File: lsof.man

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lsof 4.91+dfsg-1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: bullseye, sid
  • size: 4,984 kB
  • sloc: ansic: 68,893; sh: 6,862; makefile: 1,682; perl: 1,099; awk: 214
file content (3960 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 155,331 bytes parent folder | download
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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



NAME
     lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
     lsof [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d
     d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-E ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f]
     ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ -K k ] [  +|-L  [l]  ]  [
     +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [
     -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl]
     ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
     Lsof revision 4.91 lists on its standard output file  infor-
     mation  about  files  opened  by processes for the following
     UNIX dialects:

          Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
          FreeBSD 8.[234], 9.0 and 1[012].0 for AMD64-based systems
          Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
          Solaris 9, 10 and 11

     (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page for infor-
     mation on how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

     An open file may be a regular file,  a  directory,  a  block
     special  file,  a  character special file, an executing text
     reference, a library, a stream or a network  file  (Internet
     socket, NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or
     all the files in a file system may be selected by path.

     Instead of a formatted display,  lsof  will  produce  output
     that  can  be  parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option
     description, and the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS  section  for
     more information.

     In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run
     in  repeat  mode.   In  repeat  mode it will produce output,
     delay, then repeat the output operation until  stopped  with
     an  interrupt  or  quit  signal.   See  the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
     option description for more information.

OPTIONS
     In the absence of any options, lsof  lists  all  open  files
     belonging to all active processes.

     If any list request option is specified, other list requests
     must  be  specifically  requested - e.g., if -U is specified
     for the listing of UNIX socket files,  NFS  files  won't  be
     listed  unless  -N  is  also specified; or if a user list is
     specified with the -u  option,  UNIX  domain  socket  files,
     belonging  to  users not in the list, won't be listed unless
     the -U option is also specified.



SunOS 5.9          Last change: Revision-4.91                   1






Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     Normally list options that are specifically stated are  ORed
     -  i.e., specifying the -i option without an address and the
     -ufoo option produces a listing  of  all  network  files  OR
     files  belonging  to  processes  owned by user ``foo''.  The
     exceptions are:

     1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID),  specified
        with the -u option;

     2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p
        option;

     3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with
        the -g option;

     4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

     5) the (`^') negated TCP or UDP protocol state names, speci-
        fied with the -s [p:s] option.

     Since they represent exclusions, they  are  applied  without
     ORing  or  ANDing and take effect before any other selection
     criteria are applied.

     The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For  exam-
     ple, specifying -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only
     UNIX socket files that belong to  processes  owned  by  user
     ``foo''.

     Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options  to
     be ANDed; it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs
     of selection options by placing it between them, even though
     its  placement  there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed,
     it causes the ANDing of all selection options.

     Items of the  same  selection  set  -  command  names,  file
     descriptors,  network  addresses,  process identifiers, user
     identifiers, zone names, security contexts - are joined in a
     single  ORed  set and applied before the result participates
     in  ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying   -i@aaa.bbb,
     -i@ccc.ddd,  -a,  and  -ufff,ggg  will select the listing of
     files that belong to either login  ``fff''  OR  ``ggg''  AND
     have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

     Options may be grouped together following a single prefix --
     e.g.,  the  option  set  ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.
     However, since values are optional following +|-f,  -F,  -g,
     -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x and -z.  when you have no
     values for them be  careful  that  the  following  character
     isn't  ambiguous.   For  example, -Fn might represent the -F
     and -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier
     character  following  the  -F  option.   When  ambiguity  is



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     possible, start a new option with a `-'  character  -  e.g.,
     ``-F  -n''.   If  the next option is a file name, follow the
     possibly ambiguous  option  with  ``--''  -  e.g.,  ``-F  --
     name''.

     Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to  a  group
     of  options.   Options  that don't take on separate meanings
     for each prefix - e.g., -i - may  be  grouped  under  either
     prefix.   Thus,  for  example,  ``+M  -i''  may be stated as
     ``+Mi'' and  the  group  means  the  same  as  the  separate
     options.   Be  careful  of  prefix grouping when one or more
     options in the group does take on  separate  meanings  under
     different  prefixes  -  e.g.,  +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same
     request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use  separate  options
     with appropriate prefixes.

     -? -h    These two equivalent options select a usage  (help)
              output  list.   Lsof  displays  a shortened form of
              this output when it detects an error in the options
              supplied  to  it,  after  it has displayed messages
              explaining each error.  (Escape the  `?'  character
              as your shell requires.)

     -a       causes list  selection  options  to  be  ANDed,  as
              described above.

     -A A     is available on systems configured  for  AFS  whose
              AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.
              It allows the lsof user to specify A as  an  alter-
              nate  name  list file where the kernel addresses of
              the dynamic modules might be found.  See  the  lsof
              FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
              information about dynamic modules,  their  symbols,
              and how they affect lsof.

     -b       causes lsof to avoid kernel  functions  that  might
              block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

              See the BLOCKS AND  TIMEOUTS  and  AVOIDING  KERNEL
              BLOCKS  sections  for  information  on  using  this
              option.

     -c c     selects the listing of files for processes  execut-
              ing  the command that begins with the characters of
              c.  Multiple commands may be specified, using  mul-
              tiple -c options.  They are joined in a single ORed
              set before participating in AND option selection.

              If c begins with a `^', then the following  charac-
              ters  specify a command name whose processes are to
              be ignored (excluded.)




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              If c begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the  char-
              acters  between  the  slashes  are interpreted as a
              regular expression.  Shell meta-characters  in  the
              regular  expression must be quoted to prevent their
              interpretation by the shell.  The closing slash may
              be followed by these modifiers:


                   b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                   i    ignore the case of letters.
                   x    the regular expression is an extended one
                        (default).

              See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  loca-
              tion.)   for more information on basic and extended
              regular expressions.

              The simple command specification is  tested  first.
              If  that test fails, the command regular expression
              is applied.  If the simple command  test  succeeds,
              the  command  regular  expression  test isn't made.
              This may result in ``no command found for  regex:''
              messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

     +c w     defines the maximum number of initial characters of
              the name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX
              command associated with a process to be printed  in
              the COMMAND column.  (The lsof default is nine.)

              Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply all com-
              mand  name  characters  to  lsof  in  the files and
              structures from which lsof  obtains  command  name.
              Often  dialects limit the number of characters sup-
              plied in those sources.  For example, Linux  2.4.27
              and  Solaris 9 both limit command name length to 16
              characters.

              If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied
              to lsof by the UNIX dialect will be printed.

              If w is less than the length of the  column  title,
              ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

     -C       disables the reporting of any path name  components
              from  the kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME
              CACHE section for more information.

     +d s     causes lsof to search for  all  open  instances  of
              directory  s  and the files and directories it con-
              tains at its top level.  +d does  NOT  descend  the
              directory  tree,  rooted at s.  The +D D option may
              be used to request a  full-descent  directory  tree



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              search, rooted at directory D.

              Processing of the +d option does  not  follow  sym-
              bolic  links within s unless the -x or -x  l option
              is also specified.  Nor does  it  search  for  open
              files on file system mount points on subdirectories
              of s unless the -x or -x  f option is  also  speci-
              fied.

              Note: the authority of the user of this option lim-
              its  it  to  searching  for files that the user has
              permission to examine with the system stat(2) func-
              tion.

     -d s     specifies a  list  of  file  descriptors  (FDs)  to
              exclude from or include in the output listing.  The
              file   descriptors    are    specified    in    the
              comma-separated   set   s   -   e.g.,  ``cwd,1,3'',
              ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

              The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the
              set  begin with `^'.  It is an inclusion list if no
              entry begins with `^'.  Mixed lists are not permit-
              ted.

              A file descriptor number range may be in the set as
              long  as  neither member is empty, both members are
              numbers, and the ending member is larger  than  the
              starting  one  - e.g., ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.  Ranges
              may be specified for exclusion if they have the `^'
              prefix  - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all file descrip-
              tors 0 through 7.

              Multiple file descriptor numbers are  joined  in  a
              single  ORed set before participating in AND option
              selection.

              When there are exclusion and inclusion  members  in
              the set, lsof reports them as errors and exits with
              a non-zero return code.

              See the description of File Descriptor (FD)  output
              values  in  the OUTPUT section for more information
              on file descriptor names.

     +D D     causes lsof to search for  all  open  instances  of
              directory  D  and  all the files and directories it
              contains to its complete depth.

              Processing of the +D option does  not  follow  sym-
              bolic  links within D unless the -x or -x  l option
              is also specified.  Nor does  it  search  for  open



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              files on file system mount points on subdirectories
              of D unless the -x or -x  f option is  also  speci-
              fied.

              Note: the authority of the user of this option lim-
              its  it  to  searching  for files that the user has
              permission to examine with the system stat(2) func-
              tion.

              Further note:  lsof may process this option  slowly
              and  require a large amount of dynamic memory to do
              it.  This is because it  must  descend  the  entire
              directory  tree,  rooted  at D, calling stat(2) for
              each file and directory, building a list of all the
              files it finds, and searching that list for a match
              with every open file.  When directory D  is  large,
              these  steps  can  take  a  long  time, so use this
              option prudently.

     -D D     directs lsof's use of the device cache  file.   The
              use  of  this  option is sometimes restricted.  See
              the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that
              follow it for more information on this option.

              -D must be followed by a function letter; the func-
              tion  letter  may  optionally be followed by a path
              name.  Lsof recognizes these function letters:


                   ? - report device cache file paths
                   b - build the device cache file
                   i - ignore the device cache file
                   r - read the device cache file
                   u - read and update the device cache file

              The b, r, and u functions, accompanied  by  a  path
              name,  are  sometimes restricted.  When these func-
              tions are restricted, they will not appear  in  the
              description of the -D option that accompanies -h or
              -? option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE  FILE  sec-
              tion  and  the  sections  that  follow  it for more
              information on these  functions  and  when  they're
              restricted.

              The ? function  reports  the  read-only  and  write
              paths  that lsof can use for the device cache file,
              the names of any environment variables whose values
              lsof  will  examine  when  forming the device cache
              file path, and the format for the  personal  device
              cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character as your
              shell requires.)




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              When available, the b, r, and u  functions  may  be
              followed  by  the  device  cache  file's path.  The
              standard default  is  .lsof_hostname  in  the  home
              directory  of  the real user ID that executes lsof,
              but this could have been changed when lsof was con-
              figured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?
              options show the current  default  prefix  -  e.g.,
              ``.lsof''.)   The  suffix,  hostname,  is the first
              component of the host's name returned  by  gethost-
              name(2).

              When available, the  b  function  directs  lsof  to
              build  a  new  device  cache file at the default or
              specified path.

              The i function directs lsof to ignore  the  default
              device  cache file and obtain its information about
              devices via direct calls to the kernel.

              The r function directs  lsof  to  read  the  device
              cache   at  the  default  or  specified  path,  but
              prevents it from creating a new device  cache  file
              when  none exists or the existing one is improperly
              structured.  The r function, when specified without
              a   path  name,  prevents  lsof  from  updating  an
              incorrect or outdated device cache file, or  creat-
              ing  a  new  one  in  its place.  The r function is
              always available when it  is  specified  without  a
              path  name  argument;  it  may be restricted by the
              permissions of the lsof process.

              When available, the u function directs lsof to read
              the  device  cache file at the default or specified
              path, if possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.
              This is the default device cache file function when
              no -D option has been specified.

     +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is  s  from
              being subjected to kernel function calls that might
              block.  The +e option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and
              most  readlink(2)  kernel  function  calls.  The -e
              option exempts only  stat(2)  and  lstat(2)  kernel
              function  calls.   Multiple  file  systems  may  be
              specified with  separate  +|-e  specifications  and
              each may have readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

              This  option  is  currently  implemented  only  for
              Linux.

              CAUTION: this option can easily be  mis-applied  to
              other  than the file system of interest, because it
              uses path name rather than the more reliable device



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              and  inode  numbers.  (Device and inode numbers are
              acquired via the potentially blocking stat(2)  ker-
              nel  call  and  are thus not available, but see the
              +|-m m option as a possible alternative way to sup-
              ply  device  numbers.)   Use this option with great
              care and fully specify the path name  of  the  file
              system to be exempted.

              When  open  files  on  exempted  file  systems  are
              reported,  it  may  not  be  possible to obtain all
              their  information.   Therefore,  some  information
              columns will be blank, the characters ``UNKN'' pre-
              face the values in the TYPE column, and the  appli-
              cable  exemption  option is added in parentheses to
              the end of the NAME column.   (Some  device  number
              information  might be made available via the +|-m m
              option.)

     +|-E     +E specifies that Linux pipe, Linux UNIX socket and
              Linux pseudoterminal files should be displayed with
              endpoint information and the files of the endpoints
              should  also  be displayed.  Note: UNIX socket file
              endpoint information is  only  available  when  the
              compile  flags  line  of  -v output contains HASUX-
              SOCKEPT, and psudoterminal endpoint information  is
              only available when the compile flags line contains
              HASPTYEPT.

              Pipe endpoint information is displayed in the  NAME
              column in the form ``PID,cmd,FDmode'', where PID is
              the endpoint process ID; cmd is the  endpoint  pro-
              cess command; FD is the endpoint file's descriptor;
              and mode is the endpoint file's access mode.

              Pseudoterminal endpoint information is displayed in
              the NAME column as ``->/dev/ptsmin PID,cmd,FDmode''
              or ``PID,cmd,FDmode''.  The first  form  is  for  a
              master device; the second, for a slave device.  min
              is a slave device's minor device number;  and  PID,
              cmd, FD and mode are the same as with pipe endpoint
              information.  Note: psudoterminal endpoint informa-
              tion  is only available when the compile flags line
              of -V output contains HASPTYEPT.

              UNIX socket file endpoint information is  displayed
              in the NAME column in the form
              ``type=TYPE ->INO=INODE PID,cmd,FDmode'',     where
              TYPE is the socket type; INODE is the i-node number
              of the connected socket; and PID, cmd, FD and  mode
              are  the  same  as  with pipe endpoint information.
              Note: UNIX  socket  file  endpoint  information  is
              available  only  when  the compile flags line of -v



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              output contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

              Multiple occurrences of this information can appear
              in a file's NAME column.

              -E specfies that Linux pipe and Linux  UNIX  socket
              files  should  be  displayed with endpoint informa-
              tion, but not the files of the endpoints.

     +|-f [cfgGn]
              f by itself clarifies how path name  arguments  are
              to be interpreted.  When followed by c, f, g, G, or
              n in any combination it specifies that the  listing
              of  kernel  file  structure  information  is  to be
              enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

              Normally a path name argument is taken to be a file
              system  name  if  it matches a mounted-on directory
              name reported by mount(8), or if  it  represents  a
              block device, named in the mount output and associ-
              ated with a mounted directory  name.   When  +f  is
              specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
              be file system names, and lsof will complain if any
              are not.  This can be useful, for example, when the
              file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a  block
              device.  This happens for some CD-ROM file systems.

              When -f is specified by itself, all path name argu-
              ments  will be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for
              example, the ``-f -- /'' arguments direct  lsof  to
              search for open files with a `/' path name, not all
              open files in the `/' (root) file system.

              Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly ter-
              minated  and  aren't followed by a character (e.g.,
              of the file or file  system  name)  that  might  be
              taken  as  a  parameter.   For  example, use ``--''
              after +f and -f as in these examples.


                   $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                   $ lsof -f -- /file/name

              The listing of information from kernel file  struc-
              tures,  requested  with the +f [cfgGn] option form,
              is normally inhibited,  and  is  not  available  in
              whole or part for some dialects - e.g., /proc-based
              Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the prefix  to  f
              is a plus sign (`+'), these characters request file
              structure information:





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                   c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                   f    file structure address (not Linux)
                   g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                   G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                   n    file structure node address (not Linux)

              When the prefix is minus (`-') the same  characters
              disable the listing of the indicated values.

              File structure addresses, use  counts,  flags,  and
              node  addresses  may be used to detect more readily
              identical files inherited by  child  processes  and
              identical  files  in  use  by  different processes.
              Lsof column output can be sorted by output  columns
              holding the values and listed to identify identical
              file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by  an
              AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

     -F f     specifies a character list,  f,  that  selects  the
              fields  to be output for processing by another pro-
              gram, and the character that terminates each output
              field.  Each field to be output is specified with a
              single  character  in  f.   The  field   terminator
              defaults  to  NL,  but may be changed to NUL (000).
              See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER  PROGRAMS  section  for  a
              description  of the field identification characters
              and the field output process.

              When the field selection character list  is  empty,
              all  standard  fields  are selected (except the raw
              device field, security context and zone  field  for
              compatibility  reasons) and the NL field terminator
              is used.

              When the field selection  character  list  contains
              only  a zero (`0'), all fields are selected (except
              the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and
              the NUL terminator character is used.

              Other combinations of fields and  their  associated
              field  terminator character must be set with expli-
              cit entries in f, as described in  the  OUTPUT  FOR
              OTHER PROGRAMS section.

              When a field selection character identifies an item
              lsof  does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected
              with -R - specification of the  field  character  -
              e.g.,  ``-FR''  -  also  selects the listing of the
              item.

              When the field selection  character  list  contains
              the  single character `?', lsof will display a help



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              list  of  the  field   identification   characters.
              (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

     -g [s]   excludes or selects the listing of  files  for  the
              processes  whose optional process group IDentifica-
              tion (PGID) numbers are in the comma-separated  set
              s  -  e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There should
              be no spaces in the set.)

              PGID  numbers  that  begin  with   `^'   (negation)
              represent exclusions.

              Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a  single  ORed
              set  before  participating in AND option selection.
              However, PGID exclusions are applied without  ORing
              or  ANDing  and  take effect before other selection
              criteria are applied.

              The -g option also enables the  output  display  of
              PGID  numbers.   When  specified without a PGID set
              that's all it does.

     -i [i]   selects the listing of files any of whose  Internet
              address  matches the address specified in i.  If no
              address is specified, this option selects the list-
              ing of all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

              If -i4  or  -i6  is  specified  with  no  following
              address,  only  files  of the indicated IP version,
              IPv4 or IPv6, are displayed.  (An  IPv6  specifica-
              tion  may  be  used  only  if the dialects supports
              IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and  ``IPv[46]''  in
              lsof's  -h  or -? output.)  Sequentially specifying
              -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying  -i,
              and vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is
              the same as specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

              Multiple addresses (up to a limit of  100)  may  be
              specified with multiple -i options.  (A port number
              or service name range is counted as  one  address.)
              They  are joined in a single ORed set before parti-
              cipating in AND option selection.

              An Internet address is specified in the form (Items
              in square brackets are optional.):

               [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

              where:
                   46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                        that applies to the following address.
                        '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX



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                        dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                        '6' is specified, the following address
                        applies to all IP versions.
                   protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                   hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                        specific IP version is specified, open
                        network files associated with host names
                        of all versions will be selected.
                   hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                        dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                        colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                        UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                        version is selected, only its numeric
                        addresses may be specified.
                   service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                        or a list of them.
                   port is a port number, or a list of them.

              IPv6 options may be used only if the  UNIX  dialect
              supports  IPv6.   To  see  if  the dialect supports
              IPv6, run lsof and specify  the  -h  or  -?  (help)
              option.   If  the  displayed  description of the -i
              option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'',  IPv6  is
              supported.

              IPv4 host names and addresses may not be  specified
              if  network  file selection is limited to IPv6 with
              -i 6.  IPv6 host names and  addresses  may  not  be
              specified  if  network file selection is limited to
              IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open IPv4  network  file's
              address  is  mapped  in  an  IPv6 address, the open
              file's type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display
              will be selected by '6', not '4'.

              At least one address component -  4,  6,  protocol,
              hostname,  hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.
              The `@' character, leading the host  specification,
              is always required; as is the `:', leading the port
              specification.  Specify  either  hostname  or  hos-
              taddr.   Specify  either  service name list or port
              number list.  If a service name list is  specified,
              the  protocol  may also need to be specified if the
              TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port numbers for  the  service
              name  are different.  Use any case - lower or upper
              - for protocol.

              Service names and port numbers may be combined in a
              list  whose  entries  are  separated  by commas and
              whose numeric range entries are separated by  minus
              signs.   There  may  be no embedded spaces, and all
              service names must belong to the  specified  proto-
              col.   Since  service  names  may  contain embedded



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              minus signs, the starting entry of a range can't be
              a service name; it can be a port number, however.

              Here are some sample addresses:

                   -i6 - IPv6 only
                   TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                   @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                   @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                        3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                   UDP:who - UDP who service port
                   TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                   tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                        service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                   tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                   :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

     -K k     selects  the  listing   of   tasks   (threads)   of
              processes,  on dialects where task (thread) report-
              ing is supported.  (If help output - i.e., the out-
              put  of  the  -h or -? options - shows this option,
              then task (thread) reporting is  supported  by  the
              dialect.)

              If -K is followed by a value, k, it must be  ``i''.
              That  causes  lsof to ignore tasks, particularly in
              the default, list-everything  case  when  no  other
              options are specified.

              When -K and -a are both specified on Linux, and the
              tasks  of  a  main  process  are  selected by other
              options, the main process will also  be  listed  as
              though it were a task, but without a task ID.  (See
              the description of the TID  column  in  the  OUTPUT
              section.)

              Where the FreeBSD  version  supports  threads,  all
              threads will be listed with their IDs.

              In general threads and tasks inherit the  files  of
              the  caller, but may close some and open others, so
              lsof always reports all the open files  of  threads
              and tasks.

     -k k     specifies a kernel name list file, k, in  place  of
              /vmunix, /mach, etc.  -k is not available under AIX
              on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

     -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login
              names.  It is also useful when login name lookup is
              working improperly or slowly.




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     +|-L [l] enables (`+') or disables (`-') the listing of file
              link  counts, where they are available - e.g., they
              aren't available for sockets,  or  most  FIFOs  and
              pipes.

              When +L is specified without  a  following  number,
              all  link counts will be listed.  When -L is speci-
              fied (the default), no link counts will be listed.

              When +L is followed by a number, only files  having
              a  link count less than that number will be listed.
              (No number may follow -L.)  A specification of  the
              form  ``+L1'' will select open files that have been
              unlinked.    A   specification    of    the    form
              ``+aL1 <file_system>''  will  select  unlinked open
              files on the specified file system.

              For other link count comparisons, use field  output
              (-F) and a post-processing script or program.

     +|-m m   specifies  an  alternate  kernel  memory  file   or
              activates mount table supplement processing.

              The option form -m  m  specifies  a  kernel  memory
              file,  m, in place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g.,
              a crash dump file.

              The option form +m requests that a mount supplement
              file  be  written to the standard output file.  All
              other options are silently ignored.

              There will be a line in the mount  supplement  file
              for   each  mounted  file  system,  containing  the
              mounted file system directory, followed by a single
              space, followed by the device number in hexadecimal
              "0x" format - e.g.,


                   / 0x801

              Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get  dev-
              ice numbers for file systems when it can't get them
              via stat(2) or lstat(2).

              The option form +m m identifies m as a  mount  sup-
              plement file.

              Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for
              all supported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's
              -h or -? options to see if the +m and +m m  options
              are available.




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of  port-
              mapper registrations for local TCP, UDP and UDPLITE
              ports, where port mapping is supported.   (See  the
              last  paragraph  of  this  option  description  for
              information  about  where  portmapper  registration
              reporting is supported.)

              The default reporting  mode  is  set  by  the  lsof
              builder  with  the  HASPMAPENABLED  #define  in the
              dialect's machine.h header file;  lsof  is  distri-
              buted  with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deactivated,
              so portmapper reporting is disabled by default  and
              must be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or
              -? option will report the default mode.   Disabling
              portmapper registration when it is already disabled
              or enabling it when already enabled is  acceptable.
              When  portmapper registration reporting is enabled,
              lsof displays the portmapper registration (if  any)
              for  local  TCP,  UDP  or  UDPLITE  ports in square
              brackets immediately following the port numbers  or
              service    names   -   e.g.,   ``:1234[name]''   or
              ``:name[100083]''.   The  registration  information
              may  be  a  name  or  number, depending on what the
              registering program supplied to the portmapper when
              it registered the port.

              When portmapper registration reporting is  enabled,
              lsof  may  run  a little more slowly or even become
              blocked when access to the portmapper becomes cong-
              ested  or  stopped.   Reverse the reporting mode to
              determine if portmapper registration  reporting  is
              slowing or blocking lsof.

              For purposes of portmapper  registration  reporting
              lsof considers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if:
              it is found in the local  part  of  its  containing
              kernel  structure;  or  if  it  is  located  in the
              foreign part of its containing kernel structure and
              the  local  and  foreign Internet addresses are the
              same; or if it is located in the  foreign  part  of
              its  containing  kernel  structure  and the foreign
              Internet address  is  INADDR_LOOPBACK  (127.0.0.1).
              This  rule  may make lsof ignore some foreign ports
              on  machines  with  multiple  interfaces  when  the
              foreign  Internet  address is on a different inter-
              face from the local one.

              See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  loca-
              tion.)  for further discussion of portmapper regis-
              tration reporting issues.

              Portmapper registration reporting is supported only



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              on  dialects  that  have  RPC  header files.  (Some
              Linux distributions with GlibC  2.14  do  not  have
              them.)   When  portmapper registration reporting is
              supported, the -h or -? help output will  show  the
              +|-M option.

     -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers to  host
              names for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may
              make lsof run faster.  It is also useful when  host
              name lookup is not working properly.

     -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

     -o       directs lsof to display file offset at  all  times.
              It  causes  the  SIZE/OFF output column title to be
              changed to OFFSET.  Note:  on  some  UNIX  dialects
              lsof  can't  obtain  accurate  or  consistent  file
              offset information from its  kernel  data  sources,
              sometimes just for particular kinds of files (e.g.,
              socket files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  sec-
              tion gives its location.)  for more information.

              The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive;  they
              can't  both  be  specified.  When neither is speci-
              fied, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset
              -  is appropriate and available for the type of the
              file.

     -o o     defines the number of  decimal  digits  (o)  to  be
              printed  after  the ``0t'' for a file offset before
              the form is switched to ``0x...''.  An o  value  of
              zero  (unlimited)  directs  lsof  to use the ``0t''
              form for all offset output.

              This option does NOT direct lsof to display  offset
              at  all  times;  specify  -o  (without  a  trailing
              number) to do that.  -o o only specifies the number
              of  digits  after  ``0t''  in either mixed size and
              offset or offset-only output.  Thus,  for  example,
              to  direct lsof to display offset at all times with
              a decimal digit count of 10, use:


                   -o -o 10
              or
                   -oo10

              The default number of digits allowed  after  ``0t''
              is  normally  8,  but  may have been changed by the
              lsof builder.  Consult the description of the -o  o
              option  in  the  output  of  the -h or -? option to
              determine the default that is in effect.



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     -O       directs lsof to bypass  the  strategy  it  uses  to
              avoid  being  blocked  by  some kernel operations -
              i.e., doing them in forked  child  processes.   See
              the  BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
              sections for more information on kernel  operations
              that may block lsof.

              While use of this option will reduce  lsof  startup
              overhead,  it  may also cause lsof to hang when the
              kernel doesn't respond to  a  function.   Use  this
              option cautiously.

     -p s     excludes or selects the listing of  files  for  the
              processes  whose  optional  process  IDentification
              (PID) numbers are in the comma-separated  set  s  -
              e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There should be no
              spaces in the set.)

              PID  numbers  that  begin   with   `^'   (negation)
              represent exclusions.

              Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a  single
              ORed  set before participating in AND option selec-
              tion.  However, PID exclusions are applied  without
              ORing or ANDing and take effect before other selec-
              tion criteria are applied.

     -P       inhibits the conversion of  port  numbers  to  port
              names for network files.  Inhibiting the conversion
              may make lsof run a little faster.  It is also use-
              ful when port name lookup is not working properly.

     +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
              puts lsof in repeat mode.  There  lsof  lists  open
              files  as  selected  by  other  options,  delays  t
              seconds (default fifteen), then repeats  the  list-
              ing,   delaying   and  listing  repetitively  until
              stopped by a condition defined by the prefix to the
              option.

              If the prefix is a `-',  repeat  mode  is  endless.
              Lsof  must  be terminated with an interrupt or quit
              signal.

              If the prefix is `+',  repeat  mode  will  end  the
              first  cycle  no  open  files  are  listed - and of
              course when lsof is stopped with  an  interrupt  or
              quit  signal.   When  repeat  mode  ends because no
              files are listed, the process  exit  code  will  be
              zero  if  any  open files were ever listed; one, if
              none were ever listed.




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              Lsof marks the end of each listing:  if field  out-
              put  is in progress (the -F, option has been speci-
              fied), the default marker  is  `m';  otherwise  the
              default marker is ``========''.  The marker is fol-
              lowed by a NL character.

              The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies  a  format
              for  the marker line.  The <fmt> characters follow-
              ing `m' are interpreted as a  format  specification
              to  the  strftime(3) function, when both it and the
              localtime(3)  function   are   available   in   the
              dialect's C library.  Consult the strftime(3) docu-
              mentation for what may appear in its format specif-
              ication.   Note that when field output is requested
              with the -F option, <fmt>  cannot  contain  the  NL
              format, ``%n''.  Note also that when <fmt> contains
              spaces or other characters that affect the  shell's
              interpretation  of  arguments, <fmt> must be quoted
              appropriately.

              Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is
              more  efficient  to use this mode than to call lsof
              repetitively from a shell script, for example.

              To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r
              with specification of other lsof selection options,
              so the amount of kernel  memory  access  lsof  does
              will  be kept to a minimum.  Options that filter at
              the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p, -u - are  the
              most efficient selectors.

              Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field  out-
              put   (see   the  -F,  option  description)  and  a
              supervising awk or Perl script, or a C program.

     -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentifica-
              tion number in the PPID column.

     -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file  size  at  all
              times.   It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title
              to be changed to SIZE.  If the file does not have a
              size, nothing is displayed.

              The optional -s p:s  form  is  available  only  for
              selected  dialects, and only when the -h or -? help
              output lists it.

              When the optional form is available, the s  may  be
              followed by a protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP,
              a colon (`:') and a comma-separated protocol  state
              name list, the option causes open TCP and UDP files
              to be excluded if their state name(s)  are  in  the



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              list  (s)  preceded  by a `^'; or included if their
              name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

              Dialects that support this option may support  only
              one  protocol.   When  an  unsupported  protocol is
              specified, a message will be  displayed  indicating
              state names for the protocol are unavailable.

              When an inclusion list  is  defined,  only  network
              files  with state names in the list will be present
              in the lsof output.   Thus,  specifying  one  state
              name  means  that only network files with that lone
              state name will be listed.

              Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names,
              but  there  may  be  no  spaces and the colon (`:')
              separating the protocol name (p) and the state name
              list (s) is required.

              If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as con-
              trolled by the specified exclusions and inclusions,
              the -i option must be specified, too.   If  only  a
              single  protocol's  files are to be listed, add its
              name as an argument to the -i option.

              For example, to list only network  files  with  TCP
              state LISTEN, use:


                   -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

              Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP
              states except Idle, use:


                   -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

              State names vary with UNIX dialects,  so  it's  not
              possible  to  provide a complete list.  Some common
              TCP state names are:  CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND,  LISTEN,
              ESTABLISHED,   SYN_SENT,   SYN_RCDV,   ESTABLISHED,
              CLOSE_WAIT,    FIN_WAIT1,    CLOSING,     LAST_ACK,
              FIN_WAIT_2,  and  TIME_WAIT.   Two common UDP state
              names are Unbound and Idle.

              See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  loca-
              tion.)  for more information on how to use protocol
              state exclusion and inclusion, including examples.

              The -o (without a following  decimal  digit  count)
              and  -s  option  (without  a following protocol and
              state name list) are mutually exclusive; they can't



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              both be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof
              displays whatever value  -  size  or  offset  -  is
              appropriate and available for the type of file.

              Since some types of files don't have true  sizes  -
              sockets,  FIFOs,  pipes,  etc.  - lsof displays for
              their sizes the content amounts in their associated
              kernel buffers, if possible.

     -S [t]   specifies an optional time-out  seconds  value  for
              kernel   functions  -  lstat(2),  readlink(2),  and
              stat(2)  -  that  might  otherwise  deadlock.   The
              minimum for t is two; the default, fifteen; when no
              value is specified, the default is used.

              See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more infor-
              mation.

     -T [t]   controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information,
              also  reported by netstat(1), following the network
              addresses.   In  normal  output   the   information
              appears in parentheses, each item except TCP or TPI
              state name identified by  a  keyword,  followed  by
              `=', separated from others by a single space:


                   <TCP or TPI state name>
                   QR=<read queue length>
                   QS=<send queue length>
                   SO=<socket options and values>
                   SS=<socket states>
                   TF=<TCP flags and values>
                   WR=<window read length>
                   WW=<window write length>

              Not all values are reported for all UNIX  dialects.
              Items  values  (when  available) are reported after
              the item name and '='.

              When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT
              FOR  OTHER PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field
              with a `T' leading character.

              -T  with  no  following  key  characters   disables
              TCP/TPI information reporting.

              -T with following characters selects the  reporting
              of specific TCP/TPI information:


                   f    selects reporting of socket options,
                        states and values, and TCP flags and



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                        values.
                   q    selects queue length reporting.
                   s    selects connection state reporting.
                   w    selects window size reporting.

              Not  all  selections  are  enabled  for  some  UNIX
              dialects.   State  may be selected for all dialects
              and is reported by default.  The -h or -? help out-
              put for the -T option will show what selections may
              be used with the UNIX dialect.

              When -T is used to select information - i.e., it is
              followed  by one or more selection characters - the
              displaying of state is disabled by default, and  it
              must be explicitly selected again in the characters
              following -T.  (In effect,  then,  the  default  is
              equivalent  to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths
              and state are desired, use -Tqs.

              Socket options, socket states, some socket  values,
              TCP  flags  and one TCP value may be reported (when
              available in the UNIX dialect) in the form  of  the
              names  that  commonly  appear  after SO_, so_, SS_,
              TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header files -  most
              often    <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>   and
              <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult  those  header  files
              for  the  meaning of the flags, options, states and
              values.

              ``SO=''  precedes  socket   options   and   values;
              ``SS='',  socket states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and
              values.

              If a flag or option has a  value,  the  value  will
              follow    an    '='   and   the   name   --   e.g.,
              ``SO=LINGER=5'',   ``SO=QLIM=5'',   ``TF=MSS=512''.
              The following seven values may be reported:


                   Name
                   Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                   KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                   LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                   MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                   PQLEN          partial listen queue connections
                   QLEN      established listen queue connections
                   QLIM      established listen queue limit
                   RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                   SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

              Details on what socket options and  values,  socket



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              states,  and  TCP flags and values may be displayed
              for particular UNIX dialects may be  found  in  the
              answer  to  the  ``Why  doesn't  lsof report socket
              options, socket states, and TCP  flags  and  values
              for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof report the
              partial  listen  queue  connection  count  for   my
              dialect?''  questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ sec-
              tion gives its location.)

     -t       specifies that lsof  should  produce  terse  output
              with process identifiers only and no header - e.g.,
              so that the output may be  piped  to  kill(1).   -t
              selects the -w option.

     -u s     selects the listing of files  for  the  user  whose
              login   names   or  user  ID  numbers  are  in  the
              comma-separated  set  s   -   e.g.,   ``abe'',   or
              ``548,root''.   (There  should  be no spaces in the
              set.)

              Multiple login names or user ID numbers are  joined
              in  a  single  ORed set before participating in AND
              option selection.

              If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it
              becomes a negation - i.e., files of processes owned
              by the login name or user ID will never be  listed.
              A  negated  login name or user ID selection is nei-
              ther ANDed nor ORed with other  selections;  it  is
              applied  before all other selections and absolutely
              excludes the listing of the files of  the  process.
              For  example, to direct lsof to exclude the listing
              of  files  belonging  to  root  processes,  specify
              ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

     -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

     -v       selects the listing of  lsof  version  information,
              including:  revision  number;  when the lsof binary
              was constructed; who  constructed  the  binary  and
              where;  the  name of the compiler used to construct
              the lsof binary; the version number of the compiler
              when  readily  available;  the  compiler and loader
              flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
              information,  typically  the  output  of uname's -a
              option.

     -V       directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked  to
              list  and  failed  to  find  -  command names, file
              names, Internet addresses or  files,  login  names,
              NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              When other options are ANDed to search options,  or
              compile-time  options  restrict the listing of some
              files, lsof may not report that it failed to find a
              search  item  when  an ANDed option or compile-time
              option prevents the listing of the open  file  con-
              taining the located search item.

              For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may
              not  report  a  failure  to  locate  open  files at
              ``TCP@foobar'' and may not list any, if none have a
              file descriptor number of 999.  A similar situation
              arises when HASSECURITY and  HASNOSOCKSECURITY  are
              defined  at compile time and they prevent the list-
              ing of open files.

     +|-w     Enables (+) or  disables  (-)  the  suppression  of
              warning messages.

              The lsof builder may choose to  have  warning  mes-
              sages  disabled or enabled by default.  The default
              warning message state is indicated in the output of
              the  -h  or  -? option.  Disabling warning messages
              when they are already  disabled  or  enabling  them
              when already enabled is acceptable.

              The -t option selects the -w option.

     -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their
              processing to cross over symbolic links and|or file
              system mount points encountered when  scanning  the
              directory (+d) or directory tree (+D).

              If -x is specified by itself  without  a  following
              parameter,  cross-over  processing of both symbolic
              links and file  system  mount  points  is  enabled.
              Note that when -x is specified without a parameter,
              the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

              The optional  'f'  parameter  enables  file  system
              mount  point  cross-over  processing; 'l', symbolic
              link cross-over processing.

              The -x option may not be supplied without also sup-
              plying a +d or +D option.

     -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

         AIX:
              This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option  requests  the
              reporting  of executed text file and shared library
              references.




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              WARNING:  because  this  option  uses  the   kernel
              readx()  function,  its  use  on  a busy AIX system
              might cause an application process to hang so  com-
              pletely  that it can neither be killed nor stopped.
              I have never seen this happen or had  a  report  of
              its happening, but I think there is a remote possi-
              bility it could happen.

              By default use of readx() is disabled.  On  AIX  5L
              and  above  lsof may need setuid-root permission to
              perform the actions this option requests.

              The lsof builder may specify that the -X option  be
              restricted to processes whose real UID is root.  If
              that has been done, the -X option will  not  appear
              in  the -h or -? help output unless the real UID of
              the lsof process is root.  The default lsof distri-
              bution  allows any UID to specify -X, so by default
              it will appear in the help output.

              When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may  not  be
              able  to report information for all text and loader
              file references, but it may also avoid exacerbating
              an  AIX kernel directory search kernel error, known
              as the Stale Segment ID bug.

              The readx() function, used by  lsof  or  any  other
              program  to  access some sections of kernel virtual
              memory, can trigger the Stale Segment ID  bug.   It
              can  cause  the  kernel's  dir_search() function to
              believe erroneously that part of an in-memory  copy
              of   a  file  system  directory  has  been  zeroed.
              Another application process,  distinct  from  lsof,
              asking  the  kernel to search the directory - e.g.,
              by using open(2) - can cause dir_search()  to  loop
              forever, thus hanging the application process.

              Consult the lsof FAQ (The  FAQ  section  gives  its
              location.)   and the 00README file of the lsof dis-
              tribution for a more complete  description  of  the
              Stale  Segment  ID  bug,  its APAR, and methods for
              defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

         Linux:
              This Linux  option  requests  that  lsof  skip  the
              reporting  of  information on all open TCP, UDP and
              UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6 files.

              This Linux option is most useful  when  the  system
              has  an extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and
              UDPLITE files, the processing of whose  information
              in  the  /proc/net/tcp*  and  /proc/net/udp*  files



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              would take lsof a long time, and whose reporting is
              not of interest.

              Use this option with care and  only  when  you  are
              sure  that the information you want lsof to display
              isn't associated with  open  TCP,  UDP  or  UDPLITE
              socket files.

         Solaris 10 and above:
              This Solaris  10  and  above  option  requests  the
              reporting  of cached paths for files that have been
              deleted - i.e., removed with rm(1) or unlink(2).

              The  cached  path  is  followed   by   the   string
              `` (deleted)''  to  indicate that the path by which
              the file was opened has been deleted.

              Because intervening changes  made  to  the  path  -
              i.e.,  renames  with  mv(1)  or rename(2) - are not
              recorded in the cached path, what lsof  reports  is
              only the path by which the file was opened, not its
              possibly different final path.

     -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher  zone  informa-
              tion is to be handled.

              Without a following argument - e.g.,  NO  z  -  the
              option  specifies  that zone names are to be listed
              in the ZONE output column.

              The -z option may be followed by a  zone  name,  z.
              That  causes  lsof  to  list  only  open  files for
              processes in that zone.  Multiple -z z  option  and
              argument  pairs  may be specified to form a list of
              named zones.  Any open file of any process  in  any
              of  the zones will be listed, subject to other con-
              ditions specified by other options and arguments.

     -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are  to  be
              handled.  It and 'Z' field output character support
              are inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the  run-
              ning  Linux  kernel.  See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
              for more information on the 'Z' field output  char-
              acter.

              Without a following argument - e.g.,  NO  Z  -  the
              option  specifies  that security contexts are to be
              listed in the SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

              The -Z option may be followed by a  wildcard  secu-
              rity  context  name,  Z.   That causes lsof to list
              only open files  for  processes  in  that  security



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              context.   Multiple  -Z Z option and argument pairs
              may be specified to form a list  of  security  con-
              texts.   Any open file of any process in any of the
              security contexts will be listed, subject to  other
              conditions  specified  by  other  options and argu-
              ments.  Note that Z can be A:B:C or *:B:C or  A:B:*
              or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

     --       The double minus sign option is a marker that  sig-
              nals the end of the keyed options.  It may be used,
              for example, when the first file name begins with a
              minus  sign.   It may also be used when the absence
              of a value for the last keyed option must be signi-
              fied by the presence of a minus sign in the follow-
              ing option and before the start of the file names.

     names    These are path names of  specific  files  to  list.
              Symbolic  links are resolved before use.  The first
              name may be separated from  the  preceding  options
              with the ``--'' option.

              If a name is the mounted-on  directory  of  a  file
              system  or the device of the file system, lsof will
              list all the files open on the file system.  To  be
              considered  a  file  system,  the name must match a
              mounted-on directory name in  mount(8)  output,  or
              match  the name of a block device associated with a
              mounted-on directory name.  The +|-f option may  be
              used to force lsof to consider a name a file system
              identifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

              If name is a path to a directory that  is  not  the
              mounted-on  directory  name of a file system, it is
              treated just as a regular file is treated  -  i.e.,
              its listing is restricted to processes that have it
              open as a file or as a process-specific  directory,
              such  as the root or current working directory.  To
              request that lsof look  for  open  files  inside  a
              directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

              If a name is the base name of a  family  of  multi-
              plexed  files  - e.g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will
              list all the associated multiplexed  files  on  the
              device   that   are  open  -  e.g.,  /dev/pt[cs]/1,
              /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

              If a name is a UNIX domain socket name,  lsof  will
              usually search for it by the characters of the name
              alone - exactly as it is specified and is  recorded
              in  the  kernel  socket  structure.   (See the next
              paragraph for an exception to that rule for Linux.)
              Specifying  a  relative  path  -  e.g., ./file - in



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



              place of the file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file
              - won't work because lsof must match the characters
              you specify with what it finds in the  kernel  UNIX
              domain socket structures.

              If a name is a Linux UNIX domain  socket  name,  in
              one  case lsof is able to search for it by its dev-
              ice and inode number, allowing name to be  a  rela-
              tive  path.   The  case  requires that the absolute
              path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash  ('/')  be
              used  by  the  process that created the socket, and
              hence be stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and  it
              requires that lsof be able to obtain the device and
              node  numbers  of  both  the   absolute   path   in
              /proc/net/unix and name via successful stat(2) sys-
              tem calls.  When those  conditions  are  met,  lsof
              will  be  able to search for the UNIX domain socket
              when some path to  it  is  is  specified  in  name.
              Thus,  for example, if the path is /dev/log, and an
              lsof search is initiated when the working directory
              is /dev, then name could be ./log.

              If a name is none of the above, lsof will list  any
              open files whose device and inode match that of the
              specified path name.

              If you have also specified the -b option, the  only
              names  you  may safely specify are file systems for
              which your mount table  supplies  alternate  device
              numbers.  See the AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS and ALTER-
              NATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more information.

              Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set
              before participating in AND option selection.

AFS
     Lsof  supports  the  recognition  of  AFS  files  for  these
     dialects (and AFS versions):

          AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
          HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
          Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
          Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

     It may recognize  AFS  files  on  other  versions  of  these
     dialects,  but  has not been tested there.  Depending on how
     AFS is implemented, lsof may recognize AFS  files  in  other
     dialects,  or may have difficulties recognizing AFS files in
     the supported dialects.

     Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of  AFS  files
     in supported dialects when AFS kernel support is implemented



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     via dynamic modules whose addresses do  not  appear  in  the
     kernel's variable name list.  In that case, lsof may have to
     guess at the identity of AFS files, and might not be able to
     obtain volume information from the kernel that is needed for
     calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof  can't  com-
     pute  volume  node  numbers,  it  reports  blank in the NODE
     column.

     The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations
     of  lsof  for  specifying  the  name list file where dynamic
     module kernel addresses may be found.  When this  option  is
     available,  it  will  be  listed  in  the  lsof help output,
     presented in response to the -h or -?

     See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)   for
     more  information  about dynamic modules, their symbols, and
     how they affect lsof options.

     Because AFS path lookups don't seem to  participate  in  the
     kernel's  name  cache  operations,  lsof can't identify path
     name components for AFS files.

SECURITY
     Lsof has three features that may  cause  security  concerns.
     First,  its  default  compilation mode allows anyone to list
     all open files with it.  Second, by  default  it  creates  a
     user-readable  and  user-writable  device  cache file in the
     home directory of the real user ID that executes lsof.  (The
     list-all-open-files  and  device  cache features may be dis-
     abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m  options
     name alternate kernel name list or memory files.

     Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled  by
     the  compile-time HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.
     When HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only  the  root
     user  to  list  all  open files.  The non-root user may list
     only open files of processes with the same user  IDentifica-
     tion  number  as the real user ID number of the lsof process
     (the one that its user logged on with).

     However,  if  HASSECURITY  and  HASNOSOCKSECURITY  are  both
     defined,  anyone  may  list open socket files, provided they
     are selected with the -i option.

     When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may  list  all  open
     files.

     Help output, presented in response to the -h or  -?  option,
     gives  the  status  of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY
     definitions.





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     See the Security section of the 00README file  of  the  lsof
     distribution  for  information  on  building  lsof  with the
     HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

     Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device
     cache  file  is  controlled  by  the  compile-time HASDCACHE
     option.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the  sections
     that  follow  it for details on how its path is formed.  For
     security considerations it is important to note that in  the
     default  lsof  distribution, if the real user ID under which
     lsof is executed is root, the  device  cache  file  will  be
     written  in  root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.  When
     HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt  to
     read a device cache file.

     When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help  output,  presented
     in response to the -h, -D?, or -? options, will provide dev-
     ice cache file handling information.  When HASDCACHE is  not
     defined, the -h or -? output will have no -D option descrip-
     tion.

     Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature -
     enabling it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the
     startup overhead of examining all  the  nodes  in  /dev  (or
     /devices)  -  read the discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file
     of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The  FAQ  section
     gives its location.)

     WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE  USE  OF  THE
     DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

     When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory
     files  with  the  -k  and -m options, lsof checks the user's
     authority to read them with access(2).  This is intended  to
     prevent  whatever special power lsof's modes might confer on
     it from letting it read files not  normally  accessible  via
     the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
     This section describes the information lsof lists  for  each
     open  file.   See  the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for
     additional information on output that can  be  processed  by
     another program.

     Lsof only outputs printable (declared so  by  isprint(3))  8
     bit characters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one
     of three forms:  the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control  char-
     acter `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x''
     form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is non-printable in  the  COM-
     MAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.





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     For some dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in  the
     dialect's  machine.h  header  file  -  lsof  will  print the
     extended 8 bit characters of a language  locale.   The  lsof
     process must be supplied a language locale environment vari-
     able (e.g., LANG) whose value represents  a  known  language
     locale  in  which  the  extended  characters  are considered
     printable  by  isprint(3).   Otherwise  lsof  considers  the
     extended  characters non-printable and prints them according
     to its rules for  non-printable  characters,  stated  above.
     Consult  your  dialect's setlocale(3) man page for the names
     of other environment variables that may be used in place  of
     LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

     Lsof's language locale support for  a  dialect  also  covers
     wide  characters  -  e.g.,  UTF-8  -  when  HASSETLOCALE and
     HASWIDECHAR are defined in the  dialect's  machine.h  header
     file,  and  when a suitable language locale has been defined
     in the appropriate environment variable for  the  lsof  pro-
     cess.   Wide characters are printable under those conditions
     if  iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.   If   HASSETLOCALE,
     HASWIDECHAR  and  a suitable language locale aren't defined,
     or if iswprint(3) reports wide characters that aren't print-
     able,  lsof  considers the wide characters non-printable and
     prints each of their 8  bits  according  to  its  rules  for
     non-printable characters, stated above.

     Consult the answers to the "Language locale  support"  ques-
     tions  in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
     for more information.

     Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs,
     guaranteeing  that  each  column is a minimum size.  It also
     guarantees that each column is separated from its  predeces-
     sor by at least one space.

     COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of
                the UNIX command associated with the process.  If
                a non-zero w value  is  specified  to  the  +c  w
                option,  the  column contains the first w charac-
                ters of the name of the UNIX  command  associated
                with  the  process  up to the limit of characters
                supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect.   (See  the
                description  of  the +c w command or the lsof FAQ
                for more information.  The FAQ section gives  its
                location.)

                If w is less than the length of the column title,
                ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                If a zero w  value  is  specified  to  the  +c  w
                option, the column contains all the characters of
                the name of the UNIX command associated with  the



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                process.

                All command name  characters  maintained  by  the
                kernel  in  its structures are displayed in field
                output when the command name descriptor (`c')  is
                specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR OTHER COMMANDS
                section for information on selecting field output
                and the associated command name descriptor.

     PID        is the Process IDentification number of the  pro-
                cess.

     TID        is the task (thread)  IDentification  number,  if
                task  (thread)  reporting  is  supported  by  the
                dialect and a task (thread) is being listed.  (If
                help  output  -  i.e., the output of the -h or -?
                options - shows this option, then  task  (thread)
                reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process -
                i.e., a non-task.

     TASKCMD    is the task command name.  Generally this will be
                the  same  as  the  process  named in the COMMAND
                column,  but  some  task  implementations  (e.g.,
                Linux) permit a task to change its command name.

                The TASKCMD column width is subject to  the  same
                size limitation as the COMMAND column.

     ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and  higher  zone  name.   This
                column must be selected with the -z option.

     SECURITY-CONTEXT
                is the SELinux  security  context.   This  column
                must  be  selected with the -Z option.  Note that
                the -Z option is inhibited when SELinux  is  dis-
                abled in the running Linux kernel.

     PPID       is the Parent Process  IDentification  number  of
                the  process.   It  is only displayed when the -R
                option has been specified.

     PGID       is the process group IDentification number  asso-
                ciated  with  the  process.  It is only displayed
                when the -g option has been specified.

     USER       is the user ID number or login name of  the  user
                to  whom the process belongs, usually the same as
                reported by ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the
                user  ID  number or login that owns the directory
                in /proc where lsof finds information  about  the



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                process.  Usually that is the same value reported
                by ps(1), but may differ  when  the  process  has
                changed  its  effective  user  ID.   (See  the -l
                option description for information on when a user
                ID number or login name is displayed.)

     FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:


                     cwd  current working directory;
                     Lnn  library references (AIX);
                     err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                     jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                     ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                     Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                     m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                     mem  memory-mapped file;
                     mmap memory-mapped device;
                     pd   parent directory;
                     rtd  root directory;
                     tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                     txt  program text (code and data);
                     v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                FD  is  followed  by  one  of  these  characters,
                describing the mode under which the file is open:

                     r for read access;
                     w for write access;
                     u for read and write access;
                     space if mode unknown and no lock
                          character follows;
                     `-' if mode unknown and lock
                          character follows.

                The mode character is followed by  one  of  these
                lock  characters,  describing  the  type  of lock
                applied to the file:

                     N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                     r for read lock on part of the file;
                     R for a read lock on the entire file;
                     w for a write lock on part of the file;
                     W for a write lock on the entire file;
                     u for a read and write lock of any length;
                     U for a lock of unknown type;
                     x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock  on  part
                     of the file;
                     X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix  lock  on  the
                entire file;
                     space if there is no lock.




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                See the LOCKS section for more information on the
                lock information character.

                The FD column contents constitutes a single field
                for parsing in post-processing scripts.

     TYPE       is the type of the node associated with the  file
                - e.g., GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file -  even
                if  its  address  is  IPv4,  mapped  in  an  IPv6
                address;

                or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                or ``DEL'' for a Linux map  file  that  has  been
                deleted;

                or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event  queue
                file;

                or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd  directory



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                that  can't  be  opened  --  the  directory  path
                appears in the NAME column, followed by an  error
                message;

                or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                or ``PCWD'' for a /proc  current  working  direc-
                tory;

                or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                or ``PFDR'' for a /proc  file  descriptor  direc-
                tory;

                or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file;

                or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light  weight
                process file;

                or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                or ``POPG'' for an old  format  /proc  page  data
                file;

                or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                or ``PTS'' for a /dev/pts file;

                or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                or ``REG'' for a regular file;




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special  file
                of unknown type;

                or ``XSEM'' for  an  OpenServer  Xenix  semaphore
                file;

                or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer  Xenix  shared  data
                file;

                or the four type number octets if the correspond-
                ing name isn't known.

     FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f
                has been specified to +f;

     FCT        contains the file reference count from the kernel
                file structure when c has been specified to +f;

     FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this  field
                contains  the contents of the f_flag[s] member of
                the  kernel  file  structure  and  the   kernel's
                per-process  open  file flags (if available); `G'
                causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;  `g',
                as  short-hand  names; two lists may be displayed
                with  entries  separated  by  commas,  the  lists
                separated  by  a  semicolon (`;'); the first list
                may contain short-hand names for f_flag[s] values
                from the following table:


                     AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                     AP        append
                     ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                     BAS       block, test, and set in use
                     BKIU      block if in use
                     BL        use block offsets
                     BSK       block seek
                     CA        copy avoid
                     CIO       concurrent I/O
                     CLON      clone
                     CLRD      CL read
                     CR        create
                     DF        defer
                     DFI       defer IND
                     DFLU      data flush
                     DIR       direct



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                     DLY       delay
                     DOCL      do clone
                     DSYN      data-only integrity
                     DTY       must be a directory
                     EVO       event only
                     EX        open for exec
                     EXCL      exclusive open
                     FSYN      synchronous writes
                     GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                     GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                     GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                     HUP       HUP in progress
                     KERN      kernel
                     KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                     LCK       has lock
                     LG        large file
                     MBLK      stream message block
                     MK        mark
                     MNT       mount
                     MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                     NATM      don't update atime
                     NB        non-blocking I/O
                     NBDR      no BDRM check
                     NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                     NBF       n-buffering in effect
                     NC        no cache
                     ND        no delay
                     NDSY      no data synchronization
                     NET       network
                     NFLK      don't follow links
                     NMFS      NM file system
                     NOTO      disable background stop
                     NSH       no share
                     NTTY      no controlling TTY
                     OLRM      OLR mirror
                     PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                     PP        POSIX pipe
                     R         read
                     RC        file and record locking cache
                     REV       revoked
                     RSH       shared read
                     RSYN      read synchronization
                     RW        read and write access
                     SL        shared lock
                     SNAP      cooked snapshot
                     SOCK      socket
                     SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                     SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                     SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                     SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                     SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                     STPI      stop I/O



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



                     SWR       synchronous read
                     SYN       file integrity while writing
                     TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                     TR        truncate
                     W         write
                     WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                     WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                     VH        vhangup pending
                     VTXT      virtual text
                     XL        exclusive lock

                this list of names was derived from F*  #define's
                in dialect header files <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>,
                <sys/fcntl.c>,       <sys/fcntlcom.h>,        and
                <sys/file.h>;  see  the  lsof.h header file for a
                list showing the correspondence between the above
                short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                the second list (after the semicolon) may contain
                short-hand names for kernel per-process open file
                flags from this table:


                     ALLC      allocated
                     BR        the file has been read
                     BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                     BW        the file has been written
                     CLSG      closing
                     CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                     LCK       lock was applied
                     MP        memory-mapped
                     OPIP      open pending - in progress
                     RSVW      reserved wait
                     SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                     USE       in use (multi-threaded)

     NODE-ID    (or INODE-ADDR  for  some  dialects)  contains  a
                unique  identifier for the file node (usually the
                kernel vnode or inode address, but also occasion-
                ally  a  concatenation of device and node number)
                when n has been specified to +f;

     DEVICE     contains the device numbers, separated by commas,
                for  a character special, block special, regular,
                directory or NFS file;

                or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under
                Tru64 UNIX;

                or the address of the  private  data  area  of  a
                Solaris socket stream;




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                or a kernel reference address that identifies the
                file  (The  kernel  reference address may be used
                for FIFO's, for example.);

                or the base address or device  name  of  a  Linux
                AX.25 socket device.

                Usually only the lower thirty two bits  of  Tru64
                UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

     SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                is the size of the file or  the  file  offset  in
                bytes.   A value is displayed in this column only
                if it is available.  Lsof displays whatever value
                - size or offset - is appropriate for the type of
                the file and the version of lsof.

                On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain  accurate
                or  consistent  file  offset information from its
                kernel data sources, sometimes just for  particu-
                lar  kinds  of  files  (e.g.,  socket files.)  In
                other cases, files don't have true sizes -  e.g.,
                sockets,  FIFOs,  pipes  -  so  lsof displays for
                their sizes the content amounts it finds in their
                kernel  buffer  descriptors  (e.g., socket buffer
                size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)  Consult the
                lsof  FAQ  (The  FAQ section gives its location.)
                for more information.

                The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset
                is  normally  displayed in decimal with a leading
                ``0t'' if it contains 8 digits or less; in  hexa-
                decimal  with  a  leading  ``0x'' if it is longer
                than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o option descrip-
                tion  for  information on when 8 might default to
                some other value.)

                Thus the leading ``0t'' and  ``0x''  identify  an
                offset  when  the  column may contain both a size
                and an offset (i.e., its title is SIZE/OFF).

                If  the  -o  option  is  specified,  lsof  always
                displays the file offset (or nothing if no offset
                is available) and labels the column OFFSET.   The
                offset  always  begins  with  ``0t'' or ``0x'' as
                described above.

                The lsof user can control the switch from  ``0t''
                to  ``0x''  with  the  -o  o option.  Consult its
                description for more information.

                If  the  -s  option  is  specified,  lsof  always



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                displays  the file size (or nothing if no size is
                available) and labels the column  SIZE.   The  -o
                and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't
                both be specified.

                For files that don't have a fixed  size  -  e.g.,
                don't reside on a disk device - lsof will display
                appropriate information about the current size or
                position  of  the  file if it is available in the
                kernel structures that define the file.

     NLINK      contains the file link count  when  +L  has  been
                specified;

     NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                or the inode number of an NFS file in the  server
                host;

                or the Internet protocol type - e.g, ``TCP'';

                or ``STR'' for a stream;

                or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                or the IRQ or  inode  number  of  a  Linux  AX.25
                socket device.

     NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on
                which the file resides;

                or the name of a  file  specified  in  the  names
                option   (after  any  symbolic  links  have  been
                resolved);

                or the name of a character special or block  spe-
                cial device;

                or the local and remote Internet addresses  of  a
                network file; the local host name or IP number is
                followed by a colon (':'), the port, ``->'',  and
                the  two-part remote address; IP addresses may be
                reported as numbers or names,  depending  on  the
                +|-M,  -n,  and  -P options; colon-separated IPv6
                numbers are enclosed  in  square  brackets;  IPv4
                INADDR_ANY   and   IPv6   IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED
                addresses, and zero port numbers are  represented
                by  an  asterisk ('*'); a UDP destination address
                may be followed by the  amount  of  time  elapsed
                since  the  last  packet was sent to the destina-
                tion; TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote  addresses  may
                be followed by TCP/TPI information in parentheses



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                - state (e.g., ``(ESTABLISHED)'', ``(Unbound)''),
                queue  sizes, and window sizes (not all dialects)
                -  in  a  fashion  similar  to  what   netstat(1)
                reports;  see  the  -T  option description or the
                description of the TCP/TPI field  in  OUTPUT  FOR
                OTHER  PROGRAMS  for  more  information on state,
                queue size, and window size;

                or the address or name of a UNIX  domain  socket,
                possibly  including a stream clone device name, a
                file system object's path name, local and foreign
                kernel  addresses, socket pair information, and a
                bound vnode address;

                or the local and remote mount point names  of  an
                NFS file;

                or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                or a stream character device  name,  followed  by
                ``->''  and  the  stream name or a list of stream
                module names, separated by ``->'';

                or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream
                device and module names, separated by ``->'';

                or system directory name, `` -- '', and  as  many
                components  of  the path name as lsof can find in
                the kernel's name  cache  for  selected  dialects
                (See  the  KERNEL  NAME  CACHE  section  for more
                information.);

                or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel  pipe
                destination address;

                or ``COMMON:'',  followed  by  the  vnode  device
                information   structure's   device  name,  for  a
                Solaris common vnode;

                or the address family, followed by a slash (`/'),
                followed  by  fourteen comma-separated bytes of a
                non-Internet raw socket address;

                or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by  the
                virtual  connection  number (if any), followed by
                the remote address (if any);

                or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX  files
                - typically terminal files that have been flagged
                with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

                or ``rd=<offset>'' and  ``wr=<offset>''  for  the



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                values of the read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file
                clones  of  the /dev/event device, where n is the
                minor device number of the file;

                or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris  2.6,  8,  9
                or   10   UNIX  domain  socket,  created  by  the
                socketpair(3N) network function;

                or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have a
                protocol  block  associated with them, optionally
                followed by ``, CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on  the
                socket has been disabled, or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if
                receiving on the socket has been disabled  (e.g.,
                by the shutdown(2) function);

                or the local and remote addresses of a Linux  IPX
                socket  file  in  the form <net>:[<node>:]<port>,
                followed  in  parentheses  by  the  transmit  and
                receive queue sizes, and the connection state;

                or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type  UnixWare
                7.1.1  and  above  in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,
                followed by a colon (':') and the local path name
                when available, followed by ``->'' and the remote
                path name or kernel socket address in hexadecimal
                when available;

                or the association value, association index, end-
                point  value,  local  address, local port, remote
                address and remote port for Linux SCTP sockets;

                or ``protocol: '' followed by the Linux  socket's
                protocol attribute.

     For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing
     one  file  to  be attached to another with fattach(3C), lsof
     will  add  ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''  to  the
     NAME  column.   <address1>  and  <address2>  are hexadecimal
     vnode addresses.  <direction> will be ``<-''  if  <address2>
     has   been   fattach'ed  to  this  vnode  whose  address  is
     <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode  address  of
     this  vnode,  has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1>
     may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

     Lsof may add two parenthetical notes to the NAME column  for
     open  Solaris  10 files:  ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path
     name of questionable accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if  the  -X
     option  has  been specified and lsof detects the open file's
     path name has been deleted.  Consult the lsof FAQ  (The  FAQ
     section  gives its location.)  for more information on these



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     NAME column additions.

LOCKS
     Lsof can't  adequately  report  the  wide  variety  of  UNIX
     dialect  file  locks in a single character.  What it reports
     in a single character is a compromise between  the  informa-
     tion  it  finds  in  the  kernel  and the limitations of the
     reporting format.

     Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a
     file,  lsof  only  reports  the  status of the first lock it
     encounters.  If it is a byte level lock, then the lock char-
     acter  will  be  reported in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or
     `x' - rather than the upper case equivalent reported  for  a
     full file lock.

     Generally lsof can  only  report  on  locks  held  by  local
     processes  on local files.  When a local process sets a lock
     on a remotely mounted (e.g., NFS) file,  the  remote  server
     host  usually  records  the  lock  state.   One exception is
     Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in  all  versions
     above  2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on remote
     locks in local structures.

     Lsof has trouble reporting locks  for  some  UNIX  dialects.
     Consult the BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ
     (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
     When the -F option is specified, lsof produces  output  that
     is  suitable for processing by another program - e.g, an awk
     or Perl script, or a C program.

     Each unit of information is output in a field that is  iden-
     tified with a leading character and terminated by a NL (012)
     (or a NUL (000) if the 0 (zero) field  identifier  character
     is  specified.)   The  data of the field follows immediately
     after the field identification character and extends to  the
     field terminator.

     It is possible to think of field output as process and  file
     sets.  A process set begins with a field whose identifier is
     `p' (for process  IDentifier  (PID)).   It  extends  to  the
     beginning  of  the  next  PID  field or the beginning of the
     first file  set  of  the  process,  whichever  comes  first.
     Included  in  the  process  set are fields that identify the
     command, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the
     task  (thread)  ID  (TID),  and  the user ID (UID) number or
     login name.

     A file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f'  (for
     file descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the



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     file's access mode, lock state, type, device, size,  offset,
     inode,  protocol,  name and stream module names.  It extends
     to the beginning of the next file or process set,  whichever
     comes first.

     When the NUL (000) field terminator has been  selected  with
     the 0 (zero) field identifier character, lsof ends each pro-
     cess and file set with a NL (012) character.

     Lsof always produces one field, the PID  (`p')  field.   All
     other  fields  may be declared optionally in the field iden-
     tifier character list that follows the -F  option.   When  a
     field  selection  character identifies an item lsof does not
     normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - specification
     of  the  field  character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
     listing of the item.

     It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that  can-
     not  easily  be parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field
     is not selected, it may be difficult to identify file  sets.
     To  help  you  avoid  this  difficulty, lsof supports the -F
     option; it selects the output of all fields with NL termina-
     tors  (the  -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields
     with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither -F
     nor -F0 select the raw device field.

     These are the fields that lsof  will  produce.   The  single
     character listed first is the field identifier.

          a    file access mode
          c    process command name (all characters from proc or
               user structure)
          C    file structure share count
          d    file's device character code
          D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
          f    file descriptor (always selected)
          F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
          G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
          g    process group ID
          i    file's inode number
          K    tasK ID
          k    link count
          l    file's lock status
          L    process login name
          m    marker between repeated output
          M    the task comMand name
          n    file name, comment, Internet address
          N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
          o    file's offset (decimal)
          p    process ID (always selected)
          P    protocol name
          r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)



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          R    parent process ID
          s    file's size (decimal)
          S    file's stream identification
          t    file's type
          T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
               `=' is part of the prefix):
                   QR=<read queue size>
                   QS=<send queue size>
                   SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                   SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                   ST=<connection state>
                   TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                   WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                   WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
               (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                 UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                 -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                 requested.)
          u    process user ID
          z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
          Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
          0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
          1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
               of -F? identifies the information to be found
               in dialect-specific fields.)

     You can get on-line help information on these characters and
     their  descriptions  by  specifying  the  -F?  option  pair.
     (Escape the `?' character as your  shell  requires.)   Addi-
     tional information on field content can be found in the OUT-
     PUT section.

     As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'),
     command  name  (`c'),  file  descriptor  (`f') and file name
     (`n') fields with an NL  field  terminator  character;  ``-F
     pcfn0''  selects the same output with a NUL (000) field ter-
     minator character.

     Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every  process  or  file
     set,  only  those that are available.  Some fields are mutu-
     ally exclusive: file device characters and file  major/minor
     device  numbers;  file  inode number and protocol name; file
     name and stream identification; file size and  offset.   One
     or  the  other  member of these mutually exclusive sets will
     appear in field output, but not both.

     Normally lsof ends each field with  a  NL  (012)  character.
     The  0 (zero) field identifier character may be specified to
     change the field terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL
     terminator  may  be  easier  to  process with xargs (1), for
     example, or with programs whose quoting mechanisms  may  not
     easily  cope  with  the  range  of  characters  in the field



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     output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof  ends
     each process and file set with a NL (012).

     Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field
     output  are included in the lsof distribution.  The first is
     a C header file, lsof_fields.h, that  contains  symbols  for
     the  field  identification  characters,  indexes for storing
     them in a table, and explanation strings that  may  be  com-
     piled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

     The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field
     output, written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They're located
     in the scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

     The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.
     The  test  suite  is  written  in C and uses field output to
     validate the correct operation of lsof.  The library can  be
     found  in  the  tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.
     The library uses the first  aid,  the  lsof_fields.h  header
     file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
     Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses  -
     lstat(2),  readlink(2),  and  stat(2).   These functions are
     stalled in the kernel, for example,  when  the  hosts  where
     mounted NFS file systems reside become inaccessible.

     Lsof attempts to break these blocks with  timers  and  child
     processes, but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When
     lsof does manage to break a block, it will report the  break
     with  an error message.  The messages may be suppressed with
     the -t and -w options.

     The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?
     option,  and  it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The
     minimum for t is two seconds, but  you  should  avoid  small
     values,  since  slow  system  responsiveness can cause short
     timeouts to expire unexpectedly and perhaps stop lsof before
     it can produce any output.

     When lsof has to break a block during its access of  mounted
     file  system  information,  it  normally continues, although
     with less information available to display about open files.

     Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of  timers
     and  child  processes  when  using the kernel functions that
     might block by specifying the -O option.   While  this  will
     allow  lsof  to start up with less overhead, it exposes lsof
     completely to the kernel situations  that  might  block  it.
     Use this option cautiously.





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AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
     You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel
     functions that would block.  Some cautions apply.

     First, using this option usually requires that  your  system
     supply  alternate  device  numbers  in  place  of the device
     numbers that lsof would normally obtain  with  the  lstat(2)
     and  stat(2)  kernel  functions.   See  the ALTERNATE DEVICE
     NUMBERS section for more  information  on  alternate  device
     numbers.

     Second, you can't specify names for lsof  to  locate  unless
     they're  file  system  names.  This is because lsof needs to
     know the device and inode numbers of files listed with names
     in  the  lsof  options, and the -b option prevents lsof from
     obtaining  them.   Moreover,  since  lsof  only  has  device
     numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
     ity to locate files on file systems  depends  completely  on
     the  availability  and  accuracy  of  the alternates.  If no
     alternates are available,  or  if  they're  incorrect,  lsof
     won't be able to locate files on the named file systems.

     Third, if the names of your  file  system  directories  that
     lsof  obtains  from  your  system's mount table are symbolic
     links, lsof won't be able to resolve  the  links.   This  is
     because  the  -b  option  causes  lsof  to  avoid the kernel
     readlink(2) function it uses to resolve symbolic links.

     Finally, using the -b option causes lsof  to  issue  warning
     messages  when it needs to use the kernel functions that the
     -b option directs it to avoid.  You can suppress these  mes-
     sages  by specifying the -w option, but if you do, you won't
     see the alternate device numbers  reported  in  the  warning
     messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
     On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because  it
     can't  get  information  about a mounted file system via the
     lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions, or because you speci-
     fied  the -b option, lsof can obtain some of the information
     it needs - the device number and possibly  the  file  system
     type  - from the system mount table.  When that is possible,
     lsof will report the device number it  obtained.   (You  can
     suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

     You can assist this process if your mount table is supported
     with  an  /etc/mtab  or  /etc/mnttab  file  that contains an
     options field by  adding  a  ``dev=xxxx''  field  for  mount
     points that do not have one in their options strings.  Note:
     you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some mount  tables
     like  recent  Solaris  /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are
     read-only and can't be modified.



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     You may also be able to supply device numbers using  the  +m
     and  +m  m  options,  provided  they  are  supported by your
     dialect.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -? options to see
     if the +m and +m m options are available.

     The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the  hexadecimal  value
     of  the  file  system's  device number.  (Consult the st_dev
     field of the output of the lstat(2)  and  stat(2)  functions
     for  the  appropriate values for your file systems.)  Here's
     an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6  /etc/mnttab  for  a  file
     system remotely mounted via NFS:

          nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

     There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in  your
     mount  table  file,  especially  for  file  systems that are
     mounted from remote  NFS  servers.   When  a  remote  server
     crashes  and  you want to identify its users by running lsof
     on one of its clients, lsof probably won't be  able  to  get
     output  from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
     system.  If it can obtain the file  system's  device  number
     from  the  mount table, it will be able to display the files
     open on the crashed NFS server.

     Some  dialects  that  do  not  use  an  ASCII  /etc/mtab  or
     /etc/mnttab  file  for  the mount table may still provide an
     alternative device number in their  internal  mount  tables.
     This  includes  AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD,
     and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to  obtain  the  alternative
     device  number  for  these  dialects  and  uses  it when its
     attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

     If you're not sure your dialect  supplies  alternate  device
     numbers for file systems from its mount table, use this lsof
     incantation to  see  if  it  reports  any  alternate  device
     numbers:

          lsof -b

     Look for standard error file  warning  messages  that  begin
     ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
     Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other
     kernel  facilities  (e.g., the ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() func-
     tion under Tru64 UNIX) on some dialects for most file system
     types,  excluding  AFS,  and extract recently used path name
     components from it.  (AFS file system path lookups don't use
     the  kernel's  name  cache;  some  Solaris  VxFS file system
     operations apparently don't use it, either.)





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     Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.
     If lsof can't report all components in a path, it reports in
     the NAME column the file system name, followed by  a  space,
     two  `-'  characters, another space, and the name components
     it has located, separated by the `/' character.

     When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the  -r  option
     specified - the extent to which it can report path name com-
     ponents for the same file may  vary  from  cycle  to  cycle.
     That's  because other running processes can cause the kernel
     to remove entries from its name cache and replace them  with
     others.

     Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of
     files  can lead it to report incorrect components under some
     circumstances.  This can happen when the kernel  name  cache
     uses  device and node number as a key (e.g., SCO OpenServer)
     and a key on a rapidly changing file system is  reused.   If
     the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache entry
     for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to
     the wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
     gives its location.)  has more information  on  this  situa-
     tion.

     Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

          FreeBSD
          HP-UX
          Linux
          NetBSD
          NEXTSTEP
          OpenBSD
          OPENSTEP
          SCO OpenServer
          SCO|Caldera UnixWare
          Solaris
          Tru64 UNIX

     Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

          AIX

     If you want to know why lsof can't  report  path  name  com-
     ponents for some dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
     gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
     Examining all members of the /dev (or  /devices)  node  tree
     with  stat(2) functions can be time consuming.  What's more,
     the information that  lsof  needs  -  device  number,  inode
     number, and path - rarely changes.




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file  of
     cached   /dev  (or  /devices)  information  (exception:  the
     /proc-based Linux lsof where it's not  needed.)   The  local
     system administrator who builds lsof can control the way the
     device cache file  path  is  formed,  selecting  from  these
     options:

          Path from the -D option;
          Path from an environment variable;
          System-wide path;
          Personal path (the default);
          Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

     Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -? help  options  for
     the  current state of device cache support.  The help output
     lists the default read-mode device cache file path  that  is
     in  effect  for  the  current  invocation  of lsof.  The -D?
     option output lists the read-only  and  write  device  cache
     file  paths,  the  names of any applicable environment vari-
     ables, and the personal device cache path format.

     Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has  been
     accidentally  or  maliciously  modified by integrity checks,
     including the computation and verification of a sixteen  bit
     Cyclic  Redundancy  Check  (CRC) sum on the file's contents.
     When lsof senses something wrong with the file, it issues  a
     warning  and  attempts  to remove the current cache file and
     create a new copy, but only to a path that the  process  can
     legitimately write.

     The path from which a lsof process may  attempt  to  read  a
     device  cache  file may not be the same as the path to which
     it can legitimately write.  Thus when lsof  senses  that  it
     needs  to update the device cache file, it may choose a dif-
     ferent path for writing it from the path from which it  read
     an incorrect or outdated version.

     If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing  of  a
     new  device  cache file.  (It's always available when speci-
     fied without a path name argument.)

     When a new device is added to the system, the  device  cache
     file  may  need  to  be  recreated.  Since lsof compares the
     mtime of the device cache file with the mtime and  ctime  of
     the  /dev (or /devices) directory, it usually detects that a
     new device has been added; in that case lsof issues a  warn-
     ing message and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

     Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its owner-
     ship  to the real UID of the executing process, and its per-
     mission modes to 0600,  this  restricting  its  reading  and
     writing to the file's owner.



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
     Two permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to
     access  device  cache files.  The permissions are set by the
     local system administrator when lsof is installed.

     The first and rarer permission  is  setuid-root.   It  comes
     into effect when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then
     root, while its real (i.e., that of the logged-on user)  UID
     is  not.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for
     these dialects run setuid-root.

          HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
          Linux

     The second and more common permission is setgid.   It  comes
     into  effect  when the effective group IDentification number
     (GID) of the lsof process is set to one that can access ker-
     nel memory devices - e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

     An  lsof  process  that  has   setgid   permission   usually
     surrenders  the  permission after it has accessed the kernel
     memory devices.  When it does  that,  lsof  can  allow  more
     liberal device cache path formations.  The lsof distribution
     recommends that versions for these dialects run  setgid  and
     be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

          AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
          Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
          FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
          FreeBSD 5.x, [6789].x and 1[012].8for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64
              based systems
          HP-UX 11.00
          NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
              systems
          NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
          OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
          OPENSTEP 4.x
          SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
          SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
          Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
          Tru64 UNIX 5.1

     (Note:  lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root  permis-
     sion if its -X option is used.)

     Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache,  so
     the  permissions  given to the executable don't apply to the
     device cache file.

          Linux





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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
     The -D option provides limited means for specifying the dev-
     ice  cache  file  path.   Its  ?  function  will  report the
     read-only and write device cache file paths that  lsof  will
     use.

     When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use
     them  to  request that the cache file be built in a specific
     location (b[path]); read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or  read
     and  rebuilt  (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are res-
     tricted under some conditions.  They are restricted when the
     lsof  process is setuid-root.  The path specified with the r
     function is always read-only, even when it is available.

     The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the  lsof
     process  runs  setgid  and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid
     permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT  DEVICE
     CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of implementations that
     normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

     A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

     When available, the b function tells  lsof  to  read  device
     information  from  the  kernel with the stat(2) function and
     build a device cache file at the indicated path.

     When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device
     cache  file, but not update it.  When a path argument accom-
     panies -Dr, it names the device  cache  file  path.   The  r
     function  is always available when it is specified without a
     path name argument.  If lsof is not running setuid-root  and
     surrenders  its  setgid permission, a path name argument may
     accompany the r function.

     When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to read
     and  use  the device cache file.  If it can't read the file,
     or if it finds the contents of the file  incorrect  or  out-
     dated, it will read information from the kernel, and attempt
     to write an updated version of the device  cache  file,  but
     only  to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof process
     effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
     Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is  the  con-
     tents  of  the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable.  It avoids
     this choice if the lsof process is setuid-root, or the  real
     UID of the process is root.

     A further restriction applies to a device  cache  file  path
     taken from the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable:  lsof will
     not write a device cache file to the path if the  lsof  pro-
     cess doesn't surrender its setgid permission.  (See the LSOF



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for
     information  on  implementations  that don't surrender their
     setgid permission.)

     The local system administrator can disable the  use  of  the
     LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable  or change its name when
     building lsof.  Consult the output of -D? for  the  environ-
     ment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
     The  local  system  administrator  may  choose  to  have   a
     system-wide device cache file when building lsof.  That file
     will generally be constructed by a special  system  adminis-
     tration procedure when the system is booted or when the con-
     tents of /dev or  /devices)  changes.   If  defined,  it  is
     lsof's third device cache file path choice.

     You can tell that a system-wide  device  cache  file  is  in
     effect  for  your  local  installation by examining the lsof
     help option output - i.e., the output  from  the  -h  or  -?
     option.

     Lsof will never write to the system-wide device  cache  file
     path  by  default.   It  must  be explicitly named with a -D
     function in a root-owned procedure.  Once the file has  been
     written,  the  procedure must change its permission modes to
     0644   (owner-read   and   owner-write,   group-read,    and
     other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
     The default device cache file path of the lsof  distribution
     is  one  recorded in the home directory of the real UID that
     executes lsof.  Added to the home directory is a second path
     component of the form .lsof_hostname.

     This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and  is
     usually  the  default.   If  a system-wide device cache file
     path was defined when lsof was  built,  this  fourth  choice
     will  be applied when lsof can't find the system-wide device
     cache file.  This is the only time lsof uses two paths  when
     reading the device cache file.

     The hostname part of the second component is the  base  name
     of  the  executing host, as returned by gethostname(2).  The
     base name is defined to  be  the  characters  preceding  the
     first `.'  in the gethostname(2) output, or all the gethost-
     name(2) output if it contains no `.'.

     The device cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable
     and  writable  by  the  user  ID alone - i.e., its modes are
     0600.  Each distinct real user ID on a given host that  exe-
     cutes  lsof  has a distinct device cache file.  The hostname



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     part of the path distinguishes  device  cache  files  in  an
     NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache files are
     written from several different hosts.

     The personal device cache file path formed  by  this  method
     represents  a  device  cache  file that lsof will attempt to
     read, and will attempt to  write  should  it  not  exist  or
     should its contents be incorrect or outdated.

     The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the
     writing of a new device cache file.

     The -D? option will list the format specification  for  con-
     structing  the  personal device cache file.  The conversions
     used in  the  format  specification  are  described  in  the
     00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
     If this option is defined by the local system  administrator
     when  lsof is built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable
     contents may be used to add a component of the personal dev-
     ice cache file path.

     The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents  are  inserted  in  the
     path  at  the place marked by the local system administrator
     with the ``%p'' conversion in the HASPERSDC format  specifi-
     cation of the dialect's machine.h header file.  (It's placed
     right after the home directory in the default lsof distribu-
     tion.)

     Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'',  the
     home   directory   is   ``/Homes/abe'',  the  host  name  is
     ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC  format  is  the
     default  (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),  the  modified personal device
     cache file path is:

          /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

     The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when  the
     lsof process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the pro-
     cess is root.

     Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file
     path  if  the  lsof process doesn't surrender setgid permis-
     sion.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT  AFFECT  DEVICE  CACHE
     FILE  ACCESS section for a list of implementations that nor-
     mally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

     If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of  per-
     sonal  device  cache  file paths by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH
     environment variable to name it, and lsof doesn't  surrender
     its setgid permission, you will have to allow lsof to create



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     device cache files at the standard personal  path  and  move
     them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

     The local system administrator may: disable this option when
     lsof  is  built; change the name of the environment variable
     from LSOFPERSDCPATH to something else; change the  HASPERSDC
     format  to  include  the  personal path component in another
     place; or exclude  the  personal  path  component  entirely.
     Consult  the  output  of  the -D? option for the environment
     variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
     Errors are identified with messages on  the  standard  error
     file.

     Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected,  including
     the  failure  to  locate command names, file names, Internet
     addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs,  or
     UIDs  it  was asked to list.  If the -V option is specified,
     lsof will indicate the search items it failed to list.

     It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and  if  it
     was  able  to  list some information about all the specified
     search arguments.

     When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of
     its  subdirectories,  or  get  information on a file in them
     with stat(2), it issues a  warning  message  and  continues.
     That  lsof  will  issue  warning messages about inaccessible
     files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help  output
     -  requested  with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the mes-
     sage:

          Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

     The warning message may be suppressed with  the  -w  option.
     It may also have been suppressed by the system administrator
     when lsof was compiled by the setting of  the  WARNDEVACCESS
     definition.   In this case, the output from the help options
     will include the message:

          Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

     Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after
     lsof has created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES
     For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully,
     see the 00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

     To list all open files, use:




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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



          lsof

     To list all open Internet, x.25  (HP-UX),  and  UNIX  domain
     files, use:

          lsof -i -U

     To list all open IPv4 network files in use  by  the  process
     whose PID is 1234, use:

          lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

     Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only  open
     IPv6 network files, use:

          lsof -i 6

     To list all files using any protocol on ports 513,  514,  or
     515 of host wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

          lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

     To list  all  files  using  any  protocol  on  any  port  of
     mace.cc.purdue.edu  (cc.purdue.edu  is  the default domain),
     use:

          lsof -i @mace

     To list all open files for login name ``abe'',  or  user  ID
     1234, or process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

          lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

     To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

          lsof /dev/hd4

     To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

          lsof /u/abe/foo

     To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open,
     use:

          kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

     To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain  socket
     file, with the name /dev/log, use:

          lsof /dev/log





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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     To find processes with open files on  the  NFS  file  system
     named  /nfs/mount/point  whose  server  is inaccessible, and
     presuming your mount table supplies the  device  number  for
     /nfs/mount/point, use:

          lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

     To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed,
     use:

          lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

     To ignore the device cache file, use:

          lsof -Di

     To obtain PID and command name field output  for  each  pro-
     cess,  file  descriptor,  file device number, and file inode
     number for each file of each process, use:

          lsof -FpcfDi

     To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3  of  every  process
     running  the  lsof  command  for  login  ID ``abe'' every 10
     seconds, use:

          lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

     To list the current working directory of processes running a
     command  that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o'
     or 'O' in character three, use this regular expression  form
     of the -c c option:

          lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

     To find an IP  version  4  socket  file  by  its  associated
     numeric dot-form address, use:

          lsof -i@128.210.15.17

     To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the  UNIX  dialect
     supports IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address,
     use:

          lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

     To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the  UNIX  dialect
     supports  IPv6)  by an associated numeric colon-form address
     that has a run of zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address
     - use:

          lsof -i@[::1]



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     To obtain a  repeat  mode  marker  line  that  contains  the
     current time, use:

          lsof -rm====%T====

     To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

          lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS
     Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files,
     rapid  changes  in  kernel  memory may produce unpredictable
     results.

     When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status char-
     acter (following the file descriptor) is derived from a test
     of the first lock structure, not from any combination of the
     individual  record locks that might be described by multiple
     lock structures.

     Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access  permis-
     sions  by name unless it is installed with root set-UID per-
     mission.  Otherwise it is limited to searching for files  to
     which its user or its set-GID group (if any) has access per-
     mission.

     The display of the  destination  address  of  a  raw  socket
     (e.g., for ping) depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some
     dialects store the destination address in the  raw  socket's
     protocol control block, some do not.

     Lsof can't always represent Solaris device  numbers  in  the
     same  way that ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor
     device numbers  that  the  lstat(2)  and  stat(2)  functions
     report  for  the directory on which CD-ROM files are mounted
     (typically /cdrom) are not the same  as  the  ones  that  it
     reports  for  the  device  on which CD-ROM files are mounted
     (typically /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

     The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD
     and  Tru64  UNIX  dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from
     SYSV R4 - e.g., FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

     Some /proc file items - device  number,  inode  number,  and
     file size - are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for
     files in a /proc file system may require that the full  path
     name be specified.

     No text (txt)  file  descriptors  are  displayed  for  Linux
     processes.   All  entries  for  files other than the current
     working directory, the root directory,  and  numerical  file
     descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     Lsof can't search  for  Tru64  UNIX  named  pipes  by  name,
     because  their  kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an
     improper device number for a named pipe.

     Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX  9.01,  10.20,
     and  11.00  locks  because  of insufficient access to kernel
     data or errors in the kernel data.  See the  lsof  FAQ  (The
     FAQ section gives its location.)  for details.

     The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's  made  up  for
     file  structures  whose  type  (15) isn't defined in the AIX
     /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such
     file  structures  is to run X clients with the DISPLAY vari-
     able set to ``:0.0''.

     The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not  supported  under  /proc-based
     Linux  lsof,  because it doesn't read kernel structures from
     kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
     Lsof may access these environment variables.

     LANG              defines a  language  locale.   See  setlo-
                       cale(3)  for  the names of other variables
                       that can be used in place of LANG -  e.g.,
                       LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

     LSOFDEVCACHE      defines the path to a device  cache  file.
                       See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRON-
                       MENT VARIABLE section  for  more  informa-
                       tion.

     LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines the middle component of a modified
                       personal  device cache file path.  See the
                       MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE  PATH  sec-
                       tion for more information.

FAQ
     Frequently-asked questions and their answers  (an  FAQ)  are
     available in the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

     That  file  is  also  available  via  anonymous   ftp   from
     lsof.itap.purdue.edu at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

          ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
     /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

     /dev/mem          physical memory device

     /dev/swap         system paging device



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Maintenance Procedures                                    LSOF(8)



     .lsof_hostname    lsof's  device  cache  file  (The  suffix,
                       hostname,  is  the  first component of the
                       host's name returned by gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
     Lsof was written by Victor A.Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of  Pur-
     due  University.   Many  others  have  contributed  to lsof.
     They're listed in the 00CREDITS file of the  lsof  distribu-
     tion.

DISTRIBUTION
     The latest distribution of lsof is available  via  anonymous
     ftp  from  the  host  lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the
     lsof distribution in the pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

     You can also use this URL:

          ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

     Lsof  is  also  mirrored   elsewhere.    When   you   access
     lsof.itap.purdue.edu  and  change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof
     directory, you'll be given a list of some mirror sites.  The
     pub/tools/unix/lsof  directory also contains a more complete
     list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -  not
     all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

     Some  pre-compiled  Lsof  executables   are   available   on
     lsof.itap.purdue.edu,  but  their  use is discouraged - it's
     better that you build your own from  the  sources.   If  you
     feel you must use a pre-compiled executable, please read the
     cautions  that  appear  in   the   README   files   of   the
     pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries  subdirectories  and in the 00*
     files of the distribution.

     More information on the lsof distribution can  be  found  in
     its  README.lsof_<version>  file.   If you intend to get the
     lsof   distribution    and    build    it,    please    read
     README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files of the distri-
     bution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
     Not all the following manual pages may exist in  every  UNIX
     dialect to which lsof has been ported.

     access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),
     fuser(1), gethostname(2), isprint(3), kill(1), localtime(3),
     lstat(2),  modload(8),  mount(8),  netstat(1),   ofiles(8L),
     perl(1),    ps(1),   readlink(2),   setlocale(3),   stat(2),
     strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).






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