File: magicrescue.1

package info (click to toggle)
magicrescue 1.1.9-4
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: stretch
  • size: 812 kB
  • ctags: 530
  • sloc: ansic: 1,939; perl: 1,649; sh: 316; makefile: 65
file content (506 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 21,343 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
.\" Automatically generated by Pod::Man 2.22 (Pod::Simple 3.07)
.\"
.\" Standard preamble:
.\" ========================================================================
.de Sp \" Vertical space (when we can't use .PP)
.if t .sp .5v
.if n .sp
..
.de Vb \" Begin verbatim text
.ft CW
.nf
.ne \\$1
..
.de Ve \" End verbatim text
.ft R
.fi
..
.\" Set up some character translations and predefined strings.  \*(-- will
.\" give an unbreakable dash, \*(PI will give pi, \*(L" will give a left
.\" double quote, and \*(R" will give a right double quote.  \*(C+ will
.\" give a nicer C++.  Capital omega is used to do unbreakable dashes and
.\" therefore won't be available.  \*(C` and \*(C' expand to `' in nroff,
.\" nothing in troff, for use with C<>.
.tr \(*W-
.ds C+ C\v'-.1v'\h'-1p'\s-2+\h'-1p'+\s0\v'.1v'\h'-1p'
.ie n \{\
.    ds -- \(*W-
.    ds PI pi
.    if (\n(.H=4u)&(1m=24u) .ds -- \(*W\h'-12u'\(*W\h'-12u'-\" diablo 10 pitch
.    if (\n(.H=4u)&(1m=20u) .ds -- \(*W\h'-12u'\(*W\h'-8u'-\"  diablo 12 pitch
.    ds L" ""
.    ds R" ""
.    ds C` ""
.    ds C' ""
'br\}
.el\{\
.    ds -- \|\(em\|
.    ds PI \(*p
.    ds L" ``
.    ds R" ''
'br\}
.\"
.\" Escape single quotes in literal strings from groff's Unicode transform.
.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
.el       .ds Aq '
.\"
.\" If the F register is turned on, we'll generate index entries on stderr for
.\" titles (.TH), headers (.SH), subsections (.SS), items (.Ip), and index
.\" entries marked with X<> in POD.  Of course, you'll have to process the
.\" output yourself in some meaningful fashion.
.ie \nF \{\
.    de IX
.    tm Index:\\$1\t\\n%\t"\\$2"
..
.    nr % 0
.    rr F
.\}
.el \{\
.    de IX
..
.\}
.\"
.\" Accent mark definitions (@(#)ms.acc 1.5 88/02/08 SMI; from UCB 4.2).
.\" Fear.  Run.  Save yourself.  No user-serviceable parts.
.    \" fudge factors for nroff and troff
.if n \{\
.    ds #H 0
.    ds #V .8m
.    ds #F .3m
.    ds #[ \f1
.    ds #] \fP
.\}
.if t \{\
.    ds #H ((1u-(\\\\n(.fu%2u))*.13m)
.    ds #V .6m
.    ds #F 0
.    ds #[ \&
.    ds #] \&
.\}
.    \" simple accents for nroff and troff
.if n \{\
.    ds ' \&
.    ds ` \&
.    ds ^ \&
.    ds , \&
.    ds ~ ~
.    ds /
.\}
.if t \{\
.    ds ' \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H)'\'\h"|\\n:u"
.    ds ` \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H)'\`\h'|\\n:u'
.    ds ^ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*10/11-\*(#H)'^\h'|\\n:u'
.    ds , \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10)',\h'|\\n:u'
.    ds ~ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu-\*(#H-.1m)'~\h'|\\n:u'
.    ds / \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H)'\z\(sl\h'|\\n:u'
.\}
.    \" troff and (daisy-wheel) nroff accents
.ds : \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H+.1m+\*(#F)'\v'-\*(#V'\z.\h'.2m+\*(#F'.\h'|\\n:u'\v'\*(#V'
.ds 8 \h'\*(#H'\(*b\h'-\*(#H'
.ds o \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu+\w'\(de'u-\*(#H)/2u'\v'-.3n'\*(#[\z\(de\v'.3n'\h'|\\n:u'\*(#]
.ds d- \h'\*(#H'\(pd\h'-\w'~'u'\v'-.25m'\f2\(hy\fP\v'.25m'\h'-\*(#H'
.ds D- D\\k:\h'-\w'D'u'\v'-.11m'\z\(hy\v'.11m'\h'|\\n:u'
.ds th \*(#[\v'.3m'\s+1I\s-1\v'-.3m'\h'-(\w'I'u*2/3)'\s-1o\s+1\*(#]
.ds Th \*(#[\s+2I\s-2\h'-\w'I'u*3/5'\v'-.3m'o\v'.3m'\*(#]
.ds ae a\h'-(\w'a'u*4/10)'e
.ds Ae A\h'-(\w'A'u*4/10)'E
.    \" corrections for vroff
.if v .ds ~ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*9/10-\*(#H)'\s-2\u~\d\s+2\h'|\\n:u'
.if v .ds ^ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*10/11-\*(#H)'\v'-.4m'^\v'.4m'\h'|\\n:u'
.    \" for low resolution devices (crt and lpr)
.if \n(.H>23 .if \n(.V>19 \
\{\
.    ds : e
.    ds 8 ss
.    ds o a
.    ds d- d\h'-1'\(ga
.    ds D- D\h'-1'\(hy
.    ds th \o'bp'
.    ds Th \o'LP'
.    ds ae ae
.    ds Ae AE
.\}
.rm #[ #] #H #V #F C
.\" ========================================================================
.\"
.IX Title "MAGICRESCUE 1"
.TH MAGICRESCUE 1 "2008-10-29" "1.1.9" "Magic Rescue"
.\" For nroff, turn off justification.  Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
.if n .ad l
.nh
.SH "NAME"
magicrescue \- Scans a block device and extracts known file types by looking at
magic bytes.
.SH "SYNOPSIS"
.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
\&\fBmagicrescue\fR [ \fIoptions\fR ] \fIdevices\fR
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
Magic Rescue opens \fIdevices\fR for reading, scans them for file types it knows
how to recover and calls an external program to extract them.  It looks at
\&\*(L"magic bytes\*(R" in file contents, so it can be used both as an undelete utility
and for recovering a corrupted drive or partition.  It works on any file system,
but on very fragmented file systems it can only recover the first chunk of
each file.  These chunks are sometimes as big as 50MB, however.
.PP
To invoke \fBmagicrescue\fR, you must specify at least one device and the \fB\-d\fR
and \fB\-r\fR options.  See the \*(L"\s-1USAGE\s0\*(R" section in this manual for getting
started.
.SH "OPTIONS"
.IX Header "OPTIONS"
.IP "\fB\-b\fR \fIblocksize\fR" 7
.IX Item "-b blocksize"
Default: 1.  This will direct \fBmagicrescue\fR to only consider files that start
at a multiple of the \fIblocksize\fR argument.  The option applies only to the
recipes following it, so by specifying it multiple times it can be used to get
different behavior for different recipes.
.Sp
Using this option you can usually get better performance, but fewer files will
be found.  In particular, files with leading garbage (e.g. many mp3 files) and
files contained inside other files are likely to be skipped.  Also, some file
systems don't align small files to block boundaries, so those won't be found
this way either.
.Sp
If you don't know your file system's block size, just use the value 512, which
is almost always the hardware sector size.
.IP "\fB\-d\fR \fIdirectory\fR" 7
.IX Item "-d directory"
Mandatory.  Output directory for found files.  Make sure you have plenty of free
space in this directory, especially when extracting very common file types such
as jpeg or gzip files.  Also make sure the file system is able to handle
thousands of files in a single directory, i.e. don't use \s-1FAT\s0 if you are
extracting many files.
.Sp
You should not place the output directory on the same block device you are
trying to rescue files from.  This might add the same file to the block device
ahead of the current reading position, causing \fBmagicrescue\fR to find the same
file again later.  In the worst theoretical case, this could cause a
loop where the same file is extracted thousands of times until disk space is
exhausted.  You are also likely to overwrite the deleted files you were looking
for in the first place.
.IP "\fB\-r\fR \fIrecipe\fR" 7
.IX Item "-r recipe"
Mandatory.  Recipe name, file, or directory.  Specify this as either a plain
name (e.g.  \f(CW\*(C`jpeg\-jfif\*(C'\fR) or a path (e.g. \fIrecipes/jpeg\-jfif\fR).  If it doesn't
find such a file in the current directory, it will look in \fI./recipes\fR and
\&\fI/usr/share/magicrescue/recipes\fR.
.Sp
If \fIrecipe\fR is a directory, all files in that directory will be treated as
recipes.
.Sp
Browse the \fI/usr/share/magicrescue/recipes\fR directory to see what recipes
are available.  A recipe is a text file, and you should read the comments
inside it before using it.  Either use the recipe as it is or copy it somewhere
and modify it.
.Sp
For information on creating your own recipes, see the \*(L"\s-1RECIPES\s0\*(R" section.
.IP "\fB\-I\fR \fIfile\fR" 7
.IX Item "-I file"
Reads input files from \fIfile\fR in addition to those listed on the command line.
If \fIfile\fR is \f(CW\*(C`\-\*(C'\fR, read from standard input.  Each line will be interpreted as
a file name.
.IP "\fB\-M\fR \fIoutput_mode\fR" 7
.IX Item "-M output_mode"
Produce machine-readable output to stdout.  \fIoutput_mode\fR can be:
.RS 7
.IP "\fBi\fR" 4
.IX Item "i"
Print each input file name before processing
.IP "\fBo\fR" 4
.IX Item "o"
Print each output file name after processing
.IP "\fBio\fR" 4
.IX Item "io"
Print both input and output file names.  Input file names will be prefixed by
\&\f(CW\*(C`i\*(C'\fR and a space.  Output file names will be prefixed by \f(CW\*(C`o\*(C'\fR and a space.
.RE
.RS 7
.Sp
Nothing else will be written to standard output in this mode.
.RE
.IP "\fB\-O\fR [\fB+\fR|\fB\-\fR|\fB=\fR][\fB0x\fR]\fIoffset\fR" 7
.IX Item "-O [+|-|=][0x]offset"
Resume from the specified \fIoffset\fR in the first device.  If prefixed with
\&\fB0x\fR it will be interpreted as a hex number.
.Sp
The number may be prefixed with a sign:
.RS 7
.IP "\fB=\fR" 4
.IX Item "="
Seek to an absolute position (default)
.IP "\fB+\fR" 4
.IX Item "+"
Seek to a relative position.  On regular files this does the same as the above.
.IP "\fB\-\fR" 4
.IX Item "-"
Seek to \s-1EOF\s0, minus the offset.
.RE
.RS 7
.RE
.SH "USAGE"
.IX Header "USAGE"
Say you have destroyed the file system on /dev/hdb1 and you want to extract
all the jpeg files you lost.  This guide assumes you have installed Magic
Rescue in \fI/usr/local\fR, which is the default.
.PP
Make sure \s-1DMA\s0 and other optimizations are enabled on your disk, or it will take
hours.  In Linux, use hdparm to set these options:
.PP
.Vb 1
\&    $ hdparm \-d 1 \-c 1 \-u 1 /dev/hdb
.Ve
.PP
Choose your output directory, somewhere with lots of disk space.
.PP
.Vb 1
\&    $ mkdir ~/output
.Ve
.PP
Look in the \fI/usr/local/share/magicrescue/recipes\fR directory for the recipes
you want.  Magic Rescue comes with recipes for some common file types, and you
can make your own too (see the next section).  Open the recipes you want to use
in a text editor and read their comments.  Most recipes require 3rd party
software to work, and you may want to modify some parameters (such as
\&\fBmin_output_file\fR) to suit your needs.
.PP
Then invoke \fBmagicrescue\fR
.PP
.Vb 1
\&    $ magicrescue \-r jpeg\-jfif \-r jpeg\-exif \-d ~/output /dev/hdb1
.Ve
.PP
It will scan through your entire hard disk, so it may take a while.  You can
stop it and resume later of you want to.  To do so, interrupt it (with \s-1CTRL+C\s0)
and note the progress information saying what address it got to.  Then restart
it later with the \fB\-O\fR option.
.PP
When it has finished you will probably find thousands of .jpg files in
\&\fI~/output\fR, including things you never knew was in your browser cache.  Sorting
through all those files can be a huge task, so you may want to use software or
scripts to do it.
.PP
First, try to eliminate duplicates with the \fBdupemap\fR(1) tool included in this
package.
.PP
.Vb 1
\&    $ dupemap delete,report ~/output
.Ve
.PP
If you are performing an undelete operation you will want to get rid
of all the rescued files that also appear on the live file system.  See the
\&\fBdupemap\fR(1) manual for instructions on doing this.
.PP
If that's not enough, you can use use \fBmagicsort\fR(1) to get a better overview:
.PP
.Vb 1
\&    $ magicsort ~/output
.Ve
.SH "RECIPES"
.IX Header "RECIPES"
.SS "Creating recipe files"
.IX Subsection "Creating recipe files"
A recipe file is a relatively simple file of 3\-5 lines of text.  It describes
how to recognise the beginning of the file and what to do when a file is
recognised.  For example, all jfif images start with the bytes \f(CW\*(C`0xff 0xd8\*(C'\fR.
At the 6th byte will be the string \f(CW\*(C`JFIF\*(C'\fR.  Look at \fIrecipes/jpeg\-jfif\fR in
the source distribution to follow this example.
.PP
Matching magic data is done with a \*(L"match operation\*(R" that looks like this:
.PP
\&\fIoffset\fR \fIoperation\fR \fIparameter\fR
.PP
where \fIoffset\fR is a decimal integer saying how many bytes from the beginning
of the file this data is located, \fIoperation\fR refers to a built-in match
operation in \fBmagicrescue\fR, and \fIparameter\fR is specific to that operation.
.IP "\(bu" 4
The \fBstring\fR operation matches a string of any length.  In the jfif example
this is four bytes.  You can use escape characters, like \f(CW\*(C`\en\*(C'\fR or \f(CW\*(C`\exA7\*(C'\fR.
.IP "\(bu" 4
The \fBint32\fR operation matches 4 bytes ANDed with a bit mask.  To match all
four bytes, use the bit mask \f(CW\*(C`FFFFFFFF\*(C'\fR.  If you have no idea what a bit mask
is, just use the \fBstring\fR operation instead.  The mask \f(CW\*(C`FFFF0000\*(C'\fR in the jfif
example matches the first two bytes.
.IP "\(bu" 4
The \fBchar\fR operation is like \*(L"string\*(R", except it only matches a single
character.
.PP
To learn these patterns for a given file type, look at files of the desired
type in a hex editor, search through the resource files for the \fBfile\fR(1)
utility (<http://freshmeat.net/projects/file>) and/or search the Internet for
a reference on the format.
.PP
If all the operations match, we have found the start of the file.  Finding the
end of the file is a much harder problem, and therefore it is delegated to an
external shell command, which is named by the \fBcommand\fR directive.  This
command receives the block device's file descriptor on stdin and must write to
the file given to it in the \f(CW$1\fR variable.  Apart from that, the command can do
anything it wants to try and extract the file.
.PP
For some file types (such as jpeg), a tool already exists that can do this.
However, many programs misbehave when told to read from the middle of a huge
block device.  Some seek to byte 0 before reading (can be fixed by prefixing
cat|, but some refuse to work on a file they can't seek in).  Others try to
read the whole file into memory before doing anything, which will of course
fail on a muti-gigabyte block device.  And some fail completely to parse a
partially corrupted file.
.PP
This means that you may have to write your own tool or wrap an existing program
in some scripts that make it behave better.  For example, this could be to
extract the first 10MB into a temporary file and let the program work on that.
Or perhaps you can use \fItools/safecat\fR if the file may be very large.
.SS "Recipe format reference"
.IX Subsection "Recipe format reference"
Empty lines and lines starting with \f(CW\*(C`#\*(C'\fR will be skipped.  A recipe contains a
series of match operations to find the content and a series of directives to
specify what to do with it.
.PP
Lines of the format \fIoffset\fR \fIoperation\fR \fIparameter\fR will add a match
operation to the list.  Match operations will be tried in the order they appear
in the recipe, and they must all match for the recipe to succeed.  The
\&\fIoffset\fR describes what offset this data will be found at, counting from the
beginning of the file.  \fIoperation\fR can have the following values:
.IP "\fBstring\fR \fIstring\fR" 7
.IX Item "string string"
The parameter is a character sequence that may contain escape
sequences such as \exFF.
.IP "\fBchar\fR \fIcharacter\fR" 7
.IX Item "char character"
The parameter is a single character (byte), or an escape sequence.
.IP "\fBint32\fR \fIvalue\fR \fIbitmask\fR" 7
.IX Item "int32 value bitmask"
Both \fIvalue\fR and \fIbitmask\fR are expressed as 8\-character hex strings.
\&\fIbitmask\fR will be ANDed with the data, and the result will be compared
to \fIvalue\fR.  The byte order is as you see it in the hex editor,
i.e. big-endian.
.PP
The first match operation in a recipe is special, it will be used to scan
through the file.  Only the \fBchar\fR and \fBstring\fR operations can be used there. 
To add more operation types, look at the instructions in \fImagicrescue.c\fR.
.PP
A line that doesn't start with an integer is a directive.  This can be:
.IP "\fBextension\fR \fIext\fR" 7
.IX Item "extension ext"
Mandatory.  \fIext\fR names the file extension for this type, such as \f(CW\*(C`jpg\*(C'\fR.
.IP "\fBcommand\fR \fIcommand\fR" 7
.IX Item "command command"
Mandatory.  When all the match operations succeed, this \fIcommand\fR will be
executed to extract the file from the block device.  \fIcommand\fR is passed to
the shell with the block device's file descriptor (seeked to the right byte) on
stdin.  The shell variable \f(CW$1\fR will contain the file its output should be
written to, and it must respect this.  Otherwise \fBmagicrescue\fR cannot tell
whether it succeeded.
.IP "\fBrename\fR \fIcommand\fR" 7
.IX Item "rename command"
Optional.  After a successful extraction this command will be run.  Its purpose
is to gather enough information about the file to rename it to something more
meaningful.  The script must not perform the rename command itself, but it
should write to standard output the string \f(CW\*(C`RENAME\*(C'\fR, followed by a space,
followed by the new file name.  Nothing else must be written to standard
output.  If the file should not be renamed, nothing should be written to
standard output.  Standard input and \f(CW$1\fR will work like with the \fBcommand\fR
directive.
.IP "\fBmin_output_file\fR \fIsize\fR" 7
.IX Item "min_output_file size"
Default: 100.  Output files less than this size will be deleted.
.IP "\fBallow_overlap\fR \fIbytes\fR" 7
.IX Item "allow_overlap bytes"
By default, recipes will not match on overlapping byte ranges.
\&\fBallow_overlap\fR disables this, and it should always be used for recipes where
the extracted file may be larger than it was on disk.  If \fIbytes\fR is negative,
overlap checking will be completely disabled.  Otherwise, overlap checking will
be in effect for everything but the last \fIbytes\fR of the output.  For example,
if the output may be up to 512 bytes bigger than the input, \fBallow_overlap\fR
should be set to 512.
.PP
To test whether your recipe actually works, either just run it on your hard
disk or use the \fItools/checkrecipe\fR script to pick out files that should match
but don't.
.PP
If you have created a recipe that works, please mail it to me at jbj@knef.dk so
I can include it in the distribution.
.SH "WHEN TO NOT USE MAGIC RESCUE"
.IX Header "WHEN TO NOT USE MAGIC RESCUE"
Magic Rescue is not meant to be a universal application for file recovery.  It
will give good results when you are extracting known file types from an
unusable file system, but for many other cases there are better tools
available.
.IP "\(bu" 4
If there are intact partitions present somewhere, use \fBgpart\fR to find them.
.IP "\(bu" 4
If file system's internal data structures are more or less undamaged, use
\&\fBThe Sleuth Kit\fR.  At the time of writing, it only supports \s-1NTFS\s0, \s-1FAT\s0, ext[23]
and \s-1FFS\s0, though.
.IP "\(bu" 4
If Magic Rescue does not have a recipe for the file type you are trying to
recover, try \fBforemost\fR instead.  It recognizes more file types, but in most
cases it extracts them simply by copying out a fixed number of bytes after it
has found the start of the file.  This makes postprocessing the output files
more difficult.
.PP
In many cases you will want to use Magic Rescue in addition to the tools
mentioned above.  They are not mutually exclusive, e.g. combining
\&\fBmagicrescue\fR with \fBdls\fR from The Sleuth Kit could give good results.  In
many cases you'll want to use \fBmagicrescue\fR to extract its known file types
and another utility to extract the rest.
.PP
When combining the results of more than one tool, \fBdupemap\fR(1) can be used to
eliminate duplicates.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
.IP "Similar programs" 4
.IX Item "Similar programs"
.RS 4
.PD 0
.IP "\fBgpart\fR(8)" 4
.IX Item "gpart(8)"
.PD
<http://www.stud.uni\-hannover.de/user/76201/gpart/>.  Tries to rebuild the
partition table by scanning the disk for lost partitions.
.IP "\fBforemost\fR(1)" 4
.IX Item "foremost(1)"
<http://foremost.sourceforge.net>.  Does the same thing as \fBmagicrescue\fR,
except that its \*(L"recipes\*(R" are less complex.  Finding the end of the file must
happen by either matching an \s-1EOF\s0 string or just extracting a fixed number of
bytes every time.  It supports more file types than Magic Rescue, but extracted
files usually have lots of trailing garbage, so removal of duplicates and
sorting by size is not possible.
.IP "\fBThe Sleuth Kit\fR" 4
.IX Item "The Sleuth Kit"
<http://www.sleuthkit.org/sleuthkit/>.  This popular package of utilities is
extremely useful for undeleting files from a FAT/NTFS/ext2/ext3/FFS file system
that's not completely corrupted.  Most of the utilities are not very useful if
the file system has been corrupted or overwritten.  It is based on
The Coroner's Toolkit (<http://www.porcupine.org/forensics/tct.html>).
.IP "\s-1JPEG\s0 recovery tools" 4
.IX Item "JPEG recovery tools"
This seems to be the file type most people are trying to recover.  Available
utilities include <http://www.cgsecurity.org/?photorec.html>,
<http://codesink.org/recover.html>, and
<http://www.vanheusden.com/findfile/>.
.RE
.RS 4
.RE
.IP "Getting disk images from failed disks" 4
.IX Item "Getting disk images from failed disks"
\&\fBdd\fR(1), \fBrescuept\fR(1),
<http://www.garloff.de/kurt/linux/ddrescue/>,
<http://www.kalysto.org/utilities/dd_rhelp/>,
<http://vanheusden.com/recoverdm/>,
<http://myrescue.sourceforge.net>
.IP "Processing \fBmagicrescue\fR's output" 4
.IX Item "Processing magicrescue's output"
\&\fBdupemap\fR(1), \fBfile\fR(1), \fBmagicsort\fR(1), <http://ccorr.sourceforge.net>
.IP "Authoring recipes" 4
.IX Item "Authoring recipes"
\&\fBmagic\fR(4), \fBhexedit\fR(1), <http://wotsit.org>
.IP "Filesystem-specific undelete utilities" 4
.IX Item "Filesystem-specific undelete utilities"
There are too many to count them, especially for ext2 and \s-1FAT\s0.  Find them on
Google and Freshmeat.
.SH "AUTHOR"
.IX Header "AUTHOR"
Jonas Jensen <jbj@knef.dk>
.SH "LATEST VERSION"
.IX Header "LATEST VERSION"
You can find the latest version at <http://jbj.rapanden.dk/magicrescue/>