File: gismu.txt

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 01436 Lojban                  gismu list  9/26/94        01436 Draft dictionary rebaseline posted for review; Logflash format compatible Note: Metaphor usage risks cultural neutrality; physical attributes are safest. Use place structures.  rafsi list baselined as of this date.  Note: a complete set can be partially specified with etcetera (ce zo'e)
 bacru         ba'u utter                                     x1 utters verbally/says/phonates/speaks [vocally makes sound] x2                                 1h 386    [also voices; does not necessarily imply communication or audience; ('says' is usually cusku)]; (cf. krixa, cusku, casnu, tavla, voksa, pinka)
 badna              banana                                    x1 is a banana/plantain [fruit/plant] of species/breed x2                                        aj   2    (cf. grute)
 badri     dri      sad                                       x1 is sad/depressed/dejected/[unhappy/feels sorrow/grief] about x2 (abstraction)                 3c  91    (cf. klaku, gleki, betri, cinmo, junri)
 bajra baj          run                                       x1 runs on surface x2 using limbs x3 with gait x4                                                2b   0    (cf. cadzu, klama, litru, stapa, plipe, cpare)
 bakfu baf          bundle               'pack'               x1 is a bundle/package/cluster/clump/pack [shape/form] containing x2, held together by x3        9b   3    (cf. daski, dakli, tanxe)
 bakni bak          bovine               'ox'                 x1 is a cow/cattle/kine/ox/[bull/steer/calf] [beef-producer/bovine] of species/breed x2          ai   8    (cf. danlu)
 bakri              chalk                                     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of chalk from source x2 in form x3                          ah   2    (cf. pinsi, blabi, jilka)
 baktu              bucket                                    x1 is a bucket/pail/can/deep, solid, wide-topped container of contents x2, made of material x3   ao   0    (cf. botpi, patxu, tansi, lante, lanka)
 balji              bulb                 'bulge'              x1 is a bulb [body-part] of plant/species x2; [metaphor: rounded, bulgy]                         aj   1    (cf. punli, batke)
 balni              balcony                                   x1 is a balcony/overhang/ledge/shelf of building/structure x2                                    a    0    (cf. kajna)
 balre         ba'e blade                                     x1 is a blade of tool/weapon x2                                                                  a    3    (cf. dakfu, tunta, tutci, guska, kinli, katna)
 balvi bav          future               'later'              x1 is in the future of/later than/after x2 in time sequence; x1 is latter; x2 is former          4a  56    [also sequel, succeed, successor, follow, come(s) after; time ordering only (use lidne otherwise); aorist in that x1 may overlap in time with x2 as long as it extends afterwards; non-aorist future (= cfabalvi); (default x2 is the space time reference, whereupon:) x1 will occur]; (cf. lidne, cabna, purci, farna)
 bancu bac          beyond                                    x1 exceeds/is beyond limit/boundary x2 from x3 in property/amount x4 (ka/ni)                     7j   7    [on the other side of a bound, but not necessarily directly 'across' nor at the shortest plausible distance (per ragve); also not limited to position in space]; (cf. dukse, ragve, zmadu, kuspe)
 bandu bad          defend                                    x1 (event) defends/protects x2 (object/state) from threat/peril/potential x3 (event)             8g   9    [also secures (verb); x1 wards/resists x3; protective cover/shield (= badgai)]; (cf. ckape, fanta, fapro, marbi, rivbi, zunti, snura, binra, lunbe, pulji)
 banfi              amphibian                                 x1 is an amphibian of species/breed x2                                                           ai   4    (cf. danlu, respa)
 bangu ban     bau  language                                  x1 is a/the language/dialect used by x2 to express/communicate x3 (si'o/du'u, not quote)         1b 162    [also tongue]; (cf. tance, cusku, ve tavla, valsi, gerna, jufra, natmi, slaka)
 banli bal     ba'i great                'grand'              x1 is great/grand in property x2 (ka) by standard x3                                             7j  96    [indicates a subjective greatness, as compared to the objective standard implied for barda; (synonyms, possibly requiring tanru:) extraordinary, illustrious, magnificent, impressive, awesome, grandiose, august, inspiring, special, majestic, distinguished, eminent, splendor, stately, imposing (all generally zabna); terrible (mabla)]; (cf. barda, nobli, se sinma, pluja, misno, vajni, fasnu, cizra, traji, mutce, se manci)
 banro         ba'o grow                                      x1 grows/expands [an increasing development] to size/into form x2 from x3                        8f  26    [also rising, developing; x1 gets bigger/enlarges/increases]; (cf. farvi, zenba, jmina, barda, makcu, ferti)
 banxa bax          bank                                      x1 is a bank owned by/in banking system x2 for banking function(s) x3 (event)                    ap   0    (cf. sorcu, zarci, canja, kagni)
 banzu baz          suffice                                   x1 (object) suffices/is enough/sufficient for purpose x2 under conditions x3                     3m  89    (cf. dukse, claxu, nitcu, ricfu, curmi)
 bapli bap     bai  force                'compel'             x1 [force] (ka) forces/compels event x2 to occur; x1 determines property x2 to manifest          as  20    [also constrains; requires success, unlike the physics term (better expressed by danre)]; (cf. fanta, rinju, jimte, jitro, rinka, krinu, zukte, randa, danre, cmavo list bai, marxa, tinsa, xarnu)
 barda     bra      big                  'large'              x1 is big/large in property/dimension(s) x2 (ka) as compared with standard/norm x3               1e 318    (cf. banli, clani, ganra, condi, plana, cmalu, rotsu, banro, xanto)
 bargu bag          arch                                      x1 arches/curves over/around x2 and is made of x3; x1 is an arch over/around x2 of material x3   9b   9    [also arc; x2 need not be an object, but may be a point or volume]; (cf. cripu, kruvi, korcu, condi)
 barja              bar                                       x1 is a tavern/bar/pub serving x2 to audience/patrons x3                                         ap   0    (cf. gusta, birje, jikru, sanmi, vanju, xotli, ckafi, se pinxe)
 barna         ba'a mark                                      x1(s) is a/are mark(s)/spot(s) on x2 of material x3                                              a    0    [ba'armo'a for a pattern of marks]; (cf. sinxa, pixra, se ciska, se prina)
 bartu bar          out                                       x1 is on the outside of x2; x1 is exterior to x2                                                 1e  82    (cf. jibni, nenri, sruri, lamji, korbi, calku, vasru)
 basna              emphasize            'accent'             x1 emphasizes/accentuates/gives emphasis/stress/accent to x2 by (action) x3                      1h  16    [also: say forcefully] (cf. pandi)
 basti bas          replace              'substitute'         x1 replaces/substitutes for/instead of x2 in circumstance x3; x1 is a replacement/substitute     3m  35    [also: x1 trades places with x2]; (cf. cmavo list ba'i, binra)
 batci bat          bite                                      x1 bites/pinches x2 on/at specific locus x3 with x4                                              5c  83    [bite through (= ka'arbatci, batygre); pinch (= cinzybatci)]; (cf. denci, jgalu, guska, citka)
 batke              button                                    x1 is a button/knob/[handle] on/for item x2, with purpose x3, made of material x4                a    2    (cf. jadni, balji, punji, jgari, lasna)
 bavmi              barley                                    x1 is a quantity of barley [grain] of species/strain x2                                          aj   3    (cf. gurni)
 baxso              Malay-Indonesian     'Bahasa'             x1 reflects Malay-Indonesian common language/culture in aspect x2                                ab   2    (cf. meljo, bindo)
 bebna beb          foolish              'boob'               x1 is foolish/silly in event/action/property [folly] (ka) x2; x1 is a boob                       5g  69    (cf. fenki, xajmi, prije, fliba)
 bemro bem     be'o North American                            x1 reflects North American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2                            ab   6    (cf. merko, kadno, xispo, mexno)
 bende bed     be'e crew                 'band'               x1 is a crew/team/gang/squad/band of persons x2 directed/led by x3 organized for purpose x4      ap   1    (x1 is a mass; x2 is a set completely specified); [also orchestra (= zgibe'e, balzgibe'e), outfit; x3 conductor; business, not necessarily incorporated (= cajbe'e, venbe'e)]; (cf. gunma, girzu, dansu, jatna, jitro, kagni, kamni, minde, ralju, cecmu, gidva)
 bengo beg          Bengali                                   x1 reflects Bengali/Bangladesh culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                         ab   1    (cf. xindo)
 benji bej     be'i transfer             'send'               x1 transfers/sends/transmits x2 to receiver x3 from transmitter/origin x4 via means/medium x5    4i  79    [also possibly "sharing"; no (complete) alienation from origin is implied]; [x5 carrier]; (cf. muvdu, dunda, mrilu, nirna, xruti, cradi, tivni, preja, cmavo list be'i, bevri, mrilu, tcana)
 bersa bes     be'a son                                       x1 is a son of mother/father/parents x2 [not necessarily biological]                             4b  29    [also filial]; (cf. verba, nanla, nakni, nanmu, patfu, mamta, bruna, rirni, rorci, panzi, tixnu)
 berti ber          north                                     x1 is to the north/northern side [right-hand-rule pole] of x2 according to frame of reference x3 5d  91    (cf. snanu, stici, stuna, farna)
 besna ben          brain                                     x1 is a/the brain [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: intelligence, mental control]                    aa  17    [also cerebral]; (cf. menli, stedu, rango, pensi)
 betfu bef     be'u abdomen              'belly'              x1 is a/the abdomen/belly/lower trunk [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: midsection]                  1c   9    [also stomach (= djaruntyrango), digestive tract (= befctirango, befctirangyci'e)]; (cf. cutne, livga, canti)
 betri bet          tragedy              'tragic'             x1 is a tragedy/disaster/tragic for x2                                                           4c  53    (cf. badri, xlali, morsi, binra)
 bevri bev     bei  carry                'bear'               x1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo x2 to x3 from x4 over path x5; x1 is a carrier/[porter]  2b 149    [alienation from x2 to x3 is implied]; (cf. marce, muvdu, benji, klama)
 bi    biv          8                                         digit/number: 8 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 bi'i  biz          unordered interval                        non-logical interval connective: unordered between ... and ... (rafsi represents any interval)   at   0
 bidju              bead                                      x1 is a bead/pebble [shape/form] of material x2                                                  9b  19    (cf. bolci, canre, lakse, dirgo)
 bifce bic          bee                                       x1 is a bee/wasp/hornet of species/breed x2                                                      ai   0    (cf. cinki, sfani, lakse)
 bikla bik          whip                 'beat, lash'         x1 whips/lashes/snaps [a sudden violent motion]                                                  ao  24    (cf. skori, darxi)
 bilga big          obliged                                   x1 is bound/obliged to/has the duty to do/be x2 in/by standard/agreement x3; x1 must do x2       8c  34    [also x3 frame of reference]; (cf. zifre, fuzme)
 bilma         bi'a ill                                       x1 is ill/sick/diseased with symptoms x2 from disease x3                                         4c  22    (cf. kanro, mikce, spita, senci, kafke, binra)
 bilni bil          military                                  x1 is military/regimented/is strongly organized/prepared by system x2 for purpose x3             a    0    [also paramilitary; soldier in its broadest sense - not limited to those trained/organized as part of an army to defend a state (= bilpre)]; (cf. jenmi for a military force, sonci, ganzu, pulji)
 bindo bid          Indonesian                                x1 reflects Indonesian culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                                 ab   1    (cf. bindo, meljo, baxso)
 binra              insure                                    x1 insures/indemnifies x2 (person) against peril x3 (event) providing benefit(s) x4 (event)      a    0    [also x3 loss; sell/purchase insurance (= binryve'u), premium (= binrydi'a, or binryvelve'u)]; (cf. bandu, cirko, betri, basti, bilma)
 binxo bix     bi'o become                                    x1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x2 under conditions x3                               2c 217    [resultative, not-necessarily causal, change]; (cf. cenba for non-resultative, galfi for causal, stika for non-resultative, non-causal change; zasni)
 birje              beer                                      x1 is made of/contains/is a amount of beer/ale/brew brewed from x2                               2j  13    (cf. pinxe, barja, jikru, vanju, xalka, fusra)
 birka bir          arm                                       x1 is a/the arm [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: branch with strength]                              1c  57    [also elbow (= bircidni), wrist (= xanterjo'e), appendage (but jimca, rebla preferred)]; (cf. jimca, janco, xance, rebla)
 birti bit          certain                                   x1 is certain/sure/positive/convinced that x2 is true                                            3l  31    (cf. jetnu, jinvi, krici, djuno, senpi, sruma)
 bisli bis          ice                                       x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains ice [frozen crystal] of composition/material x2          5b  43    [composition including x2, which need not be a complete composition]; (cf. kunra, runme, lenku, krili, bratu, snime, carvi)
 bitmu bim     bi'u wall                                      x1 is a wall/fence separating x2 and x3 (unordered) of/in structure x4                           1h 152    (cf. jbini, sepli, fendi, canko, drudi, kumfa, loldi, senta, snuji, pagre, gacri, kuspe, marbi, vorme)
 blabi lab          white                                     x1 is white/very-light colored [color adjective]                                                 1a 107    [pale forms of other colors are a compound of white; e.g. pink (= labyxu'e, xunblabi) (whereas kandi is used for pale = dimness, lack of intensity)]; (cf. skari, xekri, grusi, kandi, manku, carmi, bakri, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu)
 blaci              glass                                     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains glass of composition including x2                        6b   5    (cf. kabri)
 blanu     bla      blue                                      x1 is blue [color adjective]                                                                     1a 132    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, zirpu, kandi, carmi, cicna)
 bliku     bli      block                                     x1 is a block [3-dimensional shape/form] of material x2, surfaces/sides x3                       9b   8    [x3 sides/surfaces should include number, size, and shape; also polyhedron (= pitybli having flat/planar sides/surfaces)], regular polyhedron (= kubybli, blikubli), brick (= kitybli); (cf. tapla, kubli, tanbo, canlu, kojna, sefta, bolci, kurfa, tarmi)
 bloti lot blo lo'i boat                                      x1 is a boat/ship/vessel [vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled by x3                              7f  33    (cf. falnu, fulta, marce, jatna, sabnu)
 bo    bor          short scope link                          short scope joiner; joins various constructs with shortest scope and right grouping              8a   0
 bolci bol     boi  ball                                      x1 is a ball/sphere/orb/globe [shape/form] of material x2; x1 is a spherical object [made of x2] 9b  36    [also round]; (cf. bliku, cukla, bidju, gunro)
 bongu bog     bo'u bone                                      x1 is a/the bone/ivory [body-part], performing function x2 in body of x3; [metaphor: calcium]    aa   3    [x2 is likely an abstract: may be structure/support for some body part, but others as well such as the eardrum bones; the former can be expressed as (tu'a le <body-part>); cartilage/gristle (= ranbo'u), skeleton (= bogygreku)]; (cf. greku, denci, jirna, sarji)
 botpi bot     bo'i bottle                                    x1 is a bottle/jar/urn/flask/closable container for x2, made of material x3 with lid x4          1f  79    (cf. baktu, lante, patxu, tansi, tanxe, vasru, gacri)
 boxfo bof     bo'o sheet                'foil'               x1 is a sheet/foil/blanket [2-dimensional shape/form flexible in 3 dimensions] of material x2    9b   0    (cf. plita, cinje, polje, slasi, tinci)
 boxna bon     bo'a wave                                      x1 is a wave [periodic pattern] in medium x2, wave-form x3, wave-length x4, frequency x5         9b  14    (cf. slilu, dikni, cinje, polje, morna, canre)
 bradi              enemy                'adversary'          x1 is an enemy/opponent/adversary/foe of x2 in struggle x3                                       2i   8    (cf. damba, jamna, darlu, pendo, fapro, gunta, sarji, jivna, jinga)
 bratu              hail                                      x1 is hail/sleet/freezing rain/solid precipitation of material/composition including x2          4h   0    [this is the substance, not the act or manner of its falling, which is carvi]; (cf. carvi, snime, bisli, tcima)
 brazo raz          Brazilian                                 x1 reflects Brazilian culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                                  ab   1    (cf. porto, ketco)
 bredi red bre      ready                                     x1 is ready/prepared for x2 (event)                                                              9c  36    (cf. spaji, jukpa)
 bridi     bri      predicate                                 x1 (text) is a predicate relationship with relation x2 among arguments (sequence/set) x3         1b1172    [also: x3 are related by relation x2 (= terbri for reordered places)]; (x3 is a set completely specified); (cf. sumti, fancu)
 brife bif     bi'e breeze                                    x1 is a breeze/wind/gale from direction x2 with speed x3; x1 blows from x2                       4h  66    (cf. tcima)
 briju bij          office               'bureau'             x1 is an office/bureau/work-place of worker x2 at location x3                                    8c  54    (cf. jibri, gunka)
 brito rit          British                                   x1 reflects British/United Kingdom culture/nationality in aspect x2                              ab  54    (cf. glico, skoto, merko, ropno)
 broda rod          predicate var 1                           1st assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)                           ad 134    (cf. cmavo list bu'a)
 brode         bo'e predicate var 2                           2nd assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)                           ad  24 
 brodi              predicate var 3                           3rd assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)                           ad  10 
 brodo              predicate var 4                           4th assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)                           ad   5 
 brodu              predicate var 5                           5th assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)                           ad   5 
 bruna bun     bu'a brother                                   x1 is brother of/fraternal to x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3; [not necess. biological]     4b 110    (cf. mensi, tunba, tamne, famti, bersa)
 bu    bus     bu'i word to lerfu                             convert any single word to BY                                                                    -         (cf. cmavo list selma'o BY)
 bu'a  bul          some selbri 1                             logically quantified predicate variable: some selbri 1                                           aq   0    (cf. broda, etc.)
 budjo buj     bu'o Buddhist                                  x1 pertains to the Buddhist culture/religion/ethos in aspect x2                                  ac   2    (cf. latna, lijda)
 bukpu buk     bu'u cloth                                     x1 is an amount of cloth/fabric of type/material x2                                              3f  20    (cf. mapni, matli, sunla, slasi, silka)
 bumru bum          fog                                       x1 is foggy/misty/covered by a fog/mist/vapor of liquid x2                                       4h   5    (cf. djacu, carvi, danmo, lunsa, tcima, gapci)
 bunda bud          pound                                     x1 is x2 (def. 1) local weight unit(s) [non-metric], standard x3, subunits [e.g. ounces] x4      al   0    (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...); (cf. grake, junta, tilju, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, kramu)
 bunre bur     bu'e brown                                     x1 is brown/tan [color adjective]                                                                1a  63    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi)
 burcu     bru      brush                                     x1 is a brush for purpose x2 (event) with bristles x3                                            ao   1    (cf. komcu, pinsi)
 burna              embarrassed                               x1 is embarrassed/disconcerted/flustered/ill-at-ease about/under conditions x2 (abstraction)     9d   4    (cf. cinmo)
 ca'a  caz          actually is                               modal aspect: actuality/ongoing event                                                            at   0    (cf. cabna, cmavo list ca)
 cabna cab          now                                       x1 is current at/in the present of/during/concurrent/simultaneous with x2 in time                4a  69    [(default x2 is the present resulting in:) x1 is now; time relationship only, 'aorist' claiming simultaneity does not mean one event does not extend into the past or future of the other] (cf. zvati, balvi, purci, cmavo list ca, cmavo list ca'a)
 cabra         ca'a apparatus                                 x1 is apparatus/mechanism/device/equipment for function x2 controlled/[triggered] by x3 (agent)  7g   5    [form determined by/from function; does not imply automated/automatic action - requires an external agent/trigger (a minji may be a zmiku cabra if it requires an external agent to trigger or control the functions that it performs automatically)]; (cf. tutci, minji, finti; girzu, ganzu for organizational apparatus, pilno)
 cacra              hour                                      x1 is x2 hours in duration (default is 1 hour) by standard x3                                    3e  21    (cf. junla, mentu, snidu, tcika, temci)
 cadzu     dzu      walk                                      x1 walks/strides/paces on surface x2 using limbs x3                                              1g 174    (cf. stapa, bajra, klama, litru)
 cafne caf          often                                     x1 (event) often/frequently/commonly/customarily occurs/recurs by standard x2                    6f  11    (cf. rirci, fadni, kampu, rapli, krefu, lakne, cmavo list piso'iroi and similar compounds)
 cakla              chocolate                                 x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of chocolate/cocoa                                          2j   8    (cf. ckafi)
 calku cak          shell                                     x1 is a shell/husk [hard, protective covering] around x2 composed of x3                          9f  24    (cf. pilka, skapi, gacri, bartu)
 canci              vanish                                    x1 vanishes/disappears from location x2; x1 ceases to be observed at x2 using senses/sensor x3   a   22    [also leaves, goes away (one sense)]; (cf. cliva, ganse, zgana, lebna, vimcu)
 cando cad          idle                                      x1 is idle/at rest/inactive                                                                      8c   4    ["in motion", not implying a change in location, is negation of this]; (cf. surla)
 cange cag          farm                 'grange, agrarian'   x1 is a farm/ranch at x2, farmed by x3, raising/producing x4; (adjective:) x1 is agrarian        ap  10    [also grange; farming is any organized agrarian activity, not limited to plant crops]; (cf. purdi, nurma, ferti, foldi, xarju)
 canja caj          exchange                                  x1 exchanges/trades/barters commodity x2 for x3 with x4; x1, x4 is a trader/merchant/businessman 8d  12    [also (adjective:) x1, x2, x4 is/are commercial (better expressed as ka canja, kamcanja)]; x2/x3 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event (possibly service), or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posycanja for unambiguous semantics); (cf. dunda, friti, vecnu, zarci, jdini, pleji, jdima, jerna, kargu; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, banxa, cirko, dunda, janta, kargu, prali, sfasa, zivle)
 canko         ca'o window                                    x1 is a window/portal/opening [portal] in wall/building/structure x2                             1f 153    (cf. vorme, bitmu, ganlo, murta, pagre, kevna, jvinu, kalri, kuspe)
 canlu cal     ca'u space                'volume'             x1 is space/volume/region/room [at-least-3-dimensional area] occupied by x2                      al  18    [also occupy (= selca'u)] (cf. kensa, bliku, kumfa, kevna, kunti, tubnu, dekpu)
 canpa     cna      shovel                                    x1 is a shovel/spade [bladed digging implement] for digging x2                                   ao   6    (cf. kakpa, guska, tutci)
 canre can          sand                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sand/grit from source x2 of composition including x3     ah   5    [also abrasive (= gukcanre)]; (cf. bidju, rokci, zalvi, boxna)
 canti              gut                  'entrails'           x1 is a/the gut(s)/entrails/intestines/viscera/innards/digestive system [body-part] of x2        aa   5    [metaphor: process hub]; (cf. betfu)
 carce              cart                                      x1 is a cart/carriage/wagon [wheeled vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled by x3                   ao   3    (cf. karce, xislu, marce, matra)
 carmi cam     cai  intense                                   x1 is intense/bright/saturated/brilliant in property (ka) x2 as received/measured by observer x3 1a 143    [also lustrous, gleaming, sparkling, shining (all probably better metaphorically combined with gusni: gusycai or camgu'i); in colors, refers principally to increased saturation (with opposite kandi)]; (cf. denmi, gusni, kandi, ruble, skari, tilju, tsali, mutce, blabi, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xekri, xunre, zirpu)
 carna car          turn                                      x1 turns/rotates/revolves around axis x2 in direction x3                                         1g  48    [also revolve (= jincarna)]; (cf. gunro, jendu)
 cartu cat          chart                                     x1 is a chart/diagram/map of/about x2 showing formation/data-points x3                           5d   7    (cf. platu)
 carvi cav          rain                                      x1 rains/showers/[precipitates] to x2 from x3; x1 is precipitation [not limited to 'rain']       4h 107    (cf. bratu, dilnu, santa, snime, tcima, bisli, bumru)
 casnu     snu      discuss                                   x1(s) (mass normally, but 1 individual/jo'u possible) discuss(es)/talk(s) about topic/subject x2 1h 107    [also chat, converse]; (cf. bacru, cusku, darlu, tavla)
 catke         ca'e shove                                     x1 [agent] shoves/pushes x2 at locus x3                                                          8h   9    [move by pushing/shoving (= ca'ermuvgau)]; (cf. danre for non-agentive force, lacpu)
 catlu     cta      look                                      x1 looks at/examines/views/inspects/regards/watches/gazes at x2                                  1g 259    [also look through (= grecta, ravycta, bacycta); note that English "look" often means a more generic "observe"]; (cf. jvinu, minra, simlu, viska, lanli, zgana, setca, viska)
 catni         ca'i authority                                 x1 has authority/is an official in/on/over matter/sphere/persons x2 derived on basis x3          8c   6    (cf. turni, tutra, krati, cmavo list ca'i, jaspu, pulji)
 catra              kill                 'slaughter'          x1 (agent) kills/slaughters/murders x2 by action/method x3                                       8g  82    (cf. morsi, xarci)
 caxno cax          shallow                                   x1 is shallow in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4     6c  10    (cf. condi, tordu, jarki, cinla, cmalu, jarki, jmifa)
 ce    cec          in a set with                             non-logical connective: set link, unordered; "and also", but forming a set                       at   0    (cf. cmima, cmavo list ce'o)
 ce'i  cez          percent                                   digit/number: % percentage symbol, hundredths                                                    7e   0    (cf. saclu, centi, parbi, frinu)
 ce'o          ce'o in a sequence with                        non-logical connective: ordered sequence link; "and then", forming a sequence                    at   0    (cf. porsi, cmavo list ce)
 cecla cel     ce'a launcher                                  x1 launches/fires/shoots projectile/missile x2, propelled by x3 [propellant/propulsion]          a    4    [also: x1 is a gun/launcher/cannon; x1 hurls/throws/casts (more general than renro in that propulsion need not be internal to x1)]; (cf. renro, danti, jakne, jbama, spoja)
 cecmu cem     ce'u community                                 x1 is a community/colony of organisms x2                                                         7c  33    (cf. bende, kulnu, natmi, tcadu, jecta, girzu)
 cedra              era                                       x1 is an era/epoch/age characterized by x2 (event/property/interval/idea)                        a    9    (x2 interval should be the defining boundaries; if merely a characterizing period, the nature of the interval should be expressed in an abstract bridi, or the interval should be marked with tu'a; x2 may also be characteristic object(s) or practices of the era, if marked with tu'a); (cf. ranji, temci, citsi)
 cenba     cne      vary                                      x1 varies/changes in property/quantity x2 (ka/ni) in amount/degree x3 under conditions x4        2c  38    [non-resultative, not-necessarily causal change]; (cf. cenba which is non-resultative, galfi which is resultative and causal, stika which is non-resultative and causal; stodi, zasni, binxo)
 censa ces          holy                 'sacred'             x1 is holy/sacred to person/people/culture/religion/cult/group x2                                ac  58    (cf. cevni, krici, latna, pruxi, lijda, sinma)
 centi cen          .01                  metric 'centi'       x1 is a hundredth [1/100; 1x10**-2] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)              ae   3    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 cerda ced          heir                                      x1 is an heir to/is to inherit x2 (object/quality) from x3 according to rule x4                  a   13    [pedantically, inheriting an object should be a sumti-raising (tu'a if non-abstract in x2) of inheriting loka ponse the object - the ownership of the object (= posycerda, posyselcerda for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. jgina)
 cerni cer          morning                                   x1 is a morning [dawn until after typical start-of-work for locale] of day x2 at location x3     3e  35    [this morning (= cabdeicerni); tomorrow morning (= bavlamcerni); yesterday morning (= prulamcerni, prulamdeicerni)](cf. vanci, murse, tcika)
 certu     cre      expert                                    x1 is an expert/pro/has prowess in/is skilled at x2 (event/activity) by standard x3              8c  63    [also competent, skilled]; (cf. djuno, stati, kakne)
 cevni cev     cei  god                  'divinity'           x1 is a/the god/deity of people(s)/religion x2 with dominion over x3 [sphere]; x1 is divine      ac 197    [also divinity; x2 religion refers to the religious community as a mass]; (cf. censa, krici, lijda, malsi)
 cfari     cfa      initiate                                  x1 [state/event/process] commences/initiates/starts/begins to occur; (intransitive verb)         2c 104    (cf. sisti, krasi, fanmo)
 cfika fik     fi'a fiction                                   x1 is a work of fiction about plot/theme/subject x2/under convention x2 by author x3             8b   2    [also story, lie, untrue]; (cf. cukta, lisri, prosa, fatci, jitfa, jetnu, xanri)
 cfila     cfi      flaw                                      x1 (property - ka) is a flaw/fault/defect in x2 causing x3                                       7j  19    (cf. cikre, srera, fenra, fliba, prane)
 cfine              wedge                                     x1 is a wedge [shape/form/tool] of material x2                                                   9b   2    (cf. tutci)
 cfipu         fi'u confusing                                 x1 (event/state) confuses/baffles x2 [observer] due to [confusing] property x3 (ka)              1h  64    (cf. pluja, cfipu, zunti)
 ci    cib          3                                         digit/number: 3 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 ciblu     blu      blood                                     x1 is blood/vital fluid of organism x2                                                           4c  39    (cf. risna, flecu)
 cicna              cyan                                      x1 is cyan/turquoise/greenish-blue [color adjective]                                             1a   2    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, crino, blanu)
 cidja     dja      food                 'feed'               x1 is food/feed/nutriment for x2; x1 is edible/gives nutrition to x2                             5b  78    (cf. citka, nitcu, pinxe, xagji, cpina)
 cidni cid          knee                                      x1 is a/the knee/elbow/knuckle [hinged joint, body-part] of limb x2 of body x3                   1c   8    [metaphor: a sharp bend/curve] (cf. korcu, jarco, jganu)
 cidro     dro      hydrogen                                  x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of hydrogen (H); [metaphor: light, flammable]               ag   1    (cf. gapci, xukmi)
 cifnu cif          infant                                    x1 is an infant/baby [helpless through youth/incomplete development] of species x2               3b  22    [also infantile]; (cf. makcu, verba)
 cigla cig          gland                                     x1 is a/the gland [body-part] secreting x2, of body x3; x2 is a secretion of x1                  aa   8    [secretion (= selcigla)]; (cf. vikmi, xasne)
 cikna cik          awake                                     (adjective:) x1 is awake/alert/conscious                                                         6m  47    (cf. sanji, sipna, tatpi)
 cikre              repair               'fix'                x1 repairs/mends/fixes x2 for use x3                                                             8c  13    [a repair may be incomplete, fixing only one of the possible uses of x2, hence x3]; (cf. cfila, spofu)
 ciksi     cki      explain                                   x1 (person) explains x2 (event/state/property) to x3 with explanation x4 (du'u)                  1h  53    [explanation x4 is an underlying mechanism/details/purpose/method for x2 (= velcki for reordered places), generally assumed to be non-obvious; metaphorical usage with the various causal relations (i.e. jalge, mukti, krinu, rinka, nibli, zukte) is possible, but the non-obviousness, and the existence of an explainer with a point of view makes this word not a simple expression of cause]; (cf. cipra, danfu, jalge, jinvi, krinu, mukti, nabmi, preti, rinka, sidbo, zukte, tavla)
 cilce cic          wild                                      (adjective:) x1 is wild/untamed                                                                  6c  30    [tame (= tolcilce)]; (cf. pinfu, panpi, tarti)
 cilmo cim          moist                                     x1 is moist/wet/damp with liquid x2                                                              6f  53    (cf. litki, lunsa, sudga)
 cilre     cli      learn                                     x1 learns x2 (du'u) about subject x3 from source x4 (obj./event) by method x5 (event/process)    1h  85    (cf. ctuca, tadni, djuno, ckule)
 cilta cil          thread               'filament'           x1 is a thread/filament/wire [shape/form] of material x2                                         9b   8    (cf. fenso, nivji, skori, silka)
 cimde              dimension                                 x1 (property - ka) is a dimension of space/object x2 according to rules/model x3                 al   0    (cf. morna, ckilu, merli, manri)
 cimni              infinite                                  x1 is infinite/unending/eternal in property/dimension x2, to degree x3 (quantity)/of type x3     al  17    [also everlasting, eternity, (= cimnytei), eternal (= cimnyteikai or temcimni)] (cf. vitno, renvi, munje, fanmo, sisti)
 cinba              kiss                 'buss'               x1 (agent) kisses/busses x2 at locus x3                                                          5g  17    (cf. ctebi)
 cindu              oak                                       x1 is an oak, a type of tree of species/strain x2                                                aj   2    (cf. tricu)
 cinfo              lion                                      x1 is a lion/[lioness] of species/breed x2                                                       ai   5    (cf. mlatu)
 cinje cij          wrinkle                                   x1 is a wrinkle/crease/fold [shape/form] in x2                                                   9b   5    (cf. korcu, polje, boxfo, boxna)
 cinki              insect                                    x1 is an insect/arthropod of species x2; [bug/beetle]                                            6c  17    (cf. civla, danlu, jalra, jukni, manti, sfani, toldi, bifce)
 cinla              thin                 'lean'               x1 is thin in direction/dimension x2 by standard x3; [relatively short in smallest dimension]    6f   7    (cf. rotsu, jarki, tordu, cmalu, caxno, plana, jarki)
 cinmo     cni      emotion                                   x1 feels emotion x2 (ka) about x3                                                                9d  91    [also mood/humor (= nuncni)]; (cf. cmavo list ci'o, cumla, jilra, nelci, xendo, ckeji, cortu, jgira, kecti, kufra, manci, prami, steba, zungi, badri, burna, gleki)
 cinri         ci'i interesting          'interests'          x1 (abstraction) interests/is interesting to x2; x2 is interested in x1                          8b  62    [use x1 tu'a for non-specific interest in an object; interested in (= selci'i)]; (cf. zdile, kucli, manci, kurji)
 cinse cin          sexual                                    x1 in activity/state x2 exhibits sexuality/gender/sexual orientation x3 (ka) by standard x4      5g  48    [also: x1 courts/flirts; x3 could be a ka[gender or role], ka[attraction to a gender], or ka[type of activity], etc.; (adjective:) x1 is sexual/sexy; x1 is flirted with/courted by x2 (= cinfriti, cinjikca)]; (cf. gletu, pinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi)
 cinta              paint                                     x1 [material] is a paint of pigment/active substance x2, in a base of x3                         a    6    (cf. pixra, skari)
 cinza              tongs                                     x1 is a/are tong(s)/chopsticks/pincers/tweezers/pliers [tool/body-part] for x2 to pinch x3       ao   6    (cf. tutci)
 cipni     cpi      bird                                      x1 is a bird/avian/fowl of species x2                                                            6c 119    (cf. datka, gunse, jipci, nalci, pimlu, vofli, xruki, danlu)
 cipra cip          test                 'proof'              x1 (process/event) is a test for/proof of property/state x2 in subject x3 (individ./set/mass)    7e  48    [also examination, proxy measure, validation; (a set in x3 must be completely specified)]; (cf. ciksi, troci, jarco, pajni, saske)
 cirko     cri      lose                                      x1 loses person/thing x2 at/near x3; x1 loses property/feature x2 in conditions/situation x3     8g  39    [x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event (rare for cirko), or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= po'ecri, posyselcri for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. facki, ralte, sisku, claxu, jinga, pleji, canja, sfasa, dapma, binra, mipri)
 cirla              cheese                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains cheese/curd from source x2                                          5b  20    (cf. ladru)
 ciska         ci'a write                'scribe'             x1 inscribes/writes x2 on display/storage medium x3 with writing implement x4; x1 is a scribe    1h 270    [also x3 writing surface]; (cf. papri, penbi, pinsi, tcidu, xatra, pixra, prina, finti for 'author' or specific authorial works, barna, pinka)
 cisma              smile                                     x1 smiles/grins (facial expression)                                                              1g  39    [smile/grin at something (= cismyfra)]; (cf. xajmi, cmila, frumu)
 ciste         ci'e system                                    x1 (mass) system interrelated by structure x2 among components x3 (set) displaying x4 (ka)       7e  26    [x1 (or x3) is synergistic in x4; also network; x2 also relations, rules; x3 also elements (set completely specified); x4 systemic functions/properties] (cf. cmavo list ci'e, cmima, girzu, gunma, stura, tadji, munje, farvi, ganzu, judri, julne, klesi, morna, tcana)
 citka     cti      eat                                       x1 eats/ingests/consumes (transitive verb) x2                                                    5c 320    (cf. cidja, pinxe, tunlo, xagji, xaksu, batci, gusta, kabri)
 citno cit     ci'o young                'junior'             x1 is young/youthful [relatively short in elapsed duration] by standard x2                       2c 146    [also age (= nilnalci'o); (adjective:) x1 is junior]; (cf. cnino, slabu, verba)
 citri cir          history                                   x1 is a history of x2 according to x3 (person)/from point-of-view x3                             a   22    [also historic/historical (= cirtermo'i, cirvai)]; (cf. muzga)
 citsi              season                                    x1 is a season/is seasonal [cyclical interval], defined by interval/property x2, of year(s) x3   3e  15    [also anniversary (= citsydei, na'arcitsydei), jubilee (= mumnoncitsi); the period of time may be short or long as indicated by x2, and may occur every year or every nth year as indicated by x3 (default every year); (x2 and/or x3 may need metaphorical restriction: djecitsi, pavdeicitsi; also equinox, solstice, time of year]; (cf. cedra, crisa, critu, dunra, ranji, temci, vensa, jbena)
 civla civ          louse                                     x1 is a louse/flea [blood-sucking arthropod] of species/breed x2, parasitic on x3                ai   0    (cf. cinki, jalra)
 cizra ciz          strange              'bizarre'            x1 is strange/weird/deviant/bizarre/odd to x2 in property x3 (ka)                                6f 103    [also alien, mysterious, deviant, queer, unusual, exotic]; (cf. ranxi, rirci, fange, banli)
 ckabu              rubber                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of rubber/latex from source x2 of composition including x3  ah   1    (cf. pruni)
 ckafi kaf          coffee                                    x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of coffee from source/bean/grain x2                         2j  23    [brew based on a seed/bean/grain; e.g. also chicory coffee, decaf, postum] (cf. tcati, brewed from a leaf, barja, cakla)
 ckaji         kai  quality                                   x1 has/is characterized by property/feature/trait/aspect/dimension x2 (ka); x2 is manifest in x1 3b 128    [manifested/property/quality/trait/feature/aspect (= selkai)]; (cf. cmavo list kai, tcaci, tcini)
 ckana     cka      bed                                       x1 is a bed/pallet of material x2 for holding/supporting x3 (person/object/event)                an 111    (cf. kamju, kicne, nilce, palta, cpana, vreta, jubme, stizu, matci, zbepi, palne, sarji)
 ckape cap          peril                                     x1 is perilous/dangerous/potentially harmful to x2 under conditions x3                           a   17    [x1 is a danger/peril to x2]; (cf. te bandu, te kajde, te marbi, se snura, se xalni)
 ckasu cas          ridicule             'scoff'              x1 ridicules/mocks/scoffs at x2 about x3 (property/event) by doing activity x4 (event)           5g  30    (cf. cmila)
 ckeji kej cke      ashamed                                   x1 feels ashamed/mortified/humiliated under conditions x2 before community/audience x3           9d   2    (cf. cinmo)
 ckiku kik          key                                       x1 is a key fitting/releasing/opening/unlocking lock x2, and having relevant properties x3       ao  20    [also x2 fastener, mechanism; code key (= termifckiku, kiktermifra); x3 is dependent on the type of key, but are those form properties of the key that enable it to serve the function of opening the lock - in the case of a metal key to a padlock, for example, this would be the shaft and teeth]; (cf. stela)
 ckilu         ci'u scale                                     x1 (si'o) is a scale of units for measuring/observing/determining x2 (state)                     al   2    (cf. cmavo list ci'u, gradu, merli, cimde, manri)
 ckini         ki'i related              'akin, kin'          x1 is related to/associated with/akin to x2 by relationship x3                                   2g  46    (cf. cmavo list ki'i, ponse, srana, steci, mapti, sarxe, fange)
 ckire kir          grateful                                  x1 is grateful/thankful to/appreciative of x2 for x3 (event/property)                            2l  53    [also gratitude (= nunckire or kamckire)]; (cf. cinmo, friti, pluka)
 ckule kul     cu'e school                                    x1 is school/institute/academy at x2 teaching subject(s) x3 to audien./commun. x4 operated by x5 1h  95    [also college, university]; (cf. cilre, ctuca, tadni)
 ckunu         ku'u conifer              'cone'               x1 is a conifer/pine/fir of species/strain x2 with cones x3                                      aj   0    (cf. tricu)
 cladu         lau  loud                                      x1 is loud/noisy at observation point x2 by standard x3                                          2g  93    (cf. savru)
 clani     cla      long                                      x1 is long in dimension/direction x2 (default longest dimension) by measurement standard x3      9b  90    (cf. slabu, condi, ganra, rotsu, tordu, barda, ganra, gutci, minli, rotsu)
 claxu         cau  without              'lack'               x1 is without/lacking/free of/lacks x2; x1 is x2-less                                            2g 145    (cf. cmavo list cau, cirko, kunti, nitcu, pindi, banzu)
 clika              mossy                                     x1 is a moss/lichen of species/strain x2 growing on x3; (adjective:) x1 is mossy                 aj   8    (cf. mledi)
 clira lir          early                                     x1 (event) is early by standard x2                                                               2g  35    (cf. lerci)
 clite lit          polite                                    x1 is polite/courteous/civil in matter x2 according to standard/custom x3                        9c  37    [also formal, ritual]; (cf. ritli)
 cliva liv     li'a leave                                     x1 leaves/goes away/departs/parts/separates from x2 via route x3                                 1g 115    [also: x1 leaves behind/takes leave of x2]; (cf. litru. canci, vimcu, lebna, litru, muvdu)
 clupa cup          loop                                      x1 is a loop/circuit of x2 [material]                                                            9b   3    [also noose (= skoclupa, saljgeclupa; there is no indication of shape, but merely that the ends join/meet); closed curve defined by set of points (= cuptai)]; (cf. djine)
 cmaci              mathematics                               x1 is a mathematics of type/describing x2                                                        7e  10    (cf. mekso)
 cmalu     cma      small                                     x1 is small in property/dimension(s) x2 (ka) as compared with standard/norm x3                   1e 326    (cf. caxno, cinla, jarki, tordu, barda)
 cmana         ma'a mountain                                  x1 is a mountain/hill/mound/[rise]/[peak]/[summit]/[highlands] projecting from land mass x2      6c  85    (cf. punli, derxi)
 cmavo         ma'o structure word                            x1 is a structure word of grammatical class x2, with meaning/function x3 in usage (language) x4  1b1008    [x4 may be a specific usage (with an embedded language place) or a massified language description; x3 and x4 may be merely an example of cmavo usage or refer to an actual expression; cmavo list, if physical object (= (loi) ma'oste); referring to the mental construct (e.g. propose adding a new cmavo to the cmavo list = ma'orpoi, ma'orselcmi, ma'orselste)]; (cf. gismu, lujvo, gerna, smuni, valsi)
 cmene     cme me'e name                                      x1 (quoted word(s)) is a/the name/title/tag of x2 to/used-by namer/name-user x3 (person)         1b 265    [also: x2 is called x1 by x3 (= selcme for reordered places)]; (cf. cmavo list me'e, gismu, tcita, valsi, judri)
 cmila         mi'a laugh                'smile'              x1 laughs (emotional expression)                                                                 1g  64    [x1 laughs at x2 (= mi'afra)]; (cf. ckasu, frumu, xajmi, cisma)
 cmima mim cmi      member                                    x1 is a member/element of set x2; x1 belongs to group x2; x1 is amid/among/amongst group x2      7c 117    [x1 may be a complete or incomplete list of members; x2 is normally marked by la'i/le'i/lo'i, defining the set in terms of its common property(ies), though it may be a complete enumeration of the membership]; (cf. ciste, porsi, jbini, girzu, gunma, klesi, cmavo list mei, kampu, lanzu, liste)
 cmoni     cmo co'i moan                                      x1 utters moan/groan/howl/scream [non-linguistic utterance] x2 expressing x3 (property)          4c  32    [also shriek, most animal sounds, e.g. bark, cackle, meow, neigh, moo, honk, baa, crow] (cf. krixa, bacru, cusku, cortu)
 cnano         na'o norm                                      x1 [value] is a norm/average in property/amount x2 (ka/ni) among x3(s) (set) by standard x4      7e  10    [also mean, normal, usual; (x3 specifies the complete set)]; (cf. tcaci, fadni, kampu, lakne, tarti, rirci)
 cnebo neb     ne'o neck                                      x1 is a/the neck [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: a relatively narrow point]                        1c   6    (cf. galxe, cutne)
 cnemu nem     ne'u reward                                    x1 (agent) rewards x2 [recipient] for atypical x3 (event/property) with reward/desserts x4       a   39    [differs from earned payment because of atypical nature; rewards need not be positive but are in some sense deserved from the point of view of the rewarder: positive reward (= zanyne'u), punishment, penalty, demerit (= malne'u, sfane'u); x4 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posne'u, posyvelne'u for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. dunda, friti, jerna, jinga, jivna, pleji, sfasa, venfu, prali, dapma)
 cnici nic          orderly              'neat'               x1 is orderly/neat/ordered in property/quantity x2 (ka/ni)                                       7j  20    (cf. cunso, kalsa)
 cnino nin     ni'o new                                       x1 is new/unfamiliar/novel to observer x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4; x1 is a novelty     2c 126    (cf. nuzba, slabu, citno, se djuno)
 cnisa nis          lead                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of lead (Pb); [metaphor: heavy, malleable, soft metal]      ag   3    (cf. jinme, tinci)
 cnita nit     ni'a beneath                                   x1 is directly/vertically beneath/below/under/underneath/down from x2 in frame of reference x3   2d 139    [also underside, nether]; (cf. dizlo, gapru, galtu, farna, loldi)
 co    col          tanru inversion                           tanru inversion operator; "... of type ..."; allows modifier trailing sumti without sumti links  -
 co'a          co'a initiative                                interval event contour: at the starting point of ...; initiative                   >|<    |      -         [beginning (= co'a(r)-)]; (cf. cfari, krasi, clira)
 co'e  com     co'e unspecif bridi                            elliptical/unspecified bridi relationship                                                        at   0
 co'u          co'u cessative                                 interval event contour: at the ending point of ... even if not done; cessative      |  >< |      -         [ending (= co'u(r)-)]; (cf. sisti, fanmo)
 cokcu     cko      soak up                                   x1 soaks up/absorbs/sucks up x2 from x3 into x4; x1 is an absorbant                              as   2    (cf. panje, sakci, lacpu)
 condi con cno coi  deep                                      x1 is deep in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4        6c  57    (cf. clani, caxno, bargu, ganra, rotsu, barda, gutci, minli)
 cortu cor cro      pain                 'hurt'               x1 hurts/feels pain/hurt at locus x2                                                             4c  41    (cf. cinmo, xrani)
 cpacu     cpa      get                  'acquire'            x1 gets/procures/acquires/obtains/accepts x2 from source x3 [previous possessor not implied]     2b 143    [also fetch; accept a gift (= seldu'acpa)]; (cf. punji, lebna, vimcu)
 cpana              upon                                      x1 is upon/atop/resting on/lying on [the upper surface of] x2 in frame of reference/gravity x3   1e  63    (x1 may be object or event); (cf. se vasru, jbini, zvati, nenri, vreta, ckana, diklo, jibni, lamji, zutse, punji for lay upon, sarji, zbepi)
 cpare par          climb                                     x1 climbs/clambers/creeps/crawls on surface x2 in direction x3 using x4 [limbs/tools]            2b  56    (cf. klama, litru, bajra, farlu, plipe)
 cpedu     cpe      request                                   x1 requests/asks/petitions/solicits for x2 of/from x3 in manner/form x4                          1h  72    [also demand (= mi'ecpe); x4 is a means of expression (cf. ve cusku): a request may be indicated in speech, in writing, or by an action (e.g. petitions are often in writing, while begging/panhandling may be indicated by an action or even demeanor)]; (cf. pikci, te preti, te frati, se spuda, danfu)
 cpina              pungent                                   x1 is pungent/piquant/peppery/spicy/irritating to sense x2                                       5c  35    [also prickly (= pecycpina)]; (cf. vrusi, kukte, cidja, panci, sumne)
 cradi              radio                                     x1 broadcasts/transmits [using radio waves] x2 via station/frequency x3 to [radio] receiver x4   as   0    [also x1 is a broadcaster]; (cf. tivni, benji, tcana)
 crane     cra      front                                     x1 is anterior/ahead/forward/(in/on) the front of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3        1e   0    [also: x3 is the standard of orientation for x2] (cf. sefta, flira, trixe, mlana, pritu, zunle)
 creka cek          shirt                                     x1 is a shirt/blouse/top [upper-body garment - not necessarily sleeved or buttoned], material x2 3f  13    (cf. taxfu)
 crepu rep          harvest              'reap'               x1 (agent) harvests/reaps/gathers crop/product/objects x2 from source/area x3                    as   2    (cf. critu, sombo, jmaji)
 cribe rib          bear                                      x1 is a bear/ursoid of species/breed x2                                                          ai 125    (cf. danlu, mabru)
 crida rid          fairy                                     x1 is a fairy/elf/gnome/brownie/pixie/goblin/kobold [mythical humanoid] of mythos/religion x2    ac   4    [also orc, giant, demon or devil (when humanoid-form is presumed by the mythos/religion), bugbear, bogeyman]; (cf. ranmi, especially for non-humanoid creatures of myth, lijda)
 crino         ri'o green                                     x1 is green/verdant [color adjective]                                                            1a  92    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, cicna)
 cripu rip          bridge                                    x1 is a bridge/span over/across x2 between x3 and x4 [unordered, typically destination first]    ao  37    (cf. bargu, kruca, ragve, kuspe)
 crisa cis          summer                                    x1 is summer/summertime [hot season] of year x2 at location x3                                   3e  25    (cf. citsi, critu, dunra, vensa)
 critu              autumn                                    x1 is autumn/fall [harvest/cooling season] of year x2 at location x3                             3e   4    (cf. citsi, crisa, dunra, vensa, crepu)
 ctaru              tide                                      x1 is a tide [cyclical/periodic expansion] in x2 caused by x3                                    a    7    (cf. xamsi)
 ctebi teb          lip                  'labial'             x1 is a/the lip [body-part]/rim of orifice x2 of body x3; (adjective:) x1 is labial              aa  10    (cf. moklu, korbi, cinba)
 cteki tek     ce'i tax                                       x1 is a tax/levy/duty on goods/services/event x2 levied against x3 by authority/collector x4     8d   3    [also custom, toll, tariff, tribute] (cf. pleji, flalu, turni)
 ctile              petroleum            'oil'                x1 is a quantity of petroleum/oil from source x2                                                 a    4    (cf. grasu)
 ctino         ti'o shadow               'shade'              x1 is a shadow/the shade of object x2, made by light/energy source x3                            a   27    (cf. manku, gusni)
 ctuca     ctu      teach                                     x1 teaches audience x2 ideas/methods/lore x3 (du'u) about subject(s) x4 by method x5 (event)     1h  72    [also instruct, instructor, educate, educator, teacher, professor, pedagogue; (adjective:) x1/x5 is pedagogical]; (cf. ckule, cilre, tadni)
 cukla cuk          round                'circular'           x1 is round/circular [2-dimensional shape/form]; x1 is a disk/circle/ring                        9b  16    [normally used for a filled-in circle/disk, but emphasis on roundness means that the concept may include 'ring']; (cf. djine, ranji, bolci, tarmi)
 cukta     cku      book                                      x1 is a book containing work x2 by author x3 for audience x4 preserved in medium x5              1f 163    [x1 is a manifestation/container [a physical object or its analogue] of a work/content, not necessarily using paper (= selpapri)]; (cf. cfika, prina, prosa, tcidu, papri)
 culno     clu      full                                      x1 is full/completely filled with x2                                                             2g  58    (cf. tisna, kunti, mulno, setca, tisna)
 cumki cum     cu'i possible             'maybe'              x1 (event/state/property) is possible under conditions x2; x1 may/might occur; x1 is a maybe     3j  78    [also possibility]; (cf. lakne, cumki)
 cumla cul          humble               'humility'           x1 is humble/modest about x2 (abstraction); x1 displays humility about x2                        9c   1    (cf. cinmo, jgira)
 cunmi              millet                                    x1 is a quantity of millet [grain] of species/strain x2                                          aj   3    (cf. gurni)
 cunso cun     cu'o random               'chance'             x1 is random/fortuitous/unpredictable under conditions x2, with probability distribution x3      7e  23    [also accidental, chancy, by chance, adventitious, arbitrary (also = cuncu'a, cunselcu'a, cunjdi, cunseljdi; based on "unpredictable")]; (cf. cnici, lakne, funca, kalsa, snuti)
 cuntu         cu'u affair                                    x1 is an affair/organized activity involving person(s) x2 (ind./mass); x1 is x2's business       8d   6    [also matter, concern; x2 is engaged in x1 (which is usually an abstraction) (= selcu'u for reordered places)] (cf. jikca, srana)
 cupra     pra      produce                                   x1 produces x2 [product] by process x3                                                           8f  22    (cf. zbasu, farvi, gundi, jukpa)
 curmi     cru      let                  'permit'             x1 (agent) lets/permits/allows x2 (event) under conditions x3; x1 grants privilege x2            8e  57    [sufficient condition (= crutcini), agent that permits a situation (= tcinycru)]; (cf. rinju, banzu, ralte, jimte, jaspu, zifre)
 curnu cur          worm                                      x1 is a worm/invertebrate animal of species/breed x2                                             ai  12    [also mollusk, snail (= cakcurnu), shellfish (= xaskemcakcurnu, xaskemcakydja); the generalization to invertebrate is because almost all multicellular invertebrates are indeed wormlike]; (cf. since, silka)
 curve cuv          pure                                      x1 is pure/unadulterated/unmitigated/simple in property x2 (ka)                                  7j   0    [x1 is simply/purely/unmitigatedly/solely x2]; (cf. prane, jinsa, manfo, sampu, sepli, traji, lumci, xukmi)
 cusku cus sku      express                                   x1 (agent) expresses/says x2 (sedu'u/text/lu'e concept) for audience x3 via expressive medium x4 1h 872    [also says]; (cf. bacru, tavla, casnu, spuda, cmavo list cu'u, bangu, dapma, jufra, pinka)
 cutci cuc          shoe                                      x1 is a shoe/boot/sandal for covering/protecting [feet/hooves] x2, and of material x3            3f  28    [also boot (= tupcutci)]; (cf. smoka, taxfu, skiji)
 cutne cut          chest                                     x1 is a/the chest/thorax/upper trunk/[rib cage/breast] [body-part] of x2                         aa  16    (cf. cnebo, betfu, xadni, tanxe)
 cuxna cux     cu'a choose                                    x1 chooses/selects x2 [choice] from set/sequence of alternatives x3 (complete set)               2f  77    [also prefer (= nelcu'a)]; (cf. jdice, pajni, nelci)
 da    dav dza      something 1                               logically quantified existential pro-sumti: there exists something 1 (usually restricted)        5a   0
 da'a  daz          all except                                digit/number: all except n; all but n; (default 1)                                               7e   0
 dacru dac          drawer                                    x1 is a drawer/file in structure x2, a [sliding compartment] container for contents x3           ao  14    (cf. nilce, tanxe)
 dacti         dai  object               'thing'              x1 is a material object enduring in space-time; x1 is a thing                                    1f  44    (cf. marji, xanri)
 dadjo daj          Taoist                                    x1 pertains to the Taoist culture/ethos/religion in aspect x2                                    ac   3    (cf. lijda, jegvo)
 dakfu dak          knife                                     x1 is a knife (tool) for cutting x2, with blade of material x3                                   1f  19    (cf. denci, balre, katna, tunta, forca, smuci, kinli)
 dakli              sack                                      x1 is a sack/bag with contents x2, and of material x3                                            3f  27    (cf. daski for pouch, bakfu)
 damba dab     da'a fight                'combat'             x1 fights/combats/struggles with x2 over issue x3 (abstract); x1 is a fighter/combatant          8g  30    [use x3 tu'a for fight over an object/objective]; (cf. bradi, gunta, talsa, darlu, fapro, jamna, sonci)
 damri              drum                                      x1 is a drum/cymbal/gong [percussion musical instrument] with beater/actuator x2                 ak   9    (cf. rilti, zgike)
 dandu dad          hang                 'dangle, suspend'    x1 hangs/dangles/is suspended from x2 by/at/with joint x3                                        7j  54    [pendant (= dadja'i); also dependent (original meaning)] (cf. lasna, jorne)
 danfu daf          answer                                    x1 is the answer/response/solution/[reply] to question/problem x2                                1h  58    (cf. ciksi, frati, preti, nabmi, spuda for agentive response/reply, cpedu)
 danlu dal     da'u animal                                    x1 is an animal/creature of species x2; x1 is biologically animate                               6c  61    (cf. banfi, cinki, cipni, finpe, jukni, respa, since, mabru, bakni)
 danmo dam          smoke                                     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of smoke/smog/air pollution from source x2                  4h  31    [x2 may be a fire]; (cf. pulce, gapci, sigja, bumru)
 danre         da'e pressure                                  x1 (force) puts pressure on/presses/applies force to x2                                          a    3    [agentive press/depress (= da'ergau, da'erzu'e)]; (cf. catke, bapli, prina, tinsa)
 dansu              dance                                     x1 (individual, mass) dances to accompaniment/music/rhythm x2                                    5g  55    (cf. bende, zgike, zajba)
 danti dan          projectile                                x1 is a ballistic projectile [e.g. bullet/missile] for firing by [gun/propelling launcher] x2    ao   6    [also cannonball, catapult stone, shot pellet(s)]; (cf. cecla, renro, jakne)
 daplu     plu      island                                    x1 is an island/atoll/key of [material/properties] x2 in surroundings/body x3; x1 is insular     ap   3    (cf. lalxu, rirxe, xamsi, dirgo)
 dapma dap          curse                'damn'               x1 curses/damns/condemns x2 to fate (event) x3                                                   a   22    [curse with a specific expression (= dapsku)]; (cf. mabla, dimna, cnemu, sfasa, dunda, cusku, cirko, jdima)
 dargu dag          road                                      x1 is a road/highway to x2 from x3 with route x4 (x2/x3 may be unordered)                        5d  69    [a regularly used, improved-for-use surface for travelling]; (cf. naxle, tcana, pluta, klaji)
 darlu         dau  argue                                     x1 argues for stand x2 against stand x3; [an opponent is not necessary]                          3j  57    (cf. fapro, jamna, sarji, talsa, sumti, tugni, casnu, damba, bradi, tavla)
 darno dar     da'o far                                       x1 is far/distant from x2 in property x3 (ka)                                                    2g  69    (cf. jibni)
 darsi              audacity             'dare'               x1 shows audacity/chutzpah in behavior x2 (event/activity); x1 dares to do/be x2 (event/ka)      a    6    [x1 is bold]; (cf. virnu)
 darxi dax     da'i hit                                       x1 hits/strikes/[beats] x2 with instrument [or body-part] x3 at locus x4                         1g 105    (cf. bikla, gunta, jenca, tunta, tikpa, janli, jgari, pencu)
 daski              pocket                                    x1 is a pocket/pouch of/in garment/item x2                                                       3f  10    (cf. dakli, taxfu, bakfu)
 dasni das          wear                                      x1 wears/is robed/garbed in x2 as a garment of type x3                                           3f  71    [x2 need not be intended for use as a garment (unlike taxfu)]; (cf. taxfu)
 daspo     spo      destroy              'despoil'            x1 (event) destroys/ruins/wrecks/despoils x2; x1 is destructive                                  4c  41    (cf. spofu, xrani, marxa, zalvi, xaksu)
 dasri     sri      ribbon                                    x1 is a ribbon/tape/strip/band/stripe of material x2                                             3f  29    (cf. djine)
 datka              duck                                      x1 is a duck/[drake] of species/breed x2                                                         ai  20    (cf. cipni)
 datni              data                                      x1 (du'u) [fact/measurement] is data/information/statistic(s) about x2 gathered by method x3     8b  14    [evidence (= velji'i datni or just velji'i, sidydatni)] (cf. fatci, saske, vreji)
 decti dec          .1                   metric 'deci'        x1 is a tenth [1/10; 1x10**-1] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                   ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 degji deg          finger               'digit'              x1 is a/the finger/digit/toe [body-part] on limb/body site x2 of body x3; [metaphor: peninsula]  1c  15    [finger (= xandegji), toe (= jmadegji)]; (cf. nazbi, tamji, tance, xance),
 dejni dej          owe                  'debt-or'            x1 owes x2 in debt/obligation to creditor x3 in return for x4 [service, loan]; x1 is a debtor    8d   5    (cf. jbera, janta, zivle)
 dekpu              gallon               'peck'               x1 is x2 (default 1) local volume unit(s) [non-metric; e.g. bushel], standard x3, x4 subunits    al   0    [gallon (= likydekpu), quart (= likseldekpu), barrel (wet = likybradekpu, dry = sudbradekpu), bushel (= sudydekpu), peck (= sudyseldekpu), cupful (= kabrydekpu), tablespoon (= mucydekpu); teaspoon (= mucyseldekpu); (all of these lujvo may need gic- to distinguish the English measurement system in contrasting with some local system; the English system is otherwise presumed to be the default non-metric system)]; (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...); (cf. canlu, litce, rupnu, fepni, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu)
 dekto dek          10                   metric 'deka'        x1 is ten [10; 1*10**1] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                          ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 delno del     de'o candela              'candle-power'       x1 is x2 candela [metric unit] in luminosity (default is 1) by standard x3                       af   0    (cf. centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 dembi deb          bean                                      x1 is a bean/pea/leguminous seed from plant [legume] x2                                          5b  47    (cf. grute, sobde, tsiju)
 denci den     de'i tooth                'dental'             x1 is a/the tooth [body-part] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is dental                                   aa  30    (for metaphor: see dakfu, pagre, jgalu); (cf. moklu, dakfu, pagre, jgalu, batci, bongu)
 denmi dem          dense                                     x1 is dense/concentrated/packed/intense in property x2 (ka) at location/locus x3                 7j  48    (cf. carmi, midju, viknu)
 denpa dep     de'a wait                 'pause'              x1 awaits/waits/pauses for/until x2 at state x3 before starting/continuing x4 (activity/process) 1h 112    [(x2 is an event, usually a point event); also: resuming x4]; (cf. dicra, fanmo, sisti, fliba, pandi)
 dertu der     de'u dirt                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of dirt/soil/earth/ground from source x2 of composition x3  ah 100    [also: x1 is earthen; x3: composition including x3, which need not be exhaustive of composition]; (cf. kliti, terdi, loldi)
 derxi     dre      heap                                      x1 is a heap/pile/stack/mound/hill of materials x2 at location x3                                3m  15    (cf. cmana)
 desku des          shake                                     x1 shakes/quakes/trembles/quivers/shudders/wobbles/vibrates from force x2                        1g  46    [also (expressible either with desku or slilu): side to side, to and fro, back and forth, reciprocal motion]; (cf. slilu, janbe)
 detri det          date                                      x1 is the date [day,{week},{month},year] of event/state x2, at location x3, by calendar x4       3e  29    (time units in x1 are specified as numbers separated by pi'e or are unit values massified with joi); (cf. cmavo list de'i, djedi, jeftu, masti, nanca, tcika)
 dicra dir          interrupt            'disturb, disrupt'   x1 (event) interrupts/stops/halts/[disrupts] x2 (object/event/process) due to quality x3         4d  60    [also disturbs (one sense)]; (cf. zunti, fanza, raktu, denpa)
 dikca dic          electric             'charge'             x1 is electricity [electric charge or current] in/on x2 of polarity/quantity x3 (def. negative)  7g   4    [(x3, a quantifier, can be expressed as a simple polarity using the numerals for positive and negative ma'u and ni'u); (explicitly) negative (= dutydikca), positive (= mardikca); current (= (sel)muvdikca; again default negative/electron current), charge (= klodikca, stadikca)]; (cf. lindi, xampo, flecu, maksi, tcana)
 diklo     klo      local                                     x1 is local to x2; x1 is confined to locus x2 within range x3                                    5d 426    [indicates a specific location/value within a range; e.g. a hits b.  What is the locality on b that a hits?  Thus x1 is associated with a specific narrow region/interval x2 of wider space/range x3]; (cf. cmavo list di'o, jibni, zvati, cpana, nenri, lamji, stuzi, tcila)
 dikni dik          regular              'cyclical'           x1 is regular/cyclical/periodic in property (ka)/activity x2 with period/interval x3             9b   6    [also uniform; resonant (= dikslicai)]; (cf. slilu, rilti, xutla, manfo, boxna)
 dilcu              quotient             'division'           x1 is a quotient of 'x2/x3' [dividend x2 divided by divisor x3], leaving remainder x4            7e   3    (cf. frinu, fendi, katna, parbi, mekso)
 dilnu dil          cloud                                     x1 is a cloud/mass of clouds of material x2 in air mass x3 at floor/base elevation x4            4h  28    (cf. carvi, tcima)
 dimna dim          fate                 'doom'               x1 is a fate/destiny of x2; [doom, curse are mabla-forms]; x2 is fated/predestined/doomed to x1  a    8    [fated/destined/doomed (= seldimna)]; (cf. dapma)
 dinju dij     di'u building                                  x1 is a building/edifice for purpose x2                                                          2k 153    (cf. ginka, zdani, zarci)
 dinko         di'o nail                                      x1 is a nail/tack [pointed driven/frictional fastener] of type/size x2 (ka), made of material x3 ao   0    (x2 also can be ni abstraction); (cf. pijne, lasna)
 dirba dib          dear                                      x1 is dear/precious/darling to x2; x1 is emotionally valued by x2                                9d  18    [x1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posydirba for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. tcika, kargu, vamji, vajni, pleji, jadni, jemna)
 dirce         di'e radiate                                   x1 radiates/emits x2 under conditions x3                                                         7j  14    (cf. gusni)
 dirgo dig          drop                                      x1 is a drop [small, cohesive shape] of material [liquid/vapor] x2 in surrounding material x3    4h  15    (cf. daplu, bidju)
 dizlo diz dzi      low                                       x1 is low/down/downward in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3    2d  91    [also lower; x3 is generally some defined distance above a zero point/baseline, or is that baseline itself]; (cf. cnita, galtu, gapru, farna, loldi)
 djacu jac     jau  water                'aqua-'              x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of water; (adjective:) x1 is aqueous/[aquatic]      4h 106    [aquatic (= jaupli)]; (cf. lalxu, rirxe, xamsi, limna, litki, lumci, bumru, jinto)
 djedi     dje dei  full day                                  x1 is x2 full days in duration (default is 1 day) by standard x3; (adjective:) x1 is diurnal     3e 159    [today (= cabdei); tomorrow (= bavlamdei); yesterday (= prulamdei)]; (cf. donri, detri, jeftu, masti, nanca, nicte, tcika)
 djica     dji      desire                                    x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 (event/state) for purpose x3                                          3l 500    [if desire is for an object, this is sumti-raising; use tu'a in x2 (or use lujvo = po'edji)]; (cf. taske, xagji, mukti, nitcu, nelci, pacna, prami, rigni, trina, xebni, xlura)
 djine jin          ring                                      x1 is a ring/annulus/torus/circle [shape/form] of material x2, inside diam. x3, outside diam. x4 9b   6    [also ellipse, oval (= jincla); (usage has been for near-circles, such as tight spirals, even if not closed loops)]; [also band, belt, encircle (= jinsru)]; (cf. clupa, cukla, dasri, karli, sovda, sruri, konju)
 djuno jun     ju'o know                                      x1 knows fact(s) x2 (du'u) about subject x3 by epistemology x4                                   1h 375    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place; know how to - implying knowledge of method but not necessarily having the ability to practice (= tadjyju'o)] (cf. know/familiar with: se slabu, na'e cnino, na'e fange; cmavo list du'o, cilre, certu, facki, jijnu, jimpe, senpi, smadi, kakne, birti, mipri, morji, saske, viska)
 do    don     doi  you                                       pro-sumti: you listener(s); identified by vocative                                               1d   0
 donri dor     do'i daytime                                   x1 is the daytime of day x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is diurnal (vs. nocturnal)           3e  14    (cf. nicte, djedi, tcika)
 dotco dot     do'o German               'Deutsch'            x1 reflects German/Germanic culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                            ab  12    (cf. ropno)
 draci              drama                                     x1 is a drama/play about x2 [plot/theme/subject] by dramatist x3 for audience x4 with actors x5  5g  19    [x2 may also be a convention] (cf. finti, cukta, lisri, cfika)
 drani     dra      correct              'right'              x1 is correct/proper/right/perfect in property/aspect x2 (ka) in situation x3 by standard x4     1h  91    (cf. srera, mapti)
 drata dat          other                                     x1 isn't the-same-thing-as/is different-from/other-than x2 by standard x3; x1 is something else  2g 351    (cf. mintu, frica)
 drudi rud dru      roof                                      x1 is a roof/top/ceiling/lid of x2                                                               2k  30    (cf. bitmu, stedu, galtu, gapru, loldi, marbi, gacri, mapku; a drudi is (designed to be) over/above something and shelters it from other things above the drudi, mapku)
 du    dub     du'o same identity as                          identity selbri; = sign; x1 identically equals x2, x3, etc.; attached sumti refer to same thing  1    0    [It is very un-Lojbanic to translate the generic English copula 'is' by this word]; (cf. mintu)
 du'u  dum          bridi abstract                            abstractor: predication/bridi abstractor; x1 is predication [bridi] expressed in sentence x2     at   0    (cf. mintu, dunli)
 dugri dug          logarithm                                 x1 is the logarithm of x2 with base x3                                                           ar   1    (cf. tenfa)
 dukse dus     du'e excess                                    x1 is an excess of/too much of x2 by standard x3                                                 3m 178    [cloying (= maldu'e, tolpu'adu'e)]; (cf. bancu, banzu, ricfu, zmadu)
 dukti dut          opposite             'contrary'           x1 is polar opposite from/contrary to x2 in property/on scale x3 (property/si'o)                 3j  20    (cf. ranxi, ragve, fatne)
 dunda dud     du'a give                 'donate'             x1 [donor] gives/donates gift/present x2 to recipient/beneficiary x3 [without payment/exchange]  2b 217    [also grants; x3 is a receiver (= terdu'a for reordered places); the Lojban doesn't distinguish between or imply possession transfer or sharing; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posydu'a, posyseldu'a for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. benji, muvdu, canja, pleji, vecnu, friti, sfasa, dapma, cnemu, prali)
 dunja duj          freeze               'jell'               x1 freezes/jells/solidifies at temperature x2 and pressure x3                                    4h  27    (cf. febvi, lunsa, runme, sligu)
 dunku duk     du'u anguish                                   x1 is anguished/distressed/emotionally wrought/stressed by x2                                    4d  25    (cf. fengu, surla)
 dunli dun     du'i equal                                     x1 is equal/congruent to/as much as x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3                         6k  93    [same in quantity/quality (not necessarily in identity); 'analogy' may be expressed as the equivalence of two properties of similarity (ka x1 simsa x2) and (ka x3 simsa x4)]; (cf. cmavo list du'i, satci, frica, simsa, mintu)
 dunra dur          winter                                    x1 is winter/wintertime [cold season] of year x2 at location x3                                  3e  18    (cf. citsi, crisa, critu, vensa)
 dzena     dze      elder                                     x1 is an elder/ancestor of x2 by bond/tie/degree x3; x1's generation precedes x2's parents       4b  12    (cf. patfu, rirni, tamne)
 dzipo zip     zi'o Antarctican                               x1 reflects Antarctican culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2                               ab   5    (cf. ketco, friko, sralo, terdi)
 facki fak     fa'i discover             'find'               x1 discovers/finds out x2 (du'u) about subject/object x3; x1 finds (fi) x3 (object)              4d 128    (cf. cirko, djuno, jijnu, smadi, sisku)
 fadni fad          ordinary                                  x1 [member] is ordinary/common/typical/usual in property x2 (ka) among members of x3 (set)       6f  14    [also: x2 is a normal/common/ordinary/typical property among set x3 (= selterfadni for reordered places); also regular, (mabla forms:) banal, trite, vulgar; (x3 is complete set)]; (cf. cafne, rirci, kampu, lakne, tcaci, cnano)
 fagri fag          fire                                      x1 is a fire/flame in fuel x2 burning-in/reacting-with oxidizer x3 (default air/oxygen)          a   52    (cf. jelca, sacki)
 falnu fan          sail                                      x1 is a sail for gathering propelling material x2 on vehicle/motor x3                            ao   2    [waterwheel (= jacfanxi'u)]; (cf. bloti)
 famti              aunt or uncle                             x1 is an aunt/uncle of x2 by bond/tie x3; x1 is an associated member of x2's parent's generation 4b   2    (cf. bruna, mamta, mensi, patfu, rirni, tamne)
 fancu              function                                  x1 is a function/single-valued mapping from domain x2 to range x3 defined by expression/rule x4  7e   0    (cf. mekso, bridi)
 fange              alien                'foreign'            x1 is alien/foreign/[exotic]/unfamiliar to x2 in property x3 (ka)                                6f  57    (cf. cizra, jbena, ckini)
 fanmo fam     fa'o end                  'final'              x1 is an end/finish/termination of thing/process x2; [not necessarily implying completeness]     2c  80    [x1 is final/last/at the last; x1 is a terminal/terminus of x2; x1 is the final/terminated state of terminated process x2; x2 terminates/ceases/stops/halts at x1 (= selfa'o for reordered places)]; (cf. krasi, cfari, mulno, sisti, denpa, jipno, kojna, traji, krasi)
 fanri              factory              'foundry'            x1 is a factory/foundry/industrial plant/mill producing x2 from materials x3                     8c   0    (cf. molki, gundi)
 fanta              prevent                                   x1 prevents/keeps/stops/restrains/constrains event x2 from occurring                             8g  10    (cf. pinfu, bandu, zunti, rinju, jimte, bapli, rivbi)
 fanva              translate                                 x1 translates text/utterance x2 to language x3 from language x4 with translation result x5       1h  83    (cf. cusku, bangu)
 fanza faz          annoy                                     x1 (event) annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts x2                                                 a   46    [also: is disruptive to]; (cf. fengu, raktu, dicra, tunta, zunti, jicla)
 fapro fap pro      oppose                                    x1 opposes/balances/contends against opponent(s) x2 (person/force ind./mass) about x3 (abstract) a   17    [also resists]; (cf. bandu, bradi, darlu, damba, jivna, lanxe, rivbi, sarji, xarnu)
 farlu fal     fa'u fall                                      x1 falls/drops to x2 from x3 in gravity well/frame of reference x4                               2b 141    [note: things can fall in spin, thrust, or tide as well as gravity; (agentive "drop" = one of two lujvo: falcru and falri'a)] (cf. lafti, cpare, klama, sfubu)
 farna far     fa'a direction                                 x1 is the direction of x2 (object/event) from origin/in frame of reference x3                    5d  22    [x2 is towards x1 from x3 (= selfa'a for reordered places)]; (cf. zunle, pritu, galtu, gapru, cnita, dizlo, berti, snanu, stuna, stici, purci, balvi, lidne)
 farvi fav          develop              'evolve'             x1 develops/evolves towards/into x2 from x3 through stages x4                                    8f  16    (cf. pruce, banro, makcu, ciste, cupra, ferti)
 fasnu         fau  event                'happen'             x1 (event) is an event that happens/occurs/takes place; x1 is an incident/happening/occurrence   3b 234    (cf. cmavo list fau, krefu, lifri, fatci, rapli; gasnu, zukte, if specifically agentive, banli)
 fatci fac          fact                                      x1 (du'u) is a fact/reality/truth/actuality, in the absolute                                     3j  38    (cf. datni, jitfa, sucta, xanri, jetnu, fasnu, zasti, cfika, saske)
 fatne fat     fa'e reverse                                   x1 [sequence] is in reverse order from x2 [sequence]; x1 (object) is inverted from x2 (object)   3j  10    [also opposite (one sense)]; (cf. cmavo list fa'e, dukti)
 fatri         fai  distribute                                x1 is distributed/allotted/allocated/shared among x2 with shares/portions x3; (x2/x3 fa'u)       8c  22    [also spread, shared out, apportioned; agentive distribution (= fairgau, fairzu'e)]; (cf. cmavo list fa'u, fendi, preja, katna, tcana)
 febvi feb          boil                                      x1 boils/evaporates at temperature x2 and pressure x3                                            a    9    [roil (= febjicla)]; (cf. dunja, lunsa, runme)
 femti fem          1E-15                metric 'femto'       x1 is 1x10**-15 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                  ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 fendi fed          divide                                    x1 (agent) divides/partitions/separates x2 into sections/parts/ind. x3 by method/partition x4    9b  50    [also segments]; (cf. sepli, bitmu, fatri, dilcu, katna, frinu)
 fengu feg     fe'u angry                                     x1 is angry/mad at x2 for x3 (action/state/property)                                             3c  40    (cf. fanza, dunku)
 fenki fek          crazy                'frenzy'             x1 (action/event) is crazy/insane/mad/frantic/in a frenzy (one sense) by standard x2             4d  15    (cf. bebna, racli, xajmi)
 fenra fer     fe'a crack                                     x1 is a crack/fissure/pass/cleft/ravine/chasm/[defect/flaw] [shape/form] in x2                   9b 106    (cf. kevna, cfila, jinto)
 fenso fen     fe'o sew                                       x1 sews/stitches/sutures materials x2 (ind./set) together with tool(s) x3, using filament x4     a    4    (x2 if a set must be a complete specification); (cf. cilta, jivbu, jorne, nivji, pijne, lasna)
 fepni fep     fei  cent                 'penny'              x1 is measured in kopeck/cent money-subunits as x2 [quantity], in monetary system x3             5e  36    [also pfennig, paisa, sen, fen, dinar, etc.; x1 is generally a price/cost/value]; (additional secondary, tertiary, etc. subunit places may be added as x4, x5, x6, ...); (cf. sicni, jdini, jdima, vecnu, rupnu, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu)
 fepri              lung                 'pulmonary'          x1 is a/the lung [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: breathing/respiratory apparatus/bellows]          aa   0    [also (adjective:) x1 is pulmonary]; (cf. pambe, vasxu)
 ferti     fre      fertile                                   x1 is fertile/conducive for supporting the growth/development of x2; x1 is fruitful/prolific     a   15    [also fecund (note that the Lojban covers both potential and actual/realized fertility)]; (cf. vanbi, sidju, rorci, farvi, banro, cange)
 festi fes          waste                                     x1(s) is/are waste product(s) [left to waste] by x2 (event/activity)                             a   20    [also shit, crap; agentive wasting (= fesygau, fesyzu'e)]; (cf. xaksu, kalci, pinca)
 fetsi fet     fe'i female               'fem-'               x1 is a female/doe of species x2 evidencing feminine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1 is feminine            4b  13    (cf. nakni)
 figre fig          fig                                       x1 is a fig [fruit/tree] of species/strain x2                                                    aj   0    (cf. grute)
 filso fis          Palestinian          'Philistine'         x1 reflects Palestinian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                         ab   1    (cf. jordo, xebro)
 finpe fip     fi'e fish                 'fin'                x1 is a fish of species x2 [metaphorical extension to sharks, non-fish aquatic vertebrates]      5b  46    (cf. danlu)
 finti fin     fi'i invent                                    x1 invents/creates/composes/authors x2 for function/purpose x3 from existing elements/ideas x4   8b 120    [x1 is creative/inventive]; (cf. cmavo list fi'e, ciska, pemci, zbasu, larcu, specific works of authorship, prosa, skina)
 flalu     fla      law                                       x1 is a law specifying x2 (state/event) for community x3 under conditions x4 by lawgiver(s) x5   8d   5    [x1 is a legality; x2 is legal/licit/legalized/a legality (= selfla for reordered places)]; (cf. javni, ritli, zekri, pulji, tinbe)
 flani              flute                                     x1 is a flute/pipe/fife/recorder [flute-like/air-reed musical instrument]                        ak   1    (cf. zgike)
 flecu     fle      flow                 'flush'              x1 is a current/flow/river of/in x2 flowing in direction to/towards x3 from direction/source x4  a   85    [x1 is a stream of x2; x2 is a fluid [gas or liquid] (= selfle for reordered places); x1 flushes toward x3; flush (= caifle, sukfle)]; (cf. rirxe, senta where no directionality is implied, rinci, xampo, dikca, sakci, gapci, litki, ciblu)
 fliba     fli      fail                 'baffle'             x1 fails at doing x2 (state/event); x1 is a failure at its role in x2                            8g   4    [baffled (= pesfli, jmifli, dafspufli, menfli, among other senses); also x2 ceases/does not complete/fails to continue due to failure on the part of x1]; (cf. cfila, snada, srera, troci, sisti, ranji, denpa, bebna, zunti)
 flira fir          face                                      x1 is a/the face [head/body-part] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is facial                               1c  45    (cf. sefta, stedu, crane, mebri)
 fo'a          fo'a it-6                                      pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #6 (specified by goi)                                                  at   0
 fo'e          fo'e it-7                                      pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #7 (specified by goi)                                                  at   0
 fo'i          fo'i it-8                                      pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #8 (specified by goi)                                                  at   0
 foldi     flo foi  field                                     x1 is a field [shape/form] of material x2; x1 is a broad uniform expanse of x2                   9b  24    [also woods (= ricfoi), lawn/meadow (= sasfoi), brush (= spafoi, cicyspafoi)]; (cf. purdi, cange)
 fonmo fom     fo'o foam                                      x1 is a quantity of foam/froth/suds of material x2, with bubbles/vacuoles of material x3         a    1    (cf. zbabu)
 fonxa fon          telephone                                 x1 is a telephone transceiver/modem attached to system/network x2                                2n  40    (cf. tcana)
 forca     fro      fork                                      x1 is a fork/fork-type tool/utensil for purpose x2 with tines/prongs x3 on base/support x4       5c  16    (cf. dakfu, smuci, komcu, tutci)
 fraso fas          French               'France'             x1 reflects French/Gallic culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                              ab  19    (cf. ropno)
 frati     fra      react                                     x1 reacts/responds/answers with action x2 to stimulus x3 under conditions x4; x1 is responsive   2b  21    [x3 stimulates x1 into reaction x2, x3 stimulates reaction x2 (= terfra for place reordering); attempt to stimulate, prod (= terfratoi, tunterfratoi)]; (cf. preti, danfu, spuda, cpedu, tarti)
 fraxu fax          forgive                                   x1 forgives x2 for event/state/activity x3                                                       4d  25    (cf. dunda, curmi, zungi)
 frica fic          differ                                    x1 differs/is distinct from/contrasts with/is unlike x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3        2g  46    [also other-than (less common meaning)]; (cf. ranxi, drata, dunli, simsa, vrici)
 friko         fi'o African                                   x1 reflects African culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2                                   ab   3    (cf. ropno, xazdo)
 frili fil          easy                 'freely'             x1 (action) is easy/simple/facile for x2 (agent) under conditions x3; x2 does x1 freely/easily   1i  63    (cf. nandu, sampu, zifre)
 frinu              fraction                                  x1 is a fraction, with numerator x2, denominator x3 (x2/x3)                                      7e   1    (cf. parbi, dilcu, mekso, fendi)
 friti fit          offer                                     x1 offers/proffers x2 [offering] to x3 with conditions x4                                        8d  12    [(x4 may be nu canja, nu pleji, etc.; an unconditional offering has the 'condition' of acceptance); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posfriti, posyselfriti for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. canja, dunda, rinsa, vecnu, jdima, cnemu, pleji, vitke)
 frumu     fru      frown                                     x1 frowns/grimaces (facial expression)                                                           4d   5    [x1 frowns/grimaces at/in reaction to x2 (= frufra)]; (cf. cmila, cisma)
 fukpi fuk     fu'i copy                                      x1 is a copy/replica/duplicate/clone of x2 in form/medium x3 made by method x4 (event)           8b   7    (cf. krefu, rapli, gidva); [borrowing (=fu'ivla)]
 fulta ful flu      float                                     x1 (passive) floats on/in fluid (gas/liquid) x2; x1 is buoyant                                   7f   7    (cf. limna, bloti, sakli)
 funca fun     fu'a luck                 'fortune'            x1 (event/property) is determined by the luck/fortune of x2; (note mabla/zabna not implied)      4d  17    (cf. cunso, mabla, zabna)
 fusra fur          rotten               'rot'                x1 rots/decays/ferments with decay/fermentation agent x2; x1 is rotten/decayed/fermented         a    1    (cf. birje, vanju, vifne)
 fuzme fuz     fu'e responsible                               x1 is responsible/accountable for x2 (action/resulting state) to judge/authority x3              8c  55    (cf. bilga)
 gacri         gai  cover                                     x1 is a cover/[lid/top] for covering/concealing/sheltering x2                                    9f  83    (cf. pilka, gapru, marbi, drudi, ve botpi, bitmu, calku)
 gadri gad          article                                   x1 is an article/descriptor labelling description x2 (text) in language x3 with semantics x4     2a  11    [x2 is the noun phrase/sumti without the article/descriptor; description ((x1 with x2) = gadysu'i); note: 'determiner' has become the accepted general linguistics term, displacing 'article'; however, 'determiner' includes all words that can introduce a noun phrase/sumti, whether a description or not, such as pronoun possessives like lemi, quantifiers (especially in indefinites) like ci and su'o, and demonstratives like ti, ta, and tu; the term 'descriptor' in Lojban, is limited to words that introduce descriptions (excluding indefinites), such as those of selma'o LA and LE, their common compounds such as lemi, and possibly lenu]; 'article' typically refers only to a single word; Lojban assumes the broader meaning] (cf. valsi, cmavo)
 galfi gaf     ga'i modify               'alter'              x1 (event) modifies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x2 into x3                                2c  97    [causal, resultative change; agentive modification (= gafygau, gafyzu'e)]; (cf. stika for non-resultative, binxo for not-necessarily causal change, cenba for non-resultative change; zasni)
 galtu gal     ga'u high                                      x1 is high/up/upward in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3       2d 123    [also upper; x3 is generally some defined distance above a zero point/baseline, or is that baseline itself]; (cf. gapru, dizlo, cnita, drudi, farna)
 galxe              throat               'gullet'             x1 is a/the throat/gullet [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: narrow(ing) opening of a deep hole]      aa   6    (cf. cnebo, kevna, tunlo)
 ganlo         ga'o closed                                    x1 (portal/passage/entrance-way) is closed/shut/not open, preventing passage/access to x2 by x3  1e  28    [as a doorway, but also perhaps a semi-permeable membrane]; (cf. kalri, pagre, canko, vorme, zunti)
 ganra gan          broad                                     x1 is broad/wide in dimension x2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standard x3                 6f  76    (cf. clani, jarki, rotsu, condi, barda, gutci, minli)
 ganse gas     ga'e sense                                     x1 [observer] senses/detects/notices stimulus property x2 (ka) by means x3 under conditions x4   4d  70    [x1 is sensitive to x2; also feels, spots, perceives, makes out, discerns/recognizes (but only implying reaction without necessarily any significant mental processing); note that the emphasis is on a property which stimulates x1 and is detected (sanji is passive about the sensing, and is not limited to sensory input, as well as presuming some kind of discernment/recognition, while not being concerned with the means of detection); x3 sense/sensory channel]; (cf. pencu, sanji, viska, sumne, tirna, zgana, canci, simlu)
 ganti              gonad                'testes'             x1 is a/the testes/ovary/testicle/scrotum/balls/gonad/stamen/pistil [body-part] of x2, gender x3 aa   2    [egg/sperm/pollen/gamete producing/bearing organ]; (cf. plibu, sovda, pinji, gutra, mabla)
 ganxo gax          anus                 'asshole/arsehole'   x1 is a/the anus/anal orifice/asshole/arsehole [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: exit, waste exit]   aa   4    [also asshole/ass/arsehole; (adjective:) x1 is anal]; (cf. zargu, kalci, mabla, rinci)
 ganzu gaz          organize                                  x1 organizes x2 [relative chaos] into x3 [ordered/organized result] by system/principle(s) x4    8c  16    [x3 is also a system; x4 could be merely a function which inherently serves to dictate the organizational structure of x3]; (cf. ciste, morna, stura, bilni, cabra)
 gapci gac          gas                                       x1 is gaseous/fumes/a gas/vapor of material/composition including x2, under conditions x3        6b   7    [x3 includes temperature and pressure]; (cf. pambe, vacri, litki, sligu, danmo, bumru, cidro, flecu)
 gapru gap          above                'up'                 x1 is directly/vertically above/upwards-from x2 in gravity/frame of reference x3                 2d 202    (cf. tsani, galtu, cnita, drudi, gacri, dizlo, farna)
 garna gar          rail                 'bar'                x1 is a rail/railing/bar [tool] supporting/restraining x2, of material x3                        9b   0    (cf. kamju, grana, tutci)
 gasnu         gau  do                                        x1 [person/agent] is an agentive cause of event x2; x1 does/brings about x2                      2e 142    (cf. cmavo list gau, gunka, zukte, rinka, fasnu for non-agentive events, jibri, kakne, pilno)
 gasta gat          steel                                     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains steel of composition including x2                        6b  19    (cf. jinme, molki, tirse)
 genja gej          root                                      x1 is a root [body-part] of plant/species x2; [metaphor: immobile, supporting, nourishing]       aj   2    (cf. jamfu, jicmu, patlu, samcu, spati, krasi)
 gento get     ge'o Argentinian                               x1 reflects Argentinian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                         ab   4    (cf. xispo, ketco, spano)
 genxu gex          hook                                      x1 is a hook/crook [shape/form] of material x2                                                   ao   0    (cf. kruvi, korcu)
 gerku ger     ge'u dog                                       x1 is a dog/canine/[bitch] of species/breed x2                                                   ai 175    (cf. lorxu, labno, mlatu)
 gerna gen     ge'a grammar                                   x1 is the grammar/rules/defining form of language x2 for structure/text x3                       1h  91    (cf. bangu, stura, cmavo, jufra)
 gidva gid     gi'a guide                                     x1 (person/object/event) guides/conducts/pilots/leads x2 (active participants) in/at x3 (event)  5d  17    [a guiding person advises/suggests/sets an example to be followed, but does not necessarily control/direct/manage actual execution of an event; an event may serve as a guide by setting a pattern/example to be emulated]; (cf. jitro, ralju, sazri, te bende, jatna, fukpi, morna)
 gigdo gig     gi'o 1E9                  metric 'giga'        x1 is a billion [British milliard] [1x10**9] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)     ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 ginka gik          camp                                      x1 is a camp/encampment/temporary residence of x2 at location x3                                 ap   0    (cf. dinju, xabju, zdani)
 girzu gir gri      group                                     x1 is group/cluster/team showing common property (ka) x2 due to set x3 linked by relations x4    7c  94    [also collection, team, comprised of, comprising; members x3 (a specification of the complete membership) comprise group x1; cluster (= kangri)]; (cf. bende, ciste, cmima, gunma, panra, cabra, cecmu, kansa, klesi, lanzu, liste, vrici)
 gismu gim     gi'u root word                                 x1 is a (Lojban) root word expressing relation x2 among argument roles x3, with affix(es) x4     1b 554    [gismu list, if physical object (= (loi) gimste); referring to the mental construct (e.g. propose adding a new gismu to the gismu list = gimpoi, gimselcmi, gimselste)]; (cf. cmavo, cmene, lujvo, smuni, sumti, tanru, valsi)
 glare     gla      hot                  'warm'               x1 is hot/[warm] by standard x2                                                                  2g   0    [warm (= mligla), feverish (= bi'agla)]; (cf. lenku)
 gleki gek     gei  happy                'gay'                x1 is happy/gay/merry/glad/gleeful about x2 (event/state)                                        3c 170    [adversity (= kamnalgei)]; (cf. badri, cinmo)
 gletu let gle      copulate             'coitus'             x1 copulates/fucks/mates/has coitus/sexual intercourse with x2                                   as  33    [x1 and x2 are symmetrical; mounts (= cpanygle)]; (cf. cinse, pinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi, mabla, speni)
 glico gic gli      English                                   x1 is English/pertains to English-speaking culture in aspect x2                                  1b  35    [generally assume broadest sense of 'English'; may refer to 'English', pertaining to the country/people/culture of England (normally requiring constraint = gligu'e, or simply redundancy = gligli-); British English, the norm language of the UK (= gliglibau)]; (cf. brito which refers to the United Kingdom as a whole or to the British empire, merko, sralo, kadno, skoto)
 gluta     glu      glove                                     x1 is a mitten/glove [hand and lower arm garment] of material x2                                 ao   0    [mitten (= degycauglu)]; (cf. taxfu)
 gocti goc          1E-24                'yocto'              x1 is 1x10**-24 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                  ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 gotro got          1E24                 'yotta'              x1 is 1x10**24 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                   ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 gradu         rau  unit                 'degree, grad'       x1 [magnitude] is a unit/degree of/on scale/reference standard x2 (si'o) measuring property x3   7e   0    [also grade, level, point; x3 dimension]; (cf. ckilu, kantu, kelvo, merli, ranti, selci)
 grake     gra      gram                                      x1 is x2 gram(s) [metric unit] in mass (default is 1) by standard x3                             af   1    (cf. junta, kilto, bunda, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, litce, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 grana         ga'a rod                                       x1 is a rod/pole/staff/stick/cane [shape/form] of material x2                                    9b  37    (cf. garna)
 grasu ras          grease                                    x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains grease/fat/oil from source x2                            6b  10    (cf. ctile, matne, plana)
 greku rek          frame                                     x1 is a frame/structure/skeleton/outline supporting/load-bearing/determining the form of x2      a    0    (cf. korbi, stura, tsina, bongu)
 grusi rus          gray                                      x1 is gray [color adjective]                                                                     1a  48    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi)
 grute rut          fruit                                     x1 is a fruit [body-part] of species x2                                                          6c  19    (cf. badna, dembi, figre, guzme, narge, perli, pilka, plise, spati, stagi, tamca, tsiju, tarbi, panzi, rorci, te pruce, jbari, nimre)
 gubni gub          public                                    x1 is public/un-hidden/open/jointly available to/owned by all among community x2 (mass)          8c   7    (cf. sivni)
 gugde gug     gu'e country                                   x1 is the country of peoples x2 with land/territory x3; (people/territory relationship)          ab  81    [also sovereignty, domestic (as opposed to foreign), nation (when not referring to ethos)]; (cf. turni, natmi, jecta, tumla, tutra, lanci)
 gundi gud          industry                                  x1 is industry/industrial/systematic manufacturing activity producing x2 by process/means x3     8c   0    (cf. cupra, fanri, rutni, zbasu)
 gunka gun     gu'a work                                      x1 [person] labors/works on/at x2 [activity] with goal/objective x3                              8c 174    [also: x1 is a worker/laborer]; (cf. sazri, gasnu, se jibri; zukte - which need not be labor; physics term 'work' = ni muvyselbai, briju, jibri, lazni, selfu)
 gunma gum          jointly              'mass'               x1 is a mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed of components x2, considered jointly        5a  25    [A description in x1 indicates of mass property(ies) displayed by the mass; masses may reveal properties not found in the individual set members that are massified, which themselves are not necessarily relevant to the mass property implicit in this bridi]; (cf. bende, girzu, pagbu, cmavo list loi, lei, lai, ciste, cmima, kansa, tinci)
 gunro gur     gu'o roll                 'trundle'            x1 rolls/trundles on/against surface x2 rotating on axis/axle x3; x1 is a roller                 as  10    (cf. bolci, carna, jendu, slanu)
 gunse              goose                                     x1 is a goose/[gander] of species/breed x2                                                       ai   5    (cf. cipni)
 gunta gut          attack                                    x1 (person/mass) attacks/invades/commits aggression upon victim x2 with goal/objective x3        8g  21    (cf. bradi, damba, darxi, jamna, jenca, jursa)
 gurni     gru      grain                                     x1 is grain/[British: corn]/cereal from plant/species x2                                         aj  71    (cf. bavmi, cunmi, mavji, maxri, molki, mraji, rismi, sobde, spati, zumri, nanba, sorgu)
 guska guk          scrape                                    x1 blade/scraper/erosive scrapes/erodes/abrades x2 from x3                                       as   1    [abrade, abrasive (= mosyguska)]; (cf. balre, sraku, batci, canpa, mosra)
 gusni gus     gu'i illumine             'light'              x1 [energy] is light/illumination illuminating x2 from light source x3                           4d 151    [x3 illuminates/lights x2 with light/illumination x1; x2 is lit/illuminated by illumination x1 from source x3 (= selgu'i for reordered places); light/lamp (= tergu'i)](cf. dirce, manku, solri, carmi, ctino, kantu)
 gusta              restaurant                                x1 is a restaurant/cafe/diner serving type-of-food x2 to audience x3                             5c  45    (cf. barja, citka, kukte, sanmi, xotli)
 gutci guc          cubit                'foot'               x1 is x2 (default 1) short local distance unit(s) [non-metric], standard x3, x4 subunits         al   0    [foot (= jmagutci); yard (= cibjmagutci), pace (= tapygutci), inch (= degygutci), cubit (= birgutci)]; (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...); (cf. mitre, clani, ganra, condi, rotsu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, minli, merli, bunda, kramu)
 gutra              womb                 'uterus'             x1 is a/the womb/uterus [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: nourishing, protective, giving birth]      aa   2    (cf. jbena, rorci, sovda, tarbi, ganti, mabla)
 guzme guz zme      melon                                     x1 is a melon/squash [fruit/plant] of species/strain x2                                          aj   0    (cf. grute)
 ja    jav          tanru or                                  logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought or                                               7a   0
 jabre              brake                                     x1 brakes/causes to slow motion/activity x2 with device/mechanism/principle x3                   as   0    (cf. mosra)
 jadni jad     ja'i adorn                                     x1 (object) adorns/decorates x2; x1 is an adornment/decoration of x2; x2 is fancy/decorated      3f  64    [fancy/decorated (= selja'i)]; (cf. jemna, dirba, batke)
 jakne              rocket                                    x1 is a rocket [vehicle] propelled by jet expelling x2 carrying payload x3                       ao   1    (cf. cecla, danti, spoja)
 jalge jag     ja'e result                                    x1 (action/event/state) is a result/outcome/conclusion of antecedent x2 (event/state/process)    6a  56    [also: x2 gives rise to x1 (= selja'e for reordered places); total (general meaning, but also = mekyja'e, pi'irja'e, sujyja'e)]; (cf. se mukti, te zukte, se rinka, se krinu, se nibli, mulno, sumji, pilji, mekso, cmavo list ja'e, ciksi)
 jalna              starch                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of starch from source x2 of composition including x3        ah   1    (cf. patlu, samcu)
 jalra              cockroach                                 x1 is a cockroach/[orthopteran/termite] of order/species/breed x2                                ai  13    [also grasshopper (= pipyjalra);  cricket (= sanjalra); locust, termite (= mantyjalra or mudyctijalra)]; (while cockroaches are an order unto themselves, they are part of Orthoptera, which includes grasshoppers, crickets, etc; termites are a closely-related non-Orthoptera, more akin to cockroaches than to e.g. ants); (cf. cinki, civla, manti)
 jamfu jaf jma      foot                                      x1 is a/the foot [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: lowest portion] (adjective:) x1 is pedal          1c  47    (cf. jicmu, genja, zbepi, tuple, jubme, xance, tamji)
 jamna jam          war                                       x1 (person/mass) wars against x2 over territory/matter x3; x1 is at war with x2                  8g  17    (cf. bradi, gunta, panpi, damba, darlu)
 janbe jab          bell                                      x1 is a bell/chime/[tuning fork] [tuned percussion instrument] producing sound/note x2           ao   0    [also: x1 rings/tolls (i.e. if it rings, then it is a bell); resonates (one sense, = jabdesku)]; (cf. zgike, tonga, desku, slilu)
 janco jan          shoulder                                  x1 is a/the shoulder/hip/joint [body-part] attaching limb/extremity x2 to body x3                aa  22    (cf. birka)
 janli jal          collide                                   x1 collides with/crashes/bumps/runs into x2                                                      4c  19    (also collide = simjanli for a collision between two moving objects); (cf. darxi)
 jansu jas          diplomat             'consul'             x1 is a diplomat/consul representing polity x2 in/at negotiation x3 for function/purpose x4      a    0    [(for) x3 polity, (use tu'a); also ambassador (= raljansu, trujansu)]; (cf. jecta, krati)
 janta jat          account                                   x1 is an account/bill/invoice for goods/services x2, billed to x3 by x4                          5g   4    (cf. jdima, vamji, vecnu, canja, jerna, dejni, jbera)
 jarbu              suburb                                    x1 is a suburban area of city/metropolis x2                                                      a    9    (cf. nurma, se tcadu, ve tcadu)
 jarco         ja'o show                                      x1 (agent) shows/exhibits/displays/[reveals]/demonstrates x2 (property) to audience x3           8c  85    [reveal (= tolmipygau, mipyja'o, sivja'o); also: x1 shows that x2, x1 shows off x2; showing an object is generally expressed with a tu'a x2, since the properties of the shown object (other than its presence) intended for observation are seldom specified (simple presence could be expressed by leka [object] cu zvati)]; (cf. tigni, cipra, zgana, jvinu, lanli, mipri, simlu)
 jarki jak          narrow                                    x1 is narrow in dimension x2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standard x3                     6f  37    (cf. caxno, cinla, tordu, tagji, cinla, cmalu)
 jaspu jap          passport                                  x1 is a passport issued to x2 (person) by authority x3 allowing x4 (activity)                    ao   2    (cf. pikta, catni, curmi)
 jatna         ja'a captain                                   x1 is captain/commander/leader/in-charge/boss of vehicle/domain x2                               a    1    (cf. jitro, lidne, te bende, minde, ralju, gidva, bloti)
 javni     jva      rule                                      x1 is a rule prescribing/mandating/requiring x2 (event/state) within system/community x3         7e  11    [regulation, prescription (also x2), principle, requirement (also x2), prescribe, require (conditions are usually contained within x2); x1 is regulatory; x2, x3 are regulated]; (cf. flalu, ritli, cmavo list ja'i, marde, tcaci, tinbe, zekri)
 jbama bam          bomb                                      x1 is a bomb/explosive device with explosive material/principle x2                               ao   0    (cf. cecla, spoja)
 jbari     jba      berry                                     x1 is a berry (fruit/plant) of plant/species x2                                                  5b  12    (cf. grute, tsiju, narge, grute)
 jbena     jbe      born                 'bear'               x1 is born to x2 at time x3 [birthday] and place x4 [birthplace]; x1 is native to (fo) x4        4b  77    [x2 bears/gives birth to x1; also x3: natal day]; (cf. fange, gutra, rorci, mamta, salci, citsi)
 jbera jer          borrow                                    x1 (agent) borrows/temporarily takes/assumes x2 (object) from source x3 for interval x4          3m   6    [credit (= jernu'e); borrow/assume a property or quality as a chameleon does (= zaskai, zasysmitra, zasysmitai)]; (cf. dejni, janta, zivle)
 jbini bin     bi'i between                                   x1 is between/among set of points/bounds/limits x2 (set)/amidst mass x2 in property x3 (ka)      2d  28    [x2 (a complete set, generally ordered) defines the bounds/limits/range for x1]; (cf. se vasru, nenri, zvati, cpana, snuji, senta, bitmu, jimte, kuspe, jibni, lamji, sruri, vanbi, midju, cmima, setca)
 jdari jar          firm                 'hard'               x1 is firm/hard/resistant/unyielding to force x2 under conditions x3                             6f  55    (cf. nandu, ralci, randa, ranti, tinsa, sligu, stodi)
 jdice     jdi      decide                                    x1 (person) decides/makes decision x2 (du'u) about matter x3 (event/state)                       2f  83    (cf. pajni, cuxna, kanji, manri)
 jdika              decrease                                  x1 (experiencer) decreases/contracts/is reduced/diminished in property/quantity x2 by amount x3  a    5    (cf. zenba, mleca, vimcu)
 jdima         di'a price                                     x1 [amount] is the price of x2 to purchaser/consumer x3 set by vendor x4                         8d  15    [x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posydi'a, posyseldi'a for unambiguous semantics); price is something decided/set by the seller, and is closely akin to offer (friti), which is what a buyer may decide; (note that price is not he same as cost/expense, which is the actual amount exchanged in a transaction; the latter is vecnu or canja; neither is the same as "value" or vamji; in colloquial English, these are sometimes interchanged, at least partially because of the rarity of barter and bargaining in the marketplace)]; (cf. canja, friti, janta, jdini, kargu, pleji, dapma, vamji for 'value', ve vecnu for 'cost', canja, fepni, jerna, jinga, pleji, prali, rupnu, sfasa, vamji)
 jdini din     di'i money                'dinero'             x1 is money/currency issued by x2; (adjective:) x1 is financial/monetary/pecuniary/fiscal        5e  44    ['currency' sometimes is restricted to paper money (= pledi'i)]; (cf. fepni, jdima, rupnu, sicni, canja, rupnu)
 jduli dul jdu      jelly                                     x1 is a quantity of jelly/semisolid [texture] of material/composition including x2               ah   1    [(adjective:) x1 is gelatinous]; (cf. litki, sligu)
 je    jev jve      tanru and                                 logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought and                                              7a   0
 jecta jec     je'a polity               'state'              x1 is a polity/state governing territory/domain x2; [government/territory relationship]          ab  10    [(adjective:) x1 is civil/political]; (cf. gugde, tutra, turni, natmi, jansu, lanci, cecmu)
 jeftu jef          week                                      x1 is x2 weeks in duration (default is 1 week) by standard x3                                    3e  33    [re. x3, a week may be more or less than seven days, classically being tied to the time between trips to the marketplace; this week (= cabjeftu); next week (= bavlamjeftu); last week (= prulamjeftu)]; (cf. detri, djedi, masti, nanca)
 jegvo jeg     je'o Jehovist                                  x1 pertains to the common Judeo-Christian-Moslem culture/religion/nationality in aspect x2       ac  24    [also Muslim]; (cf. lijda, muslo, dadjo, xriso)
 jei   jez          truth abstract                            abstractor: truth-value abstractor; x1 is truth value of [bridi] under metaphysics x2            7a   0    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]
 jelca jel          burn                                      x1 burns/[ignites/is flammable/inflammable] at temperature x2 in atmosphere x3                   a    9    [default x2/x3 to normal temperatures in air; ignite (= jelcfa), flammable/inflammable (usually = jelka'e or jelfrili)]; (cf. fagri, kijno, sigja, livla, sacki)
 jemna     jme      gem                                       x1 is a gem/polished stone/pearl of type x2 from gemstone/material/source x3                     6c  30    [also jewel (= jmeja'i); gemstone (= x2, x3, or jmero'i, jmekunra); pearl (= selcakyjme - a gem found inside a shell, tercakyjme - a gem made of shell material, boijme - any ball-shaped gem), mother-of-pearl (= cakyjme)]; (cf. kunra, rokci, jadni, dirba, kargu, krili, pulji)
 jenca jen          shock                                     x1 (event) shocks/stuns x2                                                                       4c  20    (cf. darxi, gunta, spaji)
 jendu jed          axle                 'spindle'            x1 is an axle/spindle [tool] on which x2 rotates, of material/properties x3                      ao   1    (cf. se carna, gunro, tutci)
 jenmi jem     jei  army                                      x1 (mass) is an army serving group/community x2 (mass) in function x3 (activity)                 a   13    (cf. bilni, sonci, xarci)
 jerna              earn                                      x1 (agent/person) earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay x2 for work/service x3 (activity)     8c   8    [also x2 earnings, reward (= zanseljerna or nemjerna), punishment/comeuppance (= sfaseljerna, malseljerna); x3 behavior; job (= terjerna); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyjerna, posyseljerna for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. jibri, pleji, vecnu, cnemu, canja, jdima, jinga, prali, sfasa, janta, kargu, vamji)
 jersi         je'i chase                'pursue'             x1 chases/pursues/(physically) follows after x2; volition is not implied for x1 or x2            as  24    [x1 follows after x2]; (cf. kavbu, rivbi, kalte, lidne)
 jerxo jex          Algerian                                  x1 reflects Algerian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                            ab   1    (cf. friko, xrabo, muslo, fraso)
 jesni jes          needle                                    x1 is a needle [pointed shape/form, not tool] of material x2                                     ao   2    (cf. konju, pijne, jipno, kinli)
 jetce         je'e jet                                       x1 is a jet [expelled stream] of material x2 expelled from x3                                    a    3    (cf. sputu, vamtu)
 jetnu jet     je'u true                                      x1 (du'u) is true/truth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2                                  3j  59    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]; (cf. stace, jitfa, fatci, birti, cfika)
 jgalu         ja'u claw                 'talon'              x1 is a/the claw/nail/talon [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: pointed, penetrating, physical weapon] aa   2    (cf. denci, jirna, batci)
 jganu     jga      angle                                     x1 is an angle [2-dimensional shape/form] from vertex x2 subtended by lateral [segment] x3       7e   1    [also (adjective:) x1 is angular; x2 corner; (segment x3 can be defined by interval)]; (cf. kojna, linji, konju, mokca)
 jgari         jai  grasp                'grip'               x1 grasps/holds/clutches/seizes/grips/[hugs] x2 with x3 (part of x1) at locus x4 (part of x2)    5g  60    [hug (= birjai, pamjai); embrace (= xadjai); handshake (= xanjai, jikyxanjai), handle (= veljai, veljaitci)]; (cf. ralte, pencu, darxi, batke, rinju)
 jgena     jge      knot                                      x1 is a knot/tangle in/between x2 (object/jo'u-objects)                                          a    0    [knot (verb = jgegau, jgezu'e, jgeri'a, jgela'a), knot: fastening between two or more cords (= jgeterjo'e)]; (cf. pluja, julne, lasna, skori)
 jgina gin          gene                                      x1 is a gene of creature [or locus on creature] x2 determining trait/process x3                  a    1    [also chromosome = (gincilta, ginpoi)]; (cf. cerda)
 jgira     jgi      pride                                     x1 (person) feels/has pride in/about x2 (abstraction)                                            9d   4    [an emotional combination of satisfaction and respect/esteem towards property(ies) or action(s) of person/entity that has a specific tie to emoter; self-pride (= se'ijgi, tolcumla); use x2 tu'a for pride in non-specific actions/properties of someone]; (cf. cinmo, cumla, sevzi, sinma, snada)
 jgita git          guitar               'guitar'             x1 is guitar/violin/fiddle/harp [stringed musical instrument] with actuator/plectrum/bow x2      ak   1    [also lute, viola, cello]; (cf. zgike)
 jibni     jbi      near                                      x1 is near/close to/approximates x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni)                              2d  95    (cf. darno, nenri, vanbi, jbini, lamji, zvati, cpana, bartu, diklo, stuzi)
 jibri jib          job                                       x1 is a job/occupation/employment/vocation (a type of work regularly done for pay) of person x2  2n  45    [working for another (= selplijibri)]; (cf. briju, gunka, te jerna which is employment specifically for pay and not specifically for another, te pilno which is employment not necessarily for pay and not necessarily regular or lasting but for another, se gasnu and se zukte for incidental activities)
 jicla              stir                                      x1 (object, or event: force) stirs/mixes/[roils/agitates] fluid (gas/liquid) x2                  as   8    [convection (= nenflejicla); agentive stirring (= jiclygau, jiclyzu'e)]; (cf. fanza, tunta, mixre)
 jicmu     cmu      basis                                     x1 is a basis/foundation/underlying or fundamental principle of x2; x1 is at the bottom of x2    7j  56    [x2 is founded on basis x1 (= selcmu for reordered places); (adjective:) x1 is basic/basal/fundamental); (generally events and properties will be bases for events and states, while objects may be bases/bottoms for objects)]; (cf. cmavo list ji'u, jamfu, zbepi, genja, krasi)
 jijnu jij          intuit                                    x1 (person) intuits x2 (du'u) about subject x3; [epistemology]                                   7j   1    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]; (cf. djuno, facki, jimpe, jinvi, nabmi, pensi, sidbo, smadi)
 jikca jik          socialize            'social'             x1 interacts/behaves socially with x2; x1 socializes with/is sociable towards x2                 2n 170    (cf. tarti, penmi)
 jikru              liquor                                    x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of liquor/spirits distilled from x2                         2j   3    (cf. barja, vanju, birje, xalka)
 jilka jil          alkali                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali/base of composition including x2                  6f   2    [(adjective:) x1 is alkaline]; (cf. sodna, bakri, sodva)
 jilra              jealous                                   x1 (person) is jealous of/envies x2 (person) about/for x3 (property - ka)                        9d   4    (cf. cinmo)
 jimca jic          branch               'limb'               x1 is a branch/bough/limb of x2; x2 forks into branches x1; [preferred over metaphorical birka]  6c  22    [also appendage]; (cf. birka, rebla, tuple)
 jimpe     jmi      understand           'comprehend'         x1 understands/comprehends fact/truth x2 (du'u) about subject x3; x1 understands (fi) x3         1h 148    (cf. djuno, jijnu, morna, smuni, saske, viska)
 jimte jit          limit                                     x1 is a limit/extreme/bound/border/[confinement] of x2 in property/domain x3                     7e  15    [restrain/constrain within limits (= jitri'u, jitygau, jityzu'e)]; (cf. cmavo list ji'e, traji, korbi, kuspe, rinju, bapli, curmi, fanta, jbini)
 jinci              shears                                    x1 is a pair of shears/scissors for cutting x2                                                   6f   5    (cf. katna)
 jinga jig     ji'a win                  'gain'               x1 (person/team) wins/gains prize x2 from/over x3 [competitors/losers] in competition x4         8g  71    [also: x1 is a victor; x2 reward; x3 competitors here are opponents and in many situations, defeated/losers, vs. the set of those competing for a goal; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyji'a, posyselji'a for unambiguous semantics)];  (cf. cirko, jivna, talsa, cnemu, prali, pleji, sfasa, jdima, jerna, bradi, kargu, kelci)
 jinku              vaccine                                   x1 is a vaccine/immune-system stimulant protecting x2 against disease x3 introduced by method x4 a    0    [also serum; inoculation (= jestu'u veljinku)] (cf. jurme, mikce, jesni, bilma)
 jinme jim          metal                                     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of made of metal of composition including x2                ah   6    [(adjective:) x1 is metallic]; (cf. cnisa, gasta, lastu, margu, nikle, ransu, romge, sodna, tinci, tirse, tunka, zinki, kunra, sodva)
 jinru jir          immerse                                   x1 (object/person) is immersed/submerged/bathes in liquid x2                                     6c  11    [take a bath/bathe (= jirsezlu'i)]; (cf. lumci, nenri, jinsa)
 jinsa jis          clean                                     x1 (object) is clean/pure of material/contaminant/dirt x2 by standard x3                         5g  14    (cf. lumci, jinru, curve, sepli)
 jinto              well                                      x1 is a well/spring of fluid x2 at location x3                                                   a   12    (cf. krasi, djacu, fenra)
 jinvi jiv     ji'i opine                                     x1 thinks/opines x2 [opinion] (du'u) is true about subject/issue x3 on grounds x4                3l 161    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place] (cf. cmavo list pe'i, ciksi, jijnu, nabmi, pensi, senpi, sidbo, birti, pinka)
 jinzi jiz          innate                                    x1 (property - ka) is an innate/inherent/intrinsic/natural property/quality/aspect of x2         7j  10    (cf. lakne, rarna, stati, cmavo list ka'e, tcaci)
 jipci              chicken                                   x1 is a chicken/[hen/cock/rooster]/small fowl [a type of bird] of species/breed x2               5b  18    (cf. cipni)
 jipno jip     ji'o tip                  'point'              x1 is a tip/point/vertex/extremity/end [0-dimension shape/form] on object x2 at locus x3         9b   3    (cf. mokca, jesni, fanmo, kojna, krasi)
 jirna              horn                                      x1 is a/the horn [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: pointed extremity]                                ai   9    (cf. jgalu, bongu)
 jisra              juice                                     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of juice/nectar from-source/of-type x2                      2j   6    [water-based extract from a (generally) biological source] (cf. pinxe, djacu, grute, stagi)
 jitfa jif          false                                     x1 (du'u) is false/is an untruth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2                         3j  15    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]; (cf. fatci, stace, jetnu, cfika)
 jitro     tro      control                                   x1 has control over/harnesses/manages/directs/conducts x2 in x3 (activity/event/performance)     8c  26    [x2 are aspects/individuals controlled within activity/event x3; manage (= selzuktro, selzukfu'e, gu'etro, gunfu'e, xaktro, xakfu'e) (as distinct from manager/boss = gunterbe'e, gunja'a, gunmi'e, gunca'i)]; (cf. cmavo list ji'o, bapli, te bende, gidva - which does not necessarily control or command, jatna, macnu, minde, ponse, ralju, rinka, sazri, turni, vlipa, xance, xlura)
 jivbu              weave                                     x1 weaves x2 from material/[yarn] x3                                                             as   0    (cf. fenso, nivji)
 jivna     jvi      compete              'rival'              x1 competes/vies with opponent x2 in contest/competition x3 (event) for gain x4; x1 rivals x2    8g  48    [also x2 opponent(s), competitor(s), rival(s); x3 competition, race; x4 prize, reward, recognition (gain may be internal or external)]; (cf. cnemu, jinga, talsa, bradi, fapro, kelci)
 jmaji jaj          gather                                    x1 (mass/jo'u) gathers/collects at location x2 from locations x3 (mass/jo'u)                     3m  26    [also focus (= seljmaji)]; (cf. crepu)
 jmifa              shoal                'reef'               x1 is a shoal [shallow hazard]/reef of material x2 in body of water x3                           a    0    [rapids (= ri'erjmifa, ri'ercaxno)]; (cf. caxno)
 jmina min          add                  'augment'            x1 adds/combines x2 to/with x3, with result x4; x1 augments x2 by amount x3                      5c  52    (cf. zmadu, banro, sumji, zenba, setca)
 jmive miv     ji'e live                                      x1 lives/is alive by standard x2; x1 is an organism/living thing                                 4c 149    [(adjective:) x1 is vital, organic]; (cf. lifri, morsi, stuzi, zvati, xabju)
 jo    jov          tanru iff                                 logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if                 7a   0
 jo'e  jom          union                                     non-logical connective: union of sets                                                            at   0
 jo'u          jo'u in common with                            non-logical connective: in common with; along with (unmixed)                                     -
 joi   jol     joi  in a mass with                            non-logical connective: mixed conjunction; "and" meaning "mixed together", forming a mass        aq   0
 jordo jor     jo'o Jordanian                                 x1 reflects Jordanian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                           ab   1    (cf. filso)
 jorne jon     jo'e joined                                    x1 is joined to/connects to/is united with x2 at common locus x3; x1 and x2 are a union          6f  34    [also joined/fastened/attached by joint x3/by means of x3/with fastener x3; fastener (= jo'etci, jonvelyla'a); train, sequence of joined objects (= jonpoi; porjo'e for a single object joined into a sequence)]; (cf. lasna, fenso, kansa, pencu, penmi)
 ju    juv          tanru whether                             logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought whether-or-not                                   7a   0
 jubme jub jbu      table                                     x1 is a table/flat solid upper surface of material x2, supported by legs/base/pedestal x3        1f  49    (cf. ckana, jamfu, nilce, zbepi, tsina, stizu)
 judri              address                                   x1 is an address of/are coordinates of x2 in system x3                                           5d  25    (cf. tcita, cmene, ciste, stuzi)
 jufra juf     ju'a sentence             'phrase'             x1 (text) is a sentence/statement about x2 [topic/subject/predicate/focus] in language x3        1h 111    [phrase (= jufpau, suzrelvla, suzvla, gensle)]; (cf. valsi, bangu, gerna, cusku, smuni)
 jukni juk          spider               'arachnid'           x1 is a spider/arachnid/[crustacean/crab/lobster/non-insect arthropod] of species/breed x2       ai  11    (cf. cinki, danlu)
 jukpa jup          cook                                      x1 cooks/prepares food-for-eating x2 by recipe/method x3 (process)                               5c  57    [cook with heat (= glajukpa, glaterjukpa), bake (= tokyjukpa); fry (= rasyjukpa)]; (cf. cupra, bredi)
 julne         ju'e net                                       x1 is a net/filter allowing passage of x2, prohibiting passage of x3, netting properties x4      ao   3    [also sieve]; (cf. komcu, ciste, jgena)
 jundi jud     ju'i attentive            'attend'             x1 is attentive towards/attends/tends/pays attention to object/affair x2                         4d  76    (cf. kurji, zvati)
 jungo jug          Chinese                                   x1 reflects Chinese [Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, etc.] culture/nationality/language in aspect x2    ab  10    (cf. xazdo)
 junla jul          clock                                     x1 is clock/watch/timer measuring time units x2 to precision x3 with timing mechanism/method x4  3e   5    [also timepiece]; (cf. cacra, mentu, snidu, tcika, temci)
 junri jur          serious                                   x1 (person) is serious/earnest/has gravity about x2 (event/state/activity)                       9d  12    [also solemn (= drijunri, ri'irjunri, tcejunri)]; (cf. tilju, xalbo, badri, ritli)
 junta              weight                                    x1 is the weight of object x2 in [gravitational or other force] field x3                         9b   0    (cf. grake, linto, tilju, bunda)
 jurme jum          germ                                      x1 is a bacteria/germ/microbe/protozoan/amoeba [1-celled life] of species/defining property x2   ai   1    (cf. vidru)
 jursa jus          severe               'harsh'              x1 (event/action/state) is severe/harsh to x2 [victim/experiencer]                               4c  13    (cf. gunta, vlile)
 jutsi jut          species                                   x1 is a species of genus x2, family x3, etc.; [open-ended tree-structure categorization]         ai  30    [also subspecies, order, phylum; (places do not correspond to specific levels in the hierarchy; rather, x1 is at a "lower" or "bushier" part of the tree than x2, x2 is "lower" than x3, etc.; skipping a place thus means that there is one or more known-and-unspecified levels of hierarchy between the two); not limited to Linnean animal/plant taxonomy]; (cf. klesi, lanzu)
 juxre jux          clumsy               'awkward'            x1 (action) is clumsy/awkward by standard x2                                                     5g  16    (cf. sluji, muvdu)
 jvinu vin     ji'u view                                      x1 is the view/scene/panorama/sight/prospect of x2 (object/location) from point-of-view x3       6c  18    [also x1 is on display to x2/x3]; (cf. catlu, kanla, viska, canko, jarco)
 ka    kam          property abstract                         abstractor: property/quality abstractor (-ness); x1 is quality/property exhibited by [bridi]     3b   0    (cf. ckaji)
 kabri              cup                                       x1 is a cup/glass/tumbler/mug/vessel/[bowl] containing contents x2, and of material x3           2j  88    [a kabri is normally eaten from by lifting it; a palta is not]; (cf. palta, citka, blaci, tansi)
 kacma              camera                                    x1 is a camera/photographic equipment recording illumination type x2 images to medium x3         6c  12    (cf. lenjo)
 kadno              Canadian                                  x1 reflects Canadian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                            ab   2    (cf. bemro, glico)
 kafke              cough                                     x1 coughs/farts/burps up/out x2 [predominantly gaseous] from orifice x3                          4c   5    (cf. bilma, senci, sputu, vamtu)
 kagni kag          company                                   x1 is a company/corporation/firm/partnership chartered by authority x2 for purpose x3            8c  25    [also enterprise/organization (if chartered)]; (cf. kansa, kamni, banxa, bende)
 kajde     jde      warn                 'caution'            x1 (event/experience) warns/cautions x2 (person) of/about danger x3 (event/state/property)       4c  42    [agentive warning (= jdegau, jdezu'e); an attempt to warn which may not succeed (= jdetoi, jdegautoi, jdezuktoi)]; (cf. ckape, nupre, snura, tcica, xlura)
 kajna              shelf                'counter'            x1 is a shelf/counter/bar in/on/attached to supporting object x2, for purpose x3                 a    2    (cf. balni)
 kakne         ka'e able                 'can'                x1 is able to do/be/capable of doing/being x2 (event/state) under conditions x3 (event/state)    2e 154    [also: has talent; know how to; know how to use (= plika'e)]; (cf. stati, certu, gasnu (in the time-free potential sense), cmavo list ka'e, cmavo list nu'o, cmavo list pu'i, djuno, zifre)
 kakpa              dig                                       x1 (agent) digs x2 [material] up/out of x3 [source/hole] with limbs/tool(s) x4                   6f  29    [also x1 cuts into x3 (with material removal)]; (cf. katna, plixa, sraku, canpa, sraku)
 kalci              feces                'shit'               x1 is a/the feces/excrement/dung/shit of x2 (animal/person); (adjective:) x1 is fecal (matter)   aa   0    [also crap]; (cf. ganxo, pinca, vikmi, mabla, festi)
 kalri kar          open                                      x1 (portal/passage/entrance-way) is open/ajar/not shut permitting passage/access to x2 by x3     1e  90    [as a doorway]; (cf. ganlo, pagre, canko, vorme)
 kalsa kas          chaotic                                   x1 is chaotic/disordered in property/aspect x2 (ka)                                              a   29    (cf. cunso, cnici)
 kalte kat          hunt                                      x1 hunts/stalks prey/quarry/game x2 for purpose x3                                               as  15    [also verb: to fish (= fipkalte)]; (cf. jersi, kavbu, sisku, rivbi)
 kamju              column                                    x1 is a column/pillar of material x2                                                             a   18    [spine (= bogykamju), vertebra (= kamjybo'u)]; (cf. ckana, garna, sanli, slanu)
 kamni              committee                                 x1 (mass) is a committee with task/purpose x2 of body x3                                         8d  11    [board of directors/trustees/cabinet (= trukamni, gritrukamni)] (cf. bende, kagni)
 kampu         kau  common                                    x1 (property - ka) is common/general/universal among members of set x2 (complete set)            6f  24    (cf. cafne, rirci, fadni, cnano, tcaci, lakne, cmima, simxu)
 kanba              goat                 'kid, billy, baa'    x1 is a goat/angora/[billy-goat/kid] of species/breed x2                                         ai   2    (cf. lanme, sunla)
 kancu kac          count                                     x1 (agent) counts the number in set x2 to be x3 [number/count] counting [off] by units x4        3a  24    (x2 is complete set); (cf. kanji, satci, merli)
 kandi kad          dim                                       x1 is dim/dull/pale/non-intense in property x2 (ka) as received/measured by observer x3          1a  39    [in colors, indicates unsaturated, pastel, pale (though blabi can also indicate a kind of paleness)]; (cf. blabi, carmi, klina, linto, manku, murse, ruble, skari, milxe, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xekri, xunre, zirpu)
 kanji kaj          calculate            'reckon'             x1 calculates/reckons/computes x2 [value (ni)/state] from data x3 by process x4                  7e   0    (cf. kancu, jdice, skami)
 kanla kal          eye                  'ocular'             x1 is a/the eye [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: sensory apparatus]; (adjective:) x1 is ocular      1c   0    [x1 is optic]; (cf. jvinu, kerlo, viska, kumte)
 kanro         ka'o healthy                                   x1 is healthy/fit/well/in good health by standard x2                                             4c  35    (cf. bilma, mikce)
 kansa kan          with                 'accompany'          x1 is with/accompanies/is a companion of x2, in state/condition/enterprise x3 (event/state)      2g 228    [x1 is together with/along with x2] (cf. kagni, jorne, gunma, girzu, lasna)
 kantu         ka'u quantum                                   x1 is a quantum/ray/elementary particle/smallest measurable increment of property/activity x2    7j   9    [quantum ray (= bonka'u)]; (cf. selci for masses and most objects; ratni, gradu, gusni, nejni, linji)
 kanxe kax          conjunction                               x1 is a conjunction, stating that x2 (du'u) and x3 (du'u) are both true                          7a   5    (cf. vlina)
 karbi kab          compare                                   x1 [observer] compares x2 with x3 in property x4 (ka), determining comparison x5 (state)         7e   3    (cf. klani, mapti, sarxe, zmadu, mleca, dunli)
 karce              car                                       x1 is a car/automobile/truck/van [a wheeled motor vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled by x3      4d 121    (cf. carce, xislu, marce, sabnu)
 karda              card                                      x1 is a card [small nearly-2-dimensional shape/form] of material x2, shape x3                    9b   2    (x3 shape default rectangular); (cf. matci, tapla, plita)
 kargu              costly                                    x1 (object/commodity/property/event) is costly/expensive/dear to x2 by standard x3               5e  55    [x1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= poskargu for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. vamji, dirba, vajni, jdima, pleji, canja, jerna, jinga, jemna, sfasa, vecnu)
 karli              collar                                    x1 is a collar/ring/belt/band around/surrounding x2 made of material x3                          a    1    [also sphincter]; (cf. sruri, djine)
 karni              journal                                   x1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] with content x2 published by x3 for audience x4  8b  56    [x2 may be a subject, but not all journals have a single subject; all have some sort of principle defining what is included, so this need not be a list]; (cf. papri, pelji, tcidu)
 katna         ka'a cut                                       x1 (tool/blade/force) cuts [through]/splits/divides x2 (object) into pieces x3                   5c  25    [for x1 force, it is a force acting as a blade, not acting upon a blade; agentive cutting (= ka'argau, ka'arzu'e)]; (cf. kakpa, sraku for cutting into without division; plixa, dakfu, jinci, porpi, spofu, tunta, xrani, fatri, fendi, balre, dilcu)
 kavbu kav          capture              'catch'              x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with trap/restraint x3                             8e  33    [catch something thrown (= rerkavbu)]; (cf. jersi, kalte, pinfu, sisku, se rinju)
 ke    kem          start grouping                            start grouping of tanru, etc; ... type of ... ; overrides normal tanru left grouping             3b   0    (cf. cmavo list ke'e)
 ke'e  kep     ke'e end grouping                              elidable terminator: end of tanru left grouping override (usually elidable)                      3b   0    (cf. cmavo list ke)
 kecti kec     ke'i pity                                      x1 (person) pities/feels sorry for x2 (person) about x3 (abstraction)                            4c  23    (cf. cinmo, xendo)
 kei   kez          end abstraction                           elidable terminator: end abstraction bridi (often elidable)                                      3b   0
 kelci kel     kei  play                                      x1 [agent] plays with plaything/toy x2                                                           9c 116    [play game (= ci'erkei), play competitively (= jvikei)]; (cf. jivna, jinga, zdile)
 kelvo         ke'o kelvin                                    x1 is x2 degree(s) Kelvin [metric unit] in temperature (default is 1) by standard x3             af   1    (cf. gradu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 kenra ken          cancer                                    x1 is a cancer [malignant disease] in x2                                                         a    0    (cf. bilma, mikce, spita)
 kensa kes          outer space                               x1 is outer space near/associated with celestial body/region x2                                  am   3    (cf. canlu, munje, terdi, tsani)
 kerfa     kre      hair                                      x1 is a/the hair/fur [body-part] of x2 at body location x3                                       1c  60    (cf. skapi, sunla, pimlu)
 kerlo ker          ear                  'aural, earlobe'     x1 is a/the ear [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: sensory apparatus, information gathering]          1c  16    [(adjective:) x1 is aural]; (cf. kanla, savru, smaji, tirna, ractu)
 ketco ket tco      South American       'Quechua'            x1 reflects South American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2                            ab   7    (cf. merko, xispo, brazo, gento, spano)
 kevna kev     ke'a cavity               'cave'               x1 is a cavity/hole/hollow/cavern in x2; x1 is concave within x2; x2 is hollow at locus x1       6c 148    [also pit, depression, concavity; hollow (= selke'a)]; (cf. fenra, kunti, canlu, canko, galxe, tubnu)
 kicne kic     ki'e cushion                                   x1 cushions x2 with material x3; x1 is a cushion/pillow/pad [for x2] of padding material x3      an   7    (cf. ckana, matci)
 kijno kij          oxygen                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of oxygen (O); [metaphor: supporting life/combustion]       ag   1    (cf. jelca, vacri, vasxu)
 kilto         ki'o 1000                 metric 'kilo'        x1 is a thousand [1000; 1x10**3] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                 ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro, minli)
 kinli kil          sharp                'keen'               x1 is sharp/keen at locus x2                                                                     7j   7    (cf. balre, dakfu, jesni)
 kisto kis          Pakistani                                 x1 reflects Pakistani/Pashto culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                           ab   1    (cf. xurdo)
 klaji laj          street               'avenue'             x1 is a street/avenue/lane/drive/cul-de-sac/way/alley/[road] at x2 accessing x3                  5d  23    [also corridor; not typically a route between points, but offers access to sites along it]; (cf. naxle, panka, pluta, dargu)
 klaku kak          weep                                      x1 weeps/cries tears x2 about/for reason x3 (event/state)                                        4c  27    (cf. badri, krixa)
 klama     kla      come                                      x1 comes/goes to destination x2 from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle x5               1g1399    [also travels, journeys, moves, leaves to ... from ...; x1 is a traveller; (x4 as a set includes points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly)]; (cf. cadzu, bajra, marce, vofli, litru, muvdu, cpare, cmavo list ka'a, pluta, bevri, farlu, limna, vitke)
 klani         lai  quantity                                  x1 is a quantity quantified/measured/enumerated by x2 (quantifier) on scale x3 (si'o)            3b  31    [also count]; (cf. cmavo list la'u, namcu)
 klesi     kle lei  class                                     x1 (mass/si'o) is a class/category/subgroup/subset within x2 with defining property x3 (ka)      7c  63    [also type, kind, classification, species, genus, family, order, phylum]; (cf. cmavo list le'a, cmima, jutsi, ciste, girzu, lanzu, vrici)
 klina     kli      clear                                     x1 (object/medium) is clear/transparent/without obstacle to in-the-clear x2 [transmission]       7j  32    [also lucid; x2 remains apparent/lucid/clear (figurative use for 'understandable' is discouraged, better expressed as = filseljmi)]; (cf. kandi, zunti - nalzu'i is better for 'unhindered')
 kliru              chlorine                                  x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of halogen of type x2 [chlorine, fluorine, iodine, etc.]    ag   3    [also bromine; default chlorine] (cf. xukmi)
 kliti kit          clay                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of clay [moist, clammy dirt] of composition including x2    ah   4    (cf. dertu, pesxu, staku)
 klupe lup     lu'e screw                                     x1 is a screw [fastener] for purpose x2, threads [pitch, material] x3, frame [size, material] x4 a    0    [also bolt]; (cf. korcu, sarlu, tutci)
 kluza luz          loose                'blouse'             x1 (obj.) is loose/bloused/not tight on x2 (obj.) at locus x3                                    3f   6    (cf. tagji, trati, rinju)
 kobli kob     ko'i cabbage              'cole-'              x1 is a quantity of cabbage/lettuce/leafy vegetable of species/strain x2                         aj   2    (cf. stagi)
 kojna koj     ko'a corner                                    x1 is a corner/point/at-least-3-dimensional [solid] angle [shape/form] in/on x2, of material x3  9b  13    [also apex; a corner exists on three dimensions but need not be limited to points; it suggests a discontinuity in slope in some direction; i.e. in some planar cross-section]; (cf. jipno, konju, bliku, fanmo, jganu, krasi)
 kolme kol     ko'e coal                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of coal/peat/anthracite/bituminous from source x2           ah   3    (cf. tabno, tarla)
 komcu kom          comb                                      x1 is a comb [many-needled shape] of material x2 with tines/needles x3                           ao   1    (cf. julne, forca, burcu)
 konju kon     ko'u cone                                      x1 is a cone [shape/form] of material x2 with vertex x3                                          9b   0    [also ellipse, ellipsoid (= konclupa)]; (cf. jesni, djine, sovda, kojna, jganu)
 korbi kor     koi  edge                 'border, curb'       x1 is an edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2 next-to/bordering-on x3                          9b  43    (cf. cmavo list koi, greku, mlana, jimte, ctebi, bartu)
 korcu     kro      bent                 'crooked, corkscrew' (adjective:) x1 is bent/crooked/not straight or direct/[twisted]/folded                          6f  10    (cf. cinje, klupe, kruvi, polje, sarlu, sirji, bargu, genxu)
 korka kok          cork                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cork/bark from tree/species x2; [material]               ah   1    (cf. tricu, calku, skapi, stagi)
 kosta kos          coat                                      x1 is a coat/jacket/sweater/cloak/[cape/shawl/pullover] [extra outer garment] of material x2     3f  23    (cf. pastu, sunla, taxfu)
 kramu              acre                                      x1 is x2 local area unit(s) [non-metric] (default 1) by standard x3, x4 subunits                 af   0    (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...); (cf. rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda)
 krasi     kra      source               'origin'             x1 (site/event) is a source/start/beginning/origin of x2 (object/event/process)                  2c 156    [also root (figurative sense); (adjective:) x1 is initial]; (cf. fanmo, cmavo list ra'i, sabji, cfari, jipno, traji, kojna, genja, jicmu, sitna, jinto)
 krati         ka'i represent            'proxy'              x1 represents/is an agent/proxy/stands-in for [absent] x2 in matter(s)/function(s) x3            8c   9    [also: on behalf of]; (cf. cmavo list ka'i, jansu, catni, vipsi, pulji)
 krefu ref     ke'u recur                                     x1 (event) is the x3'rd recurrence/repetition of x2 (abstract); x2 happens again in [form] x1    7j  56    [also case, another, instance, different, other, time, occasion]; (cf. fukpi, rapli, cafne, fasnu, xruti)
 krici     kri      believe              'creed'              x1 believes [without evidence/proof] belief/creed x2 (du'u) is true/assumed about subject x3     3l  99    ["without evidence" refers to objective external evidence; also gives credence, has conviction]; (cf. censa, cevni, lijda, makfa, malsi, senpi, birti)
 krili              crystal                                   x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of crystal of composition x2 in form/arrangement x3         ah   5    [x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification]; (cf. jemna, bisli)
 krinu rin     ki'u reason                                    x1 (event/state) is a reason/justification/explanation for/causing/permitting x2 (event/state)   6a  73    (cf. ciksi, rinka, nibli, mukti, se jalge, te zukte, cmavo list ki'u, bapli)
 krixa kix     ki'a cry out                                   x1 cries out/yells/howls sound x2; x1 is a crier                                                 4c  53    (cf. klaku, bacru)
 kruca kuc          intersect            'cross'              x1 intersects/crosses/traverses x2 at locus x3                                                   5d  31    (cf. cripu, ragve)
 kruji ruj          cream                                     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of cream/emulsion/puree [consistency] of composition x2     2j  18    [x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification]]; (cf. ladru, matne)
 kruvi ruv kru      curve                                     x1 is a curve/turn/bend in x2, at locus x3, and defined by set of points/properties x4           5d   4    [(adjective:) x1 is curved; (x4 as a set of points is sufficiently specified to identify the relevant properties of the bend)]; (cf. korcu, bargu, genxu, linji, sirji)
 ku'a  kuz          intersection                              non-logical connective: intersection of sets                                                     at   0
 kubli kub          cube                                      x1 is a cube/regular polyhedron/polygon of dimensions x2 (def. 3), surfaces/sides x3 (def. 6)    9b   3    (cf. kurfa - needed for 'cube', bliku for a physical object; tanbo, tapla, tarmi)
 kucli              curious                                   x1 is curious/wonders about/is interested in/[inquisitive about] x2 (object/abstract)            9d  31    [inquisitive (= retkucli)]; (cf. manci, sisku, se cinri)
 kufra kuf          comfort                                   x1 feels comfort/is comfortable with conditions/environmental property(ies) x2                   9d  34    (cf. cinmo)
 kukte kuk          delicious            'cooked, tasty'      x1 is delicious/tasty/delightful to observer/sense x2 [person, or sensory activity]              2j  24    [x1 is a delicacy]; (cf. gusta, ralci, vrusi, cpina)
 kulnu     klu      culture                                   x1 [mass of ideas, customs, skills, arts] is culture of nation/ethos x2 (mass); x1 is ethnic     ab  45    [(note that x2 is NOT individual; culture is what is shared among people and is not an individual trait)]; (cf. cmavo list ka'u, cmavo list ku'u, natmi, cecmu)
 kumfa kum     ku'a room                                      x1 is a room of/in structure x2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x3 (mass/jo'u)      2k 346    [also chamber]; (cf. bitmu, canlu, zdani)
 kumte              camel                                     x1 is a camel/llama/alpaca/vicuna/dromedary of species/breed x2                                  ai   3    [llama (= tcokumte), Bactrian camel (= zdokumte); Arabian camel/dromedary (= rabykumte)]; (cf. sunla, kanla, xirma, xasli)
 kunra kun          mineral              'mined'              x1 is/contains/is made from a mineral/ore of type/metal x2 mined from location/lode/mine x3      6c   5    (cf. jinme, bisli, rokci, jemna)
 kunti kut          empty                'vacant'             x1 [container] is empty/vacant of x2 [material]; x1 is hollow                                    2g  54    [also vacuum (= kunti be roda/so'ada)]; (cf. culno, tisna, claxu, canlu, kevna, setca)
 kurfa kur          square                                    x1 is a right-angled shape/form defined by set of vertices x2, dimensions x3 (default 2)         9b   2    [also rectangle, square, rectilinear; square (= kubykurfa, pitkubykurfa), cube (= kurkubli), rectangle (= clakurfa), rhombus/diamond (= sa'orkurfa, sa'orpitkubli)]; (cf. bliku, kubli, tapla, salpo, tarmi)
 kurji kuj     ku'i take care of         'care'               x1 takes-care-of/looks after/attends to/provides for/is caretaker for x2 (object/event/person)   2l  49    [also tends, cares for, keeps; x1 is a keeper/custodian of x2]; (cf. jundi, cinri, prami, raktu, zgana)
 kurki              bitter               'acrid'              x1 is bitter/acrid/sharply disagreeable to observer/sense x2                                     6f   6    (cf. titla, slari)
 kuspe kup     ku'e range                'span'               x1 ranges/extends/spans/persists/reaches across/over interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range x2     9b   5    [also continues]; (cf. ranji, renvi, tcena, bancu, cripu, ragve, vorme, canko, bitmu, sirji, jbini, jimte, preja)
 kusru kus          cruel                                     x1 (person) is cruel/mean/unkind to victim x2                                                    9c  21    (cf. xendo, jursa)
 labno              wolf                 'lobo'               x1 is a wolf/lupine of species/breed x2                                                          ai   3    (cf. gerku)
 lacpu lap cpu      pull                                      x1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags x2 by handle/at locus x3                                               8h  19    [gravity (= ka maicpu, maircpukai)]; (cf. catke, sakci, cokcu)
 lacri lac          rely                                      x1 relies/depends/counts on/trusts x2 to bring about/ensure/maintain x3 (event/state)            8c  16    (cf. minde, nitcu, tinbe)
 ladru lad          milk                 'lactic'             x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of milk from source x2; (adjective:) x1 is lactic/dairy     2j  16    (cf. lanbi, mabru, tatru, cirla, kruji)
 lafti laf          lift                                      x1 (force) lifts/applies raising/supporting force to x2 at locus x3 in gravity well x4           8h  36    [(x1 may be an abstract); verb lift/raise/elevate (= lafmuvgau)] (cf. farlu, plipe)
 lakne         la'e probable             'likely'             x1 (event/state/property) is probable/likely under conditions x2                                 6f  30    (cf. cumki, jinzi, kampu, tcaci, cunso, cafne, fadni, cnano)
 lakse lak          wax                                       x1 is quantity of wax [substance especially soft/moldable when warm] from source x2              a    1    [also paraffin]; (cf. bifce, ranti, bidju)
 lalxu         la'u lake                 'lagoon'             x1 is a lake/lagoon/pool at site/within land mass x2                                             6c  61    (cf. daplu, djacu, rirxe, xamsi, zbani)
 lamji lam     la'i adjacent                                  x1 is adjacent/beside/next to/in contact with x2 in property/sequence x3 in direction x4         2d  63    [also touching, contiguous, against]; (cf. zvati, cpana, jibni, diklo, stuzi, bartu, jbini)
 lanbi              protein              'albumin'            x1 is a quantity of protein/albumin of type x2 composed of amino acids (sequence/jo'u)           aj   2    (cf. ladru, sovda)
 lanci              flag                 'banner'             x1 is a flag/banner/standard of/symbolizing x2 with pattern(s) x3 on material x4                 ao   0    (cf. gugde, jecta)
 lanka              basket                                    x1 is a basket with contents x2, woven from material x3                                          ao   0    (cf. vasru, baktu)
 lanli lal          analyze                                   x1 analyzes/examines-in-detail x2 by method/technique/system x3 [process/activity]               8c  21    (cf. catlu, zgana, jarco, pensi, pinka)
 lanme lan          sheep                'lanolin, lamb'      x1 is a sheep/[lamb/ewe/ram] of species/breed x2 of flock x3                                     ai   2    (cf. kanba, sunla)
 lante              can                                       x1 is a can/tightly sealed/pre-sealed container for perishable contents x2, made of x3           5c   5    (cf. botpi, baktu, tinci)
 lanxe lax          balance                                   x1 is in balance/equilibrium under forces x2 (mass)                                              7j   5    (cf. midju, nutli; fapro for balancing/opposing forces, nutli)
 lanzu laz          family               'clan'               x1 (mass) is a family with members including x2 bonded/tied/joined according to standard x3      4b  44    [also clan, tribe; x2 is in x1, a member of x1 (selylanzu for reordered places); relative (= lazmi'u - xy mintu y'y leka cmima da poi lanzu)]; (cf. natmi, cmima, girzu, jutsi, klesi)
 larcu lar          art                                       x1 (process) is an art [creative application] of craft/skill x2 (idea/activity)                  8c  11    [(adjective:) x1 is artistic]; (cf. finti, zbasu, stati)
 lasna         la'a fasten               'lash'               x1 (agent) fastens/connects/attaches/binds/lashes x2 to x3 with fastener x4                      3f  17    [no implication that result is considered a single object; although x2 and x3 may be reversible, x3 may be used for the substrate, the fixed/larger object to which x2 becomes attached];(cf. jorne, fenso, jgena, batke, dinko, kansa)
 lastu              brass                                     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of brass [copper/zinc alloy] of composition including x2    ah   7    [(adjective:) x1 is brazen)]; (cf. jinme, ransu, tunka)
 latmo         la'o Latin                                     x1 reflects Latin/Roman/Romance culture/empire/language in aspect x2                             ab  13    (cf. ropno, fraso, spano, xispo)
 latna              lotus                                     x1 is a lotus, plant/flower/herb of species/strain x2 symbolizing x3 to culture/religion x4      aj   1    (cf. budjo, censa, lijda, spati)
 lazni              lazy                                      x1 (person) is lazy/avoiding work/effort concerning action x2                                    a    9    (cf. nejni, vreta, gunka)
 le'e  lem          the stereotypical                         non-veridical descriptor: the stereotype of those described as ...                               at   0
 lebna leb     le'a take                                      x1 takes/gets/gains/obtains/seizes/[removes] x2 (object/property) from x3 (possessor)            2b  81    [also confiscate, appropriate]; [acquire with volition such that x1 gains possession; x3 is possessor and not merely source, alienation is implied]; (cf. punji, cpacu where volition or previous possession is not necessarily implied, vimcu for alienation where x1 need not gain possession, canci, cliva)
 lenjo len     le'o lens                                      x1 is a lens/glass [focussing shape/form] focussing x2 to focus/foci x3 by means/material x4     ao   4    [(adjective:) x1 is optical; focussing may be optical or otherwise, hence x2 which may be light, sound, X-ray, etc., default is light/optical lens; ka is refraction] (cf. kacma, minra)
 lenku lek          cold                 'cool'               x1 is cold/cool by standard x2                                                                   2g  52    (cf. glare, bisli)
 lerci lec          late                                      x1 (event) is late by standard x2                                                                2g  31    (cf. clira)
 lerfu ler     le'u letteral                                  x1 (la'e zo BY/word-bu) is a letter/digit/symbol in alphabet/character-set x2 representing x3    3a 215    [also x1 glyph, rune, character (also me'o BY/word-bu), x2 symbol set; (adjective:) x1 is alphabetic/symbolic; "letteral" used by analogy with "numeral"; sinxa is the more generic symbol]; (cf. mifra, namcu, sinxa, pandi)
 li'i  liz          experience abstract                       abstractor: experience abstractor; x1 is x2's experience of [bridi] (participant or observer)    -         (cf. lifri)
 libjo lib          Libyan                                    x1 reflects Libyan culture/nationality in aspect x2                                              ab   1    (cf. friko, xrabo, muslo)
 lidne         li'e precede              'leader'             x1 precedes/leads x2 in sequence x3; x1 is former/preceding/previous; x2 is latter/following     8c  50    [also x1 before, forerunner; leading, as in 'leading indicators'; x2 after, trailing (= selyli'e for reordered places)]; (cf. cmavo list li'e, balvi, ralju, rebla, purci for time sequence, jersi, porsi, jatna, farna)
 lifri lif fri      experience           'life'               x1 [person/passive/state] undergoes/experiences x2 (event/experience); x2 happens to x1          2n 148    [also has/have (of events/experiences); (adjective:) x1 is empirical; suggests passive undergoing but does not exclude active (per zukte) intent; a deserved experience: reward or punishment (= jernyfri, zanjernyfri, maljernyfri)]; (cf. cmavo list ri'i, jmive, fasnu, renvi)
 lijda     jda      religion                                  x1 is a religion of believers including x2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets including x3  ac 126    [also mythos, creed, traditional beliefs, x2 people(s), adherents; (adjective:) x1, x2, x3 are religious/ecclesiastic in nature; x2 is a believer in/of x1, an adherent/follower of x1 (= seljda for reordered places); x2 is a practitioner of x3 (= selterjda for reordered places); x3 is a tenet/belief/ritual/creed of x1/x2 (= terjda for reordered places); priest/clerical (= jdaca'i, jdaka'i, jdaja'a); organized church/religion (= be'ejda); congregation (= jdabe'e, jdagri)]; (cf. budjo, censa, cevni, crida, dadjo, jegvo, krici, latna, malsi, marde, muslo, pruxi, ranmi, ritli, xriso, zekri)
 limna lim          swim                                      x1 (agent) swims in fluid x2                                                                     6c  33    (cf. djacu, fulta, klama, litru)
 lindi lid          lightning                                 x1 is lightning/electrical arc/thunderbolt striking at/extending to x2 from x3                   4h  24    [also thunder (= lidysna)]; (cf. dikca)
 linji lij     li'i line                                      x1 is a line/among lines [1-dimensional shape/form] defined by set of points x2                  9b  10    [ray/vector (farli'i or porli'i)]; (cf. kruvi, sirji, jganu, kantu, mokca)
 linsi lin          chain                'links'              x1 is a length of chain/links of material x2 with link properties x3                             9f  21    (cf. skori)
 linto         li'o lightweight                               x1 is light in mass/weight by standard x2                                                        9b   3    (cf. junta, tilju; se xalbo, kandi for metaphor)
 lisri lis          story                                     x1 is a story/tale/yarn/narrative about plot/subject/moral x2 by storyteller x3 to audience x4   8b  81    [also legend; a narrative need not be fictional; x2 may be merely a convention rather than a subject; also x3 tells/recounts story/tale x1 about x2 to x4 (= selterlisri for place reordering); note that the storyteller need not be the author]; (cf. ranmi, cfika, skicu, prosa, pemci)
 liste     ste      list                                      x1 (physical object) is a list/catalog/register of sequence/set x2 in order x3 in medium x4      7c  32    [also roll, log]; (x2 is completely specified); (cf. porsi, girzu, cmima for mental objects wherein order is of varying importance; some manifested order is intrinsic to a physical list, but the specific order may be incidental and not intentional/purposeful)
 litce lic          liter                                     x1 is x2 liter(s) [metric unit] in volume (default is 1) by standard x3                          af   0    (cf. merli, grake, mitre, dekpu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 litki lik          liquid                                    x1 is liquid/fluid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3                    6b  11    [conditions include temperature and pressure]; (cf. cilmo, djacu, lumci, runta, pambe, sudga, gapci, sligu, flecu, jduli)
 litru         li'u travel                                    x1 travels/journeys/goes/moves via route x2 using means/vehicle x3; x1 is a traveller            7f 118    (x2 as a set includes points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly); (cf. bajra, cadzu, cpare, tcana, klama, cliva, pluta, limna, muvdu)
 livga              liver                                     x1 is a/the liver [body-part] of x2                                                              aa   0    (cf. rango, betfu)
 livla lil          fuel                                      x1 is a fuel/energy-source for powering x2                                                       7f   1    (cf. nejni, xaksu, jelca)
 lo'e  lom          the typical                               veridical descriptor: the typical one(s) who really is(are) ...                                  at   0
 logji loj          logic                                     x1 [rules/methods] is a logic for deducing/concluding/inferring/reasoning to/about x2 (du'u)     7a  24    [also (adjective:) x1, x2 are logical]; (cf. nibli)
 lojbo lob jbo      Lojbanic                                  x1 reflects [Loglandic]/Lojbanic language/culture/nationality/community in aspect x2             1b   0    [pre-Lojban forms of Loglan (= dzejbo)] (cf. bangu, logji)
 loldi lol     loi  floor                                     x1 is a floor/bottom/ground of x2                                                                2k 120    [floor/level/story of a building/edifice (= setloi, dijysenta)]; (cf. bitmu, drudi, dertu, dizlo, cnita, zbepi, sarji, serti)
 lorxu lor     lo'u fox                                       x1 is a fox [bushy-tailed wild dog/canine] of species/breed x2                                   ai  36    (cf. gerku)
 lubno         lu'o Lebanese                                  x1 reflects Lebanese culture/nationality in aspect x2                                            ab   1    (cf. xrabo)
 lujvo luv jvo      affix compound                            x1 (text) is a compound predicate word with meaning x2 and arguments x3 built from metaphor x4   1b 428    (cf. stura, cmavo, gismu, rafsi, smuni)
 lumci lum     lu'i wash                                      x1 (agent) washes/cleanses x2 of soil/contaminant x3 in/with cleaning material(s) x4             5g  16    [agentless washing/cleansing (= cuvbi'o, jisybi'o)]; (cf. djacu, jinru, litki, zbabu, jinsa, curve)
 lunbe lub          bare                                      x1 is bare/naked/nude; x1 is without cover/clothes/[protection]                                  a   17    (cf. taxfu, bandu)
 lunra lur          lunar                                     x1 is Earth's moon (default); x1 is a major natural satellite/moon of planet x2                  am  36    (cf. plini, solri, terdi, mluni)
 lunsa lus          condense                                  x1 condenses/liquefies on/into x2 at temperature x3, pressure x4; x1 is dew/condensate on x2     a    0    (cf. cilmo, dunja, febvi, runme, bumru)
 mabla mal          derogative                                x1 is a derogative connotation/sense of x2 used by x3; x3 derogates/'curses at' x2 in form x1    3d  78    [bloody (British sense), fucking, shit, goddamn]; (cf. palci, dapma, xlali, zabna, funca, ganti, ganxo, gletu, gutra, kalci, pinca, pinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi, zargu)
 mabru mab          mammal                                    x1 is a mammal/'animal'/beast of species x2                                                      6c   7    (cf. danlu, ladru, tatru, ractu, xanto, xarju)
 macnu     cnu      manual                                    x1 (event/action/process) is manual [not automatic] in function x2 under conditions x3           7g   1    (cf. zmiku, jitro)
 makcu         ma'u mature                                    x1 is mature/ripe/fully-grown/adult in development-quality x2 (ka)                               9c  18    (cf. cifnu, ninmu, verba, banro, farvi, nanmu)
 makfa maf          magic                                     x1 is magic/supernatural/sorcery/witchcraft/wizardry to x2, performed by person/force/deity x3   a   50    (cf. krici, manci)
 maksi mak          magnet                                    x1 is magnetic [adjective] producing magnetic field x2                                           a    1    (cf. dikca, trina, xlura)
 malsi mas          temple                                    x1 is a temple/church/sanctuary/synagogue/shrine of religion x2 at location/serving area x3      9a  33    [x2 may be event of form (... worships/pays/respect to ...), hence (metaphorically extending to) monument (= mojmalsi, si'armalsi)]; (cf. cevni, krici, lijda, ritli)
 mamta mam          mother               'mom'                x1 is a mother of x2; x1 bears/mothers/acts maternally toward x2; [not necessarily biological]   4b 128    (cf. patfu, sovda, rirni, rorci, tarbi, famti, bersa, jbena)
 manci mac          wonder                                    x1 feels wonder/awe/marvels about x2                                                             9d  43    (cf. cinmo, makfa, kucli, spaji, cinri, banli, sisku)
 manfo              uniform                                   x1 (object/event) is uniform/homogeneous in property x2 (ka)                                     7j  11    (cf. prane, curve, ranji, vitno, stodi, dikni, sampu, traji)
 manku man          dark                                      x1 is dark/lacking in illumination                                                               1a  67    (cf. blabi, gusni, ctino; use kandi or xekri with colors, ctino)
 manri mar          reference                                 x1 is a frame of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x2, with/by rules x3     2d  70    (x1 may be object or si'o idea); (cf. cmavo list ma'i, ckilu, merli, pajni, cimde, jdice, marde)
 mansa              satisfy                                   x1 satisfies evaluator x2 in property (ka)/state x3                                              8c  39    (cf. pajni)
 manti              ant                                       x1 is an ant of species/breed x2                                                                 ai 135    (cf. cinki, jalra)
 mapku map          cap                                       x1 is a cap/hat/crown/helmet/piece of headgear [head-top garment] of material x2                 3f  18    (cf. taxfu, stedu, drudi)
 mapni              cotton                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cotton [type of fabric/material]                         ah   2    (cf. bukpu)
 mapti mat          fit                  'match'              x1 fits/matches/suits/is compatible/appropriate/corresponds to/with x2 in property/aspect x3     7j  47    (cf. satci, tugni, sarxe, drani, tarmi, ckini, mintu)
 marbi     mra      shelter              'harbor'             x1 is a shelter/haven/refuge/retreat/harbor for/protecting x2 from danger/threat x3              4d  14    (cf. bandu, ckape, snura, drudi, sepli, bitmu, gacri)
 marce         ma'e vehicle                                   x1 is a vehicle/mode of transport carrying x2 in/on surface/medium x3, propelled by x4           7f  12    (cf. klama, matra, bevri, bloti, carce, karce, sabnu, skiji)
 marde mad          morals                                    x1 are the ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards of x2 (ind./mass) about situation x3  a    6    [x1 will (typically) be an abstract, a rule or rules of behavior; also principles; also conscience (= sezmarde)]; (cf. palci, vrude, lijda, manri, javni, tarti, zekri)
 margu mag          mercury                                   x1 is a quantity of/contains/made of mercury/quicksilver; [metaphor: fluid metal; temperature]   ag   2    (cf. jinme)
 marji maj     mai  material             'matter'             x1 is material/stuff/matter of type/composition including x2 in shape/form x3                    6b  29    [also (adjective:) x1 is physical (one sense)/material]; (cf. morna, mucti, nejni, tarmi, dacti)
 marna              hemp                 'marijuana'          x1 is a quantity of hemp/marijuana/jute of species/strain x2                                     aj   2    (cf. skori, tanko, sigja, xukmi)
 marxa max          mash                                      x1 [force] mashes/crushes/squashes/smashes x2 into pulp/mash/crumbs/deformed mass x3             a    6    (cf. daspo, pesxu, zalvi, bapli)
 masno     sno      slow                                      x1 is slow/sluggish at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state)                               4f  37    (cf. sutra)
 masti         ma'i month                                     x1 is x2 months in duration (default is 1 month) by month standard x3                            3e  36    [this month (= cabma'i); next month (= bavla'ima'i); last month (= prula'ima'i)]; (cf. detri, djedi, jeftu, nanca)
 matci              mat                                       x1 is a mat/pad/mattress/pallet [flat, soft, dense form] of material x2                          a   13    [also mattress = (kicymatci)]; (cf. kicne, tapla, karda, ckana)
 matli              linen                                     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of linen/flax [type of fabric/material]                     ah  12    (cf. bukpu)
 matne              butter                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains butter/oleo/margarine/shortening from source x2                     5b   6    [(adjective:) x1 is buttery; an edible fat, solid but spreadable at normal temperatures; dairy butter (= ladmatne)]; (cf. grasu, kruji)
 matra              motor                                     x1 is a motor/engine, driving/propelling/providing power to x2                                   a    0    (cf. marce, minji, carce)
 mavji mav          oats                                      x1 is a quantity of oats [grain] of species/strain x2                                            aj   3    (cf. gurni)
 maxri     xri      wheat                                     x1 is a quantity of wheat [grain] of species/strain x2                                           aj   9    (cf. gurni)
 mebri meb          brow                                      x1 is a/the brow/forehead [projecting flat/smooth head/body-part] of x2                          aa  18    (cf. stedu, flira)
 megdo meg          1E6                  metric 'mega'        x1 is a million [1x10**6] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                        ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 mei   mem     mei  cardinal selbri                           convert number to cardinality selbri; x1 is the mass formed from set x2 with member(s) x3                  [x1 is a mass with N components x3 composing set x2; x2 is an n-tuple (x2 is completely specified) (= selmei for reordered places); x1 forms an n-some; x3 (not necessarily a complete enumeration) are [among the] members of x2]; (cf. cmima, gunma, cmavo list moi)
 mekso mek     me'o MEX                                       x1 [quantifier/expression] is a mathematical expression interpreted under rules/convention x2    7e  88    (cf. cmaci, dilcu, fancu, frinu, jalge, namcu, parbi, pilji)
 melbi mel mle      beautiful                                 x1 is beautiful/pleasant to x2 in aspect x3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x4                        6c 191    [also handsome, pretty, gorgeous, cute, comely, graceful]; (cf. pluka, xamgu)
 meljo mej          Malaysian                                 x1 reflects Malaysian/Malay culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                            ab   1    (cf. baxso, bindo)
 menli men          mind                 'mental'             x1 is a mind/intellect/psyche/mentality/[consciousness] of body x2                               3l  26    [(adjective:) x1 is mental/psychological/a mental phenomenon; multiple personalities (= so'i menli)]; (cf. besna, morji, mucti, pensi, sanji, xanri, sevzi, xadni)
 mensi mes     me'i sister                                    x1 is a sister of/sororal to x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3; [not necessarily biological]  4b  38    (cf. bruna, tunba, tamne, famti)
 mentu met     me'u minute                                    x1 is x2 minutes in duration (default is 1 minute) by standard x3                                3e  12    (cf. junla, cacra, snidu, tcika)
 merko mer          American                                  x1 pertains to USA/American culture/nationality/dialect in aspect x2                             1b  38    (cf. brito, bemro, ketco, xispo, glico)
 merli     mre      measure                                   x1 (agent) measures/evaluates x2 [quantity] as x3 units on scale x4 (si'o), with accuracy x5     al  14    (cf. kancu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, ckilu, gradu, satci, centi, cimde, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, kramu, litce, manri, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 mexno mex          Mexican                                   x1 reflects Mexican culture/nationality in aspect x2                                             ab   1    (cf. xispo, bemro, spano)
 mi    mib          me                                        pro-sumti: me/we the speaker(s)/author(s); identified by self-vocative                           1d   0    (cf. sevzi)
 midju mij          middle                                    x1 is in/at the middle/center/midpoint/[is a focus] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is central            2d  31    (cf. lanxe, jbini, nutli, snuji, milxe, denmi, ralju)
 mifra mif          code                 'cipher'             x1 is encoded/cipher text of plain-text x2 by code/coding system x3; x1 is in code; x3 is a code a    2    [code (= termifra)]; (cf. mipri, lerfu, sinxa)
 mikce mic          doctor               'medic'              x1 doctors/treats/nurses/[cures]/is physician/midwife to x2 for ailment x3 by treatment/cure x4  4c  63    [also medic; (adjective:) x1, x4 is medical; x2 is a patient of x1 (= selmikce for reordered places) ; x2 is treated by x1 person/x4 treatment/method; successfully cure transitive (= sadmikce, sadvelmikce), intransitive (= sadyselmikce, ka'orbi'o to not imply an external agent/process, though the x1 and x4 of mikce may be self/internal); treatment (= velmikce)]; (cf. bilma, kanro, spita)
 mikri mik          1E-6                 metric 'micro'       x1 is a millionth [1x10**-6] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                     ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 milti mil          .001                 metric 'milli'       x1 is a thousandth [1/1000; 1x10**-3] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)            ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 milxe     mli      mild                                      x1 is mild/non-extreme/gentle/middling/somewhat in property x2 (ka); x1 is not very x2           6k  58    (cf. mutce, traji, kandi, ruble, midju, nutli, ralci, traji)
 minde mid     mi'e command                                   x1 issues commands/orders to x2 for result x3 (event/state) to happen; x3 is commanded to occur  1h  91    [also: x1 orders/sets/[triggers] x2 to do/bring about x3; x1 is a commander; commanded (= termi'e)]; (cf. lacri, te bende, jatna, ralju, jitro, turni, tinbe)
 minji         mi'i machine                                   x1 is a machine for use/function x2; [automated apparatus, without direct function control]      7g  13    [also machinery/mechanism; a machine is initiated/triggered by an agent/force, but thereafter performs its function automatically; if self-directed, (a minji is an) entity (= zukte)]; (cf. cabra, matra, tutci, zukte, pilno, skami)
 minli              mile                                      x1 is x2 (default 1) long local distance unit(s) [non-metric], x3 subunits, standard x4          al   1    (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...); (cf. mitre, kilto, clani, ganra, condi, rotsu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu)
 minra mir          reflect              'mirror'             x1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x2 [object/radiation] to observer/point x3 as x4; x2 bounces on x1    a   40    [also: x1 is a mirror/reflector]; [x2 may be light, lu'e of an imaged object; x4 may be image or echo or the same as x2 if physical object; x3 may be a path for a bounced object; ka is reflection]; (cf. catlu, viska, lenjo, pensi)
 mintu mit     mi'u same                 'identical'          x1 is the same/identical thing as x2 by standard x3; (x1 and x2 interchangeable)                 2g  47    (cf. panra, satci, mapti, simsa, drata, dunli, cmavo list du - which has no standard place, simxu)
 mipri mip          secret                                    x1 keeps x2 secret/hidden from x3 by method x4; x2 is a secret; x1 hides/conceals x2             3l  53    [intransitive hidden/secret, without an agent (= selcri or nalterju'o); secret (= selmipri)]; (cf. stace, mifra, sivni, djuno, cirko, jarco)
 mirli              deer                                      x1 is a deer/elk/moose/[hart/stag/doe] of species/breed x2                                       ai   0    (cf. mabru, danlu)
 misno mis     mi'o famous                                    x1 (person/object/event) is famous/renowned/is a celebrity among community of persons x2 (mass)  7j   8    [also celebrated/well-known; (derogative meanings:) notorious/infamous (= malmi'o; these could also be expressed using the referenced words)]; (cf. se sinma, banli)
 misro              Egyptian             'Mizraim'            x1 reflects Egyptian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                            ab   1    (cf. friko, muslo, xrabo)
 mitre     tre      meter                                     x1 is x2 meter(s) [metric unit] in length (default 1) measured in direction x3 by standard x4    af   0    (cf. kilto, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, gutci, litce, megdo, mikri, milti, minli, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 mixre mix xre      mixture                                   x1 (mass) is a mixture/blend/colloid/commingling with ingredients including x2                   5c  19    [x2 mingles/mixes/blends into x1; x2 is in x1, an ingredient/part/component/element of x1 (= selxre for reordered places)]; (cf. salta, te runta, stasu, jicla, sanso)
 mlana     mla      side                 'lateral'            x1 is to the side of/lateral to x2 and facing x3 from point of view/in-frame-of-reference x4     1e  88    (cf. crane, trixe, pritu, zunle which differ in that the direction of facing is the front and not the lateral side.  The x4 of mlana may be either the front, or back side of x2, korbi)
 mlatu lat          cat                                       x1 is a cat/[puss/pussy/kitten] [feline animal] of species/breed x2; (adjective:) x1 is feline   ai 124    (cf. cinfo, tirxu, gerku)
 mleca mec     me'a less                                      x1 is less than x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni) by amount x4                                  6k  57    [also negative (= nonme'a)]; (cf. cmavo list me'a, cmavo list su'o, jdika, zmadu, traji)
 mledi led          mold                                      x1 is a mold/fungus/mushrooms/truffles of species/strain x2 parasitic/growing on x3              aj   5    (cf. clika)
 mluni lun          satellite            'moon'               x1 is a satellite/moon orbiting x2 with characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4                am   1    (cf. plini, solri, lunra)
 mo'a  mob          too few                                   digit/number: too few; subjective                                                                -
 mo'i  mov          space motion                              mark motions in space-time                                                                       -
 moi   mom     moi  ordinal selbri                            convert number to ordinal selbri; x1 is (n)th member of set x2 ordered by rule x3                7e   0    (x2 is a completely specified set)
 mokca moc          point                'moment'             x1 is a point/instant/moment [0-dimensional shape/form] in/on/at time/place x2                   9b  14    [x1 is dimensionless]; (cf. jipno, jganu, linji, stuzi, tcika)
 moklu mol     mo'u mouth                'oral'               x1 is a/the mouth/oral cavity [body-part] of x2; (metaphor: entrance/intake for consumption)     1c  14    [(adjective:) x1 is oral]; (cf. ctebi, denci, tance)
 molki     mlo      mill                                      x1 is a mill/foundry/industrial plant/[assembly line] performing process x2                      ap   0    [(unlike fanri,) need not produce a product; grain mill (= grumlo), grinding mill (= zalmlo, zalmlotci, zalmloca'a)]; (cf. gasta, gurni, tirse, fanri, zalvi)
 molro         mo'o mole                                      x1 is x2 mole(s) [metric unit] in substance (default is 1) by standard x3                        af   2    (cf. centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 morji moj     mo'i remember             'memory'             x1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact(s)/memory x2 (du'u) about subject x3                        2h 114    (cf. cmavo list ba'anai, menli, pensi, sanji, djuno, notci)
 morko mor          Moroccan                                  x1 reflects Moroccan culture/nationality in aspect x2                                            ab   1    (cf. friko, xrabo, muslo)
 morna mon     mo'a pattern              'form'               x1 is/reflects/represents a pattern of forms/events x2 arranged according to structure x3        9b  14    [x3 is a [model] for x1 (= termontai, or the more abstract = termonsi'o); image (= gusmo'a, nenmo'a, dairmo'a, selylenmo'a, selmirmo'a, velmirmo'a, but also all of these -tai instead of -mo'a for the ideal)]; (cf. ciste, ganzu, marji, slilu, stura, tarmi, boxna, cimde, gidva, jimpe, rilti)
 morsi     mro      dead                 'mort-'              x1 is dead/has ceased to be alive                                                                4c 244    [die/mortal (= mrobi'o, co'urji'e)]; (cf. jmive, catra, betri)
 mosra mos          friction             'rub'                x1 is friction [force opposing motion] due to contact/rubbing between x2 and x3; (fe) x2 rubs x3 a    3    [also x2 scrubs/wipes/brushes (against) x3 (= seltermosra); non-agentive rub (= termosra)]; (cf. sakli, sraku, jabre, satre, guska, pencu, spali)
 mraji              rye                                       x1 is a quantity of rye [grain] of species/strain x2                                             aj   3    (cf. gurni)
 mrilu     mri      mail                                      x1 mails/posts [transfer via intermediary service] x2 to x3 from x4 by carrier/network/system x5 4i  15    [also x4 post office, mailbox]; (cf. benji [in which the medium need not be a 3rd party service/system, and x2 need not consist of discrete units], notci, xatra, tcana)
 mruli     mru      hammer                                    x1 [tool] is a hammer for/hammers x2 [target] consisting of weight/head x3 propelled by x4       ao   2    (cf. tutci)
 mu    mum          5                                         digit/number: 5 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 mu'e  muf          point-event abstract                      abstractor: achievement (event) abstractor; x1 is the event-as-a-point/achievement of [bridi]    -
 mucti mut          immaterial                                x1 is immaterial/not physical/without material form                                              6b   8    (cf. marji, menli, pruxi, sidbo)
 mudri mud          wood                 'lumber'             x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains wood/lumber from tree(s) of type/species x2              6b  27    (cf. tricu, stani)
 mukti muk     mu'i motive                                    x1 (action/event/state) motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event x2, per volition of x3  6a  70    [also; x3 is motivated to bring about result/goal/objective x2 by x1 (= termu'i for reordered places); (note that 'under conditions' BAI may apply and be appropriately added to the main predicate level or within the x2 action level)]; (cf. cmavo list mu'i, nibli, te zukte - generally better for 'goal', se jalge, krinu, rinka, ciksi, djica, xlura)
 mulno mul     mu'o complete                                  x1 (event) is complete/done/finished; x1 (object) has become whole in property x2 by standard x3 7j 181    [also perfected, entirety; (adverb/adjective:) entire, total, integral, fully, totally, wholly, completely, entirely]; (cf. fanmo, culno, pagbu, xadba, prane, jalge, sumji, munje, sisti, xadni)
 munje muj     mu'e universe                                  x1 is a universe/cosmos [complete and ordered entirety] of domain/sphere x2 defined by rules x3  a   44    [also world; a universe is a kind of system, one which comprehensively encompasses its domain; e.g. 'universe of discourse', or 'world of birds'; x3 are the rules/defining principles which distinguish the universe from other universes, or from non-universe]; (cf. ciste, plini, kensa, mulno)
 mupli mup          example                                   x1 is an example/sample/specimen/instance/case/illustration of common property(s) x2 of set x3   2h  52    (cf. cmavo list mu'u, pixra)
 murse              glimmering                                x1 is the [astronomical] twilight/dawn/dusk/half-light/glimmering of day x2 at location x3       3e   8    [morning twilight, dawn (= cermurse); evening twilight, dusk (= vacmurse)]; (cf. cerni, kandi, vanci)
 murta mur     mu'a curtain                                   x1 is a curtain/blinds/drapes for covering/obscuring aperture x2, and made of material x3        5g  10    (cf. canko, vorme)
 muslo mus          Islamic                                   x1 pertains to the Islamic/Moslem/Koranic [Quranic] culture/religion/nation in aspect x2         ac  11    [also Muslim]; (cf. jegvo, lijda)
 mutce     tce      much                                      x1 is much/extreme in property x2 (ka), towards x3 extreme/direction; x1 is, in x2, very x3      6k 311    [also very, pretty, a lot, immoderate/immoderately, intense, quite, extremely]; (cf. milxe, traji, banli, carmi, nutli, traji)
 muvdu muv     mu'u move                                      x1 (object) moves to destination/receiver x2 [away] from origin x3 over path/route x4            2b  59    [also mobile (= comymu'u, for the non-specific opposite of immobile); after a muvdu, object is alienated from/no longer at origin (unless physically returned there, per litru or slilu); agentive move (= muvgau, muvzu'e), non-agentive transitive move (= muvri'a), self-propelled (= sezmuvgau), motion of a part of the object (= pagmu'u), having a moving part (= muvypau, muvyselpau); apparent motion (= mlumu'u)]; (cf. rinci, klama (which differs in that the means of motion is explicit), litru, cliva, fatri; dunda, benji for agentive movement that does not necessarily imply alienation from origin, preja for similar movement with no agent implied, bevri, vimcu)
 muzga muz          museum                                    x1 is a museum for preserving [and possibly exhibiting] x2 at location x3                        ap   8    (cf. citri)
 na    nar          bridi negator                             bridi contradictory negator; scope is an entire bridi; logically negates in some cmavo compounds 1d   0
 na'e  nal          scalar contrary                           contrary scalar negator: other than ...; not ...; a scale or set is implied                      7x   0
 nabmi nam          problem                                   x1 (event/state) is a problem to/encountered by x2 in situation/task/inquiry x3                  8c  30    [also: x1 requires consideration by x2]; (cf. preti, danfu, ciksi, jijnu, jinvi, nandu, pensi, sidbo, spuda)
 nakni nak          male                 'masculine'          x1 is a male/buck of species x2 evidencing masculine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1 is masculine           4b  31    (cf. fetsi, bersa)
 nalci         na'i wing                                      x1 is a/the wing [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: lateral supporting surface]                       ai  13    (cf. cipni, pimlu, rebla)
 namcu nac     na'u number                                    x1 (li) is a number/quantifier/digit/value/figure (noun); refers to the value and not the symbol 3a  35    (cf. lerfu, mekso, klani)
 nanba nab          bread                                     x1 is a quantity of/contains bread [leavened or unleavened] made from grains x2                  5b  30    (cf. gurni, panlo, toknu)
 nanca         na'a year                                      x1 is x2 years in duration (default is 1 year) by standard x3; (adjective:) x1 is annual         3e 110    [this year (= cabna'a); next year (= bavlamna'a); last year (= prulamna'a)]; (cf. detri, djedi, jeftu, masti)
 nandu nad          difficult            'hard'               x1 is difficult/hard/challenging for x2 under conditions x3; x1 challenges (non-agentive) x2     1i  54    (cf. frili, nabmi, jdari, talsa, tinsa)
 nanla              boy                  'lad'                x1 is a boy/lad [young male person] of age x2 immature by standard x3                            4b  44    [word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use verba)]; (cf. nixli, verba, nanmu, bersa)
 nanmu         nau  man                                       x1 is a man/men; x1 is a male humanoid person [not necessarily adult]                            1k 332    [word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use remna or prenu)]; (cf. ninmu, remna, prenu, makcu, nanla, bersa)
 nanvi nav          1E-9                 metric 'nano'        x1 is a billionth/thousand-millionth [1x10**-9] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)  ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 narge nag          nut                                       x1 is a nut [body-part: hard-shelled fruit] from plant/species x2 with shell x3 and kernel x4    aj   0    [also x4 nucleus, center (= velnarge for place reordering)]; (cf. grute, stagi, jbari, midju)
 narju naj          orange                                    x1 is orange [color adjective]                                                                   1a  31    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, pelxu, solji)
 natfe naf     na'e deny                                      x1 (du'u) contradicts/denies/refutes/negates x2 (du'u) under rules/logic x3                      7a   1    [also exception (= nafmupli); agentive contradict/deny (= nafxu'a or tolxu'a)]; (cf. nibli, tugni, zanru, xusra)
 natmi nat     nai  nation                                    x1 is a nation/ethnic group of peoples x2; [people sharing a history/culture]                    ab  42    (cf. jecta, kulnu, lanzu, gugde, bangu, cecmu)
 navni              neon                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of inert gas of type x2 [neon/argon/radon/xenon]            ag   4    [default neon] (cf. xukmi, gapci)
 naxle nax xle      canal                                     x1 is a canal/channel to x2 from x3 with route x4                                                ap   0    [x2/x3 may be unordered]; (cf. pluta, rirxe, klaji, dargu)
 nazbi naz zbi      nose                 'nasal'              x1 is the nose [body-part] of x2 with nostril(s)/nasal passage(s) x3; [metaphor: protrusion]     1c  11    [also (adjective:) nasal]; (cf. degji, panci, sumne, tance)
 nejni nen          energy                                    x1 is energy of type x2 in form x3                                                               a    6    [ray/beam (= nenli'i)]; (cf. marji, tarmi, kantu, lazni, livla)
 nelci nel     nei  fond                 'likes'              x1 is fond of/likes/has a taste for x2 (object/state)                                            2i 180    (cf. cinmo, djica, pluka, prami, rigni, sinma, trina, xebni, cuxna, pendo)
 nenri ner     ne'i in                   'inner'              x1 is in/inside/within x2; x1 is on the inside/interior of x2 [totally within the bounds of x2]  1e 298    [indicates total containment]; (cf. se vasru (for containment that need not be total), jbini, zvati, cpana, sruri, senta, snuji, bartu, diklo, jibni, jinru, setca)
 ni    nil          amount abstract                           abstractor: quantity/amount abstractor; x1 is quantity/amount of [bridi] measured on scale x2    3b   0    (cf. klani)
 nibli nib     ni'i necessitate                               x1 logically necessitates/entails/implies action/event/state x2 under rules/logic system x3      6a  90    (cf. natfe, rinka, mukti, krinu, cmavo list ni'i, jalge, logji)
 nicte     cte      night                                     x1 is a nighttime of day x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is at night/nocturnal                3e  58    [tonight (= cabycte); tomorrow night (= bavlamcte, even when tonight is still in the future); last night (= prulamcte)]; (cf. donri, djedi, tcika)
 nikle nik          nickel                                    x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of nickel/other metal resistant to oxidation                5e   6    (cf. jinme)
 nilce         ni'e furniture                                 x1 [furniture items] furnishes x2 [location] serving purpose/function x3                         an   1    (cf. ckana, jubme, sfofa, stizu, dacru)
 nimre              citrus               'lime'               x1 is a quantity of citrus [fruit/tree, etc.] of species/strain x2                               aj   3    (cf. grute, slari, slami, xukmi)
 ninmu nim     ni'u woman                'women'              x1 is a woman/women; x1 is a female humanoid person [not necessarily adult]                      1k 130    [word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use remna or prenu)]; (cf. nanmu, remna, prenu, makcu, nixli)
 nirna nir          nerve                                     x1 is a nerve/neuron [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: information/control network connection]       aa   1    [also (adjective:) x1 is neural]; (cf. ve benji)
 nitcu     tcu      need                                      x1 needs/requires/is dependent on/[wants] necessity x2 for purpose/action/stage of process x3    3m  79    [no implication of lack]; (cf. banzu, cidja, claxu, pindi, xebni, sarcu, lacri, djica, taske, xagji)
 nivji niv          knit                                      x1 (agent) knits x2 [cloth/object] from yarn/thread x3                                           a    0    (cf. cilta, fenso, jivbu, pijne)
 nixli nix xli      girl                                      x1 is a girl [young female person] of age x2 immature by standard x3                             4b 172    [word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use verba)]; (cf. nanla, verba, ninmu)
 no    non          0                                         digit/number: 0 (digit)                                                                          3a   0    [nothing (= nomei, but also nozu'i)]
 no'e  nor     no'e scalar midpoint not                       midpoint scalar negator: neutral point between je'a and to'e; "not really"                       7x   0    (cf. nutli, midju, milxe, cmavo list na'e, to'e)
 nobli nol     no'i noble                                     x1 is noble/aristocratic/elite/high-born/titled in/under culture/society/standard x2             a   47    [also upper-class; high/low, upper/lower are poor Lojban metaphors; note x2 standard applies when the title/nobility is not recognized culture/society wide; this would include self-assumed titles]; (cf. banli)
 notci not     noi  message              'note'               x1 is a message/notice/memorandum about subject x2 from author x3 to intended audience x4        4i  78    [emphasis on brevity, single or identifiable subject (contrast with xatra: the emphasis in notci is on the single or cohesively focused subject, while the audience is less defined - indeed only an 'intended' audience.  xatra need not have a single or focussed subject - its corresponding place is for 'content'); reminder/memo/note (= mojnoi)]; (cf. xatra, nuzba, mrilu, morji)
 nu    nun          event abstract                            abstractor: generalized event abstractor; x1 is state/process/achievement/activity of [bridi]    3b   0    (cf. fasnu)
 nu'o          nu'o can but has not                           modal aspect: can but has not; unrealized potential                                              at   0    (cf. kakne)
 nukni nuk          magenta              'fuchsin'            x1 is magenta/fuchsia/purplish-red [color adjective]                                             1a   3    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, zirpu)
 nupre nup     nu'e promise                                   x1 (agent) promises/commits/assures/threatens x2 (event/state) to x3 [beneficiary/victim]        9c   6    (cf. kajde, xusra)
 nurma num          rural                                     x1 is a rural/rustic/pastoral area of x2; x1 is in the country                                   6c  39    (cf. jarbu, rarna, tcadu, cange)
 nutli nul     nu'i neutral                                   x1 is neutral/not taking sides/medial/not towards any extreme on scale/in dissension x2          8g   0    [also x2 dispute/struggle (though x2 is not limited to disagreements, which is merely one manifestation of scalar or distributed values in which there is a medial position)]; (cf. midju, lanxe, milxe, mutce, cmavo list no'e)
 nuzba nuz          news                                      x1 (du'u) is news/tidings/new information about subject x2 from source x3, to observer x4        4i  83    (cf. cnino, notci)
 pa    pav          1                                         digit/number: 1 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 pacna         pa'a hope                                      x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1); x1 hopes that x2 happens   9d  60    [also: x1 is hopeful of x2; x2 will hopefully occur, as hoped for by x1; the value of x3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to x1, and is the basic determinant of whether pacna means 'hope' or 'wish' or 'expect': hoping for objects/states with negligible expectation is "wishing"; if the state is plausibly likely, it is "hoping"; when the probability is subjectively near 1, the attitude is described as "expecting"; the value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers ("li piso'u" to "li piro"); wish (= sotpa'a), hope (= sorpa'a), expect (= sojypa'a)]; (cf. djica)
 pagbu pag     pau  part                                      x1 is a part/component/piece/portion/segment of x2 [where x2 is a whole/mass]; x2 is partly x1   7j 131    [partly (= selpau)]; (cf. cmavo list pa'u, mulno, xadba, spisa, gunma, rafsi)
 pagre     gre      pass through                              x1 passes through/penetrates barrier/medium/portal x2 to destination side x3 from origin side x4 4d  60    [passing through in both directions (= rolfargre, pagre ... .i so'ivo'ivo'u (and vice versa))]; (cf. bitmu, denci, ganlo, kalri, vorme, pluta, canko, ragve)
 pajni         pai  judge                                     x1 judges/referees/arbitrates/is a judge determining/deciding matter x2 (abstract)               2f  39    [x2 includes jei = rule (jetpai), ni = estimate (lairpai), ka = evaluate (kairpai or vampai), or nu = referee/arbitrate (faurpai); single events of judging including specific decisions/judgements (= paijdi, jetpaijdi, lairpaijdi, kairpaijdi, vampaijdi, faurpaijdi); jury (= pairkamni), serve on a jury (= kamnypai, as part of mass x1)]; (cf. cuxna, jdice, vajni, cipra, zekri, manri, mansa)
 palci pac          evil                                      x1 is evil/depraved/wicked [morally bad] by standard x2                                          2i  52    (cf. zekri, vrude, xlali, marde, mabla)
 palku pak          pants                                     x1 are pants/trousers/slacks/leggings [legged garment] of material x2                            3f  15    (cf. taxfu, pastu, skaci)
 palne              tray                 'pan, platter'       x1 is a tray/platter/flat container [pan/sheet/griddle] of contents x2, and made of material x3  5c   6    [also pallet, when used for carrying rather than support on the ground; a tray is flat-bottomed and shallow or without a rim, and is generally portable]; (cf. tansi, patxu, palta, ckana)
 palta              plate                'platter'            x1 is a plate/dish/platter/saucer [flat/mildly concave food service bed] made of material x2     5c  10    (cf. ckana, palne, kabri, tansi, ckana)
 pambe              pump                                      x1 is a pump/injector [tool/apparatus] pumping/inserting fluid x2 to x3 from x4 by means x5      a    0    [x2 fluid may be liquid or gas; x5 may be a force; a pump generally causes a pressure gradient, such that x3 is a place of lower pressure, x4 a place of higher pressure]; (cf. gapci, litki, rinci; metaphorical use of fepri for gas, risna for liquid, rinci, tutci)
 panci pan          odor                 'fragrance'          x1 is an odor/fragrance/scent/smell emitted by x2 and detected by observer/sensor x3             5c  17    [an undetected emitter is odorless to the observer]; (cf. nazbi, sumne, cpina)
 pandi pad          punctuate                                 x1 (agent) punctuates x2 (expression) with symbol/word x3 with syntactic/semantic effect x4      1h   2    (cf. lerfu, basna, denpa)
 panje              sponge                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sponge/porous material                                   ah   3    [also metaphorically used for coral, Swiss cheese]; (cf. cokcu for a generalized absorbant)
 panka              park                                      x1 is a park/land reserve managed by community/polity/company x2 for purpose x3                  ap  17    (cf. sorcu, zdile, klaji, purdi)
 panlo         pa'o slice                                     x1 is a slice [thin flat portion] of x2 (mass)                                                   5c   6    (cf. nanba)
 panpi pap          peace                                     x1 is at peace with x2                                                                           8g  33    (cf. jamna; use sarxe, smaji, tugni for most metaphorical extensions, cilce, jamna)
 panra              parallel                                  x1 parallels x2 differing only in property x3 (ka; jo'u/fa'u term) by standard/geometry x4       9b  11    [also: x1 is parallel to x2, x3 is the only difference between x1 and x2 (= terpanra for reordered places); x1 and x2 are alike/similar/[congruent]; a parallel involves extreme close similarity/correspondence across the entirety of the things being compared, generally involving multiple properties, with focus placed on one or a small number of differences]; (cf. cmavo list pa'a, mintu, simsa, girzu, vrici)
 pante pat          protest                                   x1 protests/objects to/complains about x2 (event/state) to audience x3 with action x4            9c  12    (x4 is an event or tu'a quotation) (cf. xarnu)
 panzi paz          offspring                                 x1 is a [biological] offspring/child/kid/hybrid of parent(s) x2; (adjective:) x1 is filial       4b  23    (cf. grute, verba, bersa, tixnu, se rorci, patfu)
 papri              page                 'paper'              x1 is a [physical] page/leaf of book/document/bound mass of pages x2                             1h   6    [numbered pages (as in a book) are the sides of a page (= paprysfe, paprysfelai); a pageful of text (= papryseltcidu, paprytcidylai)]; (cf. karni, pelji, prina, xatra, vreji, pezli, cukta, ciska)
 parbi pab          ratio                'rate'               x1 (me'o, fraction) is a ratio/rate of x2 (quantity) with respect to x3 (quantity), [x2:x3]      7e   4    [also x1 fraction/proportion/quotient; x2 dividend/numerator; x3 divisor/denominator]; (cf. frinu, dilcu, mekso)
 pastu pas          robe                 'tunic'              x1 is a robe/tunic/gown/cloak/dress/[coveralls] [a long/full body garment] of material x2        3f  26    [also coveralls (= paspalku)]; (cf. kosta, taxfu, palku)
 patfu paf     pa'u father               'pop, padre'         x1 is a father of x2; x1 begets/sires/acts paternal towards x2; [not necessarily biological]     4b  93    (cf. mamta, rirni, rorci, tarbi, dzena, famti, panzi, bersa, sovda)
 patlu              potato                                    x1 is a potato [an edible tuber] of variety/cultivar x2                                          5b   7    (use samcu for starchy/tuberous roots that do not reproduce from eyes of tuber); (cf. genja, jalna, samcu)
 patxu pax          pot                                       x1 is a pot/kettle/urn/tub/sink, a deep container for contents x2, of material/properties x3     ao   0    (cf. tansi, palne for depth; baktu, botpi for open/lidded)
 pe'a  pev          figurative                                marks figurative usage (non-literal) speech/text as a rafsi                                      at   0    [in figurative speech, metaphors may arbitrarily ignore omitted place structures]
 pelji     ple      paper                'page'               x1 is paper from source x2                                                                       1h  15    [sheet of paper (= plekarda if shape is important, plebo'o)]; (cf. karni, papri, prina)
 pelxu pel          yellow                                    x1 is yellow/golden [color adjective]                                                            1a  32    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, narju, solji)
 pemci pem          poem                                      x1 is a poem/verse about plot/theme/subject/pattern x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4     8b 103    [x2 may be a convention rather than a subject]; (cf. prosa, rimni, rilti, finti, lisri, sanga)
 penbi peb          pen                                       x1 is a pen using ink x2 applied by process x3                                                   1f  11    (cf. ciska, pinsi, xinmo, pimlu)
 pencu pec     pe'u touch                                     x1 (agent) touches x2 with x3 [a locus on x1 or an instrument] at x4 [a locus on x2]             1g  38    (cf. ganse, darxi, jgari, penmi, jorne, satre, mosra, zgana)
 pendo ped     pe'o friend                                    x1 is/acts as a friend of/to x2 (experiencer); x2 befriends x1                                   2i  90    (cf. bradi, xendo, nelci, prami, bradi)
 penmi pen     pe'i meet                                      x1 meets/encounters x2 at/in location x3                                                         1g 125    (cf. jorne, jikca, pencu)
 pensi pes     pei  think                'pensive'            x1 thinks/considers/cogitates/reasons/is pensive about/reflects upon subject/concept x2          3l 164    [also: x1 is thoughtful (one sense); x2 is mental (one sense)/intellectual (one sense) (= selpei)]; (cf. cmavo list pe'i, jijnu, menli, morji, sidbo, jinvi, se nabmi, minra, lanli, besna, saske, skami)
 perli per          pear                                      x1 is a pear [fruit] of species/strain x2                                                        aj   6    (cf. grute)
 pesxu pex          paste                                     x1 is paste/pulp/dough/mash/mud/slurry [soft, smooth-textured, moist solid] of composition x2    6f   3    [x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification]; (cf. marxa, kliti, tarla)
 petso pet          1E15                 metric 'peta'        x1 is 1x10**15 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                   ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 pezli pez          leaf                                      x1 is a leaf of plant x2; x1 is foliage of x2                                                    5b  26    (cf. tricu, papri, spati)
 pi    piz          decimal point                             digit/number: base point; default decimal                                                        7e   0
 pi'u  piv          cross product                             non-logical connective: cross product; Cartesian product of sets                                 at   0
 picti pic          1E-12                metric 'pico'        x1 is a trillionth [1x10**-12] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                   ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 pijne              pin                                       x1 is a pin/peg (needle-shaped tool) for fastening to/piercing x2, of material/properties x3     ao   2    (cf. jesni, nivji, fenso, dinko, tutci)
 pikci              beg                  'supplicate'         x1 begs/pleads/supplicates/entreats/implores/beseeches/prays [asks with humility] x2 for x3      9c  11    [also importune, petition, plea, solicit; x2 benefactor, patron; x3 boon, favor, gift, alms] (cf. cpedu which is more general as to manner, pindi)
 pikta              ticket                                    x1 is a ticket entitling x2 to entitlement/privilege x3 (event/state) under conditions x4        5g  22    (cf. jaspu)
 pilji         pi'i multiply             'multiply'           x1 is the product/total/result of factors/multiplicands (x2 and x3) x2 multiplied by x3          7e   1    (cf. mekso, sumji, rapli, jalge)
 pilka pil     pi'a crust                'peel'               x1 is a crust/rind/peel/skin/hide/outer cover of x2                                              9f  12    (cf. grute, calku, skapi (pilka as a general term includes skapi), gacri)
 pilno     pli      use                  'employ'             x1 uses/employs x2 [tool, apparatus, machine, agent, acting entity, material] for purpose x3     2e 174    [also utilize; x2 is useful/used productively by x1 to do x3 (= selpli for reordered places); hire/employ (= le'ipli, lejyplicu'a)]; (cf. tutci, cabra, minji, gasnu, zukte for x2, cmavo list pi'o, sazri, jibri)
 pimlu pim     pi'u feather              'plume'              x1 is a/the feather/plume(s)/plumage [body-part] of animal/species x2                            ai   1    (cf. cipni, nalci, rebla, kerfa, penbi)
 pinca              urine                'piss'               x1 is a/the urine/piss/pee of x2                                                                 aa   1    (cf. vikmi, xasne, kalci, mabla, festi)
 pindi pid          poor                 'indigent'           x1 is poor/indigent/impoverished/lacking in goods/possessions/property x2                        a   24    [x2 is scanty/meager/lacking for x1]; (cf. ricfu, claxu, nitcu, pikci)
 pinfu pif          prisoner             'captive'            x1 is a prisoner/captive of x2, restrained/held/confined by means/force x3                       8e   2    (cf. zifre, kavbu, rinju, ralte, fanta, cilce)
 pinji              penis                                     x1 is a/the clitoris/penis [projecting reproductive organ; body-part] of x2                      aa   2    [normally context eliminates need for specificity; otherwise: penis (= nakpinji), clitoris (= fetpinji)]; (cf. cinse, gletu, vibna, plibu, vlagi, mabla, ganti)
 pinka pik          comment                                   x1 (text) is a comment/remark/observation about subject x2 expressed by x3 to audience x4        8c 107    [also: x3 comments/remarks/says x1 about x2 (= terselpinka for reordered places)]; (cf. jinvi, cusku, zgana, lanli, bacru, ciska)
 pinsi pis          pencil                                    x1 is a pencil/crayon/stylus applying lead/marking material x2, frame/support [of material] x3   1f  20    [also writing brush; x1 stimulates substrate medium x2 to display marks; explicitly denoting a standard lead pencil (= tabypinsi)]; (cf. ciska, penbi (unlike the English equivalents, pinsi is the more general term over penbi), burcu, bakri)
 pinta pin          level                'horizontal'         x1 is flat/level/horizontal in gravity/frame of reference x2                                     9b   8    (cf. sraji, plita, xutla)
 pinxe pix          drink                                     x1 (agent) drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x2 from/out-of container/source x3   2j  39    (cf. cidja, citka, taske, tunlo, xaksu, barja, birje)
 pipno         pi'o piano                                     x1 is a piano/harpsichord/synthesizer/organ; a keyboard musical instrument                       ak   8    (cf. zgike)
 pixra pir xra      picture                                   x1 is a picture/illustration representing/showing x2, made by artist x3 in medium x4             4d  51    [also (adjective:) x1 is pictorial/illustrative; drawing (= xraselci'a), x1 draws x2 (= xraci'a/xraci'a), image (= xratai), photo (= kacmyxra), take a photo (= kacmyterxra, kacmyxragau, kacmyxrazu'e); sculpture, relief (= blixra)]; (cf. ciska, cinta, prina, mupli, barna, skina)
 plana              plump                                     x1 is plump/fat/obese [excessively thick/bulbous/swollen] by standard x2                         6f  13    (cf. cinla, rotsu, barda, punli, grasu)
 platu     pla      plan                 'plot'               x1 (agent) plans/designs/plots plan/arrangement/plot/[schematic] x2 for state/process x3         8c   7    [also invents/organizes; x2 design, scheme; the structure or layout of an object would be represented as a state in x3]; (cf. cartu)
 pleji lej     le'i pay                                       x1 pays/compensates/remunerates/[rewards] payment x2 to recipient/payee x3 for goods/services x4 8b  59    [also x4 commodities; x4 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posle'i, posyvelyle'i for unambiguous semantics); rent (= jerle'i, lejyjbera)]; (cf. canja, cnemu, friti, kargu, vecnu, jdima, prali, jerna, sfasa, dunda, jinga, dapma; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, cirko, dirba)
 plibu pib          pubic                                     x1 is a/the pubic area/external genitalia [body-part] of x2                                      aa   0    (cf. cinse, gletu, pinji, vibna, vlagi, ganti, mabla)
 plini              planet                                    x1 is a planet revolving around x2 with planetary characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4      am  16    (cf. lunra, mluni, terdi, solri, munje)
 plipe pip     pi'e leap                                      x1 (agent/object) leaps/jumps/springs/bounds to x2 from x3 reaching height x4 propelled by x5    1g  54    [place structure parallels klama; hence x4 may be a route-like expression]; (cf. bajra, stapa, cpare, lafti)
 plise              apple                                     x1 is an apple [fruit] of species/strain x2                                                      5b   8    (cf. grute)
 plita pit          plane                                     x1 is a plane [2-dimensional shape/form] defined by points x2 (set); x1 is flat/[smooth]         9b  18    [also: x1 is even/planar/level]; (x2 is a set of points at least sufficient to define the plane); (cf. xutla, sefta, tapla, karda, boxfo, pinta)
 plixa lix          plow                                      x1 (agent) plows/furrows/tills [cuts into and turns up] x2 with tool x3 propelled by x4          ao   1    (cf. kakpa, sraku, katna, skuro)
 pluja luj          complicated          'complex'            x1 is complex/complicated/involved in aspect/property x2 (ka) by standard x3                     6f  28    [also tangled, confused]; (cf. cfipu, banli, sampu, jgena)
 pluka puk     pu'a pleasant                                  x1 (event/state) seems pleasant to/pleases x2 under conditions x3                                9c 131    (cf. rigni, cmavo list pu'a, melbi, nelci, prami)
 pluta lut     lu'a route                                     x1 is a route/path/way/course/track to x2 from x3 via/defined by points including x4 (set)       5d 309    [a route merely connects origin/destination, but need not be improved in any way; (x4 is a set of points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly)]; (cf. litru, naxle, tcana, dargu, klaji, ve klama; tadji, zukte for means to a goal, klama, pagre)
 polje     plo      fold                                      x1 (force) folds/creases x2 at locus/loci/forming crease(s)/bend(s) x3                           a    0    [for agentive folding (= plogau, plozu'e); use cardinal-value sumti in x3, or rapli, to indicate multiple folds]; (cf. korcu, cinje, boxfo, boxna)
 polno pol          Polynesian                                x1 reflects Polynesian/Oceanian (geographic region) culture/nationality/languages in aspect x2   ab   1    (cf. sralo, daplu, xamsi)
 ponjo pon     po'o Japanese             'Nippon'             x1 reflects Japanese culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                                   ab   4    (cf. xazdo, daplu)
 ponse pos     po'e possess                                   x1 possesses/owns/has x2 under law/custom x3; x1 is owner/proprietor of x2 under x3              5g 188    (x3 is generally more important to the concept than commonly accepted for the English equivalent, since the concept is broader when unconstrained, and the nature/interpretation of possession/ownership is very culturally dependent); (cf. ckini, ralte, jitro, steci, srana, tutra, turni, zivle)
 porpi pop     po'i break                                     x1 breaks/fractures/shatters/[splits/splinters/cracks] into pieces x2                            4c  36    (cf. xrani, spofu, se katna)
 porsi por     poi  sequence                                  x1 [ordered set] is sequenced/ordered/listed by comparison/rules x2 on unordered set x3          7c  49    [also (adjective:) x1 is serial]; (sets are completely specified); (cf. cmavo list po'i, lidne, liste, cmima)
 porto pot          Portuguese                                x1 reflects Portuguese culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                                 ab   3    (cf. brazo)
 prali pal          profit                                    x1 is a profit/gain/benefit/advantage to x2 accruing/resulting from activity/process x3          8d  12    [also (fe) x2 profits from x3 (= selterprali for reordered places); x1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= selposprali for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. vecnu, cnemu, pleji, jinga, canja, sfasa, jerna, jdima, dunda, zivle)
 prami pam     pa'i love                                      x1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards x2 (object/state)                            9d 115    [also: x1 is loving towards x2, x1 is a lover of x2 (one sense), x2 is beloved by x1 (= selpa'i for reordered places)]; (cf. cinmo, xebni, nelci, djica, sinma, pluka, kurji, pendo, speni)
 prane         pa'e perfect                                   x1 is perfect/ideal/archetypical/faultless/flawless/un-improvable in property/aspect x2 (ka)     7j  45    [also without defect/error]; (cf. manfo, curve, traji, cfila, mulno)
 preja pej     pe'a spread                                    x1 spreads/expands over/into x2 from initial state x3                                            7j   2    (cf. tcena, kuspe, ranji, fatri, muvdu, benji)
 prenu     pre      person                                    x1 is a person/people (noun) [not necessarily human]; x1 displays personality/a persona          1k 632    (cf. nanmu, ninmu, remna, zukte, sevzi)
 preti ret     rei  question             'query'              x1 (quoted text) is a question/query about subject x2 by questioner x3 to audience x4            1h 149    (cf. nabmi, danfu, ciksi, frati, spuda, cpedu)
 prije pij          wise                 'sage'               x1 is wise/sage about matter x2 (abstraction) to observer x3                                     a   54    (cf. bebna)
 prina     pri      print                                     x1 is a print/impression/image on/in surface x2 of/made by/using tool/press/implement/object x3  a    5    (cf. cukta, papri, pelji, pixra, ciska, danre, barna)
 pritu              right                                     x1 is to the right/right-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3                    1e  55    [also: x3 is the standard of orientation for x2]; (cf. cmavo list ri'u, mlana, crane, trixe, farna, zunle)
 prosa ros     ro'a prose                                     x1 is prose about plot/theme/subject x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4                    8b   9    [non-poetic written text, without intentional rhyme or meter; x2 may be a convention rather than a subject]; (cf. cfika, lisri, cukta, pemci, finti)
 pruce ruc     ru'e process                                   x1 is a process with inputs x2, outputs/results x3, passing through steps/stages x4              8f  11    [x2 resource (= selru'e, but also ru'etci, (ru'er-/ruc- or selru'e-/selruc- modifying:) selxaksu, selsabji, livla)]; (cf. cmavo list pu'e, farvi, tadji, grute, tcini)
 pruni pun          elastic              'springy'            (adjective:) x1 is elastic/springy                                                               a    0    (cf. ckabu, tcena)
 pruxi rux     ru'i spirit                                    x1 is spiritual/pertains to the soul in nature [either energy or being]; x1 is ghostly/ethereal  a   49    [also soul (= ruxse'i)]; (cf. censa, lijda, mucti, xadni)
 pu'i  pus          can and has                               modal aspect: can and has; demonstrated potential                                                at   0    (cf. kakne)
 pu'u  puv          process abstract                          abstractor: process (event) abstractor; x1 is process of [bridi] proceeding in stages x2         -         (cf. pruce)
 pulce puc     pu'e dust                 'pulverized'         x1 is dust/precipitate [suspensible solid] from x2 in medium/on surface x3                       a   22    (cf. te zalvi, danmo, purmo, sligu)
 pulji              police                                    x1 is a police officer/[enforcer/vigilante] enforcing law(s)/rule(s)/order x2                    a   15    [police officer, as an agent of authority (= ca'irpulji, ka'irpulji), as part of a police force (= puljysoi, as part of puljyselsoi); military police (= jempulji, bilpulji)]; (cf. catni, sonci, bilni, flalu, bandu, jemna, zekri, krati)
 pulni              pulley                                    x1 is a pulley [tool] for performing action/function x2 rotating on axle x3                      ao   0    (cf. tutci, xislu, vraga)
 punji puj     pu'i put                                       x1 (agent) puts/places/sets x2 on/at surface/locus x3                                            1g  88    (cf. cpacu, lebna, cpana, batke, setca)
 punli pul          swelling                                  x1 is a swelling/protrusion/convexity [shape/form] at/in/on x2, of material x3                   9b   0    [(adjective:) x1 is swollen]; (cf. balji, cmana, plana)
 purci pur pru      past                 'earlier'            x1 is in the past of/earlier than/before x2 in time sequence; x1 is former; x2 is latter         4a  59    [time ordering only (use lidne otherwise); aorist in that x1 may overlap in time with x2 as long as it starts before, x1 starts before x2 but is continuing during x2 (= cfaprucabna); non-aorist before, i.e. x1 is over/ended before x2 starts (= fampru), x1 is completed before x2 starts (= mulpru)]; (cf. lidne, balvi, cabna, farna)
 purdi pud          garden                                    x1 is a garden/tended/cultivated field of family/community/farmer x2 growing plants/crop x3      6c  17    [orchard (= ricpurdi)]; (cf. foldi, cange, panka)
 purmo pum     pu'o powder                                    x1 is a powder of material x2                                                                    9f   0    [flour (= grupu'o, xripu'o)]; (cf. pulce, zalvi)
 racli              sane                 'rational'           x1 (action/activity/behavior) is sane/rational by standard x2                                    a    1    (cf. fenki)
 ractu              rabbit                                    x1 is a rabbit/hare/[doe] of species/breed x2                                                    ai  28    (cf. mabru, kerlo)
 radno         ra'o radian                                    x1 is x2 radian(s) [metric unit] in angular measure (default is 1) by standard x3                aj   0    [measured in degrees (julra'o); right ascension [astronomical measurement] (= cacryra'o)] (cf. jganu, kilto, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, gutci, litce, megdo, mikri, milti, minli, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 rafsi raf          affix                                     x1 is an affix/suffix/prefix/combining-form for word/concept x2, form/properties x3, language x4 1b 219    (cf. valsi, lujvo, pagbu)
 ragve rav          across                                    x1 is located across/on the other side of gap/boundary x2 from x3; x1 is opposite (fi) x3        3j  32    [also: x1 is over there (across/beyond zo'e); directly across/beyond a boundary/gap, generally at the shortest plausible distance on the other side of the boundary]; (cf. dukti, kuspe, bancu, kruca, cripu, pagre)
 rakso              Iraqi                                     x1 reflects Iraqi culture/nationality in aspect x2                                               ab   1    (cf. xrabo)
 raktu         ra'u trouble                                   x1 (object/person/event/situation) troubles/disturbs x2 (person) causing problem(s) x3           4c  41    [also afflicts, is disruptive to, troublesome; x1/x3 are a care to x2, x2 is troubled by/cares about x1/x3 (= selra'u for reordered places)]; (cf. dicra, fanza, zunti, kurji, xanka)
 ralci rac          delicate             'fragile'            x1 is delicate/fragile/subtle/refined in property x2 (ka)                                        7j  17    [easily damaged or rendered less pleasing/pure/effective]; (cf. jdari, ranti, tsali, milxe, kukte)
 ralju ral          principal                                 x1 is principal/chief/leader/main/[staple], most significant among x2 (set) in property x3 (ka)  8c  87    [staple (= ralselpra); general/admiral/president/principal leader (= ralja'a, ralterbe'e; use additional terms to distinguish among these); also primary, prime, (adverb:) chiefly, principally, mainly; (x2 is complete specification of set)]; (cf. vajni, te bende, minde, lidne, jatna, jitro, gidva, midju)
 ralte         ra'e retain                                    x1 retains/keeps/holds x2 in its possession                                                      2b  15    (cf. cirko, rinju, ponse, jgari, pinfu, stali, curmi)
 randa rad          yield                'surrender'          x1 yields/gives way/surrenders to x2 (force/agent) under conditions x3                           a    0    (cf. jdari, renvi, ranti, se bapli)
 rango rag          organ                                     x1 is a/the body organ [body-part] of body/species x2 performing function x3                     aa   0    [also sweetmeat (= ragdja)] (cf. besna, livga)
 ranji         ra'i continue                                  x1 (event/state) continues/persists over interval x2; x1 (property - ka) is continuous over x2   9b 143    (cf. temci, kuspe, renvi, cedra, citsi, manfo, vitci, cukla, fliba, preja, tcena)
 ranmi ram          myth                                      x1 is a myth/legend, a culturally significant story about x2 in mythos x3 of culture x4          ac  13    [also: x1 is mythical/fairy tale; used adjectivally for non-humanoid creatures (= ramda'u) of story/myth/legend/religion, e.g. dragon; fairy tale (= veryranmi)]; (cf. lijda, lisri, crida)
 ransu              bronze                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of bronze of composition including x2                       ah   1    (cf. jinme, tunka, lastu)
 ranti ran          soft                                      x1 is soft/malleable/moldable/yielding to force x2 in conditions x3                              2g  24    (cf. ralci, jdari, lakse, randa, gradu)
 ranxi rax          irony                                     x1 is ironic(al)/contrary to expectation x2 in state/property/aspect x3                          a    5    (cf. dukti, frica, cizra)
 rapli rap          repeat                                    x1 [action] repeats/is repeated for a total of x2 (quantity) occurrences                         1h  32    [practice (= rapyzu'e, rapxelcli, rapyzukmo'i)]; (cf. cmavo list roi, cafne, krefu, fukpi, pilji, xruti)
 rarna rar          natural                                   x1 is natural/spontaneous/instinctive, not [consciously] caused by person(s)                     6c  31    (cf. rutni, jinzi, nurma, stati)
 ratcu              rat                                       x1 is a rat of species/breed x2                                                                  ai  51    (cf. smacu)
 ratni rat          atom                                      x1 is an atom of element/atomic number x2 of isotope number/atomic weight x3                     a    4    (cf. kantu for a basic unit of a property or activity; selci for a basic physical subunit, generally of a mass)
 re    rel          2                                         digit/number: 2 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 rebla reb          tail                                      x1 is a/the tail/appendix [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: trailing, following portion/appendage]   ai   9    (cf. nalci, pimlu, se lidne, trixe, birka, jimca)
 rectu rec     re'u meat                 'flesh'              x1 is a quantity of/contains meat/flesh from source/animal x2                                    5b  30    (cf. sluji)
 remna rem     re'a human                                     x1 is a human/human being/man (non-specific gender-free sense); (adjective:) x1 is human         1k 219    (cf. nanmu, ninmu, prenu)
 renro rer     re'o throw                                     x1 throws/launches/casts/hurls x2 to/at/in direction x3 (propulsion derives internally to x1)    8h  53    (cf. cecla (more general term), danti)
 renvi rev     re'i survive                                   x1 survives/endures/undergoes/abides/lasts/persists through x2 for interval/duration x3          4c  21    [also lasts out, withstands; x1 persists/lasts for duration x3; (adjective:) x1 is tough/durable]; (cf. ranji, kuspe, randa, lifri, stali, temci)
 respa res          reptile                                   x1 is a reptile of species/breed x2                                                              ai   1    (cf. danlu, banfi, since)
 ricfu rif cfu      rich                                      x1 is rich/wealthy in goods/possessions/property/aspect x2                                       a   43    (cf. solji, banzu, dukse, pindi)
 rigni rig          disgusting           'repugnant'          x1 is repugnant to/causes disgust to x2 under conditions x3                                      a    5    (cf. djica, nelci, trina, vamtu, xebni, pluka)
 rijno rij          silver               'argent'             x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of silver/argentum (Ag); [metaphor: valuable, tarnishing]   5e  32    (cf. solji)
 rilti ril          rhythm                                    x1 (sequence/non-text quote) is a rhythm/beat of music/expressive form x2                        a    1    [not necessarily oscillatory/regular pattern]; (cf. damri, pemci, tonga, zgike, slilu, dikni, sanga, morna)
 rimni rim          rhyme                                     x1 rhymes/alliterates with x2 in language/phonetics x3, matching sound correspondence x4 (ka)    8b   9    [broad meaning of rhyme - any matching sound correspondence]; (cf. pemci, sanga)
 rinci              drain                                     x1 liquid/fluid drains/strains/flushes from source x2 through drain/strainer x3 by force x4      a    0    [x4 is usually gravity]; (cf. pambe, tisna, setca, flecu, muvdu, ganxo, rirxe)
 rinju         ri'u restrain                                  x1 is restrained/held [back]/constrained/kept by restraint x2 against x3 (event)                 3m  19    [also: x2 is a restraint/binding for x1, x2 keeps/restrains/holds [back]/constrains x1 from x3 (= selri'u for reordered places); agentive restraint (= ri'urgau, ri'urzu'e)]; (cf. zifre, ralte, pinfu, kavbu, fanta, jgari, jimte, bapli, curmi, kluza, tagji)
 rinka rik     ri'a cause                                     x1 (event/state) effects/physically causes effect x2 (event/state) under conditions x3           6a 296    [x1 is a material condition for x2; x1 gives rise to x2]; (cf. gasnu, krinu, nibli, te zukte, se jalge, bapli, jitro, cmavo list ri'a, mukti, ciksi, xruti)
 rinsa              greet                                     x1 (agent) greets/hails/[welcomes/says hello to]/responds to arrival of x2 in manner x3 (action) 2n  40    (cf. friti for welcome/hospitality, cmavo list coi, cmavo list co'o)
 rirci              rare                                      x1 [member] is rare/unusual/uncommon/atypical in property x2 (ka) among members of x3 (set)      6f  26    (x3 is complete specification of set); (cf. cizra, fadni, cafne, kampu, cnano - the generalized opposite to any/all of these concepts)
 rirni rir          parent               'rear'               x1 is a parent of/raises/rears x2; x1 mentors/acts parental toward child/protege x2              4b  33    (cf. rorci, mamta, patfu, sidju, dzena, famti, verba, bersa)
 rirxe         ri'e river                                     x1 is a river of land mass x2, draining watershed x3 into x4/terminating at x4                   6c  71    (cf. flecu, senta for most metaphorical aspects; daplu, djacu, lalxu, xamsi, rinci, naxle)
 rismi ris          rice                                      x1 is a quantity of rice [a type of grain] of strain/cultivar x2                                 5b   9    (cf. gurni)
 risna              heart                'cardiac'            x1 is a/the heart [body-part] of x2; [emotional/shape metaphors are NOT culturally neutral]      aa  34    [(adjective:) x1 is cardiac; emotional 'heart' (= cnise'i)]; (cf. pambe, ciblu)
 ritli         ri'i rite                                      x1 is a rite/ceremony/ritual for purpose/goal x2, by custom/in community x3, with form/rules x4  9a  24    [also: x1 is formal, [legal]; x1 is 'going through the motions']; x4 constraints/customs; (cf. lijda, malsi, flalu, javni, tcaci, clite, junri)
 rivbi riv          avoid                'evade'              x1 avoids/evades/shuns/escapes/skirts [fate] x2 (event) through action/state x3 (event)          a   36    [also detours around, stays away from; (x1 is normally an object, but may be an event)]; (cf. bandu which is not necessarily successful, fanta, which is agentive, se jersi which implies an opposing agent, sisku, kalte, fapro)
 ro    rol          each                                      digit/number: each, all                                                                          3a   0
 roi   rom     roi  quantified tense                          converts number to an objectively quantified tense interval modifier; defaults to time tense     at   0    (cf. rapli)
 rokci rok     ro'i rock                                      x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains rock/stone of type/composition x2 from location x3       6c 143    [x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification];(cf. kunra, jemna, canre)
 romge rog          chrome                                    x1 is a highly reflective/polished non-tarnishing metallic surface, of metal x2 [often chromium] ag   3    (cf. jinme)
 ropno ron     ro'o European                                  x1 reflects European culture/nationality/geography/Indo-European languages in aspect x2          ab  13    (cf. brito)
 rorci ror          procreate                                 x1 engenders/procreates/begets x2 with coparent x3                                               4b   3    (cf. grute, gutra, rirni, se panzi, mamta, patfu, tarbi, bersa, ferti, jbena, sovda)
 rotsu rot tsu ro'u thick                'stout'              x1 is thick in dimension/direction x2 by standard x3; [relatively long in smallest dimension]    6f   9    [also stout]; (cf. barda, cinla, ganra, clani, condi, plana, gutci, minli)
 rozgu roz zgu      rose                                      x1 is a rose [flower - characterized by prickly stem/fragrance] of species/strain x2             aj  10    [roses are not all pink; avoid using for color rose, which might be labyxu'e]; (cf. spati, xunre)
 ruble rub ble      weak                 'feeble'             x1 is weak/feeble/frail in property/quality/aspect x2 (ka) by standard x3                        7g   0    (cf. carmi, vlipa, tsali, kandi, kandi, milxe)
 rufsu ruf          rough                                     x1 is rough/coarse/uneven/[grainy/scabrous/rugged] in texture/regularity                         6f  16    [fine-textured (= tolrufsu)]; (cf. xutla, tengu, vitci)
 runme rum          melt                 'runny'              x1 melts [becomes liquid from solid state] at temperature x2 and pressure x3                     a    2    [x1 runs (= rumfle)]; (cf. dunja, febvi, lunsa, bisli)
 runta              dissolve                                  x1 dissolves in solvent x2 forming solution/[suspension] x3 under conditions x4                  a   16    [suspension (= pucyteryrunta, pu'exre)]; (cf. litki, mixre, sligu, sudga)
 rupnu rup     ru'u dollar               'ruble'              x1 is measured in major-money-units (dollar/yuan/ruble) as x2 (quantity), monetary system x3     5e  59    [also pound, rupee, franc, mark, yen; x1 is generally a price/cost/value]; (cf. jdini, sicni, jdima, vecnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu)
 rusko ruk     ru'o Russian                                   x1 reflects Russian culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                                    ab   4    (cf. softo, slovo)
 rutni run          artifact                                  x1 is an artifact; x1 is artificial; x1 is made/caused by people/se kulnu x2; x1 is man-made     6c  19    (cf. rarna, se zbasu, gundi, slasi)
 sabji sab          provide              'supply'             x1 [source] provides/supplies/furnishes x2 [supply/commodity] to x3 [recipient]                  3m  20    [agentive supply (= sabgau, sabzu'e)]; (cf. krasi, sorcu)
 sabnu              cabin                                     x1 is a cabin of vehicle x2                                                                      a    0    (cf. bloti, marce, vinji, karce)
 sacki              match                                     x1 is a match [incendiary device] made of x2                                                     a    0    (cf. fagri, jelca)
 saclu              decimal                                   x1 (me'o) is the [decimal/binary] equivalent of fractional x2 (me'o) in base x3 (quantity)       af   1    [conversion from fractions to decimal-point based notation] (cf. namcu, frinu)
 sadjo     djo      Saudi                                     x1 reflects Saudi Arabian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                       ab   1    (cf. xrabo)
 sakci sak          suck                                      x1 sucks/is suction/vacuum/relatively low pressure of fluid/gas x2 relative to high pressure x3  a    2    [also suck object/fluid (= sakcpu or sakmuvgau)]; (cf. cokcu, lacpu, flecu)
 sakli sal          slide                'slip'               x1 slides/slips/glides on x2                                                                     a   12    [x2 is slick/slippery to/for x1 (= selsakli for reordered places)]; (cf. mosra, fulta, skiji, xutla)
 sakta sat          sugar                'sucrose'            x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of sugar [sweet edible] from source x2 of composition x3    5b   7    [also sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, etc.; saccharine/aspartame/sugar substitute (basysakta or sakybasti, ticysakta); x3: composition including x3, which need not be complete specification]; (cf. silna, titla)
 salci     sla      celebrate                                 x1 celebrates/recognizes/honors x2 (event/abstract) with activity/[party] x3                     9c  22    [x3 (and nunsla) festival/fiesta/celebration/occasion/fair/[holiday (some senses)]; not limited to the ameliorative interpretation of 'celebrate': funeral (= mrobixsla)]; (cf. sinma, jbena)
 salpo         sa'o slope                                     x1 is sloped/inclined/slanted/aslant with angle x2 to horizon/frame x3                           5d  47    [also steep (= tcesa'o); normally implies non-rectilinear]; (cf. kurfa, tutci)
 salta              salad                                     x1 (mass) is a quantity of salad [food] with ingredients/components including x2                 5b  11    [x2 is in x1, an ingredient/part/component of x1]; (cf. mixre, stasu)
 samcu              cassava              'yam'                x1 is a quantity of cassava/taro/manioc/tapioca/yam [edible starchy root] of species/strain x2   1a   2    (cf. patlu, genja, jalna)
 sampu sap          simple                                    x1 is simple/unmixed/uncomplicated in property x2 (ka)                                           6f  24    (cf. pluja, curve, frili, manfo)
 sance     sna      sound                                     x1 is sound produced/emitted by x2                                                               7j  37    [x2 sounds (intransitive verb)]; (cf. savru, tirna, voksa, siclu, slaka)
 sanga sag     sa'a sing                                      x1 sings/chants x2 [song/hymn/melody/melodic sounds] to audience x3                              5g   0    [melody (= sagzgi, ralsagzgi), harmony (= saxsagzgi), harmonize/sing harmony (= saxsa'a), song (= selsa'a)]; (cf. pemci, rimni, rilti, siclu)
 sanji saj          conscious                                 x1 is conscious/aware of x2 (object/abstract); x1 discerns/recognizes x2 (object/abstract)       6m  48    [also: x1 knows [of] x2 (one sense); awareness implies some amount of mental processing above and beyond mere sensory detection, and may also be applied to mental relationships that are not detected by the senses]; (cf. menli, morji, ganse, sipna, cikna)
 sanli         sa'i stand                                     x1 stands [is vertically oriented] on surface x2 supported by limbs/support/pedestal x3          1g  75    [x1 is standing; x1 stands up; x1 is erect/vertical/upright; x1 bows/bends over (= krosa'i, krosa'ibi'o, plosa'i); frame of reference is (approximate) perpendicularity to the surface, and not to a gravity field]; (cf. kamju, sraji, tuple, zbepi, sarji)
 sanmi         sai  meal                                      x1 (mass) is a meal composed of dishes including x2                                              5c  84    [x2 is a course/dish of meal x1 (= selsai for reordered places)]; (cf. barja, stasu, gusta, sanso)
 sanso              sauce                                     x1 is a sauce/topping/gravy/frosting for use with x2, containing ingredient(s) including x3      5b  12    [x3 is in x1, an ingredient/part/component of sauce x1]; (cf. sanmi, mixre, stasu)
 santa              umbrella                                  x1 is an umbrella/parasol shielding x2 from x3, made of material x4, supported by x5             ao   4    (cf. carvi, solri)
 sarcu         sa'u necessary                                 x1 (abstract) is necessary/required for continuing state/process x2 under conditions x3          3m  57    [also factually necessary, necessity, prerequisite, condition, precondition]; (cf. cmavo list sau, nitcu)
 sarji     sra      support                                   x1 supports/holds up/is underpinning of/[helps] x2 against force/opposition x3 with/by means x4  9a 109    [also aids; (adjective:) x1 is dependable, reliable (such reliability may be transient; this is not the usual sense of 'reliable' or 'dependable'); (x2 is object/event)]; (cf. bradi, darlu, fapro, sidju, tugni, bongu, ckana, cpana, loldi, sanli, selfu)
 sarlu              spiral                                    x1 is a spiral/helix/whorl/[vortex] [shape/form] with limits x2, of dimensionality x3            9b   3    (cf. klupe, korcu, tarmi)
 sarxe sax          harmonious                                x1 is harmonious/concordant/in agreement/concord with x2 in property x3 (ka)                     a    2    (cf. satci, panpi, mapti, tugni, ckini)
 saske     ske      science                                   x1 (mass of facts) is science of/about subject matter x2 based on methodology x3                 8c  31    [not limited to science as derived by the scientific method, but pertaining to any body of usually-coherent knowledge garnered/gathered/assembled by a consistent methodology]; (cf. datni, fatci, djuno, cipra, pensi, jimpe)
 satci              exact                'precise'            x1 [measurement/match] is exact/precise to precision x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni)          7e  55    (cf. sarxe, dunli, merli, mapti, kancu, mintu)
 satre         sa'e stroke                                    x1 (agent) strokes/rubs/pets x2 with x3                                                          9c  34    [pet (= pamsa'e)]; (cf. mosra, pencu)
 savru sav vru      noise                'clamor'             x1 is a noise/din/clamor [sensory input without useful information] to x2 via sensory channel x3 2g  72    (cf. sance, cladu, kerlo, smaji, tirna, siclu)
 sazri saz          operate                                   x1 operates/drives/runs x2 [apparatus/machine] with goal/objective/use/end/function x3           8c  47    (cf. gidva, xlura, pilno, tutci, jitro, gunka)
 se    sel          2nd conversion                            2nd conversion; switch 1st/2nd places                                                            2a   0
 sefta     sfe      surface                                   x1 is surface/face [bounded shape/form] of [higher-dimension] object x2, on side x3, edges x4    9b  37    [also x4 bounds]; (cf. crane, flira, plita, bliku)
 selci     sle      cell                                      x1 is a cell/atom/unit/molecule of x2; x1 is an indivisible, most basic subunit of x2            4b   6    (x2 generally has mass nature); (cf. kantu for properties, activities; ratni, gradu)
 selfu sef     se'u serve                                     x1 (agent) serves x2 with service x3 (activity); x1 is a servant (noun) of x2 performing x3      a   20    (cf. sidju, sarji, gunka)
 semto     sme      Semitic                                   x1 reflects Semitic [metaphor: Middle-Eastern] language/culture/nationality in aspect x2         ab   1    [Semitic includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Ethiopian, among others]; (cf. xrabo)
 senci sec          sneeze                                    x1 sneezes (intransitive verb)                                                                   a    0    (cf. bilma, kafke)
 senpi sen          doubt                'skeptic'            x1 doubts/is dubious/doubtful/skeptical/questions that x2 (du'u) is true                         9d  30    [also: x2 is doubtful/dubious/questionable (= selsenpi for reordered places)]; (cf. jinvi, krici, djuno, birti)
 senta set          layer                'stratum'            x1 is a layer/stratum [shape/form] of x2 [material] within structure/continuum/composite x3      9b   9    (cf. flecu, nenri, rirxe, sepli, snuji, jbini, bitmu, sruri, serti)
 senva sev sne      dream                'reverie'            x1 dreams about/that x2 (fact/idea/event/state); x2 is a dream/reverie of x1                     6m  16    [dream/reverie (= selsne)]; (cf. sipna, xanri)
 sepli sep     sei  apart                'separate'           x1 is apart/separate from x2, separated by partition/wall/gap/interval/separating medium x3      6f  47    [also aloof (= jiksei); alone (= rolsmisei meaning apart or unlike all others of its kind; pavysei, seirpavmei meaning "only" or "one alone" - do not use when talking about, for example, two people who are alone); x3 space]; (cf. bitmu, snuji, senta, fendi, curve, jinsa, bitmu, marbi)
 serti ser          stairs                                    x1 are stairs/stairway/steps for climbing structure x2 with steps x3                             ao  71    (cf. stapa, loldi, senta)
 setca         se'a insert                                    x1 (agent) inserts/interposes/puts/deposits x2 into interior x3/into among/between members of x3 6f  37    [insertion need not imply a significant degree of 'filling'; inject (= je'erse'a); syringe/needle (= se'arterje'e, je'erse'atci, jestu'u or tu'urjesni); also pour, inflate, stuff, fill]; (cf. rinci, tisna, punji, jbini, nenri, jmina, culno, kunti, catlu)
 sevzi sez     se'i self                                      x1 is a self/ego/id/identity-image of x2                                                         7j  44    (cf. cmavo list mi, prenu, menli, jgira)
 sfani              fly                                       x1 is a fly [a small non-stinging flying insect] of species/breed x2                             6c  16    (cf. cinki, bifce)
 sfasa     sfa      punish               'spank, castigate'   x1 (agent) punishes x2 for infraction x3 (event/state/action) with punishment x4 (event/state)   a    2    [also chastise, castigate, chasten, discipline, correct (one sense); also x4 penalty]; (cf. cnemu, pleji, venfu, zekri, canja, dunda, jdima, jerna, kargu, prali, dapma, cirko, jinga)
 sfofa     sfo      sofa                                      x1 is a sofa/couch (noun)                                                                        an   9    (cf. nilce)
 sfubu sub     su'u dive                 'swoop'              x1 dives/swoops [manner of controlled falling] to x2 from x3                                     a    4    (cf. farlu, farlu)
 si'o  siz          concept abstract                          abstractor: idea/concept abstractor; x1 is x2's concept of [bridi]                               -         (cf. sidbo)
 siclu sil          whistle                                   x1 [sound source] whistles/makes whistling sound/note/tone/melody x2                             a   18    (cf. sance, tonga, sanga, zgike, savru)
 sicni         si'i coin                 'specie'             x1 is a coin/token/is specie issued by x2 having value x3 of composition including x4            5e  32    (cf. fepni, jdini, rupnu)
 sidbo sib     si'o idea                                      x1 (idea abstract) is an idea/concept/thought about x2 (object/abstract) by thinker x3           9e  81    [also (adjective:) x1 is ideal/ideational]; (cf. ciksi, jijnu, mucti, jinvi, nabmi, pensi, xanri, cmavo list si'o)
 sidju     dju      help                 'aid'                x1 helps/assists/aids object/person x2 do/achieve/maintain event/activity x3                     9c  90    (cf. cmavo list si'u, rirni, sarji, vipsi, ferti, selfu)
 sigja sig          cigar                                     x1 is a cigar/cigarette/cigarillo made from tobacco/smokable substance x2 by x3                  a    0    (cf. danmo, jelca, tanko, marna)
 silka sik          silk                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of silk produced by x2                                      ah   2    (cf. curnu, bukpu, cilta)
 silna              salt                                      x1 is a portion/quantity of salt from source x2, of composition including x3                     5b  18    (cf. sakta)
 simlu     mlu      seem                                      x1 seems/appears to have property(ies) x2 to observer x3 under conditions x4                     7j  89    [also: x1 seems like it has x2 to x3; suggest belief/observation (= mlugau, mluti'i); looks like/resembles (= smimlu, mitmlu)]; (cf. catlu, viska, simsa, zgana, ganse, jarco)
 simsa     smi      similar                                   x1 is similar/parallel to x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni); x1 looks/appears like x2           7j 131    [also: x1 is a likeness/image of x2; x1 and x2 are alike; similarity and parallel differ primarily in emphasis]; (cf. dunli, frica, mintu, panra, simlu, vrici)
 simxu sim     si'u mutual                                    x1 (set) has members who mutually/reciprocally x2 (event [x1 should be reflexive in 1+ sumti])   7j  49    [members of x1 do to each other/one another x2, and in return do x2; x1 (plural set) do the same thing x2 to each other]; (cf. kampu, mintu)
 since              snake                                     x1 is a snake/serpent of species/breed x2                                                        ai 257    (cf. curnu, danlu, respa, vindu)
 sinma         si'a esteem                                    x1 esteems/respects/venerates/highly regards x2 [object of respect]                              9d  39    [also: x2 is respected/esteemed/celebrated (= selsi'a for reordered places)]; (cf. banli, censa, misno, nelci, prami, salci, jgira)
 sinso              sine                                      x1 is the trigonometric sine of angle/arcsine x2                                                 ar   2    (cf. tanjo)
 sinxa     sni      sign                                      x1 is a sign/symbol/signal representing/referring/signifying/meaning x2 to observer x3           7e  61    [also: x1 signifies x2; (adjective:) x1 is significant/meaningful/of import; signal an action (= sniti'i), connotation (= se sibyti'isni, sibyti'ismu)]; (cf. lerfu, tcita, barna, mifra, smuni)
 sipna sip          sleep                                     x1 is asleep (adjective); x1 sleeps/is sleeping                                                  6m 145    (cf. senva, tatpi, cikna, sanji)
 sirji sir          straight                                  x1 is straight/direct/line segment/interval between x2 and x3; (adjective:)  x1 is linear        6f  13    (cf. korcu, linji, kruvi, kuspe)
 sirxo six          Syrian                                    x1 reflects Syrian culture/nationality in aspect x2                                              ab   4    (cf. xrabo)
 sisku sis          seek                                      x1 seeks/searches/looks for property x2 among set x3 (complete specification of set)             8g  89    [if searching for an object or an event, use tu'a in x2]; (cf. cirko, kalte, kavbu, kucli, rivbi, manci, facki)
 sisti     sti      cease                                     x1 [agent] ceases/stops/halts/ends activity/process/state x2 [not necessarily completing it]     1g 117    (cf. fanmo, mulno, cfari, denpa, fliba)
 sitna sit          cite                                      x1 cites/quotes/refers to/makes reference to source x2 for information/statement x3 (du'u)       8b   0    (cf. krasi)
 sivni siv          private                                   x1 is private/personal/privy/[secret/confidential/confined] to x2; x1 is not-public/hidden       a    0    [also: x1 is secret (one sense); x2 is in the know/in touch with/privy to x1 (= selsivni for reordered places); exclusion can be expressed by na'e(bo) in x2: excluded/in the dark (= nalselsivni)]; (cf. gubni, mipri)
 skaci              skirt                                     x1 is a skirt/kilt/dress of material x2; x1 is skirted [garment open at the bottom; not legged]  3f  12    [a skirted garment may be full length (pastu), but must hang below the waist from support above or at the waist]; (cf. taxfu, palku)
 skami sam          computer                                  x1 is a computer for purpose x2                                                                  8c  69    (cf. kanji, minji, pensi)
 skapi kap          pelt                 'skin'               x1 is a pelt/skin/hide/leather from x2                                                           9f  18    (cf. pilka, calku, kerfa)
 skari     ska      color                                     x1 is/appears to be of color/hue x2 as perceived/seen by x3 under conditions x4                  1a  30    [conditions may include lighting, background, etc.]; (cf. blanu, bunre, cicna, cinta, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu, carmi, kandi, xekri, blabi)
 skicu     ski      describe                                  x1 tells about/describes x2 (object/event/state) to audience x3 with description x4 (property)   7j  97    (cf. lisri, tavla)
 skiji sij          ski                                       x1 is a ski/skid/skate/runner for surface (of material) x2 supporting skier/skater/sled/cargo x3 a    1    (cf. sakli, marce, cutci)
 skina kin          cinema                                    x1 is a cinema/movie/film about x2 [plot/theme/subject/activity], filmmaker x3, for audience x4  5g  32    [also motion picture; x2 may be a convention rather than a subject; cartoon/animation (= selxraci'a skina); television/tv show (= tivyskina, regardless of length, factual content, etc.)]; (cf. tivni, vidni, pixra, finti)
 skori     sko      cord                                      x1 is cord/cable/rope/line/twine/cordage/woven strands of material x2                            9f   3    (cf. cilta, jgena, marna, bikla, linsi)
 skoto kot     ko'o Scottish                                  x1 reflects Gaelic/Scottish culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                            ab   1    [Irish (= sicko'o), Scottish (= sunko'o), Celtic (= dzeko'o), Welsh (= nanko'o), Breton (= fasko'o); since Scottish/Gaelic is only the northern branch of the Celtic tribes, many would prefer a fu'ivla for Celtic; nationalism might also demand a separate fu'ivla for Irish]; (cf. brito, glico)
 skuro         ku'o groove               'furrow'             x1 is a groove/trench/furrow [shape/form] in object/surface x2                                   9b  36    (cf. plixa)
 slabu         sau  familiar                                  x1 is old/familiar/well-known to observer x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4                   2c 130    [This can cover both meanings of old.  Old in years, i.e. age, can be conveyed through x2 = the world, life, existence (= loi nu zasti); in usage this has been a common default for ellipsis.  However slabu is not the opposite of 'young' (= nalci'o, tolci'o), but the opposite of 'new' (= tolni'o); also ancient (= tcesau), age (= nilsau); x2 is used to x1 (= selsau for reordered places); historic/historical (= cirsau, cirselcedra; also vaipru)]; (cf. clani, citno, cnino, se djuno; not the opposite of citno, djuno)
 slaka              syllable                                  x1 is a syllable in language x2                                                                  1h  11    (cf. sance, valsi, bangu)
 slami              acid                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of acid of composition x2; (adjective:) x1 is acidic        ah   0    [x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification]; (cf. slari, nimre)
 slanu              cylinder                                  x1 is a cylinder [shape/form] of material x2                                                     9b   6    (cf. kamju, gunro)
 slari sar          sour                                      x1 is sour/tart to observer x2                                                                   6f   5    (cf. slami, titla, kurki, nimre)
 slasi las          plastic                                   x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains plastic/polymer of type/component unit(s) x2             6b   9    (cf. rutni, boxfo, bukpu)
 sligu lig          solid                                     x1 is solid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3                           6b  17    [conditions include temperature and pressure]; (cf. runta, litki, gapci, jdari, dunja, pulce, jduli)
 slilu     sli      oscillate                                 x1 oscillates at rate/frequency x2 through set/sequence-of-states x3 (complete specification)    ar   8    [also (expressible either with desku or slilu): side to side, to and fro, back and forth, reciprocal (motion), rotates, revolves]; (cf. dikni, rilti, morna, desku, janbe, boxna)
 sliri              sulfur                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sulfur/brimstone (S); [metaphor: foul odor, volcanic]    ag   7    (cf. xukmi, panci, pelxu)
 slovo lov     lo'o Slavic                                    x1 reflects Slavic language/culture/ethos in aspect x2                                           ab   0    (cf. softo, rusko, vukro)
 sluji     slu      muscle                                    x1 is a/the muscle [body-part] controlling x2, of body x3; [metaphor: tools of physical power]   aa   5    [(adjective:) x1/x2/x3 is muscular (different senses)]; (cf. rectu, xadni, zajba)
 sluni              onion                                     x1 is a quantity of/contains onions/scallions of type/cultivar x2                                5b  11    (cf. stagi)
 smacu              mouse                                     x1 is a mouse of species/breed x2                                                                ai   5    (cf. ratcu)
 smadi              guess                'surmise'            x1 guesses/conjectures/surmises x2 (du'u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology]               3l  15    [also: x1 has a hunch that x2 is true; x1 imagines x2 is true; words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]; (cf. djuno, facki, jijnu, sruma)
 smaji     sma      quiet                'silent'             x1 (source) is quiet/silent/[still] at observation point x2 by standard x3                       7j  52    (cf. kerlo, panpi, savru, tirna)
 smani              monkey               'simian'             x1 is a monkey/ape/simian/baboon/chimpanzee of species/breed x2                                  ai   0    (cf. mabru, danlu)
 smoka     smo      sock                                      x1 is a sock/stocking [flexible foot and lower leg garment] of material x2                       3f   6    (cf. cutci, taxfu)
 smuci muc          spoon                                     x1 is a spoon/scoop (tool) for use x2, made of material x3                                       5c   5    (cf. dakfu, forca, tutci)
 smuni mun smu      meaning                                   x1 is a meaning/interpretation of x2 recognized/seen/accepted by x3                              3j 135    [referential meaning (=selsni, snismu)]; (cf. jimpe, sinxa, valsi, tanru, gismu, lujvo, cmavo, jufra)
 snada sad          succeed              'accomplish'         x1 [agent] succeeds in/achieves/completes/accomplishes x2 as a result of effort/attempt/try x3   8g 152    [also: x1 reaches x2; (adjective:) x1 is successful; x2 (event/state/achievement)]; (cf. fliba, troci, jgira)
 snanu nan          south                                     x1 is to the south/southern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3                        5d  81    (cf. berti, stuna, stici, farna)
 snidu nid          second                                    x1 is x2 seconds in duration (default is 1 second) by standard x3                                3e   9    (cf. cacra, junla, mentu, tcika, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 snime         si'e snow                                      x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of snow                                             4h  32    (cf. bratu, carvi, bisli)
 snipa nip          sticky                                    x1 adheres/sticks to x2; (adjective:) x1 is sticky/gummy/adhesive                                a    2    [note that x1 is the adhering surface being claimed; x2 need not be sticky]; (cf. tarla, viknu)
 snuji nuj          sandwich                                  x1 is a sandwich/layering [not restricted to food] of x2 sandwiched between x3                   5b   9    (cf. midju, nenri, sepli, senta, jbini, bitmu, sruri)
 snura nur     nu'a secure                                    x1 is secure/safe from threat x2 (event)                                                         9a  34    (cf. ckape, kajde, marbi, terpa, xalni, bandu)
 snuti nut          accidental                                x1 (event/state) is an accident/unintentional on the part of x2; x1 is an accident               4c  26    (cf. zukte, cunso)
 so    soz          9                                         digit/number: 9 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 so'a  soj          almost all                                digit/number: almost all (digit/number)                                                          7e   0
 so'e  sop          most                                      digit/number: most                                                                               7e   0
 so'i  sor     so'i many                                      digit/number: many                                                                               3a   0
 so'o  sos          several                                   digit/number: several                                                                            7e   0
 so'u  sot          few                                       digit/number: few                                                                                7e   0
 sobde sob     so'e soya                                      x1 is a quantity of soya [grain/bean] of species/strain x2                                       aj  18    (cf. dembi, gurni)
 sodna              sodium                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali metal of type x2 [default sodium]                 ag   1    [also potassium, lithium, cesium]; [soda] (cf. jilka, jinme)
 sodva sod          soda                                      x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of a carbonated beverage/soda of flavor/brand x2            2j  17    [also: soft drink (though this sometimes includes tea and coffee as distinct from alcoholic beverages which are "hard drinks")]; (cf. jilka, jinme)
 softo sof          Soviet                                    x1 reflects Russian empire/USSR/ex-USSR (Soviet]/CIS culture/nationality in aspect x2            ab   6    (cf. rusko, vukro, slovo)
 solji     slo      gold                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of gold (Au); [metaphor: valuable, heavy, non-reactive]     ag  30    (cf. ricfu, rijno, narju, pelxu)
 solri sol          solar                                     x1 is the sun of home planet x2 (default Earth) of race x3; (adjective:) x1 is solar             am  66    ['home planet' refers to a planet which is "home" to a race, but not necessarily the original "home" of a species if that species inhabits many worlds]; (cf. gusni, lunra, mluni, plini, santa, terdi, tarci)
 sombo som     so'o sow                                       x1 sows/plants x2 [crop/plants] at/in x3                                                         a    5    (cf. crepu, tsiju)
 sonci son     soi  soldier                                   x1 is a soldier/warrior/fighter of army x2                                                       a   31    (cf. bilni, damba, jenmi, xarci, pulji)
 sorcu soc sro      store                                     x1 is a store/deposit/supply/reserve of materials/energy x2 in containment x3                    3m  23    [x3 need not be a container, but could merely be a site/location restriction; e.g. a heap.  The sumti indicates how the supply is identified and distinguished from other occurrences of the stored x2 that are not part of the store]; (cf. panka; vreji for information storage; sabji for a store or reserve that is not necessarily tied to a site, banxa, panka)
 sorgu sog          sorghum                                   x1 is a quantity of sorghum of species/strain x2                                                 aj   4    (cf. gurni)
 sovda sov     so'a egg                  'ovum'               x1 is an egg/ovum/sperm/pollen/gamete of/from organism [mother/father] x2                        5b  51    [(poorly metaphorical only due to gender- and species- being unspecified): ovoid, oblate (= pevyso'aseltai, but better: claboi); egg, specifically female (= fetso'a), of a bird (= cpifetso'a, cpiso'a), of a chicken (= jipcyfetso'a, jipcyso'a] (but note that Lojban does not require specificity, just as English doesn't for either milk or eggs; "sovda" is fine for most contexts); [if fertilized, then tsiju or tarbi]; (cf. ganti, gutra, mamta, patfu, rorci, tsiju, lanbi, tarbi; also djine, konju for shape, tarbi)
 spaji paj          surprise                                  x1 (event/action abstract) surprises/startles/is unexpected [and generally sudden] to x2         9d  22    [also expectation (= nalspaji), alarm (= tepspaji)]; (cf. manci, jenca, bredi, suksa)
 spali              polish                                    x1 (agent) polishes object/surface x2 with polish x3, applied using tool x4                      a    7    (cf. mosra, sraku, xutla)
 spano san          Spanish                                   x1 reflects Spanish-speaking culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                           ab   2    [metaphorical restriction to Spain by contrast with xispo (comparable to the distinction between glico and merko/sralo/brito/kadno); Spain (= sangu'e); Spanish dialects spoken in Spain, especially Castillian (= sansanbau)]; (cf. xispo, ketco, mexno, gento)
 spati     spa      plant                                     x1 is a plant/herb/greenery of species/strain/cultivar x2                                        6c  68    [also (adjective:) x1 is vegetable/vegetal/vegetative]; (cf. genja, grute, gurni, latna, rozgu, stagi, tricu, tsiju, tujli, xruba, xrula, pezli, srasu)
 speni     spe      married              'spouse'             x1 is married to x2; x1 is a spouse of x2 under law/custom/tradition/system/convention x3        9a  92    (cf. prami, gletu)
 spisa     spi      piece                                     x1 [object/substance] is a piece/portion/lump/chunk/particle of x2 [substance]                   7j  21    (cf. pagbu)
 spita              hospital                                  x1 is a hospital treating patient(s) x2 for condition/injuries/disease/illness x3                4c  20    [hospice (a place where x2 of spita is lenu mrobi'o = mrospita)]; (cf. bilma, mikce)
 spofu pof     po'u broken                                    x1 is broken/inoperable/broken down/non-utile/not usable for function x2                         4c  12    [agentive break, cause to become inoperable (= pofygau, pofyzu'e); accidentally break, as a result of an event, non-agentive (= pofyja'e, nutpo'uja'e)]; (cf. daspo, katna, porpi, se xrani, cikre)
 spoja poj     po'a explode                                   x1 bursts/explodes/violently breaks up/decomposes/combusts into pieces/energy/fragments x2       a   20    (cf. cecla, jakne, jbama)
 spuda     spu      reply                'respond'            x1 answers/replies to/responds to person/object/event/situation/stimulus x2 with response x3     1h  67    [x3 also answer/reply]; [if x2 is a person/object, it will usually require "tu'a" indicating that the reply/response is to that person/object doing something.  "tu'a" may not be needed if the person/object itself is the stimulus, rather than something it is doing];(cf. cusku, preti, nabmi, danfu, frati, cpedu)
 sputu put     pu'u spit                                      x1 spits/expectorates x2 [predominantly liquid] from x3 to/onto x4                               aa   8    [saliva/spit/sputum/spittle (= molselpu'u)]; (cf. jetce, kafke, vamtu)
 sraji raj          vertical             'upright'            x1 is vertical/upright/erect/plumb/oriented straight up and down in reference frame/gravity x2   9b   5    (cf. sanli, pinta)
 sraku rak          scratch                                   x1 [abrasive/cutting/scratching object/implement] scratches/[carves]/erodes/cuts [into] x2       a    1    (cf. guska, katna, mosra, plixa, kakpa (unlike kakpa, sraku does not imply material is removed), spali)
 sralo              Australian                                x1 reflects Australian culture/nationality/geography/dialect in aspect x2                        ab   5    (cf. glico)
 srana         ra'a pertain              'concerns'           x1 pertains to/is germane/relevant to/concerns/is related/associated with/is about x2            7j  36    [also: x1 is a question of/treats of x2; can be symmetric, although x1 is conventionally more specific or constrained in scope than x2]; (cf. cmavo list ra'a, ckini, ponse, steci)
 srasu sas          grass                                     x1 is a blade/expanse of grass of species x2                                                     6c  47    [lawn/meadow (= sasfoi)]; (cf. spati)
 srera     sre      err                                       x1 errs in doing/being/making mistake x2 (event), an error under conditions x3 by standard x4    1h  40    (cf. drani, which is non-agentive, cfila, fliba)
 srito              Sanskrit                                  x1 reflects Sanskrit language/Sanskritic/Vedic culture/nationality in aspect x2                  ab   1    (cf. xindo, xurdo)
 sruma         ru'a assume                                    x1 assumes/supposes that x2 (du'u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology]                      3l   5    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]; (cf. smadi, birti)
 sruri rur sru      surround                                  x1 encircles/encloses/is surrounding x2 in direction(s)/dimension(s)/plane x3                    7j  12    [(jinsru =) x1 is a ring/belt/band/girdle around/circling/ringing x2 near total containment in some dimension(s)]; (cf. karli, senta, snuji, vanbi, se nenri, se jbini, bartu, djine)
 stace sac          honest                                    x1 is honest/open/truthfully revealing to/candid/frank with x2 about matter/fact x3              9c   0    [also straight, straight-forward]; (cf. tcica, jetnu, jitfa, mipri)
 stagi              vegetable            'stalky'             x1 is the edible x2 portion of plant x3; x1 is a vegetable                                       5b   7    [note that fruits and nuts are also vegetables; generally this word will be used for either the general category of edible plants, or for non-fruit vegetables (= nalrutstagi)]; (cf. grute, kobli, narge, sluni, spati, sunga, tamca)
 staku tak          ceramic                                   x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of ceramic made by x2, of composition x3, in form/shape x4  ah   1    [made of baked clay or other non-metallic solid; x3: composition including x3, which need not be complete specification]; (cf. kliti)
 stali     sta      remain               'stay'               x1 remains/stays at/abides/lasts with x2                                                         4d  53    (cf. vitno, zasni, ralte, stodi, xabju, stuzi, renvi)
 stani              stalk                                     x1 is a/the stalk/stem/trunk [body-part] of plant/species x2; [metaphor: main support]           aj  15    (cf. tuple, mudri)
 stapa tap          step                                      x1 steps/treads on/in surface x2 using limbs x3                                                  a   20    (cf. bajra, plipe, cadzu, serti)
 stasu              soup                 'stew'               x1 is a quantity of soup/stew/olla/olio [food] of ingredients including x2                       5b  26    [x2 is in x1, an ingredient/part/component of x1]; (cf. sanmi, mixre, salta, sanso)
 stati              talent                                    x1 has a talent/aptitude/innate skill for doing/being x2                                         a   13    (cf. jinzi, certu, rarna, larcu, kakne)
 steba seb          frustration                               x1 feels frustration about x2 (abstraction)                                                      9d  19    (cf. cinmo)
 steci tec     te'i specific             'special'            x1 (ka) is specific/particular/specialized/[special]/a defining property of x2 among x3 (set)    7j  39    [x2 are members/individuals of a subset of x3; object whose association is specific/defining of a subset or individuals (= tecra'a, also cf. cmavo list po'e, [x2 is also special to x1]); also: especially/strongly/specifically associated]; (x3 is completely specified set)]; (cf. srana, se ponse, ckini, tcila, tutra)
 stedu sed          head                                      x1 is a/the head [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: uppermost portion]                                1c  40    [skull (= sedbo'u)]; (cf. drudi, mebri, xedja, besna, flira, mapku)
 stela tel          lock                                      x1 is a lock/seal of/on/for sealing x2 with/by locking mechanism x3                              ao  17    (cf. ckiku)
 stero         te'o steradian                                 x1 is x2 steradian(s) [metric unit] in solid angle (default is 1) by standard x3                 af   2    (cf. centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 stici sic          west                                      x1 is to the west/western side of x2 according to frame of reference x3                          5d 146    (cf. stuna, berti, snanu, farna)
 stidi sid     ti'i suggest                                   x1 (agent) suggests/proposes idea/action x2 to audience x3; x1 (event) inspires x2 in/among x3   8c  38    [event which inspires/suggests/is suggestive (= faurti'i, sidyfau)]; (cf. cmavo list ti'i, tcica, xlura)
 stika tik          adjust                                    x1 (event) adjusts/regulates/changes x2 (ka/ni) in amount/degree x3                              a   15    [non-resultative, causal change; agentive adjust (= tikygau, tikyzu'e)]; (cf. cenba which need not be causal, galfi which is causal and resultative, binxo which need not be causal but is resultative, zasni, stodi)
 stizu tiz          chair                'stool'              x1 is a chair/stool/seat/bench, a piece or portion of a piece of furniture intended for sitting  1f 155    (cf. nilce, zutse, jubme, ckana)
 stodi     sto      constant             'stable'             x1 is constant/invariant/unchanging in property x2 (ka) in response to stimulus/conditions x3    7e   9    [also stable/consistent/steadfast/firm/steady]; (cf. cenba, stika, stali, vitno, manfo, zasni, tinsa, jdari)
 stuna sun          east                                      x1 is to the east/eastern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3                          5d 101    (cf. stici, berti, snanu, farna)
 stura tur     su'a structure                                 x1 is a structure/arrangement/organization of x2 [set/system/complexity]                         a   14    (x2, if a set, is completely specified); (cf. ganzu, morna, ciste, lujvo, greku, gerna)
 stuzi tuz stu      site                 'position'           x1 is an inherent/inalienable site/place/position/situation/spot/location of x2 (object/event)   5d 101    [generally used for normally stationary objects/events, to give their 'permanent' location]; (cf. cmavo list tu'i, jmive, diklo, zvati, tcini, xabju, jibni, judri, lamji, mokca, stali)
 su'e  sup     su'e at most                                   digit/number: at most (all); no more than                                                        3a   0
 su'o  suz     su'o at least                                  digit/number: at least (some); no less than                                                      3a   0    (cf. cmalu, mleca)
 su'u  suv          unspecif abstract                         abstractor: generalized abstractor (how); x1 is [bridi] as a non-specific abstraction of type x2 -         (cf. sucta)
 sucta suc          abstract                                  x1 (si'o) is abstracted/generalized/idealized from x2 [something concrete] by rules x3           9e   5    (cf. fatci, xanri)
 sudga sud          dry                                       x1 is dry of liquid x2; (adjective:) x1 is arid                                                  6f  71    (cf. cilmo, litki, runta)
 sufti     sfu      hoof                                      x1 is a/the hoof [body-part] of x2                                                               ai   0    (cf. xirma)
 suksa suk          sudden                                    x1 (event/state) is sudden/sharply changes at stage/point x2 in process/property/function x3     7j  55    [also abrupt, discontinuous]; (cf. spaji, vitci, vlile)
 sumji suj          sum                                       x1 is a mathematical sum/result/total of x2 plus/increased by x3                                 7e   8    (cf. jmina, jalge, mulno, pilji)
 sumne              smell                                     x1 (experiencer) smells/scents (transitive verb) x2; x2 smells/has odor/scent to observer x1     6m  35    (cf. nazbi, panci, cpina, ganse, zgana)
 sumti sum     su'i argument                                  x1 is a/the argument of predicate/function x2 filling place x3 (kind/number)                     1b2373    (x1 and x2 are text); (cf. bridi, darlu, gismu)
 sunga sug          garlic                                    x1 is a quantity of garlic [bulb] of species/strain x2                                           aj  13    (cf. stagi)
 sunla sul          wool                                      x1 is a quantity of/made from/consists of wool [tight curly hair] from animal/species/source x2  ai   3    (cf. kosta, kumte, lanme, kanba, bukpu, kerfa)
 surla sur          relax                                     x1 relaxes/rests/is at ease in/by doing/being x2 (activity)                                      9c  34    (cf. dunku, tatpi, cando, vreta)
 sutra sut          fast                 'swift'              x1 is fast/swift/quick/hastes/rapid at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state)               4f 142    (cf. masno)
 ta    taz          that there                                pro-sumti: that there; nearby demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near listener              1d   0
 tabno tab          carbon                                    x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of carbon/graphite/[diamond]/charcoal; x1 is organic        ag   1    (cf. kolme)
 tabra              trumpet              'brass'              x1 is a horn/trumpet/trombone/bugle [brass-wind/lip-reed musical instrument]                     ak   1    (cf. zgike)
 tadji              method                                    x1 [process] is a method/technique/approach/means for doing x2 (event) under conditions x3       8f  37    [also practice/way/mode; style/manner/conduct (= tratadji); pattern (= montadji, tadjymo'a, or platadji, tadjypla)]; (cf. ciste, pruce, zukte, pluta, cmavo list tai)
 tadni tad          study                                     x1 studies/is a student of x2; x1 is a scholar; (adjective:) x1 is scholarly                     1h 115    (cf. ckule, cilre, ctuca)
 tagji tag          snug                 'tight'              x1 is snug/tight on x2 in dimension/direction x3 at locus x4                                     3f  27    (cf. trati, jarki, kluza, rinju)
 talsa tal          challenge                                 x1 (person) challenges x2 at/in property x3                                                      8g   1    (cf. jinga, damba, darlu, jivna, nandu for a challenging event/situation)
 tamca              tomato                                    x1 is a tomato [fruit/vegetable/plant] of species/strain x2                                      aj   0    (cf. grute, stagi)
 tamji taj          thumb                                     x1 is a/the thumb/big toe [body-part] on limb x2 of x3; [metaphor based on relative shape]       1c  10    [thumb (specifically the hand = xantamji), big toe (= jmatamji)]; (cf. degji, tance, xance, jamfu)
 tamne              cousin                                    x1 is cousin to x2 by bond/tie x3; [non-immediate family member, default same generation]        4b   2    [probably preferred for metaphorical siblings (over bruna)] (cf. dzena, famti, mensi, bruna, tunba)
 tanbo         ta'o board                                     x1 is a board/plank [3-dimensional long flat rectangle] of material x2                           ao   1    (cf. bliku, kubli)
 tance tac          tongue                                    x1 is a/the tongue [body-part] of x2; (metaphor: similar to nazbi, tamji, degji)                 aa  17    [(adjective:) x1 is lingual]; (cf. moklu, bangu, nazbi, tamji, degji)
 tanjo              tangent                                   x1 is the trigonometric tangent of angle/arctangent x2                                           ar   7    (cf. sinso)
 tanko              tobacco                                   x1 is a quantity of tobacco [leaf] of species/strain x2                                          aj   0    (cf. sigja, marna)
 tanru         tau  phrase compound                           x1 is a binary metaphor formed with x2 modifying x3, giving meaning x4 in usage/instance x5      1b 776    (x2 and x3 are both text or both si'o concept) (cf. gismu, smuni)
 tansi tas          pan                                       x1 is a pan/basin/tub/sink, a shallow container for contents x2, of material/properties x3       ao   0    [also bowl]; (cf. baktu, palne, palta, patxu, kabri for a bowl that is normally lifted for use, botpi)
 tanxe tax     ta'e box                  'trunk'              x1 is a box/carton/trunk/crate for contents x2, and made of material x3                          1f  40    (cf. bakfu, botpi, cutne, dacru)
 tapla              tile                                      x1 is a tile/cake [shape/form] of material x2, shape x3, thickness x4                            9b   1    [a tile is a 3-dimensional object, relatively uniform and significant in the 3rd dimension, but thin enough that its shape in the the other two dimensions is a significant feature; 'city block' is conceptually a tile; polygon (= taplytai or kardytai - shaped like an approximately-2-dimensional block, lijyclupa - a loop composed of lines)]; (cf. bliku, kubli, matci; karda, for which the 3rd dimension is insignificant, bliku, kurfa, matci, plita, tarmi)
 tarbi              embryo                                    x1 is an embryo/zygote/fetus/fertilized egg with mother x2, and father x3                        a   10    (cf. gutra, mamta, patfu, sovda, rorci, tsiju, grute)
 tarci tar          star                                      x1 is a star/sun with stellar properties x2                                                      am  28    (cf. solri, tsani)
 tarla              tar                                       x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tar/asphalt from source x2                               ah   1    (cf. kolme, pesxu, snipa)
 tarmi tam     tai  shape                'form'               x1 [ideal] is the conceptual shape/form of object/abstraction/manifestation x2 (object/abstract) 9b  91    [also pattern; x1 is the mathematical or theoretical ideal form, while x2 is an object/event manifesting that form; e.g. circular/circle-shaped (= cukseltai) vs. circle (=cuktai, while cukla alone is ambiguous); model (= ci'ersaptai, saptai, ci'ersmitai, smitai)]; (cf. nejni, morna; te marji for physical shape, tapla, bliku, kubli, kurfa, cukla, mapti, morna, sarlu)
 tarti     tra      behave                                    x1 behaves/conducts oneself as/in-manner x2 (event/property) under conditions x3                 9c  30    [also (adjective:) x1 is behavioral]; (cf. cnano, frati, tcaci, cilce, jikca, marde)
 taske              thirst                                    x1 thirsts for x2; x1 needs/wants drink/fluid/lubrication x2                                     2j   8    (cf. nitcu, djica, xagji, pinxe)
 tatpi         ta'i tired                                     x1 is tired/fatigued by effort/situation x2 (event); x1 needs/wants rest                         4c  41    (cf. cikna, sipna, surla)
 tatru tat          breast               'teat'               x1 is a/the breast/mammary/teat [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: projection providing liquid]       aa   1    [nipple (= tatyji'o)]; (cf. ladru, mabru)
 tavla tav     ta'a talk                 'palaver'            x1 talks/speaks to x2 about subject x3 in language x4                                            1h 338    [not limited to vocal speech, but this is implied by the x4 without context of some other medium of conversation (use cusku, casnu, skicu, ciksi for weaker implication of vocal communication); converse/discuss/chat (= simta'a, simsku, vricysimta'a for a conversation not clearly delimited by subject)]; (cf. bacru, cusku for actual expression, casnu, darlu, skicu, ciksi, bangu)
 taxfu taf     ta'u garment                                   x1 is dress/a garment/clothing for wearing by x2 (gender/species/body part) serving purpose x3   3f  76    [also: x2 can wear/is wearing x1; refers to something intended for use as a garment, not merely something that happens to be worn at some time (which need not be true for dasni)]; (cf. creka, cutci, daski, dasni, gluta, kosta, mapku, palku, pastu, skaci, smoka, lunbe)
 tcaci cac          custom               'habit'              x1 is a custom/habit/[ritual/rut] of x2 under conditions x3                                      7j  20    [also: x1 is customary/usual/the practice]; (cf. fadni, kampu, lakne, jinzi, ckaji, cnano, tarti, ritli, javni, zekri)
 tcadu     tca      city                 'town'               x1 is a town/city of metropolitan area x2, in political unit x3, serving hinterland/region x4    4d  68    [also (adjective:) x1 is urban]; (cf. jarbu, nurma, cecmu, jarbu)
 tcana              station                                   x1 is a station/node of/in/on transport/communication/distribution system/network x2             a    0    [x2 may be represented by massed vehicles of system]; (cf. dargu, litru, pluta, trene, ciste, ve mrilu, tivni, cradi, ve benji, fonxa, dikca, fatri)
 tcati              tea                                       x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of tea brewed from leaves x2                                2j  19    (cf. ckafi)
 tcena ten          stretch                                   x1 stretches/extends to range x2 [interval/extent] in dimension x3 from relaxed range x4         9b  23    (cf. kuspe, pruni, preja, ranji, trati)
 tcica tic          deceive              'cheat, trick'       x1 (event/experience) misleads/deceives/dupes/fools/cheats/tricks x2 into x3 (event/state)       a   36    [agentive deception (= ticygau, ticyzu'e); x3 could be an action or a belief on the part of x2; harmful intent or result is not implied (= malticyzu'e for such harmful intent); self deception (= sezytcica); deceive/trick into misguided action (= ticyxlu); misguided belief (= tickri); fib/lie/tell an untruth/lie/fib (= ticysku, jifsku), white lie (= zanticysku)]; (cf. stace, xlura, stidi, kajde)
 tcidu tid          read                                      x1 [agent] reads x2 [text] from surface/document/reading material x3; x1 is a reader             1h  92    (cf. ciska, cukta, karni)
 tcika              time of day                               x1 [hours, {minutes}, {seconds}] is the time/hour of state/event x2 on day x3 at location x4     3e  50    [also o'clock, time-of-day]; (time units in x1 are specified as numbers separated by pi'e or are unit values massified with joi); (cf. cmavo list ti'u, cacra, cerni, detri, donri, djedi, junla, nicte, mentu, snidu, temci, vanci, dirba, mokca)
 tcila til          detail                                    x1 is a detail/feature/particular of x2                                                          8f  28    (cf. diklo, steci)
 tcima tim     ti'a weather              'climate'            x1 is weather at place/region x2; (adjective:) x1 is meteorological                              4h  23    [climate (= citsyti'a, timymo'a)]; (cf. brife, bumru, carvi, dilnu, bratu)
 tcini              situation            'state'              x1 [state/property] is a situation/condition/state/position/are conditions/circumstances of x2   8c  58    [characteristics or environment of an object/event/process stage or state that are typically/potentially only temporary]; (cf. stuzi, zvati, vanbi, ve pruce, ckaji, zasni)
 tcita              label                'tag'                x1 is a label/tag of x2 showing information x3                                                   4d 219    (cf. sinxa, cmene, judri)
 te    ter          3rd conversion                            3rd conversion; switch 1st/3rd places                                                            2a   0
 temci tem     tei  time                                      x1 is the time-duration/interval/period/[elapsed time] from time/event x2 to time/event x3       3e  66    [also age/elapsed time (= niltei)]; (cf. cacra, cedra, citsi, ranji, tcika, junla, renvi)
 tenfa tef          exponential                               x1 is the exponential result of base x2 to power/exponent x3                                     ar   1    (cf. dugri)
 tengu teg     te'u texture                                   x1 (property-ka) is a texture of x2                                                              6f   3    (cf. rufsu, xutla)
 terdi ted          earth                'terrestrial'        x1 is the Earth/the home planet of race x2; (adjective:) x1 is terrestrial/earthbound            am 111    (cf. lunra, plini, solri, kensa, tsani; dertu for ground, dirt, except when used to express physical relative frame of reference [e.g. on the ground, the ground beneath us], tsani)
 terpa tep     te'a fear                 'terror'             x1 fears x2; x1 is afraid/scared/frightened by/fearful of x2 (event/tu'a object)                 4c  72    [also: x1 feels terror about x2; x2 is fearsome/fearful/frightening/scary to x1 (= selte'a to reorder places)]; (cf. snura, xalni, xanka, virnu)
 terto tet          1E12                 metric 'tera'        x1 is a trillion [1x10**12] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                      ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 ti    tif          this here                                 pro-sumti: this here; immediate demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near speaker             1d   0
 tigni tig          perform                                   x1 performs x2 [performance] for/before audience x3                                              5g  36    (cf. jarco)
 tikpa tip          kick                                      x1 kicks [hits with x1's foot/feet x4] x2 in/at locus x3, using x1's foot/feet x4                2b  15    (cf. tunta, darxi)
 tilju tij          heavy                'weighty'            x1 is heavy/weighty in mass/weight by standard x2                                                9b  22    (cf. linto; carmi, se junri for metaphor, bunda, junta)
 tinbe tib          obey                                      x1 obeys/follows the command/rule x2 made by x3; (adjective:) x1 is obedient                     a   13    (cf. minde, lacri, javni, flalu, zekri)
 tinci              tin                                       x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tin (Sn); [metaphor: cheap or base metal]                ag   1    (cf. gunma, lante, boxfo, cnisa, jinme)
 tinsa              stiff                                     x1 is stiff/rigid/inflexible/resistant in direction x2 against force x3 under conditions x4      6f   2    [also sometimes: firm, hard;  not limited to physical forces; e.g. mental rigidity]; (cf. bapli, jdari, nandu, torni, trati, xarnu, danre, stodi)
 tirna tin          hear                                      x1 hears x2 against background/noise x3; x2 is audible; (adjective:) x1 is aural                 6m  75    (cf. kerlo, sance, smaji, savru, voksa, ganse, zgana)
 tirse tir          iron                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of iron (Fe); [metaphor: strong, durable, tarnishing]       ag   5    [also (adjective:) x1 is ferric/ferrous]; (cf. jinme, gasta, molki)
 tirxu              tiger                                     x1 is a tiger/leopard/jaguar/[tigress] of species/breed x2 with coat markings x3                 ai   0    [a great cat noted/recognized by its markings, metaphorically: stripes, tiger markings]; (cf. mlatu)
 tisna tis          fill                 'stuff'              x1 (object) fills/becomes stuffed [up]/inflates/blows up with material x2; x2 pours into x1      6f  35    [implies some relative degree of fullness will result; agentive filling (= tisyse'a, tisygau, tisyzu'e); inflate/become inflated/blow up (= gacytisna, agentive gacyse'a); pour into (= liktisna, agentive likse'a)]; (cf. culno, kunti, rinci, setca)
 titla tit          sweet                                     x1 is sweet/sugary/saccharine to observer x2                                                     5c  23    (cf. sakta, slari, kurki)
 tivni tiv          television                                x1 broadcasts/televises programming x2 via medium/channel x3 to television receiver x4           a   17    [also x1 is a broadcaster; x2 programming (mass), program/show (ind.)]; (cf. cradi, skina, vidni, benji, tcana)
 tixnu tix     ti'u daughter                                  x1 is a daughter of mother/father/parents x2; [not necessarily biological]                       4b  23    (cf. bersa, panzi)
 to'e  tol     to'e polar opposite                            polar opposite scalar negator                                                                    7x   0    (cf. dukti, natfe, cmavo list na'e, no'e)
 toknu tok          oven                                      x1 is an oven [enclosure that heats its contents] for baking/heating/drying x2                   5c  31    (cf. nanba)
 toldi tod          butterfly                                 x1 is a butterfly/moth of species/breed x2                                                       ai  13    (cf. cinki)
 tonga tog     to'a tone                                      x1 is a tone/note of frequency/pitch x2 from source x3                                           a    0    (cf. rilti, zgike, janbe, siclu)
 tordu tor     to'u short                                     x1 is short in dimension/direction x2 (default longest dimension) by measurement standard x3     9b  31    (cf. cmalu, jarki, caxno, cinla, clani)
 torni ton     to'i twist                'torsion'            x1 twists under load/force/torsion x2                                                            a   42    (cf. tinsa, trati)
 traji         rai  superlative          'extreme'            x1 is superlative in property x2 (ka), the x3 extreme (ka; default ka zmadu) among set/range x4  6k 166    [also: x1 is x3-est/utmost in x2 among x4; x1 is the x3 end of x4; x1 is extreme; x1 is simply x3]; (cf. cmavo list rai, jimte, milxe, mutce, note contrast with milxe and mutce rather than with mleca and zmadu, which are values for x3, banli, curve, fanmo, krasi, manfo, prane)
 trano              nitrogen                                  x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of nitrogen/ammonia/nitrates                                ag   1    [(adjective:) x1 is nitric/nitrous]; (cf. vacri)
 trati              taut                                      x1 is taut/tense/strained tight in direction x2                                                  a   11    (cf. tinsa, torni, tagji, tcena, kluza)
 trene ren     re'e train                                     x1 is a train [vehicle] of cars/units x2 (mass) for rails/system/railroad x3, propelled by x4    7f   1    [a railed vehicle or train of vehicles; also subway (tu'unre'e), metro, trolley, tramway (= lajre'e), roller coaster; monorail (= dadre'e); cable car, sky car, ski lift (= cildadre'e)]; (cf. tcana)
 tricu ric          tree                                      x1 is a tree of species/cultivar x2                                                              6c  93    (cf. cindu, ckunu, pezli, mudri, spati)
 trina     tri      attract                                   x1 attracts/appeals to/lures x2 (person/event) with property/quality x3 (ka)                     7j  45    [also: x1 is alluring to x2]; (cf. djica, nelci, rigni, xlura, maksi)
 trixe rix     ti'e behind                                    x1 is posterior/behind/back/in the rear of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3               1e  29    [also: x3 is the standard of orientation for x2; spine (= rixybo'u, rixybo'ukamju)]; (cf. crane, rebla, mlana, pritu, zunle)
 troci toc     toi  try                                       x1 tries/attempts/makes an effort to do/attain x2 (event/state/property) by actions/method x3    2n 301    [also experiments at]; (cf. fliba, snada, cipra)
 tsali     tsa      strong                                    x1 is strong/powerful/[tough] in property/quality x2 (ka) by standard x3                         7g  42    (cf. ralci, ruble, carmi, vlipa)
 tsani tan          sky                                       x1 is an expanse of sky/the heavens at place x2; [celestial]                                     4h  88    (cf. gapru, kensa, tarci, terdi)
 tsapi              seasoning                                 x1 is a seasoning/condiment/spice causing flavor/effect x2 (event/property)                      5b   4    [also: x1 flavors x2 (tu'a)]; (cf. vrusi)
 tsiju     tsi      seed                                      x1(s) is/are (a) seed(s)/spore(s) [body-part] of organism x2 for producing offspring x3          5b 135    [also germ cell; implies actual potential for self-development; seeds generally contain embryo and food, and hence would include a fertilized egg] (cf. tarbi, dembi, grute, jbari, sombo, spati, sovda)
 tsina sin          stage                                     x1 is a stage/platform/dais/[scaffold] at/in x2 supporting x3, made of material x4               5g   0    (x3 object/event); (cf. greku, jubme)
 tu    tuf          that yonder                               pro-sumti: that yonder; distant demonstrative it; indicated thing far from speaker & listener    1d   0
 tubnu         tu'u tube                                      x1 is a length of tubing/pipe/hollow cylinder [shape/form] of material x2, hollow of material x3 9b  28    [also tube, sleeve, leg, hose, (adjective:) tubular]; (cf. kevna, canlu)
 tugni tug     tu'i agree                                     x1 [person] agrees with person(s)/position/side x2 that x3 (du'u) is true about matter x4        9c  54    (cf. sarxe, mapti, darlu, natfe, panpi, sarji)
 tujli tuj          tulip                                     x1 is a tulip (defined by flower shape) of species/strain x2                                     aj   0    (cf. spati)
 tumla tum     tu'a land                                      x1 is a parcel/expanse of land at location x2; x1 is terrain                                     8d  12    (cf. vacri, xamsi; tutra, which need not be land, gugde, xamsi)
 tunba tub          sibling                                   x1 is a sibling of x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3                                          4b   5    (cf. bruna, mensi, tamne)
 tunka tuk          copper                                    x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of copper (Cu); [metaphor: reddish, electrical conductor]   5e   4    (cf. jinme, lastu, ransu)
 tunlo tul     tu'o swallow                                   x1 gulps/swallows                                                                                5c   2    [x1 swallows down [food/drink] x2 (= tulpinxe, tulcti, ctitu'o (the latter two are more general - for food or beverage); swallow/engulf (= galxycti, galxynerbi'o, galxygre]; (cf. citka, pinxe, galxe)
 tunta tun          poke                 'stab'               x1 (object, usually pointed) pokes/jabs/stabs/prods x2 (experiencer)                             a    1    [agentive (= tungau, tunzu'e)]; (cf. balre, dakfu, darxi, fanza, jicla, katna, tikpa)
 tuple tup     tu'e leg                                       x1 is a/the leg [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: supporting branch]                                 1c  71    (cf. stani, zbepi, jamfu, jimca, sanli)
 turni     tru      govern                                    x1 governs/rules/is ruler/governor/sovereign/reigns over people/territory/domain/subjects x2     ab 113    [x2 need not be complete specification of set of governed; reign/rule (= noltru); king/queen/sovereign (= nolraitru); pure democracy (= roltrusi'o), representative democracy (= rolka'itrusi'o), viceroy (= ka'itru), pure communism (= guntrusi'o), board of directors/trustees, steering committee (= trukamni); government (= trugunma, trugri (emphasizing the components), truci'e (emphasizing the organization))]; (cf. catni, minde, tutra, jecta, gugde, ponse, jitro)
 tutci     tci      tool                                      x1 is a tool/utensil/resource/instrument/implement used for doing x2; [form determines function] 7g  13    (cf. cabra, minji, se pilno, zukte, sazri, basic tool types: salpo, pulni, cfine, klupe, jendu, xislu, vraga; utensils: forca, smuci, dakfu; specifics: balre, mruli, cinza, garna, pijne, pambe, canpa, pilno, vraga)
 tutra tut          territory                                 x1 is territory/domain/space of/belonging to/controlled by x2                                    ab   4    (cf. catni, turni, jecta, gugde, ponse, steci, tumla)
 va    vaz          there at                                  location tense distance: near to ... ; there at ...; a medium/small distance from ...            4a   0
 vacri var          air                                       x1 is a quantity of air/normally-gaseous atmosphere of planet x2, of composition including x3    5g  30    (cf. gapci, kijno, trano, tumla, vasxu, xamsi)
 vajni vaj     vai  important            'significant'        x1 (object/event) is important/significant to x2 (person/event) in aspect/for reason x3 (nu/ka)  8c  87    [also: x1 matters to x2 in aspect/respect x3]; (cf. banli, ralju, vamji, dirba, kargu, pajni)
 valsi val vla      word                                      x1 is a word meaning/causing x2 in language x3; (adjective: x1 is lexical/verbal)                1b 183    (cf. slaka, bangu, cmavo, cmene, gismu, jufra, rafsi, smuni)
 vamji vam     va'i value                                     x1 (ni) is the equivalent value/worth of x2 [item(s) of value] to x3 for use/appreciation x4     8d  15    [also: x2 is worth x1 to x3; (for x2 person:) x2 merits (one sense), (adjective:) x2 is worthy (= selva'i for reordered places); merit reward (= nemselva'i); receive merited reward (= vamselne'u); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyva'i, posyselva'i for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. jdima, jerna, vecnu, dirba, janta, kargu, pleji; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, vajni)
 vamtu vat          vomit                                     x1 vomits/regurgitates x2; x1 throws x2 up; [violent] digestive expulsion                        a    1    (x2 is non-gaseous); (cf. rigni, jetce, kafke, sputu)
 vanbi vab          environment          'ambient'            x1 (ind./mass) is part of an environment/surroundings/context/ambience of x2                     5d  33    [(adjective:) x1 is ambient]; (cf. cmavo list va'o, sruri, jibni, jbini, ferti, tcini)
 vanci vac          evening                                   x1 is an evening [from end-of-work until sleep typical for locale] of day x2 at location x3      3e  60    [this evening (= cabvanci); tomorrow evening (= bavlamvanci); yesterday evening (= prulamvanci)]; (cf. cerni, murse, tcika)
 vanju van          wine                                      x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of wine from fruit/grapes x2                                2j  21    (cf. barja, birje, xalka, jikru, fusra)
 vasru vas     vau  contain              'vessel'             x1 contains/holds/encloses/includes contents x2 within; x1 is a vessel containing x2             4d  71    [also accommodates, container; containment need not be total; x2 is [contained] in x1 (= selvau for reordered places)]; (cf. bartu, jbini, nenri, zvati, cpana, botpi, lanka)
 vasxu vax     va'u breathe              'vascular'           x1 breathes/respires x2 [gas]                                                                    4d  25    (though used to make the Lojban word, clue word vascular is erroneous, actually pertaining to the circulatory system that carries the respired oxygen to the tissues); (cf. fepri, kijno, vacri)
 ve    vel          4th conversion                            4th conversion; switch 1st/4th places                                                            2a   0
 ve'e          ve'e whole space interval                      location tense interval: the whole of space (rafsi is used to represent any space interval)      at   0
 vecnu ven     ve'u sell                 'vend'               x1 [seller] sells/vends x2 [goods/service/commodity] to buyer x3 for amount/cost/expense x4      8c  48    [x1 is a salesperson/salesman/vendor; x3 buys x2 from x1 (= terve'u for reordered terms); x4 is the price of x2 to x3 (= velve'u for reordered terms); for sale (= fitselve'u, selvenfriti); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyve'u, posyselve'u for unambiguous semantics)]; (cf. canja, dunda, janta, pleji, jerna, kargu, prali, zarci, vamji, jdima; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, fepni, friti, jerna, rupnu)
 venfu vef          revenge              'avenge'             x1 takes revenge on/retaliates against x2 (person) for wrong x3 (nu) with vengeance x4 (nu)      a   22    [also avenge; (adjective:) x1 is vengeful]; (cf. sfasa, cnemu)
 vensa ves          spring               'vernal'             x1 is spring/springtime [warming season] of year x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is vernal    3e  30    (cf. citsi, crisa, critu, dunra)
 verba ver     ve'a child                                     x1 is a child/kid/juvenile [a young person] of age x2, immature by standard x3                   4b  74    [not necessarily human]; (cf. cifnu, makcu, citno, panzi, nanla, nixli, se rirni, bersa)
 vi    viz          here at                                   location tense distance: here at ... ; at, near, or a very short/tiny distance from ...          4a   0    (cf. stuzi, zvati, jibni)
 vibna vib          vagina                                    x1 is a/the vagina [body-part] of x2                                                             aa   0    (cf. cinse, gletu, pinji, plibu, vlagi, mabla)
 vidni              video                                     x1 is a video monitor/CRT/screen [machine] serving function x2                                   ao  18    (cf. skina, ve tivni)
 vidru vir          virus                                     x1 is a virus of species/breed/defining property x2 capable of infecting [at] x3                 ai   2    (cf. jurme)
 vifne vif          fresh                                     (adjective:) x1 is fresh/unspoiled                                                               5c  20    (cf. fusra)
 vikmi vim     vi'i excrete                                   x1 [body] excretes waste x2 from source x3 via means/route x4                                    aa  43    (cf. cigla, kalci, pinca, xasne)
 viknu vik          viscous              'thick'              x1 is thick/viscous under conditions x2                                                          6f   7    (cf. denmi, snipa)
 vimcu vic     vi'u remove                                    x1 removes/subtracts/deducts/takes away x2 from x3 with/leaving result/remnant/remainder x4      7e  43    [also appropriates, confiscates; alienation is inherent]; (cf. lebna, muvdu, cpacu, canci, cliva, jdika)
 vindu vid          poison               'venom'              x1 is poisonous/venomous/toxic/a toxin to x2                                                     a    2    (cf. since)
 vinji vij          airplane                                  x1 is an airplane/aircraft [flying vehicle] for carrying passengers/cargo x2, propelled by x3    7f   1    (cf. vofli, sabnu)
 vipsi vip          deputy               'vice'               x1 is a deputy/vice/subordinate in aspect [or organization principle] x2 (ka) to principal x3    a    7    [also assistant, adjutant]; (cf. krati, sidju)
 virnu     vri      brave                'valiant, virtue'    x1 is brave/valiant/courageous in activity x2 (event) by standard x3                             4c  46    (cf. terpa, darsi)
 viska vis     vi'a see                  'vision'             x1 sees/views/perceives visually x2 under conditions x3                                          6m 317    [also (adjective:) x1 is visual; x3 can include ambient lighting, background, etc. which may affect what is perceived; note that English "see" often means "look" or a more generic "observe", or even "understand, know"]; (cf. catlu, jvinu, kanla, minra, simlu, djuno, jimpe, zgana, ganse)
 vitci vit          irregular            'intermittent'       x1 is irregular/occasional/intermittent in property/action/aspect x2                             9b   6    (cf. ranji, rufsu, suksa)
 vitke         vi'e guest                'visit'              x1 is a guest/visitor of x2 at place/event x3; x1 visits x2/x3                                   4d  95    (cf. friti, klama, zasni, xabju, zvati)
 vitno         vi'o permanent            'eternal'            x1 is permanent/lasting/[eternal] in property x2 (ka) by standard x3 [time-span/expectant one]   7j   5    [also everlasting]; (cf. stodi, cimni, zasni, manfo, stali)
 vlagi lag          vulva                                     x1 is a/the vulva [body-part] of x2                                                              aa   0    (cf. cinse, gletu, pinji, plibu, vibna, mabla)
 vlile vil          violent                                   x1 is an event/state/act of violence                                                             8g  27    (cf. suksa, jursa)
 vlina              alternation                               x1 is a logical alternation/disjunction, stating that x2 (du'u) and/or x3 (du'u) is/are true     7a   7    (cf. kanxe, cmavo list a, ja, gi'a, gu'a)
 vlipa     vli      powerful                                  x1 has the power to bring about x2 under conditions x3; x1 is powerful in aspect x2 under x3     7g  35    [also potent, has control/mastery]; (cf. tsali, jitro, ruble)
 vo    von          4                                         digit/number: 4 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 vofli vol     voi  flight               'fly'                x1 flies [in air/atmosphere] using lifting/propulsion means x2                                   7f  27    (cf. cipni, klama, vinji)
 voksa vok     vo'a voice                                     x1 is a voice/speech sound of individual x2                                                      9a 134    (cf. sance, tirna, bacru)
 vorme vor vro      door                                      x1 is a doorway/gateway/access way between x2 and x3 of structure x4                             2k 113    [note: emphasis on route nature; solid door (= vrogai/vrobi'u/vrozu'itci)]; (cf. canko, ganlo, kalri, murta, pagre, bitmu, kuspe)
 vraga     vra      lever                                     x1 is a lever [tool] [of apparatus] for doing x2 [function/action], with fulcrum x3 and arm x4   a    4    (cf. tutci, pulni)
 vreji rej     vei  record                                    x1 is a record of x2 (data/facts/du'u) about x3 (object/event) preserved in medium x4            8c   4    (cf. sorcu, datni, papri)
 vreta     vre      reclining            'rest'               x1 lies/rests/reclines/reposes on x2; x1 is reclining/recumbent/lying on x2                      an  68    (cf. cpana, surla, zutse, ckana, lazni)
 vrici              miscellaneous        'various'            x1 (set/mass/ind.) is miscellaneous/various/assorted in property x2 (ka)                         6f  46    (cf. klesi, girzu, frica, simsa, panra)
 vrude vud     vu'e virtue                                    x1 is virtuous/saintly/[fine/moral/nice/holy/morally good] by standard x2                        2i  12    [holy/saintly (= cesyvu'e)]; (cf. palci, xamgu, marde, zabna)
 vrusi vus     vu'i taste                'flavor'             x1 (ka) is a taste/flavor of/emitted by x2; x2 tastes of/like x1                                 6m   5    [also: x2 tastes of seasoning x1, x1 is a seasoned flavor of x2 (= tsapyvu'i); vrusi may overlap the senses of taste and smell, since the latter is a significant component of taste]; (cf. kukte, tsapi, cpina)
 vu    vuz          yonder at                                 location tense distance: far from ... ; yonder at ... ; a long distance from ...                 4a   0    (cf. darno, cmavo list vi, va)
 vukro vur     vu'o Ukrainian                                 x1 reflects Ukrainian language/culture/nationality in aspect x2                                  ab   0    (cf. slovo, softo)
 xa    xav          6                                         digit/number: 6 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 xabju         xa'u dwell                'inhabit'            x1 dwells/lives/resides/abides at/inhabits/is a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode x2  4d 130    (cf. ginka, zdani, zvati, stuzi, jmive, stali, vitke)
 xadba xab          half                                      x1 is exactly/approximately half/semi-/demi-/hemi- of x2 by standard x3                          7e  12    (cf. mulno, pagbu)
 xadni xad          body                                      x1 is a/the body/corpus/corpse of x2; (adjective:) x1 is corporal/corporeal                      1c  80    (cf. menli, pruxi, sluji, mulno, cutne)
 xagji              hunger                                    x1 hungers for x2; x1 needs/wants food/fuel x2                                                   2j  48    (cf. cidja, citka, djica, nitcu, taske)
 xagri              reed                                      x1 is a oboe/clarinet/saxophone [reed musical instrument] with reed x2                           ak   1    (cf. zgike)
 xajmi xam          funny                'comic'              x1 is funny/comical to x2 in property/aspect x3 (nu/ka); x3 is what is funny about x1 to x2      5g  32    [also: x1 is a comedian (= xampre, xamseljibri for a professional comedian)]; (x1 can be a person/object or an abstraction; be careful about possible sumti-raising); (cf. bebna, cisma, cmila, fenki, zdile)
 xaksu xak          use up                                    x1 (event) uses up/depletes/consumes/[wastes] x2 [resource]                                      a   31    [waste (= fesxaksu, dusxaksu)]; (cf. citka, festi, daspo, livla, pinxe)
 xalbo              levity               'frivolous'          x1 uses levity/is non-serious/frivolous about x2 (abstraction)                                   a   18    (cf. junri, linto)
 xalka xal          alcohol                                   x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alcohol of type x2 from source/process x3                ah   1    (cf. birje, jikru, vanju)
 xalni              panic                                     x1 (person) is panicked by crisis x2 (event/state)                                               a   16    (cf. ckape, snura, terpa, xanka)
 xamgu xag     xau  good                                      x1 (object/event) is good/beneficial/nice/[acceptable] for x2 by standard x3                     2i 226    [acceptable (= mlixau, norxau, xaurselcru)]; (cf. melbi, xlali, vrude, zabna)
 xampo xap     xa'o ampere                                    x1 is x2 ampere(s) [metric unit] in current (default is 1) by standard x3                        af   0    (cf. dikca, flecu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 xamsi xas          sea                                       x1 is a sea/ocean/gulf/[atmosphere] of planet x2, of fluid x3; (adjective:) x1 is marine         6c  45    [also atmosphere (= varxamsi, varsenta)]; (cf. daplu, djacu, lalxu, rirxe, tumla, vacri, zbani, ctaru)
 xance xan     xa'e hand                                      x1 is a/the hand [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: manipulating tool, waldo]                         1c 106    [(adjective:) x1 is manual]; (cf. birka, degji, jitro, xlura, jamfu, tamji)
 xanka              nervous              'anxious'            x1 is nervous/anxious about x2 (abstraction) under conditions x3                                 9d  24    (cf. xalni, terpa, raktu)
 xanri xar          imaginary            'unreal'             x1 [concept] exists in the imagination of/is imagined by/is imaginary to x2                      3j  10    [also (adjective:) x1 is mental (one sense), x1 is unreal (one sense); in spite of the synonym, note that x2 is imaginary does not imply that it doesn't exist in the real world; the definition is crafted so that one can talk about imaginary things without claiming that they thereby really exist]; (cf. fatci, senva, sucta, zasti, cfika, dacti, menli, sidbo)
 xanto              elephant                                  x1 is an elephant of species/breed x2                                                            ai  16    (cf. mabru, barda)
 xarci xac     xa'i weapon               'arms'               x1 is a weapon/arms for use against x2 by x3                                                     a   15    [gun/cannon (= celxa'i)]; (cf. jenmi, sonci, catra)
 xarju xaj          pig                  'hog'                x1 is a pig/hog/swine/[boar] [pork/ham/bacon-producer] of species/breed x2                       ai   1    [sow (= fetxarju), boar (= nakyxarju), pork (= xajre'u), piglet (= citxarju)]; (cf. mabru, cange)
 xarnu              stubborn                                  x1 is stubborn/willfully opposing/resisting x2 about x3 (event/state)                            a    1    [x2 may be a person, a state or condition, or a force; the essence is willful resistance]; (cf. tinsa, pante, bapli, fapro)
 xasli              donkey               'ass'                x1 is a donkey/jackass of species/breed x2                                                       ai  35    (cf. xirma, kumte)
 xasne              sweat                                     x1 is a/the sweat/perspiration from body x2, excreted by gland(s)/organs x3                      aa   4    (cf. pinca, vikmi, cigla)
 xatra         xa'a letter                                    x1 is a letter/missive/[note] to intended audience x2 from author/originator x3 with content x4  4i  76    (cf. notci, which has places in a different order; the emphasis in xatra is on the communication between author and recipient, and not the content, which in a letter may not easily be categorized to a 'subject'; ciska, mrilu, papri)
 xatsi xat          1E-18                metric 'atto'        x1 is 1x10**-18 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                  ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 xazdo xaz zdo      Asiatic                                   x1 reflects Asiatic culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2                                   ab   3    (cf. polno, friko, jungo, rusko, ropno)
 xe    xel          5th conversion                            5th conversion; switch 1st/5th places                                                            2a   0
 xebni xen     xei  hate                                      x1 hates/despises x2 (object/abstraction); x1 is full of hate for x2; x2 is odious to x1         2i  55    [x1 is hateful (one sense); x2 is hateful (different sense)]; (cf. djica, nitcu, rigni, prami, nelci)
 xebro xeb bro      Hebrew                                    x1 reflects Hebrew/Jewish/Israeli culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                      ab   4    (cf. filso)
 xecto xet cto      100                  metric 'hecto'       x1 is a hundred [100; 1x10**2] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                   ae   6    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xexso, zepti, zetro)
 xedja xej     xe'a jaw                                       x1 is a/the jaw [body-part] of x2                                                                1c  17    (cf. stedu)
 xekri xek     xe'i black                                     x1 is black/extremely dark-colored [color adjective]                                             1a  47    (cf. blabi, grusi, manku, skari, xekri, kandi, carmi, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu)
 xelso xes          Greek                'Hellas'             x1 reflects Greek/Hellenic culture/nationality/language in aspect x2                             ab  40    (cf. latmo, ropno)
 xendo xed     xe'o kind                                      x1 (person) is kind to x2 in actions/behavior x3                                                 9c  23    (cf. cinmo, kecti, pendo, kusru)
 xenru xer     xe'u regret               'rue'                x1 regrets/rues (abstraction) x2; x1 is regretful/rueful/sorry/[remorseful] about x2             4c  25    [also: x1 feels remorse about x2 (= zugyxe'u)]; (cf. cmavo list .u'u, zungi)
 xexso xex          1E18                 metric 'exa'         x1 is 1x10**18 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                   ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, zepti, zetro)
 xindo xin          Hindi                                     x1 reflects Hindi language/culture/religion in aspect x2                                         ab  12    [defaults to not include Urdu; Indian (Bharat) nationality may be implied (when constrained by xingu'e)]; (cf. srito, xurdo, bengo)
 xinmo xim          ink                                       x1 is a quantity of ink of color/pigment x2 used by writing device x3                            ao   0    (cf. penbi)
 xirma xir     xi'a horse                                     x1 is a horse/equine/[colt/mare/stallion/pony] of species/breed x2                               ai  29    [(adjective:) x1 is equine/equestrian]; (cf. sufti, xasli, kumte)
 xislu xil     xi'u wheel                                     x1 is a wheel [tool] of device/vehicle x2, made of materials/having properties x3                a    6    (cf. carce, karce, pulni, tutci)
 xispo xip          Hispanic                                  x1 reflects Hispano-American culture/nationalities in aspect x2                                  ab   2    [refers to Spanish-speaking Latin-American countries, not Brazil/Guyana]; (cf. merko, mexno, spano, ketco, bemro, gento)
 xlali     xla      bad                  'mal-'               x1 is bad for x2 by standard x3; x1 is poor/unacceptable to x2                                   2i  95    [be careful to distinguish between a bad/unacceptable event, and a bad/unacceptable agent: x1 does poorly (= lenu ko'a gasnu cu xlali and not normally ko'a xlali)]; (cf. palci, mabla, xamgu, betri)
 xlura     xlu      influence            'lure'               x1 (agent) influences/lures/tempts x2 into action/state x3 by influence/threat/lure x4           7j  24    [also impresses; x4 is alluring (= trivelxlu for place reordering); x3 may be an achieved action/state, or an attempt to perform an action/enter a state)]; (x3 and x4 are normally events or states); (cf. djica, mukti, trina, jitro, sazri, tcica, xance, stidi, kajde, maksi)
 xotli xol     xoi  hotel                                     x1 is a hotel/inn/hostel at location x2 operated by x3                                           7f   0    (cf. barja, gusta)
 xrabo rab          Arabic                                    x1 reflects Arabic-speaking culture/nationality in aspect x2                                     ab   2    (cf. sadjo, semto, lubno, rakso, sirxo)
 xrani         xai  injure               'hurt'               x1 (event) injures/harms/damages victim x2 in property x3 (ka) resulting in injury x4 (state)    4c  82    [also hurts]; (cf. cortu, daspo, spofu, katna, porpi)
 xriso xis     xi'o Christian                                 x1 pertains to the Christian religion/culture/nationality in aspect x2                           ac  16    (cf. jegvo, lijda)
 xruba xub          buckwheat            'rhubarb'            x1 is a quantity of buckwheat/rhubarb/sorrel grass of species/strain x2                          aj   3    (cf. spati)
 xruki xuk          turkey                                    x1 is a turkey [food/bird] of species/breed x2                                                   ai   9    (cf. cipni)
 xrula rul          flower                                    x1 is a/the flower/blossom/bloom [body-part] of plant/species x2; (adjective:) x1 is floral      aj  27    (cf. spati)
 xruti     xru      return                                    x1 (agent) returns x2 to origin/earlier state x3 from x4; x1 moves/gives x2 back to x3 from x4   7f  49    [x2 goes back/reverts/[retreats] to x3 (= se'ixru for agent self-returning to a previous location/situation: renumber places in the lujvo); (x3 may be a location or a person or an event/situation; the latter may also be expressed with krefu or rapli and a causative like rinka/rikygau)]; (cf. benji, krefu, rapli, rinka)
 xukmi xum     xu'i chemical                                  x1 is an instance of substance/chemical/drug x2 (individual or mass) with purity x3              ah   2    (cf. curve, cidro, marna, nimre)
 xunre xun     xu'e red                                       x1 is red/crimson/ruddy [color adjective]                                                        1a  86    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, nukni, narju, rozgu, zirpu)
 xurdo xur     xu'o Urdu                                      x1 reflects Urdu language/culture/nationality in aspect x2                                       ab   1    (cf. kisto, srito, xindo)
 xusra xus     xu'a assert                                    x1 (agent) asserts/claims/declares x2 (du'u) is true [can be used for epistemology of authority] 3j  91    [also: x1 states/says that/affirms/purports to know that x2]; (cf. natfe which is propositional and non-agentive, nupre)
 xutla xul          smooth                                    x1 is smooth/even/[soft/silky] in texture/regularity                                             6f   4    (cf. plita, rufsu, tengu, dikni, pinta, sakli, spali)
 za'i  zaz          state abstract                            abstractor: state (event) abstractor; x1 is continuous state of [bridi] being true               -         (cf. zasni, zasti, tcini)
 za'o          za'o superfective                              interval event contour: continuing too long after natural end of ...; superfective  |     ---->  at   0    (cf. dukse)
 zabna zan     za'a favorable                                 x1 is a favorable connotation/sense/way-of-looking-at x2 used by x3                              3d  46    (cf. funca, mabla, xamgu, vrude)
 zajba zaj          gymnast                                   x1 is a gymnast at/performs gymnastics feat x2                                                   a    0    (cf. sluji, dansu)
 zalvi zal          grind                'pulverize'          x1 [individual or mass of hard surfaces] grinds/pulverizes/crushes x2 into powder x3             a    1    [may need mosra tanru]; (cf. daspo, purmo, marxa, pulce, canre, molki)
 zanru zar     zau  approve                                   x1 approves of/gives favor to plan/action x2 (object/event)                                      8d  62    (cf. cmavo list zau, natfe)
 zarci zac     zai  market               'mart'               x1 is a market/store/exchange/shop(s) selling/trading (for) x2, operated by/with participants x3 3m 290    [also: mall, marketplace, shopping center, cooperative, bazaar, trading post, mart; the concept is the function of selling/exchanging coupled with a location, and is more oriented to the larger concept of marketplace than the stalls/shops that comprise it, though it does not exclude the latter individual shops (= zaisle); x3 may include both owners/proprietors and customers in some markets, but in most contexts refers only to the operators]; (cf. vecnu, canja, dinju, banxa)
 zargu zag     za'u buttock              'arse'               x1 is a/the buttock(s)/arse/rear/seat [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: rounded surface, support]    aa   0    [also ass, behind, butt]; (cf. ganxo, mabla)
 zasni zas          temporary            'transient'          x1 is temporary/not permanent/expected to change in property x2 (ka) by standard/expectant x3    7j   6    [also transient]; (cf. vitno, stodi, cenba, galfi, binxo, stika, stali, tcini, vitke)
 zasti zat     za'i exist                                     x1 exists/is real/actual/reality for x2 under metaphysics x3                                     3j 104    [words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place]; [x1 is physical (one sense)]; (cf. fatci, xanri)
 zbabu bab          soap                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of soap from source x2 of composition including x3          ah   5    (cf. lumci, fonmo)
 zbani              bay                                       x1 is a bay in/of coast/shoreline x2                                                             6c   6    (cf. lalxu, xamsi)
 zbasu     zba      make                                      x1 makes/assembles/builds/manufactures/creates x2 out of materials/parts/components x3           7f 217    [should not be used to express causation]; (cf. cupra, larcu, rutni, finti, gundi)
 zbepi     zbe      pedestal             'base'               x1 is a pedestal/base/stand/pallet supporting x2 (object/event), of materials/properties x3      a    1    [pallet (= lafyzbe)]; (cf. jamfu, jicmu, jubme, tuple, ckana, cpana, loldi, sanli)
 zdani     zda      nest                 'den'                x1 is a nest/house/lair/den/[home] of/for x2                                                     4d 280    [home (= tercnizda), house (constructed building) (= zdadi'u)]; (cf. dinju, ginka, kumfa, se xabju)
 zdile     zdi      amusing              'amused'             x1 (abstract) is amusing/entertaining to x2 in property/aspect x3; x3 is what amuses x2 about x1 5g  79    [also: x1 occupies x2 pleasantly; x1 is fun for x2; x2 is amused by x1; x2 has fun (at) doing x1; x1 is an amusement/entertainment/[game] for x2]; (cf. cinri, panka, xajmi for 'funny', kelci)
 ze    zel          7                                         digit/number: 7 (digit)                                                                          3a   0
 ze'e          ze'e whole time interval                       time tense interval: the whole of time (rafsi is used to represent any time interval)            at   0
 ze'o  zev     ze'o outward                                   location tense relation/direction; beyond/outward/receding from ...                              at   0
 zekri zer     zei  crime                                     x1 (event/state) is a punishable crime/[taboo/sin] to people/culture/judges/jury x2              8d  24    [taboo (= kluzei, cacyzei); sin (= madzei, jdamadzei); heresy (= jdazei)]; (cf. flalu, sfasa, zungi, palci, lijda, pajni, javni, tcaci, marde, pulji, tinbe)
 zenba zen     ze'a increase             'augment'            x1 (experiencer) increases/is incremented/augmented in property/quantity x2 by amount x3         a   35    (cf. jdika, zmadu, banro, jmina)
 zepti zep          1E-21                'zepto'              x1 is 1x10**-21 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                  ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zetro)
 zetro zet          1E21                 'zetta'              x1 is 1x10**21 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)                                   ae   0    (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti)
 zgana     zga      observe                                   x1 observes/[notices]/watches/beholds x2 using senses/means x3 under conditions x4               6m 189    [behold/watch/gaze (= vi'azga); guard/watchman/sentinel (= zgaku'i, jdeku'i)]; (cf. cmavo list ga'a, ganse, viska, catlu, tirna, pencu, sumne, kurji, canci, catlu, jarco, lanli, pinka, simlu)
 zgike     zgi gi'e music                                     x1 is music performed/produced by x2 (event)                                                     5g  55    [x2 event may be person playing instrument, singing, musical source operating/vibrating, etc.; instrument (= zgica'a); play an instrument (= zgica'apli, zgiterca'a, selzgigau, selzgizu'e); song (= sagzgi, selsa'a); voice, as used musically (= zgivo'a); composed music (= finzgi)]; (cf. damri, dansu, flani, janbe, jgita, pipno, rilti, tabra, tonga, xagri, siclu)
 zi'o  zil          nonexistent it                            pro-sumti: fills a sumti place, deleting it from selbri place structure;changes selbri semantics 
 zifre zif     zi'e free                                      x1 is free/at liberty to do/be x2 (event/state) under conditions x3                              8e  21    [also unrestricted, unfettered, unconstrained; (adjective:) independent; (adverb:) willingly, voluntarily, freely, may, optionally; (potential:) x1 voluntarily does x2]; (cf. pinfu, rinju, bilga, curmi, kakne, frili)
 zinki zin     zi'i zinc                                      x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of zinc (Zn); [metaphor: hard metal]                        ag   2    (cf. jinme)
 zirpu zir     zi'u purple                                    x1 is purple/violet [color adjective]                                                            1a   6    (cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, nukni, blanu, xunre)
 zivle ziv vle      invest                                    x1 (agent) invests resources x2 in investment x3 expecting return/profit x4 (object(s)/event)    8d   4    [also ties up/[risks/gambles]; x1 is an investor; x2 are invested assets of x1; bond (= jertervle)]; (cf. prali, canja, jbera, dejni, ponse)
 zmadu     zma mau  more                                      x1 exceeds/is more than x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni) by amount/excess x4                   6k 248    [also positive (= nonmau)]; (cf. cmavo list mau, mleca, zenba, jmina, bancu, dukse, traji)
 zmiku     zmi      automatic                                 x1 is automatic in function x2 under conditions x3                                               7g   1    (cf. macnu)
 zo'a  zon     zo'a tangential to                             location tense relation/direction; tangential to/passing by ...                                  at   0    (cf. pencu, tanjo)
 zo'i  zor     zo'i inward                                    location tense relation/direction; nearer than .../inward/approaching from ...                   at   0    (cf. nenri, setca)
 zu'o  zum          activity abstract                         abstractor: activity (event) abstractor; x1 is abstract activity of [bridi] composed of x2       -         (cf. zukte)
 zukte zuk     zu'e act                                       x1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x2 for purpose/goal x3/to end x3         2e 148    [also acting at, undertaking, doing; agentive cause with volition/purpose; also x3 objective, end]; (cf. cmavo list zu'e, bapli, gunka, jalge, krinu, mukti, rinka, snuti, gasnu, fasnu, minji, prenu, ciksi, jibri, pilno, pluta, tadji, tutci)
 zumri     zmu      maize                                     x1 is a quantity of maize/corn [grain] of species/strain x2                                      aj   8    (cf. gurni)
 zungi zug          guilt                                     x1 feels guilt/remorse about x2 (abstraction)                                                    9d   1    (cf. cmavo list .u'u, cinmo, xenru, zekri)
 zunle zul          left                                      x1 is to the left/left-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3                      1e  38    [also x3 is the standard of orientation for x2]; (cf. cmavo list zu'a, pritu, mlana, crane, trixe, farna)
 zunti zun     zu'i interfere            'hinder'             x1 (evt./state) interferes with/hinders/disrupts x2 (evt./state/process) due to quality x3 (ka)  a   39    [also blocks, obstructs, baffles; not necessarily forcing cessation] (cf. fanta, dicra, fliba, fanza, raktu, klina, bandu, cfipu, ganlo)
 zutse zut tse      sit                                       x1 sits [assumes sitting position] on surface x2                                                 1g 178    (cf. stizu, cpana, vreta)
 zvati     zva      at                                        x1 (object/event) is at/attending/present at x2 (event/location)                                 4d 184    [refers to a nonce location for an object/activity that is mobile]; (cf. especially stuzi for an inherent/inalienable location, jbini, nenri, se vasru, cpana, diklo, jibni, cabna, lamji, tcini, xabju, jmive, jundi, vitke)