File: MAKEDEV.man

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.\" $Id: MAKEDEV.man,v 3.0 2002/05/17 22:47 toff Exp $
.TH MAKEDEV 8 "May 17 2002" Linux "Make Linux Devices"
.SH NAME
MAKEDEV \- create devices
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B "cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ update ]"
.br
.B "cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ generic ] [ local ] [ group-keyword ... device ... ]"
.br
.BI "cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ]" " device ..."
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B MAKEDEV
is a script that will create the devices in 
.B /dev
used to interface
with drivers in the kernel.
.PP
Note that programs giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or
directory'' normally means that the device file is missing, whereas
``ENODEV: No such device'' normally means the kernel does not have the
driver configured or loaded.
.SH OPTIONS
.TP
.B \-n
Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions that would be
performed.
.TP
.B \-d
Delete the devices.  The main use for this flag is by
.B MAKEDEV
itself.
.TP
.B \-v
Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.  This is the
same output as produced by
.BR \-n .
.SH CUSTOMISATION
Since there is currently no standardisation in what names are used for
system users and groups, it is possible that you may need to modify
.B MAKEDEV
to reflect your site's settings.  Near the top of the file is a mapping
from device type to user, group and permissions (e.g. all CD-ROM devices
are set from the \fC$cdrom\fP variable).  If you wish to change the
defaults, this is the section to edit.
.SH GENERAL OPTIONS
.TP
.B update
This only works on kernels which have \fC/proc/interrupts\fP (introduced
during 1.1.x).  This file is scanned to see what devices are currently
configured into the kernel, and this is compared with the previous
settings stored in the file called \fCDEVICES\fP.
Devices which are new since then or have a different major number are
created, and those which are no longer configured are deleted.
.TP
.B generic
Create a generic subset of devices.  This subset consists of the
standard devices, plus floppy drives, various hard drives, CD-ROM
drives, pseudo-terminals, console devices, basic serial devices,
busmice, audio devices, video framebuffers, printer ports, and some
specialized devices. The generic subset varies somewhat according to
architecture; see the 
.B /dev/MAKEDEV
script itself for details.
.TP 
.B local
This simply runs 
.BR MAKEDEV.local .
This is a script that can create any local devices.
.SH DEVICE GROUPS 
.B MAKEDEV 
creates groups of devices when passed keywords for the group.
Each listing below shows the 
.B MAKEDEV 
keyword and then lists the devices which will be created. Many 
devices can also be specified individually.
.SH STANDARD DEVICES
.TP
.B std
Creates this group of standard devices:
.B mem
for access to physical memory,
.B kmem
for access to kernel virtual memory,
.B null
the null device (infinite sink),
.B port
for access to I/O ports,
.B zero
the null byte source (infinite source),
.BR core ,
a symlink to /proc/kcore (for kernel debugging),
.B full
which always returns ENOSPACE on write,
.BR random " and " urandom
random byte generators, and
.B tty
to access the controlling tty of a process. The
loopback disk devices
.B loop0 
through 
.BR loop7 
are also created in the 
.B std
group.  These allow you to use a regular file as a
block device. A filesystem image can be mounted,
and used as though it were a filesystem on a partition or other 
block device.  
.B loop
may also be used as a separate keyword to create the 8 loop devices. Finally, the
.B ram
group of memory devices is also created by the 
.B std 
keyword (see below).
.SH MEMORY DEVICES
.TP
.B ram
This is the keyword used to generate the ramdisk devices 
.BI ram {0..16}
and the 
.B ram 
symlink. This group does not include 
.BR initrd .
.TP
.B initrd
Ramdisk which has been pre-initialized by a bootloader. 
.B initrd
is not created in the 
.B ram
group; it must be specifically included 
in the command line if you want it to be created.
.TP
.IR cpu " or " microcode
Creates the CPU microcode update interface in the 
.B cpu/
folder, with devices 
.BR microcode ,
and subfolders 
.BR {0..3}
each containing devices 
.BR msr " and " cpuid .
.TP
.B rom
Creates the 
.BI rom {0..7} " rrom" {0..7} " flaxh" {0..7} 
and
.BI rflash {0..7}  
flash memory card devices. 
.BR rrom " and " rflash
devices are read-only.
.SH CONSOLE DEVICES
.TP
.B console
This keyword creates virtual consoles;
.BI tty {0..63}
devices, the corresponding 
.B vcs
and 
.B vcsa
devices which are used to generate screen-dumps, and the 
.B console 
device itself plus appropriate symlinks.
To create the console device alone, use 
.BR consoleonly .
The device 
.B tty0 
is the currently active virtual console. The 
.B console
device serves the same function.
.SH PSEUDO TERMINALS
.TP 
.B pty
This keyword creates the Pseudo-TTY masters 
.BI pty {a..e,p..z}
and corresponding 
.BI tty {a..e,p..z}
devices, along with 
.BR ptmx . 
Each possible argument will create a bank of 16 master and slave pairs.
The master pseudo-terminals are 
.BR pty{p..s}{0..9a..f} ,
and the slaves are
.BR tty{p..s}{0..9a..f} .
.SH SERIAL DEVICES
.TP
.I ttyS{0..63}
Standard serial ports. There is no group keyword, you must 
specify these individually. However 
.BI ttyS{0..3}
are created under the 
.B generic
option for most architectures.
.TP
.BR cyclades " or " ttyC
Creates Cyclades ports 
.BI ttyC {0..31} \fR.
.TP
.BR digi " or " ttyD
Creates Digiboard serial card ports
.BI ttyD {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BR stallion " or " ttyE
Creates Stallion devices 
.BI ttyE {0..255} 
and 
.BI staliomem {0..3} \fR.
.TP
.BR computone " or " ttyF
Creates CompuTone serial card ports
.BI ttyH {0..255} 
and special devices 
.B ip2ipl{0,4,8,12}
and
.BR ip2stat{1,5,9,13} \fR.
.TP
.BR chase " or " ttyH
Creates Chase serial card ports
.BI ttyH {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BR isdnmodem " or " ttyI
Creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports
.BI ttyI {0..63} \fR.
.TP
.BR isdn-tty
Also creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports
.BI ttyI {0..7} \fR.
.TP
.B isdnbri
Creates ISDN BRI driver devices
.B isdn{0..63} isdnctrl{0..63} ippp{0..63} 
and
.BR isdninfo .
.TP
.B isdn-io
Also creates ISDN BRI driver devices
.B isdn{0..7} isdnctrl{0..7} ippp{0..7} 
and
.BR isdninfo .
The
.B isdn-ippp 
keyword can be used separately to create only the 
.BI ippp {0..7} 
devices.
.TP
.B ppp
Creates a device independent PPP interface.
.TP
.B dcbri
Creates Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card devices 
.BR dcbri{0..3} .
.TP
.BR riscom " or " ttyL
Creates Riscom serial card ports
.BI ttyL {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BR PAM " or " ttyM
Creates PAM multimodem (or ISI serial card) ports 
.BI ttyM {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BR ESP " or " ttyP
Creates ESP ports 
.BI ttyP {0..4} \fR.
.TP
.BR rocketport " or " ttyR
Creates Rocketport devices
.BI ttyR {0..63} \fR.
.TP
.BR ttyV
Creates Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller ports 
.BI ttyV {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BR specialixIO8 " or " ttyW
Creates Specialix IO8+ ports 
.BI ttyW {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BR specialix " or " ttyX
Creates Specialix ports 
.BI ttyX {0..15} \fR.
.TP
.BI i2c
Creates 
.BI i2c {0..7}
devices for the I2C bus interface.
.TP
.BI tlk
Philips SAA5249 Teletext signal decoder {2.6} ports 
.BI tlk {0..3} \fR.
.SH PARALLEL PORTS
.TP
.IR lp
Creates the standard parallel ports 
.BR lp0 , 
.BR lp1 ,
and 
.BR lp2 
normally used for printers.
These correspond to ports at 0x3bc, 0x378 and 0x278.
Hence, on some machines, the first printer port may actually be
.BR lp1 .
.TP
.I par
Alternative to
.IR lp .
The same ports are created, but are named
.BI par {0..2}
instead of
.BI lp {0..2} \fR.
.TP
.I parport
Creates raw parallel ports
.BR parport0 , 
.BR parport1 ,
and 
.BR parport2 .
.TP
.B slm
Creates the Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari) ports
.BI slm {0..3} \fR.
.TP
.B pg
Parallel port generic ATAPI interface (devices 
.BI pg {0..3} \fR.
.TP
.B paride
Parallel port IDE disk devices 
.BI pd {a..d}
with 15 partitions on each. Also creates
.BR pcd{0..3} " and " pf{0..3} . 
.SH OTHER BUS PORTS
.TP
.BR netlink " or " tap
Creates NetLink devices 
.B route skip fwmonitor
and
.BI tap {0..15} 
Ethertap devices.
The
.BI tap x
virtual ethernet device was designed as low level kernel support for
Ethernet tunneling. Userland application can write Ethernet frame to
.BI /dev/tapX
and the kernel will receive this frame from tapX interface. 
Every frame the kernel writes to a
.BI tapX
interface can be read by a userland application from the corresponding
.BI /dev/tapX
device.
.TP 
.B enskip
ENskip kernel encryption package.
.TP
.B qng
ComScire Quantum Noise Generator.
.TP
.B ipsec
The Free S/WAN implementation of IPSEC.
.TP 
.B adb
On powerpc, creates 
.B adb
for the Apple Data Bus and 
.BR adbmouse .
On m68k, 
.B adb
creates the ACSI disk device 
.B adb
and partitions
.B adb1 
through 
.BR adb15 .
.TP
.B hamradio
Creates the 
.BI scc {0..7} 
and 
.BI bc {0..3} 
device groups.
.TP 
.B comx
Creates COMX devices
.BI comx {0..4} \fR.
.TP
.B irda
Creates IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation)
.B ircomm0 ircomm1 irlpt0
and
.BR irlpt1 .
.TP
.B comedi
Control and Measurement devices 
.BI comedi {0..3} \fR.
.SH MOUSE DEVICES
.TP
.I busmice
This keyword creates the following devices:
.B logibm
(Logitech bus mouse),
.B psaux
(PS/2-style mouse),
.B inportbm
(Microsoft Inport bus mouse) and
.B atibm
(ATI XL bus mouse) and
.B jbm
(J-mouse).
.TP
.I m68k-mice
Creates mouse devices for the m68k architecture, including:
.BR amigamouse ,
.BR amigamouse1 ,
.B atarimouse 
and
.BR adbmouse .
.TP
.I input
On powerpc, this keyword creates the 
.I input 
folder which groups input devices
.BR mice , 
.BI mouse {0..3} \fR,
.BI event {0..3} \fR,
and 
.BI js {0..3}
(joystick), and creates these devices inside. 
.SH JOYSTICK DEVICES
.TP
.I js
Joystick.  Creates 
.B js0
and 
.BR js1 .
.TP
.I djs
Digital joystick. Creates 
.B djs0
and 
.BR djs1 .
.SH USB DEVICES
.TP
.B usb
USB is a general purpose I/O bus which can serve many purposes. The
.B usb
keyword creates a 
.B usb
folder, and devices in the folder:
.BI lp {0..15}
(printer),
.BI mouse {0..15}
(USB connected mice),
.BI ez {0..15}
(firmware loaders)
.BI scanner {0..15}
(scanner interfaces),
.BI ttyACM {0..15} 
and
.BI ttyUSB {0..15}
(dialout devices),
and 
.B rio500
the Diamond Rio 500 device. 
.SH DISK DEVICES
.TP
.BI fd {0..7}
Floppy disk devices.  The device
.BI fd x
is the device which autodetects the format, 
and the additional devices are
fixed format (whose size is indicated in the name).
The other devices are named as
.BI fd x{dqhu}n .
The single letter 
.RI ( d ,
.IR q , 
.IR h or 
.IR u )
signifies the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d),
5.25" Quad Density (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5"
(any model, u). The number
.I n
represents the capacity of that format in K.  
Thus the standard formats are
.BI fd x d360 ,
.BI fd x h1200 ,
.BI fd x 720 ,
.BI fd x 1440 ,
and
.BI fd x 2880 .
.IP
For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.
.IP
Devices
.BI fd0 *
through
.BI fd3 *
are floppy disks on the first controller, and devices
.BI fd4 *
through
.BI fd7 *
are floppy disks on the second controller.
.TP
.BI fd {0..7} -bare
Creates just the autodetecting floppy device specified, without the fixed 
format devices.
.TP
.BI hd {a..l}
AT (ide) hard disks.  The device
.BI hd x
provides access to the whole disk, with the partitions being
.BI hd x {1..63}.
For i386, the four primary partitions are
.BI hd x 1
through
.BI hd x 4,
with the logical partitions being numbered from
.BI hd x 5
though
.BI hd x 20.
(A primary partition can be made into an extended partition, which can
hold 4 logical partitions). Other architectures may not differentiate
partition types.  By default, devices for 20 logical partitions are
made. The kernel supports up to 63 partitions per device.
.IP
Drives 
.B hda 
and  
.B hdb 
are the two on the primary controller
.B hdc 
and
.B hdd 
are the two
drives on the secondary controller.  These devices can also be used to
access IDE CDROMs. Additional devices 
.BI hd {e..l} 
can be created.
.TP
.BI xd {a..d} 
XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same as IDE disks, except only 8 
partitions are created. 
.TP
.BI sd {a..h}
SCSI hard disks.  The partitions are similar to the IDE disks, but there
is a limit of 11 logical partitions
.BI sd x 5
through
.BI sd x 15, 
to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks on a system 
(addresses 0 through 7). 
.TP
.BI sd {i..z} 
and 
.BI sd {a..d}{a..z}
The kernel (and MAKEDEV) can handle up to 128 SCSI disks (up to 
.BR sddx ).
15 partition devices are created for each.
.TP
.B eda edb
MCA ESDI hard disk. Partitions are handled the same as hd.
.TP
.BI dasd {a..z}
Direct Access Storage Devices for the s390 architecture. Currently
only one device partition is created (for example, 
.BR dasda1 ).
.TP
.BI ada {a..p}
ACSI disk (68k/Atari). 15 partitions are created for each.
.TP
.BI dac960. {0..7} 
Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller. For this device, an 
.B rd
directory is created. 32 logical devices
.BI c x d {0..31}
are created for each unit 
.I x
specified, each with 7 partitions 
.BI c x d {0..31} p {1..7} \fR.
The 
.B dac960
keyword will create all 7 units at once.
.TP
.BI dpti
Adaptec I2O RAID and DPT SmartRAID V I2O controllers. Creates
7 devices for handling up to 7 controllers.
.TP
.BI ataraid. {0..7} 
Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt. For this device, an 
.B ataraid
directory is created. 
.BI d x 
is created for each unit 
.I x
specified, and 15 partitions 
.BI d x p {1..15} \fR.
The 
.B ataraid
keyword will create all 7 units at once.
.TP
.BI i2o.hd{a..d}{a..z}
I2O based harddisk drives. Device nodes are located in the
.B i2o
directory. The filename is followed by a number that specifies the partition on
each disk. The numbers are handled the same as hd.
.TP
.BI ida. {0..7} 
Compaq Intelligent Drive Array. For this device, an 
.B ida
directory is created. 16 logical devices
.BI c x d {0..15}
are created for each unit 
.I x
specified, each with 15 partitions 
.BI c x d {0..15} p {1..15} \fR.
The 
.B ida
keyword will create the first three units.
.TP
.BI cciss. {0..7} 
Compaq Next Generation Drive Array. For this device, a
.B cciss
directory is created. 16 logical devices
.BI c x d {0..15}
are created for each unit 
.I x
specified, each with 15 partitions 
.BI c x d {0..15} p {1..15} \fR.
The 
.B cciss
keyword will create the first three units.
.TP
.BI md
Creates Metadisk (RAID) disk array with 16 devices.
.SH TAPE DEVICES
.TP
.I st{0..7}
SCSI tape devices.  This creates the rewinding tape device
.BI st x
and the non-rewinding tape device
.BI nst x ,
for each of modes 0 through 3.
.TP
.I qic
QIC-11, -24, -120, and -150 tapes.  The devices created are
.B ntpqic11 tpqic11 ntpqic24 tpqic24 ntpqic120 tpqic120 ntpqic150
and 
.B tpqic150
tape devices, along with
.BR rmt8 ,
.BR rmt16 ,
.BR tape-d ,
and
.BR tape-reset .
.TP
.I ftape 		
Floppy driver tapes (QIC-117).  There are 4 methods of access depending on
the floppy tape drive.  For each of access methods 0, 1, 2 and 3, the
devices
.BI qft x
.BI zqft x
and
.BI rawqftx
(rewinding) and
.BI nqft x
.BI nzqft x
.BI nrawqdt x
(non-rewinding) are created.  For compatibility, devices
.B ftape
and
.B nftape
are symlinks to
.B qft0
and
.B nqft0
respectively.
.TP
.B ht0
Creates IDE tape devices 
.B ht0
and
.BR nht0 .
.TP
.BI pt {0..3}
Creates parallel port ATAPI tape devices
.B pt{0..3}
and
.BR npt{0..3} .
.SH CDROM DEVICES
.TP
.BR sr " or " scd " or " scd-all
Creates 
.BI scd {0..16}
SCSI CD players and 
.BI sr {0..16}
symlinks for these devices.
.B cdrom 
is a symlink which can be created by the user to the active CD device.
It is not created by 
.BR MAKEDEV .
.TP
.B pktcdvd
Provides packet writing devices 
.BI pktcdvd {0..3}
for CD/DVD.
.TP
.I pcd{0..3}
Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices
.TP
.I sonycd 
Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM
.TP
.I mcd 
Mitsumi CD-ROM
.TP
.I mcdx
Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt.
.TP
.I cdu535
Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
.TP
.IR lmscd
Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM. The newer name for this device is 
.IR cm205 ,
but MAKEDEV creates only lmscd at this time.
.TP
.I cm206cd
Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
.TP
.I bpcd
MicroSolutions BackPack parallel port CD-ROM (Obsolete - use pcd)
.TP
.I sbpcd{0..15}
Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM. Units {0..3} are created with the keyword
.BR sbpcd .
.TP
.I aztcd
Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM
.TP
.I gscd 
GoldStar CD-ROM
.TP
.I optcd
Optics Storage CD-ROM
.TP
.I sjcd
Sanyo CD-ROM
.TP
.I hitcd
Hitachi CD-ROM
.SH SCANNERS
.TP
.I logiscan
Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.
.TP
.I m105scan
Mustek M105 Handscanner.
.TP
.I ac4096
A4Tek Color Handscanner.
.SH AUDIO DEVICES
.TP
.I audio
This creates the audio devices used by the sound driver.  These include
.B mixer mixer{1..3}
(Mixer controls), 
.B sequencer
(Audio sequencer),
.B dsp dsp{1..3}
(Digital audio),
.B sndstat
(Sound card status information),
.B audioctl
(SPARC audio control device)
and
.B audio audio{1..3} 
(Sun-compatible digital audio). MIDI devices are 
.B midi00
through
.BR midi03 ,
.BI midi {0..3} \fR,
.BI rmidi {0..3} \fR,
.BI smpte {0..3} \fR.
In addition, devices 
.B mpu401data
and
.B mpu401stat
are created.
.TP
.I pcaudio
Devices for the PC Speaker sound driver.  These are
.BR pcmixer ,
.BR pxsp ,
and
.BR pcaudio .
.SH VIDEO DEVICES
.TP
.B fb
Creates framebuffer devices
.BI fb {0..7} \fR,
.BI fb {0..7} current \fR,
.BI fb {0..7} autodetect \fR.
.TP
.B fb{0..7}
If the framebuffer number 
.I x 
is specifed, a group of  
.BI fb x user {0..7} 
devices is created.
.TP
.B 3dfx
is the 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device.
.TP
.B agpgart
AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table
.TP
.I "video video4linux v4l radio"
Each of these keywords produces the same result:
Video capture/overlay devices
.BI video {0..63} \fR,
Radio devices
.BI radio {0..63} \fR,
Teletext devices 
.BI vtx {0..31} \fR,
and Vertical blank interrupt devices
.BI vbi {0..31} \fR. 
In addition, the 
.BR winradio0 " and " winradio1 " devices,"
and 
.BR vtx " and " vttuner " devices,"
and symlinks
.BR "radio video" " and " vbi
are created. 
.TP
.BI srnd
miroMEDIA Surround board devices 
.BR srnd0 " and " srnd1 .
.TP
.B fgrab
Matrox Meteor frame grabber {2.6}. Creates 
.BR mmetfgrab ,
.BR wvisfgrab ,
.BR iscc0 ,
.BR iscc1 ,
.BR isccctl0 ,
.BR isccctl1 ,
.BR dcxx0 ,
and
.BR dcxx1 .
.SH MISCELLANEOUS DEVICES
.TP
.IR sg " or " sg-all
Generic SCSI devices.  The devices created are 
.B sg0 
through 
.BR sg16 .
These allow arbitary commands to be sent to any SCSI device, to query
information or control SCSI devices that are not disk, tape or CDROM
(for example, scanner or writeable CDROM).
.TP
.I fd
To allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file descriptor
.IR x ,
use
.BI /dev/fd/ x
as the file name.  This also creates 
.BR /dev/stdin ,
.BR /dev/stdout ,
and
.BR /dev/stderr .
(Note, these are just symlinks into /proc/self/fd).
.TP
.I ibcs2
Devices 
.B socksys spx 
(and symlinks 
.BR "nfsd XOR" ) 
needed by the IBCS2 emulation.
.TP
.I apm
.B apm_bios 
Advanced Power Management BIOS device.
.TP
.I dcf
Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.
.TP
.I helloworld
Kernel modules demonstration device.  See the modules source.
.TP
.BR xfs " or " arla
Arla XFS network file system.
.TP
.B capi
CAPI 2.0 interface ports
.BI capi20 {01..20} \fR.
.TP
.B ubd
User-mode block devices
.BI ubd {0..255} \fR.
.TP
.BI nb {0..7}
Network block devices.
.TP 
.B raw
Creates the raw block device interface 
.B raw
device, the 
.B rawctl 
symlink, and 
.BI raw {1..8} \fR.
.TP
.B raw1394
IEEE 1394 (Firewire).
.TP
.B misc
This keyword creates all the following devices. You may find the 
device explanations in other categories in this man page, many 
under OTHER DEVICES below.
.BR logibm ,
.BR psaux ,
.BR inportbm ,
.BR atibm ,
.BR jbm ,
.BR amigamouse ,
.BR atarimouse ,
.BR sunmouse ,
.BR amigamouse1 ,
.BR smouse ,
.BR pc110pad ,
.BR adbmouse ,
.BR beep ,
.BR modreq ,
.BR watchdog ,
.BR temperature ,
.BR hwtrap ,
.BR exttrp ,
.BR apm_bios ,
.BR rtc ,
.BR openprom ,
.BR relay8 ,
.BR relay16 ,
.BR msr ,
.BR pciconf ,
.BR nvram ,
.BR hfmodem ,
.BR led ,
.BR mergemem ,
.BR pmu .
.TP
.B "Network Devices"
Linux used to have devices in /dev for controlling network devices, but
that is no longer the case.  To see what network devices are known by the
kernel, look at /proc/net/dev.
.SH OTHER DEVICES
.TP
Many of these devices are architecture-specific.
.TP
.I scc
Z8530 HDLC driver (HAM radio)
.TP
.I bc
Baycom radio modem (HAM radio)
.TP
.IR cfs0 " or " cfs " or " coda
Coda network file system
.TP
.I sunmouse 
Sun mouse
.TP
.I smouse 
Simple serial mouse driver
.TP
.I pc110pad 
IBM PC-110 digitizer pad
.TP
.I vrtpanel 
Vr41xx embedded touch panel
.TP
.I vpcmouse
Connectix Virtual PC Mouse
.TP
.I beep
Fancy beep device
.TP
.I modreq
Kernel module load request {2.6}
.TP
.I watchdog
Watchdog timer port
.TP
.I temperature
Machine internal temperature
.TP
.I hwtrap
Hardware fault trap
.TP
.I exttrp
External device trap
.TP
.I rtc
Real Time Clock
.TP
.I efirtc
Real Time Clock
.TP
.I openprom
SPARC OpenBoot PROM
.TP
.I relay8
Berkshire Products Octal relay card
.TP
.I relay16
Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card
.TP
.I msr 
x86 model-specific registers {2.6}
.TP
.I pciconf
PCI configuration space
.TP
.I nvram
Non-volatile configuration RAM
.TP
.I hfmodem
Soundcard shortwave modem control {2.6}
.TP
.I graphics
Linux/SGI graphics device
.TP
.I opengl
Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe
.TP
.I gfx
Linux/SGI graphics effects device
.TP
.I lcd
Front panel LCD display
.TP
.I led
Front panel LEDs
.TP
.I mergemem
Memory merge device
.TP
.I pmu
Macintosh PowerBook power manager
.TP
.I isictl
MultiTech ISICom serial control
.TP
.I ac
Applicom Intl Profibus card
.TP
.I nwbutton
Netwinder external button
.TP
.I nwdebug
Netwinder debug interface
.TP
.I nwflash
Netwinder flash memory
.TP
.I userdma
User-space DMA access
.TP
.I smbus
System Management Bus
.TP
.I lik
Logitech Internet Keyboard
.TP
.I ipmo
Intel Intelligent Platform Management
.TP
.I vmmon
VMWare virtual machine monitor
.TP
.I tcldrv
Technology Concepts serial control
.TP
.I specialix_sxctl
Specialix serial control
.TP
.I specialix_rioctl
Specialix RIO serial control
.TP
.IR smapi " or " thinkpad
IBM Thinkpad 
.B smapi
device, and a symlink 
.BR thinkpad .
.TP
.I srripc
QNX4 API IPC manager
.TP
.I usemaclone
Semaphore clone device
.TP
.IR ipmi " or " ipmikcs
Intelligent Platform Management
.TP
.I uctrl
SPARCbook 3 microcontroller
.TP
.I gtrsc
Gorgy Timing radio clock
.TP
.I cbm
Serial CBM bus
.TP
.I jsflash
JavaStation OS flash SIMM
.TP
.I xsvc
High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service
.TP
.I vrbuttons
Vr41xx button input device
.TP
.I toshiba
Toshiba laptop SMM support
.TP
.I perfctr
Performance-monitoring counters
.TP
.I intel_rng
Intel i8x0 random number generator
.TP
.I atomicps
Atomic shapshot of process state data
.TP
.I irnet
IrNET device
.TP
.I smbusbios
SMBus BIOS
.TP
.I ussp_ctl
User space serial port control
.TP
.I crash
Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility
.TP
.I nas_xbus
NAS xbus LCD/buttons access
.TP
.I d7s
SPARC 7-segment display
.TP
.I zkshim
Zero-Knowledge network shim control
.TP
.I sexec
Signed executable interface
.TP
.I kchuid
Inter-process chuid control
.TP
.I mptctl
Message passing technology (MPT) control
.TP
.I button/gulpb
Transmeta GULP-B buttons
.TP
.I compaq/cpqphpc
Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller
.TP
.I compaq/cpqrid
Compaq Remote InsightDriver
.TP
.I elographics/e2201
Elographics touchscreen E271-2201
.TP
.I fujitsu/apanel
Fujitsu/Siemens application panel
.TP
.I i2o/ctl
I2O configuration manager
.TP
.I impi/bt
IMPI coprocessor block transfer
.TP
.I impi/smic
IMPI coprocessor stream interface
.TP
.I input/mouse
Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse
.TP
.I input/keyboard
Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard
.TP
.I modems/mwave
MWave modem firmware upload
.TP
.I mvista/hssdsi
Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver
.TP
.I mvista/hasi
Montavista PICMG high availability
.TP
.I net/tun
TAP/TUN network device
.TP
.I ni/natmotn
National Instruments Motion
.TP
.I scanners/cuecat 
:CueCat barcode scanner
.TP
.I touchscreen/ucb1x00
UCB 1x00 touchscreen
.TP
.I touchscreen/mk712
MK712 touchscreen
.TP
.I video/em8300
EM8300 DVD decoder control
.TP
.I video/em8300_mv
EM8300 DVD decoder video
.TP
.I video/em8300_ma
EM8300 DVD decoder audio
.TP
.I video/em8300_sp
EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture
.TP
.I watchdogs/{0..3}
Watchdog devices 0 through 3

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Linux Allocated Devices, maintained by H.\ Peter Anvin,
<Peter.Anvin@linux.org>, and devices.txt in the Linux 
kernel source.
.SH AUTHOR
Nick Holloway, rewritten and updated by Chris Tillman