraph
Ctrl-f	Forward Character	Meta-q	Form Paragraph
Ctrl-g	Multiply Reset	Meta-v	Previous Page
Ctrl-h	Delete Previous Character	Meta-y	Insert Current Selection
Ctrl-j	Newline And Indent	Meta-z	Scroll One Line Down
Ctrl-k	Kill To End Of Line	Meta-d	Delete Next Word
Ctrl-l	Redraw Display	Meta-D	Kill Word
Ctrl-m	Newline	Meta-h	Delete Previous Word
Ctrl-n	Next Line	Meta-H	Backward Kill Word
Ctrl-o	Newline And Backup	Meta-&lt;	Beginning Of File
Ctrl-p	Previous Line	Meta-&gt;	End Of File
Ctrl-r	Search/Replace Backward	Meta-]	Forward Paragraph
Ctrl-s	Search/Replace Forward	Meta-[	Backward Paragraph
Ctrl-t	Transpose Characters
Ctrl-u	Multiply by 4	Meta-Delete	Delete Previous Word
Ctrl-v	Next Page	Meta-Shift Delete	Kill Previous Word
Ctrl-w	Kill Selection	Meta-Backspace	Delete Previous Word
Ctrl-y	Unkill	Meta-Shift Backspace	Kill Previous Word
Ctrl-z	Scroll One Line Up
Ctrl-\\	Reconnect to input method
Kanji	Reconnect to input method
</literallayout>
<!-- .sp -->
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
In addition, the pointer may be used to cut and paste text:
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
<literallayout class="monospaced">
<!-- .TA .5i 2.0i -->
<!-- .ta .5i 2.0i -->
	Button 1 Down	Start Selection
	Button 1 Motion	Adjust Selection
	Button 1 Up	End Selection (cut)

	Button 2 Down	Insert Current Selection (paste)

	Button 3 Down	Extend Current Selection
	Button 3 Motion	Adjust Selection
	Button 3 Up	End Selection (cut)

</literallayout>
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
Since all of these key and pointer bindings are set through the
translations and resource manager, the user and the application
programmer can modify them by changing the Text widget's
<function>translations</function> resource.
<!-- .\" -->
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="Search_and_Replace">
<title>Search and Replace</title>
<!-- .IN "Text widget" "search" -->
<!-- .IN "Text widget" "query replace" -->
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
The Text widget provides a search popup that can be used to search for a
string within the current Text widget.  The popup can be activated by
typing either <emphasis remap='I'>Control-r</emphasis> or <emphasis remap='I'>Control-s</emphasis>.  If <emphasis remap='I'>Control-s</emphasis> is
used the search will be forward in the file from the current location of the
insertion point; if <emphasis remap='I'>Control-r</emphasis> is used the search will be backward.  The
activated popup is placed under the pointer.  It has a number of buttons
that allow both text searches and text replacements to be performed.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
At the top of the search popup are two toggle buttons labeled
<emphasis remap='I'>backward</emphasis> and <emphasis remap='I'>forward</emphasis>.  One of these buttons will always be
highlighted; this is the direction in which the search will be
performed.  The user can change the direction at any time by clicking on
the appropriate button.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
Directly under the buttons there are two text areas, one labeled
<emphasis remap='I'>Search for:</emphasis> and the other labeled <emphasis remap='I'>Replace with:</emphasis>.  If this is
a read-only Text widget the <emphasis remap='I'>Replace with:</emphasis> field will be insensitive
and no replacements will be allowed.  After each of these labels will be
a text field.  This field will allow the user to enter a string to
search for and the string to replace it with.  Only one of these text
fields will have a window border around it; this is the active text
field.  Any key presses that occur when the focus in in the search popup
will be directed to the active text field.  There are also a few special
key sequences:
<literallayout class="monospaced">
<!-- .TA 1.75i -->
<!-- .ta 1.75i -->
<function>Carriage Return</function>:	Execute the action, and pop down the search widget.
<function>Tab</function>:	Execute the action, then move to the next field.
<function>Shift Carriage Return</function>:	Execute the action, then move to the next field.
<function>Control-q Tab</function>:	Enter a Tab into a text field.
<function>Control-c</function>:	Pop down the search popup.
</literallayout>
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
Using these special key sequences should allow simple
searches without ever removing one's hands from the keyboard.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
Near the bottom of the search popup is a row of buttons.  These buttons
allow the same actions to to be performed as the key sequences, but the
buttons will leave the popup active.  This can be quite useful if many
searches are being performed, as the popup will be left on the display.
Since the search popup is a transient window, it may be picked
up with the window manager and pulled off to the side for use
at a later time.
</para>
<variablelist>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>Search</term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Search for the specified string.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>Replace</term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Replace the currently highlighted string with the string in the
<emphasis remap='I'>Replace with</emphasis> text field, and move onto the next occurrence of the
<emphasis remap='I'>Search for</emphasis> text field.  The functionality is commonly referred to as
query-replace.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>ReplaceAll</term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Replace all occurrences of the search string with the replace string from
the current insertion point position to the end (or beginning) of the
file.  There is no key sequence to perform this action.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  <varlistentry>
      <term>ReplaceAll</term>
      <listitem>
        <para>
Remove the search popup from the screen.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
Finally, when <function>international</function> resource is <function>true</function>, there may be a
pre-edit buffer below the button row, for composing input.  Its presence
is determined by the X locale in use and the VendorShell's <function>preeditType</function>
resource.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
The widget hierarchy for the search popup is show below, all widgets
are listed by class and instance name.
<!-- .sp -->
<!-- .nf -->
<!-- .ta .5i 1.0i 1.5i 2.0i 2.5i -->
<literallayout class="monospaced">
Text  &lt;name of Text widget&gt;
	TransientShell  search
		Form  form
			Label label1
			Label  label2
			Toggle  backwards
			Toggle  forwards
			Label  searchLabel
			Text  searchText
			Label  replaceLabel
			Text  replaceText
			Command  search
			Command  replaceOne
			Command  replaceAll
			Command  cancel
</literallayout>
<!-- .fi -->
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="File_Insertion">
<title>File Insertion</title>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
<!-- .IN "Text widget" "file insertion" -->
To insert a file into a text widget, type the key sequence <emphasis remap='I'>Meta-i</emphasis>,
which will activate the file insert popup.  This popup will appear under
the pointer, and any text typed while the focus is in this popup will be
redirected to the text field used for the filename.  When the desired
filename has been entered, click on <emphasis remap='I'>Insert File</emphasis>, or type
<emphasis remap='I'>Carriage Return</emphasis>.  The named file will then be inserted in the text
widget beginning at the insertion point position.  If an error occurs when
opening the file, an error message will be printed, prompting the user
to enter the filename again.  The file insert may be aborted by clicking
on <emphasis remap='I'>Cancel</emphasis>.  If <emphasis remap='I'>Meta-i</emphasis> is typed at a text widget that is
read-only, it will beep, as no file insertion is allowed.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
The widget hierarchy for the file insert popup is show below; all widgets
are listed by class and instance name.
<!-- .sp -->
<!-- .nf -->
<!-- .ta .5i 1.0i 1.5i 2.0i 2.5i -->
<literallayout class="monospaced">
Text  &lt;name of Text widget&gt;
	TransientShell  insertFile
		Form  form
			Label  label
			Text  text
			Command  insert
			Command  cancel
</literallayout>
<!-- .fi -->
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="Text_Selections_for_Users">
<title>Text Selections for Users</title>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
<!-- .IN "Text widget" "Text Selections for Users" -->
The text widgets have a text selection mechanism that allows
the user to copy pieces of the text into the <function>PRIMARY</function> selection,
and paste
into the text widget some text that another application (or text
widget) has put in the <function>PRIMARY</function> selection.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
One method of selecting text is to press pointer button 1
on the beginning of the text to be selected, drag the pointer until all
of the desired text is highlighted, and then release the button to
activate the selection.  Another method is to click pointer button 1 at
one end of the text to be selected, then click pointer button 3 at the
other end.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
To modify a currently active selection, press pointer button 3 near
either the end of the selection that you want to
adjust.  This end of the selection may be moved while holding down pointer
button 3.  When the proper area has been highlighted release the pointer
button to activate the selection.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
The selected text may now be pasted into another application, and
will remain active until some other client makes a selection.
To paste text that some other application has
put into the <function>PRIMARY</function> selection use pointer button 2.
First place the insertion point where you would like the text to be inserted,
then click and release pointer button 2.
</para>
<para>
<!-- .LP -->
Rapidly clicking pointer button 1 the following number of times will adjust
the selection as described.
<variablelist>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>
      <function>Two</function>
    </term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Select the word under the pointer.  A word boundary is defined by the
Text widget to be a Space, Tab, or Carriage Return.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>
      <function>Three</function>
    </term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Select the line under the pointer.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>
      <function>Four</function>
    </term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Select the paragraph under the pointer.  A paragraph boundary is
defined by the text widget as two Carriage Returns in a row with only
Spaces or Tabs between them.
      </para>
    </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  <varlistentry>
    <term>
      <function>Five</function>
    </term>
    <listitem>
      <para>
Select the entire text buffer.
    </para>
  </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</para>
<para>
To unset the text selection, click pointer button 1 without moving it.
</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>

<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="TextActions_text_widget_actions.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="TextActions_default_translation_bindings.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="TextFuncs.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="TextCustom.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="Text.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="TextSink.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="TextSource.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="AsciiSink.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="AsciiSource.xml"/>
<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"  href="AsciiText.xml"/>
</chapter>