File: README.SSL.SECURITY

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            Using and Abusing SSL Securty
                       OR
      It must be secure, its so bloody hard to use

 (With apologies to Eric A. Young and the OpenSSL developers)

                   Patrick Powell
            Thu Jul 18 10:20:58 PDT 2002

Executive Summary
  SSL Encryption and authentication is supported using the OpenSSL
library.  The following changes have been made to LPRng:

  lprng_certs  - a certificate creation/management tool
  lpd.perms - 
    AUTHFROM set to the 'subject' value of sender CERT
    AUTHCA set to the 'issuer' value of sender CERT and
      the hierarchy of 'issuer' values of CERT signers.
    ${HOME}/.lpr/client.crt, ${HOME}/.lpr/client.pwd - 
      user or client certificate locations 

    /etc/lpd/ssl.ca, /etc/lpd/ssl.server 
     - locations of certificates and server certificates 

Introduction
  Why add SSL security to LPRng?
   a) It's there.
   b) Everybody and their dog is using it.
   c) It is needed to support IPP

So I got hold of the SSL and TLS book by Eric Rescorla (he may
regret this shameless plug, but be it on his head), and started
reading it.  After two weeks and a VERY large bottle of 'Super Strong
No Doze Wakeup Pills'  I figured out what needed to be done:
  a)  Set up some certs (i.e. - X509 Authentication Certificates).
  b)  Get some code from some other places and the examples.
  c)  Read the code, figure out what it was doing, and then
      reverse engineer the SSL stuff.
  d)  File off serial numbers, recode, etc., where necessary to
      1) avoid the GNU license curse
      2) make it LPRng specific

My references were:

Mod_ssl from the Apache project.
       http://www.apache.org
   Follow links to Mod_SSL OR get apache2 which has mod_ssl in it.
   Stole the organization for certs, as well
   as looking at how the Makefile created and installed the various
   certificates.

fetchmail
    ftp://ftp.ccil.org/pub/esr/fetchmail
    http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/fetchmail
  Ummm... this was happenstance,  I use fetchmail and it
  has the SSL authentication in it.

curl
  http://download.sourceforge.net/curl/
   Again, I use curl and it has SSL.

The articles by Eric Rescola:
  An Introduction to OpenSSL Programming
   http://www.rtfm.com/openssl-examples/
      wserver, wclient, sclient
  And the book: SSL and TLS - Desiging and Building Secure Systems

And, of course, the OpenSSL code, the examples in the code,
  the utilities,  etc. etc. etc. About 260,000 lines of etc.
  Sigh...

WHAT I DID

  a) Started with the Eric Rescola articles, and the
        examples for wserver, wclient.
  b) Added various things to handle getting authentication.
     - printing the Subject and Issuer information
     - adding directory information for Certificate locations
  c) Created new certificates using what I thought would work...
  d) Read 260,000 lines of OpenSSL code and heartily cursed
     the OpenSSL developers, the OpenSSL coders, and just about
     anybody who is associated with the project for NOT putting
     in some trace statements OR better error message reporting.
     But that is over new, and I have recalled the guys with the
     baseball bats.
  e) Documented this so that other people can figure out what I did.

HERE IS WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

The idea behind SSL is that you create some files (Certificates)
that have various private/public key information in them.
A checksum is calculated over the information,  and then the checksum
is 'encrypted' using a private key of some 'signer'. This is attached
to the certficate file... and the whole thing is encoded in the most
obnoxious manner... ANS1 to be exact. This is then EXPANDED into a text
format called PEM, and forms the 'certificate file'.

   <aside> Ignore the SSL experts who are frothing over this
   cavalier description of the details.
   Details, smetails.  You listen to them, you be on the No Doze,
   big time, pretty quick.  Boring stuff, the SSL details</aside>

Now lets see what we do to validate that a certificate is correct
or from the 'Subject' who is identified in the Certificate.  We get
the X509 certificate for the 'signer' (or 'Issuer' in X509 jargon).
Since the public key of the signer is including in the 'signer'
certificate, we can use this to check that the information in the
suspect certificate is valid by using it to decrypt the checksum
information encoded with the private key.  If this matches, we have
validated the certificate. (Well, not quite.  There are a couple
more gotchas.)

Now we must validate the 'signers' cerificate, which was
in turn signed by another signer, and so we go up the food chain,
I mean 'authentication chain', until we reach Nirvana:

  a certificate which is signed by itself (i.e. - root certificate)

or more exactly, a certificate where the 'subject' or the person
identified by the CERT and the 'issuer' or the person who signed the
CERT are the same.

Now lets see how we use this for printing.

Each user and/or print spooler is given a certificate with a corresponding
set of private and secret keys.  When a client sends a request to the lpd
server, he signs it using his private key; the lpd spooler gets the request,
and then decodes/checks it using the public key in the users certificate.

The SSL protocol provides a way to:

  a) set up an encrypted connection (not our problem)
  b) exchange certificate information
      (Hmm... need to tell OpenSSL what certs to exchange)
  c) validate the certificates (strictly speaking, this X509
     stuff, but what the hey...) and hence, authenticate the
     end users.
       (Need to tell OpenSSL where the certs are).
  d) set up and perform encrypted data exchange. (not our problem).

So all we really need to do is set up the CERTIFICATES, tell the
OpenSSL library where they are,  and it should do the work for us.
(Ho ho ho... it sounds so simple...)

There are two components to a certificate:
  a) the certificate file (name.crt file) itself
  b) the private key corresponding to the public key in
     the certificate file (name.key file).

Now clearly if the private key was obtained by somebody
then they could impersonate a user. So there are two possibilities:
 a) make the private key file readable only by the people that
   need it (more on this later).
 b) encrypt the private key and then when you need to use it
   to sign something, provide a decryption password/key.

So, we have 3 components:  the certificate (name.crt), the encrypted
private key (name.key, but encrypted) and a password that we use
to decrypt the private key.  But since we do not need to keep the
private key hidden away, we can put the private key and certificate
in the same file:

  -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
  Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
  DEK-Info: DES-EDE3-CBC,3EAD3ED0FA436761
  
  Vi5K0olpFfe2ltDpY/7gPM4iW74gYqtO1yEFm1DOhp7Kd8hB5Is6TVuVX78zkTaP
  ...
  j6Z5TX61x4YCHKleFa9nXFC5god/MCYzIHKKep0f4TKWCZcJLR5AyQ==
  -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDGzCCAoSgAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADCBkzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMx
  ...
  3VapletoUPtYPvUAAgAg4w28pKWvlVW3tU/CsoHDEw==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----

Which is the convention we adopted for LPRng.

Now lets deal with the problem of certificates.  There are
FOUR types of certificates that we need:

                          CERTS/files
  root                   (/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt)
   - signer1             (/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/signer1.crt - signed by ca)
      - print spoolers   (/etc/lpd/ssl.server/h121.crt - signed by signer1 )
      - users            (${HOME}/.lpd/user1.crt - signed by signer1 )
   - signer2             (/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/signer2.crt - signed by ca)
      - print spoolers   (/etc/lpd/ssl.server/h121.crt - signed by signer2)
      - users            (${HOME}/.lpd/user2.crt - signed by signer2)

The ROOT cert signs the signer certs, which in turn
can sign print spooler certs and user certs.  If you feel
lucky, you can also use the root cert to sign print spoolers
or user certs.

Now, what happens if and when somebody gets hold of the
private key for the root cert or a signing cert?  If it is
for the root cert, you are doomed.  Reissue all the CERTS.
Start from square 0.

If it is a signing cert,  then you can REVOKE it. How do you do this?
You put it into a 'revocation' directory, and then tell OpenSSL
to do its magic and update the CERT information so that it is revoked.
(More on this later).

Finally, how does the certificate information get transferred?

This is a little complicated,  and there are a zillion ways to do
this.  I have opted to implement and use a very simple method based
on the Apached mod_perl SSL setup.

a) A directory (/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/) containing
   all of the signing certificates, including the root certificate
   (ca.crt).  These will be used by both servers and clients.
   Note: due to the OpenSSL implementation,  it may be necessary
   to copy files to this directory.

   OpenSSL also supports putting all of the certificates in a single
   file. The certificates should be put in root to leaf order, i.e.
   - a breadth first walk of the certificate tree.
   
  For individual signing/certificate files:
    printcap/configure option:  ssl_ca_path=DIR 
       default=/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ssl.ca
  For single signing/certificate files:
    printcap/configure option:  ssl_ca_file=FILE 
       default= NONE

    configure:
      --with-ssl_ca_path=DIR
           default ${sysconfdir}/lpd/ssl.crt/
      --with-ssl_ca_file=FILE
           default - none

   Note: See the SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(
      SSL_CTX *ctx, const char *CAfile, const char *CApath);
   documentation for the details.

b) The LPRng lpd server certifcate file and the password
   for using the certificate:

   A file (/etc/lpd/server.crt/server.crt) containing
   the cert that is used by the server.  It should also contain
   the private key for the server.

    printcap/configure option:  ssl_server_cert=FILE 
        default ${sysconfdir}/lpd/server.crt/server.crt
    configure:
      --with-ssl_server_cert=PATH
        default ${sysconfdir}/lpd/server.crt/server.crt

    Note: See SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file(
            SSL_CTX *ctx, const char *file);
       SSL_use_PrivateKey_file(SSL *ssl, char *file,
	    	int type);
    documentation for details.  Note that this file can
    contain multiple certs, but these must be sorted in top
    (root CA) to bottom (server) order.
     i.e. - 
           private_key, server cert (additional certs
           specified by ssl_ca_path or ssl_ca_file)
     OR
           root CA cert, signer1 cert, ..., server cert

     Note: the private key can be in any position.

    The password file file contains the password for the private
    key in the server cert file.  This file should to be 600, owned
    by the LPD server user.

    printcap/configure option:  ssl_server_passwd=FILE 
        default ${sysconfdir}/lpd/server.crt/server.crt
    configure:
      --with-ssl_server_passwd=PATH

    Note: See the SSL_CTX_set_default_passwd_cb for details.
    The password is read from the file.

d) For user authentication to the server,  users will need to
   specify a certificate and password.  This can be by using
   values in default files or

   ${HOME}/.lpr/ssl.ca/    - signing/root certificates
     (if not present, then ${sysconfdir}/lpd/ssl.ca/ is used)
     Environment variable: LPR_CA_PATH
   ${HOME}/.lpr/client.crt  - client cert and key
     Environment variable: LPR_SSL_CERT 
   ${HOME}/.lpr/client.pwd  - file containing client password
     Environment variable: LPR_SSL_PASSWORD

CERTIFICATE FIELDS:

  There are several fields that need to be set in a certificate/
  C    = country [US]
  ST   = state   [California]
  L    = city    [San Diego]
  OU   = Organization Unit   [OU=Certificate Authority  for root cert]
                             [OU=Server                 for server cert]
                             [OU=User                   for user cert]
  CN   = Common Name         [CN=Orgname                for root cert]
                             [CN=ServerID (h110.astart) for server cert]
                             [CN=papowell               for user cert]
  Email = email address      [Email=hostmaster@astart.com  for root cert]
                             [Email=hostmaster@h110.astart for server cert]
                             [Email=papowell@astart.com    for user cert]

  You can set default values for these fields.

SETTING UP CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY

There are several types of certificate files:
  - CA root (self signed)
  - signing certs (signed by CA or by signing cert)
  - server certs (used by lpd server AND by lpd server when
      forwarding to a remote queue)
  - user certs (used to identify users programs)

The certificates are arranged as follows:

1. signing certs are in a directory (or a single file)
     default: /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/*

2. server certs are in a directory
     default: /etc/lpd/ssl.server/*

3. user certificates are kept in a subdirectory of the
   user home directory, say:
      ${HOME}/.lpr/client.crt   - cert
      ${HOME}/.lpr/client.pwd   - password to use cert
        private key for authentication

4. certificates are created in a working directory and are
   then copied (if necessary) to the correct directory.

     default: /etc/lpd/ssl.certs

PRINTCAP INFORMATION:
  the following entries are added to the printcap or lpd.conf file:

 lp:
   :auth=ssl                  # ssl authentication
   :ssl_id=lp                 # id value
   :ssl_ca_file=/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt # certs for signing
   :ssl_crl_file=/etc/lpd/ssl.crl/ssl.crl # revocation certs
   :ssl_server_cert=/etc/lpd/ssl.server/server.crt # server cert
   :ssl_server_password_file=/etc/lpd/ssl.server/server.pwd # password

CREATING CERTS

The lprng_certs script provides a way to create ROOT certs,
signer certs, server (lpd) certs, and user certs. You may need
to copy the certificate files to the appropriate locations.

usage: lprng_certs option
  init              - make directory structure
  newca             - make new root CA and defaults
  defaults          - set new default values
  encrypt keyfile   - set or change password on private key file
  gen               - generate user, server, or signing cert
  verify cert*      - verify certs
     certs can be path or user-XX.csr values

STEP 1: CREATE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE

  Use:  lprng_certs [--TEMP=/dir] init
  - creates directories for lpd server
    TEMP=/dir sets the directory; byt default, TEMP=/etc/lpd
     ${TEMP}/ssl.ca/  - ca root and/or signer certs
            default location for creation
     ${TEMP}/ssl.server/  - server cert
            (usually server.crt and server.pwd files)
     ${TEMP}/ssl.certs/  - server and/or user certs
            default location for creation
   You use this to set up the directories for certificates
   on a non-master system.

STEP 2: CREATE CA ROOT CERT AND SET CERTIFICATE DEFAULTS

   Use: lprng [--TEMP=/dir] newca

  You use this when you want to set up a totally  new CA on a master system.

 Example of use:
 
  #> lprng_certs newca
  
  lprng_certs -- LPRng SSL Certificate Management
  Copyright (c) 2002 Patrick Powell
  Based on CCA by Ralf S. Engelschall
  (Copyright (c) 1998-2001 Ralf S. Engelschall, All Rights Reserved.)
  
  WARNING: /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt already exists! Do you want to overwrite it? [N/y] Y
  
  INITIALIZATION - SET DEFAULTS

	  There are several fields that need to be set in a certificate/
	  C    = country [US]
	  ST   = state   [California]
	  L    = city    [San Diego]
	  OU   = Organization Unit   [OU=Certificate Authority  for root cert]
								 [OU=Server                 for server cert]
								 [OU=User                   for user cert]
	  CN   = Common Name         [CN=Orgname                for root cert]
								 [CN=ServerID (h110.astart) for server cert]
								 [CN=papowell               for user cert]
	  Email = email address      [Email=hostmaster@astart.com  for root cert]
								 [Email=hostmaster@h110.astart for server cert]
								 [Email=papowell@astart.com    for user cert]

	  You can set default values for these fields.

	110: {90} % lprng_certs --TEMP=/tmp newca
	lprng_certs -- LPRng SSL Certificate Management
	Copyright (c) 2002 Patrick Powell
	Based on CCA by Ralf S. Engelschall
	(Copyright (c) 1998-2001 Ralf S. Engelschall, All Rights Reserved.)

	INITIALIZATION - SET DEFAULTS in /tmp/ssl.ca/ca.defaults

  *** you can change the defaults as shown ***

	1. Country Name             (2 letter code, C)     [default 'XY'] US
	2. State or Province Name   (full name, ST)        [default 'Snake Desert'] California
	3. Locality Name            (eg, city, L)          [default 'Snake Town'] San Diego
	4. Organization Name        (eg, company, O)       [default 'Snake Oil, Ltd'] Astart Technologies
	5. Organizational Unit Name for CA     (eg, section, OU) [default 'CA']
	6. Organizational Unit Name for Signer (eg, section, OU) [default 'Signer']
	7. Organizational Unit Name for Server (eg, section, OU) [default 'Server']
	8. Organizational Unit Name for User   (eg, section, OU) [default 'User']
	9. Common Name for CA       (eg, CA name, CN)      [default 'Snake Oil CA'] Astart CA
	10. Common Name for Signer   (eg, signer name, CN)  [default 'Signer Name']
	11. Common Name for Server   (eg, server name, CN)  [default 'PrintServer Name']
	12. Common Name for User     (eg, user name, CN)    [default 'John Q. User']
	13. Email Address            (eg, name@FQDN, Email) [default 'name@snakeoil.dom'] name@astart.com
	14. CA Certificate Validity in days                 [default '365']
	15. Signer Certificate Validity in days             [default '365']
	16. Server Certificate Validity in days             [default '365']
	17. User Certificate Validity in days               [default '365']
	18. Signer Certificate Path  (blank indicates CA signs) [default '']
	19. Signer Private Key File (blank indicates key in cert file) [default '']
	20. Created Certificates Directory (blank indicates default /tmp/ssl.certs)    [default '']
	21. Revoked Certificates File (blank indicates default /tmp/certs.crl)    [default '']

   **** this shows what the new default value will be *****
	C_val US
	ST_val California
	L_val San Diego
	O_val Astart Technologies
	OU_ca_val CA
	OU_signer_val Signer
	OU_server_val Server
	OU_user_val User
	CN_ca_val Astart CA
	CN_signer_val Signer Name
	CN_server_val PrintServer Name
	CN_user_val John Q. User
	Email_val name@astart.com
	Validity_ca_val 365
	Validity_signer_val 365
	Validity_server_val 365
	Validity_user_val 365
	Signer_cert_path
	Signer_key_path
	Cert_dir
	Revoke_file

	  ...  
	______________________________________________________________________

	STEP 1: Generating RSA private key for CA (1024 bit)
	49279 semi-random bytes loaded
	Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
	.........................................++++++
	.................++++++
	e is 65537 (0x10001)
	______________________________________________________________________

	STEP 2: Generating X.509 certificate signing request for CA
	You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
	into your certificate request.
	What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
	There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
	For some fields there will be a default value,
	If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.

  *** change any of the field names ***
	-----
	1. Country Name            (2 letter code, C)  [US]:
	2. State or Province Name     (full name, ST)  [California]:
	3. Locality Name                (eg, city, L)  [San Diego]:
	4. Organization Name         (eg, company, 0)  [Astart Technologies]:
	5. Organizational Unit Name (eg, section, OU)  [CA]:
	6. Common Name           (eg, ca name, CN)  [Astart CA]:
	7. Email Address       (eg, name@FQDN, Email)  [name@astart.com]:root@astart.com
	______________________________________________________________________

	STEP 3: Generating X.509 certificate for CA signed by itself
	Signature ok
	subject=/C=US/ST=California/L=San Diego/O=Astart Technologies/OU=CA/CN=Astart CA/emailAddress=root@astart.com
	Getting Private key
	______________________________________________________________________

	RESULT:
	/tmp/ssl.ca/ca.crt: /C=US/ST=California/L=San Diego/O=Astart Technologies/OU=CA/CN=Astart CA/emailAddress=root@astart.com
	error 18 at 0 depth lookup:self signed certificate
	OK
	______________________________________________________________________

	STEP 4. Enrypting RSA private key /tmp/ssl.ca/ca.key with a pass phrase for security

	The contents of the certificate key file (the generated private key)
	should be echo kept secret, especially so if it is used to sign
	Certificates or for User authentication.
	  SSL experts strongly recommend you to encrypt the key file with
	a Triple-DES cipher and a Pass Phrase.  When using LPRng, you provide
	the password via a file specified by the LPR_SSL_PASSWORD
	environent variable, or in the /home/papowell/.lpr/client.pwd file.
	The LPD server uses the ssl_server_password_file option to specify
	the location of a file containing the password.

	Encrypt the private key now? [Y/n]:
	writing RSA key
	Enter PEM pass phrase:
	Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:
	Fine, you're using an encrypted private key to sign CERTS.
	______________________________________________________________________

	STEP 5: Combine CERT and KEY file
	Generate single CERT and KEY file? [N/y]

	Indexing  /tmp/ssl.ca
	ca.crt          ... cbd552ae.0

	Use the following commands to examine the CERT and KEY files:
	   openssl x509 -text -in /tmp/ssl.ca/ca.crt
	   openssl rsa -text -in /tmp/ssl.ca/ca.key

STEP 3: CREATE SERVER CERTS AND INSTALL ON SERVERS

  Creates a certificate with the appropriate entries for use
  as a server (lpd) certificate.

Example:
 
  #> lprng_certs gen
  lprng_certs -- LPRng SSL Certificate Management
  Copyright (c) 2002 Patrick Powell
  Based on CCA by Ralf S. Engelschall
  (Copyright (c) 1998-2001 Ralf S. Engelschall, All Rights Reserved.)
  
  CERTIFICATE GENERATION
  What type of certificate? User/Server/Signing Authority/Help? [u/s/a/H] s
  Create in '/etc/lpd/ssl.certs' [return for yes, or specify directory] y
  CERT name 'server-01'? [return for yes, or specify name] h110
  CERT name 'h110'? [return for yes, or specify name]
  Creating h110 in /etc/lpd/ssl.certs
  Sign with Certificate '/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt' [return for yes, or specify cert file]
  Private key in /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt
  
  Generating user Certificate [h110] 
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 1: Generating RSA private key for user (1024 bit)
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 2: Generating X.509 certificate signing request for user
  User Certificate Validity in days  [default 365]
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 3: Generating X.509 certificate signed by own CA
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  RESULT:
  /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/h110.crt: OK
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 4. Enrypting RSA private key with a pass phrase for security
  The contents of the certificate key file (the generated private key)
  should be echo kept secret, especially so if it is used to sign
  Certificates or for User authentication.
    SSL experts strongly recommend you to encrypt the key file with
  a Triple-DES cipher and a Pass Phrase.  When using LPRng, you provide
  the password via a file or file descriptor specified by an environent
  variable, i.e. - SSL_PASSWORD_FILE or SSL_PASSWORD_FD, or in the
  ${HOME}/.ssl_password file.
    The LPD server uses the ssl_server_password_file option to specify
  the location of a file containing the password.
    See the LPRng Refernce Manual for details, or the printcap(5) man page.
  
  key file is /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/h110.key
  Encrypt the private key now? [Y/n]: y
  Fine, you're using an encrypted private key to sign CERTS.
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 5: Combine CERT and KEY file
  Generate single CERT and KEY file? [Y/n] y
  
  Use the following commands to examine the CERT and KEY files:
     openssl x509 -text -in /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/h110.crt
     openssl rsa -text -in /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/h110.crt


  ----------

  You must now copy the h110.crt certificate to the lpd server certificate
  file location:
   cp /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/h110.crt /etc/lpd/server.cert/server.crt
   echo 'password' >/etc/lpd/server.crt/server.pwd
   chown lpd /etc/lpd/server.crt/server.pwd
   chmod 700 /etc/lpd/server.crt/server.pwd
   (Note: lpd is the user that the LPD server will run as. This value is set
    by the configuration in the lpd.conf file.)

STEP 5:  CREATE AND INSTALL USER CERTS

  Creates a certificate with the appropriate entries for use
  as a server (lpd) certificate.

Example:
 
  #> lprng_certs gen
  lprng_certs -- LPRng SSL Certificate Management
  Copyright (c) 2002 Patrick Powell
  Based on CCA by Ralf S. Engelschall
  (Copyright (c) 1998-2001 Ralf S. Engelschall, All Rights Reserved.)
  
  CERTIFICATE GENERATION
  What type of certificate? User/Server/Signing Authority/Help? [u/s/a/H] u
  Create in '/etc/lpd/ssl.certs' [return for yes, or specify directory] y
  CERT name 'user-01'? [return for yes, or specify name] papowell
  CERT name 'papowell'? [return for yes, or specify name]
  Creating h110 in /etc/lpd/ssl.certs
  Sign with Certificate '/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt' [return for yes, or specify cert file]
  Private key in /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt
  
  ...
  Use the following commands to examine the CERT and KEY files:
     openssl x509 -text -in /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/papowell.crt
     openssl rsa -text -in /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/papowell.crt


  ----------

  You must now copy the papowell.crt certificate to the user .lpd directory
  and then set the password.

   cp /etc/lpd/ssl.certs/papowell.crt ~papowell/.lpd/client.crt
   echo 'password' >~papowell/.lpd/client.pwd
   chown papowell ~papowell/.lpd/client.pwd
   chmod 700 ~papowell/.lpd/client.pwd


CREATE A SIGNING CERT

  You will need to do this if you want to create a certificate that
  you can use to sign other certificates - i.e. - delegate signing
  authority.  This is done by creating a signing certificate.  The
  private key file for this certificate should be treated in the same
  was as for the root certificate - it should not be stored in the
  same file as the certificate, or if it is,  the password for the
  key should be very long and resistant to a dictionary attack.
  I do not recommend storing the private key and certificate in the
  same file.

  lprng_certs -- LPRng SSL Certificate Management
  Copyright (c) 2002 Patrick Powell
  Based on CCA by Ralf S. Engelschall
  (Copyright (c) 1998-2001 Ralf S. Engelschall, All Rights Reserved.)
  
  CERTIFICATE GENERATION
  What type of certificate? User/Server/Signing Authority/Help? [u/s/a/H] a
  Create in '/etc/lpd/ssl.ca' [return for yes, or specify directory]
  CERT name 'signer-02'? [return for yes, or specify name]
  Creating signer-02 in /etc/lpd/ssl.ca
  Sign with Certificate '/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt' [return for yes, or specify cert file]
  Private key in /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt
  
  Generating signer Certificate [signer-02] 
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 1: Generating RSA private key for signer (1024 bit)
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 2: Generating X.509 certificate signing request for signer
  User Certificate Validity in days  [default 365]
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 3: Generating X.509 certificate signed by own CA
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  RESULT:
  /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/signer-02.crt: OK
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 4. Enrypting RSA private key with a pass phrase for security
  The contents of the certificate key file (the generated private key)
  should be echo kept secret, especially so if it is used to sign
  Certificates or for User authentication.
    SSL experts strongly recommend you to encrypt the key file with
  a Triple-DES cipher and a Pass Phrase.  When using LPRng, you provide
  the password via a file or file descriptor specified by an environent
  variable, i.e. - SSL_PASSWORD_FILE or SSL_PASSWORD_FD, or in the
  ${HOME}/.ssl_password file.
    The LPD server uses the ssl_server_password_file option to specify
  the location of a file containing the password.
    See the LPRng Refernce Manual for details, or the printcap(5) man page.
  
  key file is /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/signer-02.key
  Encrypt the private key now? [Y/n]:
  Fine, you're using an encrypted private key to sign CERTS.
  ______________________________________________________________________
  
  STEP 5: Combine CERT and KEY file
  Generate single CERT and KEY file? [Y/n] 
  
  Use the following commands to examine the CERT and KEY files:
     openssl x509 -text -in /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/signer-02.crt
     openssl rsa -text -in /etc/lpd/ssl.ca/signer-02.crt
  
  - creates a certificate with the appropriate entries for use
    as a signing, server (lpd), or client (user) certificate.
  

TESTING SSL AUTHENTICATION

Set up a printcap entry:
 ssl:
   :auth=ssl
   :ssl_id=lp
   :ssl_ca_file=/etc/lpd/ssl.ca/ca.crt
   :ssl_crl_file=/etc/lpd/ssl.crl/ssl.crl
   :ssl_server_cert=/etc/lpd/ssl.server/server.crt
   :ssl_server_password_file=/etc/lpd/ssl.server/server.pwd
   :sd=/var/spool/lpd/%P
   :lp=/dev/null
   # for debugging only!
   :db=2   

Create the spool queue by using:
  checkpc -f

Use the lprng_ssl script described above to create the ssl certs and install
them as required.

Now restart LPD in debug mode, so you can kill it:
  lpd -F -D1

Use the 'lpq' command to connect to the server:
  lpq -Pssl -D1 |&tee /tmp/log

If this fails, examine the /var/spool/lpd/ssl/log file for
reasons that the server failed.  Examine the /tmp/log
file for reasons that the client failed.

CERTIFICATE REVOCATION AND PERMSSIONS CHECKING

The current implementation does not support or provide support
for the X509 Certificate Revocation List or files.  Instead,
we use the lpd.perms facilities and reject user and/or signers
based on the information in their 'subject' or 'issuer' information.
The AUTHFROM and AUTHCA contain the subject and issuer information
for the user certificate received by the LPD server.  Actually,
the AUTHCA information contains the hierarchy of certificate signers,
so you can reject a request based on the presence or abscence
of a certificate signer.

For example:
h110: {230} % openssl x509 -issuer -subject -noout -in ${HOME}/.lpr/client.crt
issuer= /C=US/ST=California/L=San Diego/O=Astart/\
    OU=CertificateAuthority/CN=AstartCA/Email=ca@astart.com
subject= /C=US/ST=California/L=San Diego/O=Astart/\
    OU=Server/CN=papowell/Email=papowell@astart.com

You can now use:

# /etc/lpd.perms
REJECT NOT AUTHTYPE=ssl
REJECT NOT AUTHCA=*/CN=AstartCA/*
REJECT AUTHFROM=*/CN=papowell/*

You can also put this in a file, say /etc/lpd/signers.auth
 */CN=AstartCA/*
and, say /etc/lpd/reject.users
 */CN=papowell/*

Now you can use:
REJECT NOT AUTHCA=</etc/lpd/signers.auth
REJECT AUTHFROM=</etc/lpd/reject.users