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\input texinfo @c -*- coding: utf-8; mode: texinfo; -*-
@setfilename lilypond-changes.info
@settitle LilyPond Changes

@include macros.itexi

@ifhtml
@macro inputfileref{DIR,NAME}
@uref{../../\DIR\/collated-files.html#\NAME\,@file{\DIR\/\NAME\}}@c
@end macro
@macro usermanref{NAME}
@inforef{\NAME\,,../user/lilypond/lilypond}@c
@end macro
@end ifhtml

@ifnothtml
@macro inputfileref{DIR,NAME}
@file{\DIR\/\NAME\}@c
@end macro
@macro usermanref{NAME}
See user manual, \NAME\
@end macro
@end ifnothtml

@macro textanchor{NAME}
@html
<a name="\NAME\"></a>
@end html
@end macro


@dircategory GNU LilyPond --- the music typesetter
@direntry
* LilyPond Changes: (lilypond-changes).   Changes to recent versions.
@end direntry

@documentencoding UTF-8
@documentlanguage en
@afourpaper

@finalout

@node Top
@top New features in 2.20 since 2.18

@allowcodebreaks false


@ignore

HINTS
* add new items at the top
* only show verbatim input for syntax/input changes
* try to be as brief possible in those cases
* don't try to provide real-world examples, they often get too big,
which scares away people.
* Write complete sentences.
* only show user-visible changes.

@end ignore



@subheading New for musical notation


@strong{Displaying pitch improvements}

@itemize

@item
Pitches that have a sharp or flat in their name now need to be
hyphenated;

@example
\key a-flat \major
@end example

@noindent
instead of:

@example
\key aflat \major
@end example

@noindent
Pitches that contain @emph{double} sharps or flats in their name,
however, do not need a second hyphen. For example using the Dutch
notation @code{cisis}:

@example
\key c-sharpsharp \major
@end example

@item
Accidental rules can now be defined @emph{across} @code{ChoirStaff}
contexts.

@item
Two new accidental rules have been added.  Both combine the
characteristics of @code{modern-voice}, @code{piano} and their
equivalents:

@code{choral}

@lilypond[quote]
musicA = {
  <<
    \relative { cis''8 fis, bes4 <a cis>8 f bis4 | cis2. <c, g'>4 | }
    \\
    \relative { ais'2 cis, | fis8 b a4 cis2 | }
  >>
}

musicB = { \clef bass \new Voice { \voiceTwo \relative {
      <fis a cis>8[ <fis a cis> \change Staff = up
      cis' cis \change Staff = down
      <fis, a> <fis a>] \showStaffSwitch \change Staff = up
      dis'4 | \change Staff = down
      <fis, a cis>4 gis <f a d>2 |
    }
  }
}

\new ChoirStaff { << \context Staff = "up" {
  \accidentalStyle choral \musicA }
  \context Staff = "down" { \musicB } >>
}
@end lilypond

@noindent
This is the now the default accidental style for @code{ChoirStaff}.

@code{choral-cautionary}

@lilypond[quote]
musicA = {
  <<
  \relative { cis''8 fis, bes4 <a cis>8 f bis4 |
  cis2. <c, g'>4 | }
  \\
  \relative { ais'2 cis, | fis8 b a4 cis2 | }
  >>
}

musicB = { \clef bass \new Voice { \voiceTwo \relative {
      <fis a cis>8[ <fis a cis> \change Staff = up
      cis' cis \change Staff = down
      <fis, a> <fis a>] \showStaffSwitch \change Staff = up
      dis'4 | \change Staff = down
      <fis, a cis>4 gis <f a d>2 |
    }
  }
}

\new ChoirStaff { << \context Staff = "up" {
  \accidentalStyle choral-cautionary \musicA }
  \context Staff = "down" { \musicB } >>
}
@end lilypond

@noindent
The same as @code{choral} but with the extra accidentals typeset as
cautionaries instead.

@noindent
Also see @ruser{Automatic accidentals}.

@item
Four new clef glyphs are now available; @q{GG} (double-G),
@q{Tenor G}, @q{varC} plus related tessitura and
@q{Varpercussion}:

@multitable @columnfractions .30 .2 .30 .2

@headitem
Example
@tab
Output
@tab
Example
@tab
Output

@item
@code{\clef GG}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef GG c1
@end lilypond
@tab
@code{\clef tenorG}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef tenorG c1
@end lilypond

@item
@code{\clef varC}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef varC c1
@end lilypond
@tab
@code{\clef altovarC}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef altovarC c1
@end lilypond

@item
@code{\clef tenorvarC}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef tenorvarC c1
@end lilypond
@tab
@code{\clef baritonevarC}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef baritonevarC c1
@end lilypond

@item
@code{\clef varpercussion}
@tab
@lilypond[line-width=3\cm,notime,ragged-right,relative=1]
\clef varpercussion c1
@end lilypond

@end multitable

@noindent
Also see @ruser{Clef styles}.

@item
French note names are now explicitly defined -- previously they were
aliased to Italian note names.  The @var{d} pitch may be entered as
either  @code{re} or @code{ré}.

@lilypond[fragment,verbatim,quote,ragged-right,relative=1]
\language "français"
do ré mi fa | sol la si do | ré1
@end lilypond

@noindent
Double sharps are entered using an @code{x} suffix.

@lilypond[fragment,verbatim,quote,ragged-right,relative=2]
\language "français"
dob, rebb misb fabsb | sold ladd six dosd | rédsd1
@end lilypond

@end itemize


@strong{Rhythm improvements}

@itemize

@item
Multi-measure rests have length according to their total duration,
under the control of @code{MultiMeasureRest.space-increment}.  Note the
default value is @code{2.0}.

@lilypond[fragment,verbatim,quote]
\compressFullBarRests
R1*2 R1*4 R1*64 R1*16
@end lilypond

@lilypond[fragment,verbatim,quote]
\compressFullBarRests
\override Staff.MultiMeasureRest.space-increment = 2.5
R1*2 R1*4 R1*64 R1*16
@end lilypond

@item
Improvements to the @code{\partial} command have been made when used
with parallel music and/or multiple contexts.

@item
It is now possible to change the time signature mid-measure by using
both the @code{\time} and @code{\partial} commands together.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote,relative=1]
f f f f | f2. \bar "||"
\time 3/4 \partial 4
f8 8 | f2 f8 f |
@end lilypond

@item
Isolated durations in music now stand for unpitched notes.  Pitches are
taken from the preceding note or chord.  This is especially convenient
for specifying rhythms in both music and scheme functions and can help
improve the readability of LilyPond source files.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote,fragment,relative=2]
c64[ 64] 32 16 8^- <g b d>4~ 2 | 1
@end lilypond

@lilypond[verbatim,quote]
\new DrumStaff \with { \override StaffSymbol.line-count = 1 }
\drummode {
  \time 3/4
  tambourine 8 \tuplet 3/2 { 16 16 16 }
             8 \tuplet 3/2 { 16 16 16 } 8 8 |
}
@end lilypond

@item
Beaming exceptions can now be constructed using the simpler
@code{\beamExceptions} scheme function. Previously, this would have
required writing:

@example
\set Timing.beamExceptions =
#'(                         ;start of alist
   (end .                   ;entry for end of beams
    (                       ;start of alist of end points
     ((1 . 32) . (2 2 2))   ;rule for 1/32 beams -- end each 1/16
    )))

\time #'(2 1) 3/16
c16 c c
\repeat unfold 6 @{ c32 @}
@end example

@noindent
With the new @code{\beamExceptions} scheme function, this becomes:

@lilypond[verbatim,quote,relative=1]
\set Timing.beamExceptions =
  \beamExceptions { 32[ 32] 32[ 32] 32[ 32] }

\time #'(2 1) 3/16
c16 c c |
\repeat unfold 6 { c32 } |
@end lilypond

@noindent
with multiple exceptions separated by bar checks.  Note that writing the
exception pattern without pitches is convenient but not mandatory (also
see the previous documented rhythm improvement --
@emph{Isolated durations in music now stand for unpitched notes}.

@item
The positioning of tuplet numbers for kneed beams has been improved.
Previously, tuplet numbers were placed according to the position of the
tuplet bracket, even if the bracket was not printed.  This could lead to
tuplet numbers being @q{stranded}.

@noindent
Previously:

@lilypond[fragment,quote,relative=1]
% This is a contrived example to simulate the previous behaviour
\time 3/4
\override Beam.auto-knee-gap = 3
\override TupletNumber.knee-to-beam = ##f
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g8 c'' e, }
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g,,8 c'' e, }
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
\tuplet 3/2 4 { c'8 g,, e'' }
\tuplet 3/2 4 { c'8 g,, e'' }
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
\tuplet 2/2 4 { g,8[ e''] }
\tuplet 2/2 4 { g,,8[ e''] }
@end lilypond

@noindent
Now, when the bracket is not drawn, tuplet numbers are positioned
closer.

@lilypond[fragment,quote,relative=1]
% This is a contrived example to simulate the previous behaviour
\time 3/4
\override Beam.auto-knee-gap = 3
\override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g8 c'' e, }
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g,,8 c'' e, }
\tuplet 3/2 4 { c'8 g,, e'' }
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
\tuplet 3/2 4 { c'8 g,, e'' }
\tuplet 2/2 4 { g,8[ e''] }
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
\tuplet 2/2 4 { g,,8[ e''] }
@end lilypond

@item
Collision detection for the kneed beam tuplet numbers has also been
added, shifting the offset horizontally if the number is too close to
an adjoining note column (but still preserving the number's vertical
distance).  In the event of a collision -- for example with an
accidental -- the tuplet number will be shifted vertically instead.  If
the tuplet number is itself too large to fit within the available space,
the original, @q{bracket-based}, positioning system will be used
instead.

@lilypond[fragment,quote,relative=1]
\time 2/4
\override Beam.auto-knee-gap = 3
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g8 c'' e, c'8 g,, e'' }
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g,,8 e''' g,, g,8 e''' ges,, }
@end lilypond

@noindent
The original kneed-beam tuplet behavior is still available with a new,
@code{knee-to-beam} property for the @code{TupletNumber} layout object.

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,quote,relative=1]
\time 2/4
\override Beam.auto-knee-gap = 3
\override TupletNumber.knee-to-beam = ##f
\override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g8 c'' e, }
\once \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
\tuplet 3/2 4 { g,,8 c'' e, }
@end lilypond

@end itemize


@strong{Expressive mark improvements}

@itemize

@item
The ends of hairpins may now be fine-tuned using the @code{shorten-pair}
grob property.  This previously only affected text-spanners (e.g.
@code{TupletBracket} and @code{OttavaBracket}).

@noindent
Positive and negative values offset right and left respectively.

@lilypond[quote,verbatim,relative=2]
\once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(0 . 2)
a1\< | a2 a\!

\once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(2 . 0)
\once \override Hairpin.stencil = #constante-hairpin
a1\< | a2 a\!

\once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(-1 . -1)
\once \override Hairpin.stencil = #flared-hairpin
a1\< | a2 a\!
@end lilypond

@item
Individual slurs and phrasing slurs may now be started from an explicit
note within a chord.

@lilypond[quote,verbatim,relative=1]
<f a( c>1 | <c') e g(> | <a c) e>
@end lilypond

@lilypond[quote,verbatim,relative=1]
<f( a\( c>1 | <c'\) e\( g> | <a c e\)>
@end lilypond

@item
A new command @code{\=X} has been added -- where @q{X} can be any
non-negative integer or symbol -- so that a specific @q{id} can be
assigned to the start and end of slurs and phrasing slurs.

@noindent
This is useful when simultaneous slurs are required or if one slur
overlaps another or when nesting short slurs within a longer one.

@lilypond[quote,verbatim,relative=2]
<a c e\=7\(>1 | <g b d\=£(> |
<f\=A( a c\="foo"(> | <c'\="foo")\=A) e\=£) g\=7\)> |
@end lilypond

@noindent
Also see @ruser{Expressive marks as curves}.

@end itemize


@strong{Repeat notation improvements}

@itemize

@item
The visual style of tremolo slashes (shape, style and slope)
is now more finely controlled.
@lilypond[quote,relative=2]
  a8:32 b: c: d:
  \override StemTremolo.shape = #'beam-like
  a: b: c: d:
  \override StemTremolo.style = #'constant
  a: b: c: d:
  g,2
@end lilypond

@item
The music function @code{\unfoldRepeats} can now take an
optional argument-list specifying which type(s) of repeated music
should be unfolded.  Possible entries are @code{percent}, @code{tremolo},
@code{volta}.
If the optional argument-list is unspecified, @code{repeated-music} will be
used, unfolding all.

@end itemize


@strong{Staff notation improvements}

@itemize

@item
A new command @code{\magnifyStaff} has been added which scales staff
sizes, staff lines, bar lines, beamlets and horizontal spacing generally
at the @code{Staff} context level.  Staff lines are prevented from being
scaled smaller than the default since the thickness of stems, slurs, and
the like are all based on the staff line thickness.

@item
A new command @code{\magnifyMusic} has been added, which allows
the notation size to be changed without changing the staff size,
while automatically scaling stems, beams, and horizontal spacing.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote]
\new Staff <<
  \new Voice \relative {
    \voiceOne
    <e' e'>4 <f f'>8. <g g'>16 <f f'>8 <e e'>4 r8
  }
  \new Voice \relative {
    \voiceTwo
    \magnifyMusic 0.63 {
      \override Score.SpacingSpanner.spacing-increment = #(* 1.2 0.63)
      r32 c'' a c a c a c r c a c a c a c
      r c a c a c a c a c a c a c a c
    }
  }
>>
@end lilypond

@item
A new command, @code{\RemoveAllEmptyStaves}, has been made available, which
acts exactly like @code{\RemoveEmptyStaves}, except for also removing empty
staves on the first system in a score.

@item
A new markup command @code{\justify-line} has been added.  Similar to
the @code{\fill-line} markup command except that instead of setting
@emph{words} in columns, the @code{\justify-line} command balances the
whitespace between them ensuring that when there are three or more
words in a markup, the whitespace is always consistent.

@lilypond[quote,verbatim,papersize=a6]
\markup \fill-line {oooooo oooooo oooooo oooooo}
\markup \fill-line {ooooooooo oooooooo oo ooo}
@end lilypond

@lilypond[quote,verbatim,papersize=a6]
\markup \justify-line {oooooo oooooo oooooo oooooo}
\markup \justify-line {ooooooooo oooooooo oo ooo}
@end lilypond

@end itemize


@strong{Editorial annotation improvements}

@itemize

@item
It is now possible to add text to analysis brackets through the
@code{HorizontalBracketText} object.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
  }
}

{
  \once \override HorizontalBracketText.text = "a"
  c''\startGroup d''\stopGroup
  e''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text "a'" \startGroup d''\stopGroup
}
@end lilypond

@end itemize


@strong{Text formatting improvements}

@itemize

@item
Support for making it easier to use alternative @q{music} fonts other
than the default Emmentaler in LilyPond has been added.  See
@ruser{Replacing the notation font} for more information.

@item
Default text fonts have been changed from
@code{Century Schoolbook L}, @code{sans-serif}, and @code{monospace}.

For @code{svg} backend:
@multitable @columnfractions .15 .30
@headitem Family @tab Default font
@item @emph{roman} @tab @code{serif}
@item @emph{sans} @tab @code{sans-serif}
@item @emph{typewriter} @tab @code{monospace}
@end multitable

@code{serif}, @code{sans-serif}, and @code{monospace} are
@code{generic-family} in SVG and CSS specifications.

For other backends:
@multitable @columnfractions .15 .30 .55
@headitem Family @tab Default font (alias) @tab Alias definition lists
@item @emph{roman}
@tab @code{LilyPond Serif}
@tab
TeX Gyre Schola,
C059, Century SchoolBook URW, Century Schoolbook L,
DejaVu Serif,
..., serif
@item @emph{sans}
@tab @code{LilyPond Sans Serif}
@tab
TeX Gyre Heros,
Nimbus Sans, Nimbus Sans L, DejaVu Sans,
..., sans-serif
@item @emph{typewriter}
@tab @code{LilyPond Monospace}
@tab
TeX Gyre Cursor,
Nimbus Mono PS, Nimbus Mono, Nimbus Mono L,
DejaVu Sans Mono,
..., monospace
@end multitable

@code{LilyPond Serif}, @code{LilyPond Sans Serif},
and @code{LilyPond Monospace} are font aliases defined
in the LilyPond dedicated FontConfig configuration file
@code{00-lilypond-fonts.conf}.
Where a character dosen't exist in the first font listed,
the next font listed will be used instead for that character.
For details of alias definitions, please see
to @code{00-lilypond-fonts.conf} under the installed directory.

@item
When using OpenType fonts, font features can be used.
Note: Not all OpenType fonts have all functions.

@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
% True small caps
\markup { Normal Style: Hello HELLO }
\markup { \caps { Small Caps: Hello } }
\markup { \override #'(font-features . ("smcp"))
          { True Small Caps: Hello } }

% Number styles
\markup { Normal Number Style: 0123456789 }
\markup { \override #'(font-features . ("onum"))
          { Old Number Style: 0123456789 } }

% Stylistic Alternates
\markup { \override #'(font-features . ("salt 0"))
          { Stylistic Alternates 0: εφπρθ } }
\markup { \override #'(font-features . ("salt 1"))
          { Stylistic Alternates 1: εφπρθ } }

% Multiple features
\markup { \override #'(font-features . ("onum" "smcp" "salt 1"))
          { Multiple features: Hello 0123456789 εφπρθ } }
@end lilypond

@item
Two new styles of whiteout are now available.  The @code{outline} style
approximates the contours of a glyph's outline, and its shape is
produced from multiple displaced copies of the glyph.  The
@code{rounded-box} style produces a rounded rectangle shape.  For all
three styles, including the default @code{box} style, the whiteout
shape's @code{thickness}, as a multiple of staff-line thickness, can be
customized.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote]
\markup {
  \combine
    \filled-box #'(-1 . 15) #'(-3 . 4) #1
    \override #'(thickness . 3)
    \whiteout whiteout-box
}
\markup {
  \combine
    \filled-box #'(-1 . 24) #'(-3 . 4) #1
    \override #'(style . rounded-box)
    \override #'(thickness . 3)
    \whiteout whiteout-rounded-box
}
\markup {
  \combine
    \filled-box #'(-1 . 18) #'(-3 . 4) #1
    \override #'(style . outline)
    \override #'(thickness . 3)
    \whiteout whiteout-outline
}
\relative {
  \override Staff.Clef.whiteout-style = #'outline
  \override Staff.Clef.whiteout = 3
  g'1
}
@end lilypond

@item
A new markup-command, @code{\with-dimensions-from}, makes
@code{\with-dimensions} easier to use by taking the new
dimensions from a markup object, given as first argument.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\markup {
  \pattern #5 #Y #0 "x"
  \pattern #5 #Y #0 \with-dimensions-from "x" "f"
  \pattern #5 #Y #0 \with-dimensions-from "x" "g"
  \override #'(baseline-skip . 2)
  \column {
    \pattern #5 #X #0 "n"
    \pattern #5 #X #0 \with-dimensions-from "n" "m"
    \pattern #5 #X #0 \with-dimensions-from "n" "!"
  }
}
@end lilypond

@item
Markup-command @code{\draw-squiggle-line} is now available.
Customizing is possible with overrides of @code{thickness}, @code{angularity},
@code{height} and @code{orientation}
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\markup
  \overlay {
    \draw-squiggle-line #0.5 #'(3 . 3) ##t

    \translate #'(3 . 3)
    \override #'(thickness . 4)
    \draw-squiggle-line #0.5 #'(3 . -3) ##t

    \translate #'(6 . 0)
    \override #'(angularity . -5)
    \draw-squiggle-line #0.5 #'(-3 . -3) ##t

    \translate #'(3 . -3)
    \override #'(angularity . 2)
    \override #'(height . 0.3)
    \override #'(orientation . -1)
    \draw-squiggle-line #0.2 #'(-3 . 3) ##t
  }
@end lilypond

@item
Markup-commands @code{\undertie} and @code{\overtie} are now available, as well
as the generic markup-command @code{\tie}.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\markup {
  \undertie "undertied"
  \overtie "overtied"
}

m = {
  c''1 \prall -\tweak text \markup \tie "131" -1
}

{ \voiceOne \m \voiceTwo \m }
@end lilypond

@end itemize



@subheading New for specialist notation


@strong{Vocal music improvements}

@itemize

@item
A new flexible template suitable for a range of choral music, is now
provided.  This may be used to create simple choral music, with or
without piano accompaniment, in two or four staves. Unlike other
templates, this template is @q{built-in}, which means it does not
need to be copied and edited: instead it is simply @code{\include}'d
in the input file.  For details, see @rlearning{Built-in templates}.

@item
The @code{\addlyrics} function now works with arbitrary contexts
incuding @code{Staff}.

@item
@code{\lyricsto} and @code{\addLyrics} have been @q{harmonized}.  Both
now accept the same kind of delimited argument list that @code{\lyrics}
and @code{\chords} accept.  Backward compatibility has been added so
music identifiers (i.e. @code{\mus}) are permitted as arguments.  A
@code{convert-ly} rule has been added that removes redundant uses of
@code{\lyricmode} and rearranges combinations with context starters such
that @code{\lyricsto} in general is applied last (i.e. like
@code{\lyricmode} would be).

@end itemize


@strong{Unfretted and fretted string instrument improvements}

@itemize

@item
A new note head style for Tabulature has been added --
@code{TabNoteHead.style = #'slash}.

@item
In fret-diagrams the distance between frets and the distance between strings is
now independently adjustable.  Available are @code{fret-distance} and
@code{string-distance} as subproperties of @code{fret-diagram-details}.
@lilypond[verbatim,quote]
fretMrkp = \markup { \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2;3;2;" }

\markuplist
\override #'(padding . 2)
\table #'(0 -1) {
  "default"

  \fretMrkp

  "fret-distance"

  \override #'(fret-diagram-details . ((fret-distance . 2)))
  \fretMrkp

  "string-distance"

  \override #'(fret-diagram-details . ((string-distance . 2)))
  \fretMrkp
}
@end lilypond

@item
It is now possible to individually color both the dots and parentheses
in fret diagrams when using the @code{\fret-diagram-verbose} markup
command.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote,relative=1]
\new Voice {
  c1^\markup {
    \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                 (finger-code . in-dot))) {
      \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                               (place-fret 5 3 1 red)
                               (place-fret 4 5 2 inverted)
                               (place-fret 3 5 3 green)
                               (place-fret 2 5 4 blue inverted)
                               (place-fret 1 3 1 violet)
                               (barre 5 1 3 ))
    }
  }
  c1^\markup {
    \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                 (finger-code . below-string))) {
      \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                             (place-fret 5 3 1 red parenthesized)
                             (place-fret 4 5 2 yellow
                                               default-paren-color
                                               parenthesized)
                             (place-fret 3 5 3 green)
                             (place-fret 2 5 4 blue )
                             (place-fret 1 3 1)
                             (barre 5 1 3))
    }
  }
}
@end lilypond

@item
Two new properties have been added for use in
@code{fret-diagram-details} when using the @code{\fret-diagram-verbose}
markup command; @code{fret-label-horizontal-offset} which affects the
@code{fret-label-indication} and @code{paren-padding} which controls the
space between the dot and the parentheses surrounding it.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote,relative=1]
\new Voice {
  c1^\markup {
    \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                             (place-fret 5 3 1)
                             (place-fret 4 5 2)
                             (place-fret 3 5 3)
                             (place-fret 1 6 4 parenthesized)
                             (place-fret 2 3 1)
                             (barre 5 2 3))
  }
  c1^\markup {
    \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                 (fret-label-horizontal-offset . 2)
                 (paren-padding . 0.25))) {
      \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                               (place-fret 5 3 1)
                               (place-fret 4 5 2)
                               (place-fret 3 5 3)
                               (place-fret 1 6 4 parenthesized)
                               (place-fret 2 3 1)
                               (barre 5 2 3))
    }
  }
}
@end lilypond

@item
Additional bass strings (for lute tablature) are supported.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
m = { f'4 d' a f d a, g, fis, e, d, c,  \bar "|." }

\score {
  \new TabStaff \m
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      tablatureFormat = #fret-letter-tablature-format
    }
    \context {
      \TabStaff
      stringTunings = \stringTuning <a, d f a d' f'>
      additionalBassStrings = \stringTuning <c, d, e, fis, g,>
      fretLabels = #'("a" "b" "r" "d" "e" "f" "g" "h" "i" "k")
    }
  }
}
@end lilypond

@item
String numbers can now also be used to print roman numerals
(e.g. for unfretted string instruments).
@lilypond[verbatim,quote,relative=2]
c2\2
\romanStringNumbers
c\2
\arabicStringNumbers
c1\3
@end lilypond

@item
@code{TabStaff} is now able to print micro-tones for bendings etc.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    supportNonIntegerFret = ##t
  }
}

mus = \relative { c'4 cih d dih }

<<
  \new Staff << \clef "G_8" \mus >>
  \new TabStaff \mus
>>
@end lilypond

@end itemize


@strong{Chord notation improvements}

@itemize

@item @code{\chordmode} can now use @code{< >} and @code{<< >>}
constructs.

@item
It is now possible to override the @code{text} property of
chord names.

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,quote]
<<
\new ChordNames \chordmode {
  a' b c:7
  \once \override ChordName.text = #"foo"
  d
}
>>
@end lilypond

@end itemize



@subheading New for input and output


@strong{Input structure improvements}

@itemize

@item
Blocks introduced with @code{\header} can be stored in variables
and used as arguments to music and scheme functions and as the
body of @code{#@{@dots{}#@}} constructs.  They are represented as
a Guile module.

While @code{\book}, @code{\bookpart}, @code{\score}, @code{\with},
@code{\layout}, @code{\midi}, @code{\paper} blocks can be passed
around in similar manner, they are represented by different data
types.

@end itemize


@strong{Titles and header improvements}

@itemize

@item
Page numbers may now be printed in roman numerals, by setting the
@code{page-number-type} paper variable.

@end itemize


@strong{Input file improvements}

@itemize

@item
A new command @code{\tagGroup} has now been added.  This complements
the existing @code{\keepWithTag} and @code{\removeWithTag} commands.
For Example:

@example
\tagGroup #'(violinI violinII viola cello)
@end example

declares a list of @q{tags} that belong to a single @q{tag group}.

@example
\keepWithTag #'violinI
@end example

Is now only concerned with @q{tags} from @q{violinI}’s tag group.

Any element of the included music tagged with one or more tags from the
group, but @emph{not} with @var{violinI}, will be removed.

@end itemize


@strong{Output improvements}

@itemize

@item
LilyPond source files may now be embedded inside the generated PDF files.
This experimental feature is disabled by default and may be regarded as unsafe,
as PDF documents with hidden content tend to present a security risk.
Please note that not all PDF viewers have the ability to handle embedded
documents (if not, the PDF output will appear normally and source files
will remain invisible).  This feature only works with the PDF backend.

@item
The @code{output-classic-framework} procedure and the @code{-dclip-systems}
are now available with the @code{SVG} backend.

@item
An argument, @code{-dcrop}, has been added, formatting @code{SVG} and
@code{PDF} output without margins or page-breaks.

@item
A new @code{output-attributes} grob property is now used for svg output
instead of the @code{id} grob property.  It allows multiple attributes
to be defined as an association list.  For example, @code{#'((id . 123)
(class . foo) (data-whatever . @qq{bar}))} will produce the following
group tag in an SVG file: @code{<g id=@qq{123} class=@qq{foo}
data-whatever=@qq{bar}> @dots{} </g>}.

@item
The PostScript functionality of stroke adjustment is no longer
applied automatically but left to the discretion of the PostScript
device (by default, Ghostscript uses it for resolutions up to
150dpi when generating raster images).  When it is enabled, a more
complex drawing algorithm designed to benefit from stroke
adjustment is employed mostly for stems and bar lines.

Stroke adjustment can be forced by specifying the command line
option @samp{-dstrokeadjust} to LilyPond.  When generating
@code{PDF} files, this will usually result in markedly better
looking @code{PDF} previews but significantly larger file size.
Print quality at high resolutions will be unaffected.

@item
Added a new @code{make-path-stencil} function that supports all
@code{path} commands both relative and absolute:

@code{lineto}, @code{rlineto}, @code{curveto}, @code{rcurveto},
@code{moveto}, @code{rmoveto}, @code{closepath}.  The function also
supports @q{single-letter} syntax used in standard SVG path commands:

@code{L}, @code{l}, @code{C}, @code{c}, @code{M}, @code{m}, @code{Z} and
@code{z}.  The new command is also backward-compatible with the original
@code{make-connected-path-stencil} function.  Also see
@file{scm/stencil.scm}.

@end itemize


@strong{MIDI improvements}

@itemize

@item
The most common articulations are now reflected in MIDI output.
Accent and marcato make notes louder; staccato, staccatissimo and
portato make them shorter. Breath marks shorten the previous
note.

This behavior is customizable through the @code{midiLength} and
@code{midiExtraVelocity} properties on @code{ArticulationEvent}.
See @file{script-init.ly} for examples.

@item
Improved MIDI output for breathe marks.  After tied notes, breaths take
time @emph{only} from the last note of the tie; e.g.
@code{@{ c4~ c8 \breathe @}} performs as @code{@{ c4~ c16 r @}} instead
of @code{@{ c4 r8 @}}.  This is more consistent with articulations and
how humans interpret breaths after ties.  It now also makes it easier to
align simultaneous breathe marks over multiple parts, all with different
note lengths.

@item
There is now support for controlling the @q{expression level} of
MIDI channels using the @code{Staff.midiExpression} context property.
This can be used to alter the perceived volume of even sustained notes
(albeit in a very @q{low-level} way) and accepts a number value between
@code{0.0} and @code{1.0}.

@example
\score @{
  \new Staff \with @{
    midiExpression = #0.6
    midiInstrument = #"clarinet"
  @}
  <<
    @{ a'1~ a'1 @}
    @{
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.7 s4\f\<
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.8 s4
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.9 s4
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #1.0 s4

      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.9 s4\>
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.8 s4
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.7 s4
      \set Staff.midiExpression = #0.6 s4\!
    @}
  >>
  \midi @{ @}
@}
@end example

@item
When outputting MIDI, LilyPond will now store the @code{title}
defined in a score's @code{\header} block (or, if there is no
such definition on the @code{\score} level, the first such
definition found in a @code{\header} block of the score's
enclosing @code{\bookpart}, @code{\book}, or top-level scope)
as the name of the MIDI sequence in the MIDI file.  Optionally,
the name of the MIDI sequence can be overridden using the new
@code{midititle} @code{\header} field independently of
@code{title} (for example, in case @code{title} contains markup
code which does not render as plain text in a satisfactory way
automatically).

@item
Support for making it easier to use alternative @q{music} fonts other
than the default Emmentaler in LilyPond has been added.  See
@ruser{Replacing the notation font} for more information.

@end itemize


@strong{Extracting music improvements}

@itemize

@item
@code{\displayLilyMusic} and its underlying Scheme functions no
longer omit redundant note durations.  This makes it easier to
reliably recognize and format standalone durations in expressions
like
@example
@{ c4 d4 8 @}
@end example

@end itemize



@subheading New for spacing issues


@strong{Page breaking improvements}

@itemize

@item
There are two new page breaking functions.  @code{ly:one-page-breaking}
automatically adjusts the height of the page to fit the music, so that
everything fits on one page.  @code{ly:one-line-auto-height-breaking}
is like @code{ly:one-line-breaking}, placing the music on a single
line and adjusting the page width accordingly, however it also
automatically adjusts the page height to fit the music.

@end itemize


@strong{Vertical and Horizontal spacing improvements}

@itemize

@item
It is now possible to move systems with reference to their current
position using the @code{extra-offset} subproperty of
@code{NonMusicalPaperColumn.line-break-system-details}.  Both vertical
and horizontal changes are possible.  This feature is especially useful
for making slight adjustments to the default vertical position of
individual systems. See @ruser{Explicit staff and system positioning} for
more information.

@item
Improved visual spacing of small and regular @q{MI} Funk and Walker
noteheads so they are now the same width as other shaped notes in
their respective sets.  @code{SOL} noteheads are also now visually
improved when used with both the normal Aiken and Sacred Harp heads, as
well as with the thin variants.

@item
@code{LeftEdge} now has a definable @code{Y-extent} (i.e.vertical).  See
@rinternals{LeftEdge}.

@item
Grobs and their parents can now be aligned separately allowing
more flexibility for grob positions.  For example the @q{left} edge of a
grob can now be aligned on the @q{center} of its parent.

@item
Improved horizontal alignment when using @code{TextScript},
with @code{DynamicText} or @code{LyricText}.

@end itemize



@subheading New for changing defaults

@itemize

@item
All of @code{\override}, @code{\revert}, @code{\set}, and
@code{\unset} now work with the @code{\once} prefix for making
one-time settings.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\relative {
  c'4 d
  \override NoteHead.color = #red
  e4 f |
  \once \override NoteHead.color = #green
  g4 a
  \once \revert NoteHead.color
  b c |
  \revert NoteHead.color
  f2 c |
}
@end lilypond

@end itemize



@subheading New for Internal interfaces and functions

@itemize

@item
The music and grob property @code{spanner-id}, used for distinguishing
simultaneous slurs and phrasing slurs, has been changed from a string to
a @emph{key} which can be either a non-negative integer or symbol (also
see the previous documented expressive mark improvement --
@emph{A new command \=X has been added}).

@item
Context properties named in the @samp{alternativeRestores} property are
restored to their value at the start of the @emph{first} alternative in
all subsequent alternatives.

Currently the default set restores @q{current meter}:

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,quote,relative=2]
\time 3/4
\repeat volta 2 { c2 e4 | }
\alternative {
  { \time 4/4 f2 d | }
  { f2 d4 | }
}
g2. |
@end lilypond

@noindent
@q{measure position}:

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,quote,relative=2]
\time 3/4
\repeat volta 2 { c2 e4 | }
\alternative {
  { \time 4/4
    \set Timing.measurePosition = #(ly:make-moment -1/2)
    f2 | }
  { f2 d4 | }
}
g2. |
@end lilypond

@noindent
and @q{chord changes}:

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,quote]
<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set chordChanges = ##t
    \chordmode { c1:m d:m c:m d:m }
  }
  \new Staff {
    \repeat volta 2 { \chordmode { c1:m } }
    \alternative {
      { \chordmode { d:m } }
      { \chordmode { c:m } }
    }
  \chordmode { d:m }
}
>>
@end lilypond

@item
LilyPond functions defined with @code{define-music-function},
@code{define-event-function}, @code{define-scheme-function} and
@code{define-void-function} can now be directly called from Scheme
as if they were genuine Scheme procedures.  Argument checking and
matching will still be performed in the same manner as when
calling the function through LilyPond input.  This includes the
insertion of defaults for optional arguments not matching their
predicates.  Instead of using @code{\default} in the actual
argument list for explicitly skipping a sequence of optional
arguments, @code{*unspecified*} can be employed.

@item
Current input location and parser are now stored in GUILE fluids
and can be referenced via the function calls @code{(*location*)}
and @code{(*parser*)}.  Consequently, a lot of functions
previously taking an explicit @code{parser} argument no longer do
so.

Functions defined with @code{define-music-function},
@code{define-event-function}, @code{define-scheme-function} and
@code{define-void-function} no longer use @code{parser} and
@code{location} arguments.

With those particular definitions, LilyPond will try to recognize
legacy use of @code{parser} and @code{location} arguments,
providing backwards-compatible semantics for some time.

@item
Scheme functions and identifiers can now be used as output definitions.

@item
Scheme expressions can now be used as chord constituents.

@item
Music (and scheme and void) functions and markup commands that
just supply the final parameters to a chain of overrides, music
function and markup command calls can now be defined in the form
of just writing the expression cut short with @code{\etc}.

@lilypond[verbatim,quote]
\markup bold-red = \markup \bold \with-color #red \etc
highlight = \tweak font-size 3 \tweak color #red \etc

\markup \bold-red "text"
\markuplist \column-lines \bold-red { One Two }

{ c' \highlight d' e'2-\highlight -! }
@end lilypond

@item
Dot-separated symbol lists like @code{FretBoard.stencil} were
already supported as of version@tie{}2.18.  They may now also
contain unsigned integers, and may alternatively be separated by
commata.  This allows usage such as
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
{ \time 2,2,1 5/8  g'8 8 8 8 8 }
@end lilypond
and
@example
\tagGroup violin,oboe,bassoon
@end example

@item
Such lists may also be used in expressions for assignments, sets,
and overrides.  This allows usage such as
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
{ \unset Timing.beamExceptions
  \set Timing.beatStructure = 1,2,1
  g'8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 }
@end lilypond

@item
Association list elements could previously be assigned values
individually (for example, paper variables like
@code{system-system-spacing.basic-distance}).  They may now be
also referenced in this manner, as with
@example
\paper @{
  \void \displayScheme \system-system-spacing.basic-distance
@}
@end example

In combination with the previously mentioned changes, this allows
setting and referencing pseudovariables like @code{violin.1}.

@item
The markup-list-command @code{\table} is now available.
Each column may be aligned differently.
@lilypond[quote,verbatim]
\markuplist {
    \override #'(padding . 2)
    \table
      #'(0 1 0 -1)
      {
        \underline { center-aligned right-aligned center-aligned left-aligned }
        one "1" thousandth "0.001"
        eleven "11" hundredth "0.01"
        twenty "20" tenth "0.1"
        thousand "1000" one "1.0"
      }
}
@end lilypond

@item
@code{InstrumentName} now supports @code{text-interface}.

@item
The @code{thin-kern} property of the @code{BarLine} grob has been
renamed to @code{segno-kern}.

@item
@code{KeyCancellation} grobs now ignore cue clefs (like
@code{KeySignature} grobs do).

@item
Add support for @code{\once@tie{}\unset}

@end itemize

@ifhtml
For older news, go to
@uref{http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.18/Documentation/changes/},
@uref{http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.16/Documentation/changes/},
or @uref{../,go back} to the Documentation index.

@end ifhtml

@bye