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.. _TeX-support:

*****************************
MathJax TeX and LaTeX Support
*****************************

The support for :term:`TeX` and :term:`LaTeX` in MathJax consists of two
parts: the `tex2jax` preprocessor, and the `TeX` input processor.  The
first of these looks for mathematics within your web page (indicated by
math delimiters like ``$$...$$``) and marks the mathematics for later
processing by MathJax.  The TeX input processor is what converts the TeX
notation into MathJax's internal format, where one of MathJax's output
processors then displays it in the web page.

The `tex2jax` preprocessor can be configured to look for whatever
markers you want to use for your math delimiters.  See the
:ref:`tex2jax configuration options <configure-tex2jax>` section for
details on how to customize the action of `tex2jax`.

The TeX input processor handles conversion of your mathematical
notation into MathJax's internal format (which is essentially MathML),
and so acts as a TeX to MathML converter.  The TeX input processor has
few configuration options (see the :ref:`TeX options
<configure-TeX>` section for details), but it can also be customized
through the use of extensions that define additional functionality
(see the :ref:`TeX and LaTeX extensions <tex-extensions>` below).

Differences
===========

Since MathJax renders for the web and TeX is a print layout
engine, there are natural limitations of which parts of TeX can be 
supported in a reasonable way. Accordingly, there are several 
differences between "real" TeX/LaTeX systems and MathJax's TeX Input. 

First and foremost, the TeX input processor implements **only** the math-mode
macros of TeX and LaTeX, not the text-mode macros.  MathJax expects
that you will use standard HTML tags to handle formatting the text of
your page; it only handles the mathematics.  So, for example, MathJax
does not implement ``\emph`` or
``\begin{enumerate}...\end{enumerate}`` or other text-mode macros or
environments.  You must use HTML to handle such formatting tasks.  If
you need a LaTeX-to-HTML converter, you should consider `other options
<http://www.google.com/search?q=latex+to+html+converter>`_.

There are two exception to this rule. First, MathJax supports the `\ref`
macro outside of math-mode. Second, MathJax supports some macros that
add text within math-mode (such as `\text{}`) as well as `$...$` 
within such macros (to switch back into math-mode) and`\$` to escape. 

Second, some features in MathJax might be necessarily limited. 
For example, MathJax only implements a limited subset of the ``array`` 
environment's preamble, i.e., only the ``l``, ``r``, ``c``, and
``|`` characters alongside ``:`` for dashed lines; everything else 
is ignored.

.. note::

  If you are not familiar with :term:`TeX`/:term:`LaTeX`, a good 
  starting point is the `LaTeX Wiki book
  <http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX>`__.


TeX and LaTeX math delimiters
=============================

By default, the `tex2jax` preprocessor defines the LaTeX math delimiters,
which are ``\(...\)`` for in-line math, and ``\[...\]`` for displayed
equations.  It also defines the TeX delimiters ``$$...$$`` for displayed
equations, but it does **not** define ``$...$`` as in-line math
delimiters.  That is because dollar signs appear too often in
non-mathematical settings, which could cause some text to be treated
as mathematics unexpectedly.  For example, with single-dollar
delimiters, "... the cost is $2.50 for the first one, and $2.00 for
each additional one ..." would cause the phrase "2.50 for the first
one, and" to be treated as mathematics since it falls between dollar
signs.  For this reason, if you want to use single-dollars for in-line
math mode, you must enable that explicitly in your configuration:

.. code-block:: javascript

    MathJax.Hub.Config({
      tex2jax: {
        inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']],
        processEscapes: true
      }
    });

Note that if you do this, you may want to also set ``processEscapes`` to
``true``, as in the example above, so that you can use ``\$`` to prevent a
dollar sign from being treated as a math delimiter within the text of your
web page.  (Note that within TeX mathematics, ``\$`` always has this
meaning; ``processEscapes`` only affects the treatment of the *opening*
math delimiter.)

Note that, as opposed to true LaTeX, MathJax processes all environments 
when wrapped inside math delimiters. By defaut, MathJax will 
also render all environments outside of delimiters; this can be controlled
via the ``processEnvironments`` option in the :ref:`tex2jax configuration
options <configure-tex2jax>`.

See the ``config/default.js`` file, or the :ref:`tex2jax configuration
options <configure-tex2jax>` page, for additional configuration
parameters that you can specify for the `tex2jax` preprocessor,
which is the component of MathJax that identifies TeX notation within
the page.


TeX and LaTeX in HTML documents
===============================

Keep in mind that your mathematics is part of an HTML document, so you
need to be aware of the special characters used by HTML as part of its
markup.  There cannot be HTML tags within the math delimiters (other
than ``<br>``) as TeX-formatted math does not include HTML tags.
Also, since the mathematics is initially given as text on the page,
you need to be careful that your mathematics doesn't look like HTML
tags to the browser (which parses the page before MathJax gets to see
it).  In particular, that means that you have to be careful about
things like less-than and greater-than signs (``<`` and ``>``), and
ampersands (``&``), which have special meaning to the browsers.  For
example,

.. code-block:: latex

	... when $x<y$ we have ...

will cause a problem, because the browser will think ``<y`` is the
beginning of a tag named ``y`` (even though there is no such tag in
HTML).  When this happens, the browser will think the tag continues up
to the next ``>`` in the document (typically the end of the next
actual tag in the HTML file), and you may notice that you are missing
part of the text of the document.  In the example above, the "``we
have ...``" will not be displayed because the browser thinks it is
part of the tag starting at ``<y``.  This is one indication you can
use to spot this problem; it is a common error and should be avoided.

Usually, it is sufficient to simply put spaces around these symbols to
cause the browser to avoid them, so

.. code-block:: latex

	... when $x < y$ we have ...

should work.  Alternatively, you can use the HTML entities ``&lt;``,
``&gt;`` and ``&amp;`` to encode these characters so that the browser
will not interpret them, but MathJax will.  E.g.,

.. code-block:: latex

	  ... when $x &lt; y$ we have ...

Finally, there are ``\lt`` and ``\gt`` macros defined to make it
easier to enter ``<`` and ``>`` using TeX-like syntax:

.. code-block:: latex

        ... when $x \lt y$ we have ...

Keep in mind that the browser interprets your text before MathJax
does.

Another source of difficulty is when MathJax is used in content
management systems that have their own document processing commands
that are interpreted before the HTML page is created.  For example,
many blogs and wikis use formats like :term:`Markdown` to allow you to
create the content of you pages.  In Markdown, the underscore is used
to indicate italics, and this usage will conflict with MathJax's use
of the underscore to indicate a subscript.  Since Markdown is applied
to the page first, it will convert your subscripts markers into
italics (inserting ``<i>`` tags into your mathematics, which will
cause MathJax to ignore the math).

Such systems need to be told not to modify the mathematics that
appears between math delimiters.  That usually involves modifying the
content-management system itself, which is beyond the means of most
page authors.  If you are lucky, someone else will already have done
this for you, and you can find a MathJax plugin for your system on the
:ref:`MathJax-In-Use <mathjax-in-use>` page.

If there is no plugin for your system, or if it doesn't handle the
subtleties of isolating the mathematics from the other markup that it
supports, then you may have to "trick" it into leaving your
mathematics untouched.  Most content-management systems provide some
means of indicating text that should not be modified ("verbatim"
text), often for giving code snippets for computer languages.
You may be use that to enclose your mathematics so that the system
leaves it unchanged and MathJax can process it.  For example, in
Markdown, the back-tick (`````) is used to mark verbatim text, so

.. code-block:: latex

    ... we have `\(x_1 = 132\)` and `\(x_2 = 370\)` and so ...

may be able to protect the underscores from being processed by
Markdown.

Some content-management systems use the backslash (``\``) as a special
character for "escaping" other characters, but TeX uses this character
to indicate a macro name.  In such systems, you may have to double the
backslashes in order to obtain a single backslash in your HTML page.
For example, you may have to do

.. code-block:: latex

    \\begin{array}{cc}
      a & b \\\\
      c & c
    \\end{array}

to get an array with the four entries *a*, *b*, *c*, and *d*.  Note in
particular that if you want ``\\`` you will have to double *both*
backslashes, giving ``\\\\``.

Finally, if you have enabled single dollar-signs as math delimiters,
and you want to include a literal dollar sign in your web page (one
that doesn't represent a math delimiter), you will need to prevent
MathJax from using it as a math delimiter.  If you also enable the
``processEscapes`` configuration parameter, then you can use ``\$`` in
the text of your page to get a dollar sign (without the backslash) in
the end.  Alternatively, you use something like
``<span>$</span>`` to isolate the dollar sign so that
MathJax will not use it as a delimiter.


.. _tex-macros:

Defining TeX macros
===================

You can use the ``\def``, ``\newcommand``, ``\renewcommand``,
``\newenvironment``, ``\renewenvironment``, and ``\let`` commands to
create your own macros and environments.  Unlike actual TeX, however,
in order for MathJax to process such definitions, they must be 
enclosed in math delimiters (since MathJax only processes macros in 
math-mode).  For example

.. code-block:: latex

    \(
       \def\RR{\bf R}
       \def\bold#1{\bf #1}
    \)

would define ``\RR`` to produce a bold-faced "R", and ``\bold{...}``
to put its argument into bold face.  Both definitions would be
available throughout the rest of the page.

You can include macro definitions in the `Macros` section of the `TeX`
blocks of your configuration, but they must be represented as
JavaScript objects.  For example, the two macros above can be
pre-defined in the configuration by

.. code-block:: javascript

    MathJax.Hub.Config({
      TeX: {
        Macros: {
	  RR: "{\\bf R}",
	  bold: ["{\\bf #1}",1],
	  Abs: ['\\left\\lvert #2 \\right\\rvert_{\\text{#1}}', 2, ""]
	}
      }
    });

Here you give the macro as a `name:value` pair, where the `name`
is the name of the control sequence (without the backslash) that you
are defining, and `value` is either the replacement string for the
macro (when there are no arguments) or an array consisting of the
replacement string followed by the number of arguments for the macro
and, optionally, default values for optional arguments.

Note that the replacement string is given as a JavaScript string
literal, and the backslash has special meaning in JavaScript strings.
So to get an actual backslash in the string you must double it, as in the examples above.

If you have many such definitions that you want to use on more than
one page, you could put them into a configuration file that you can
load along with the main configuration file.  For example, you could
create a file in ``MathJax/config/local`` called ``local.js`` that
contains your macro definitions:

.. code-block:: javascript

    MathJax.Hub.Config({
      TeX: {
        Macros: {
	  RR: "{\\bf R}",
	  bold: ["{\\bf #1}",1]
	}
      }
    });

    MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/config/local/local.js");

and then load it along with your main configuration file on the script
that loads ``MathJax.js``:

.. code-block:: html

    <script src="/MathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS_HTML,local/local.js"></script>

If you are using the CDN, you can make a local configuration file on
your own server, and load MathJax itself from the CDN and your
configuration file from your server.  See :ref:`Using a Local
Configuration File with the CDN <local-config-files>` for details.


.. _tex-eq-numbers:

Automatic Equation Numbering
============================

New in MathJax v2.0 is the ability to have equations be numbered
automatically.  This functionality is turned off by default, so
that pages don't change
when you update from v1.1 to v2.0, but it is easy to configure MathJax
to produce automatic equation numbers by adding:

.. code-block:: html

    <script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
    MathJax.Hub.Config({
      TeX: { equationNumbers: { autoNumber: "AMS" } }
    });
    </script>

to your page just before the ``<script>`` tag that loads
``MathJax.js`` itself.

Equations can be numbered in two ways: either number the AMSmath
environments as LaTeX would, or number all displayed equations (the
example above uses AMS-style numbering).  Set ``autoNumber`` to
``"all"`` if you want every displayed equation to be numbered.
You can use ``\notag`` or ``\nonumber`` to prevent
individual equations from being numbered, and ``\tag{}`` can be used
to override the usual equation number with your own symbol instead.

Note that the AMS environments come in two forms:  starred and
unstarred.  The unstarred versions produce equation numbers (when
``autoNumber`` is set to ``"AMS"``) and the starred ones don't.  For
example

.. code-block::  latex

    \begin{equation}
       E = mc^2
    \end{equation}

will be numbered, while

.. code-block::  latex

    \begin{equation*}
       e^{\pi i} + 1 = 0
    \end{equation*}

won't be numbered (when ``autoNumber`` is ``"AMS"``).

You can use ``\label`` to give an equation an identifier that you can
use to refer to it later, and then use ``\ref`` or ``\eqref`` within
your document to insert the actual equation number at that location,
as a reference. For example,

.. code-block:: latex

    In equation \eqref{eq:sample}, we find the value of an
    interesting integral:

    \begin{equation}
      \int_0^\infty \frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\,dx = \frac{\pi^4}{15}
      \label{eq:sample}
    \end{equation}

includes a labeled equation and a reference to that equation.  Note
that references can come before the corresponding formula as well as
after them.  See the equation numbering pages in the `MathJax examples at <https://github.com/mathjax/MathJax/blob/master/test/>`_ for
more examples.

You can configure the way that numbers are displayed and how the
references to them are made using parameters in the ``equationNumbers``
block of your ``TeX`` configuration.  See the :ref:`TeX configuration
options <configure-TeX>` page for more details.

If you are using automatic equation numbering and modifying the page dynamically, you can run into problems due to duplicate labels. See :ref:`Reset Automatic Equation Numbering <reset-equation-numbers>` for how to address this.

.. _tex-extensions:

TeX and LaTeX extensions
========================

While MathJax includes nearly all of the Plain TeX math macros, and
many of the LaTeX macros and environments, not everything is
implemented in the core TeX input processor.  Some less-used commands
are defined in extensions to the TeX processor.  MathJax will load
some extensions automatically when you first use the commands they
implement (for example, the ``\def`` and ``\newcommand`` macros are
implemented in the ``newcommand.js`` extension, but MathJax loads
this extension itself when you use those macros).  Not all extensions
are set up to load automatically, however, so you may need to request
some extensions explicitly yourself.

To enable any of the TeX extensions, simply add the appropriate string
(e.g., ``"AMSmath.js"``) to the `extensions` array in the ``TeX`` block
of your configuration.  If you use one of the combined configuration files,
like ``TeX-AMS_HTML``, this will already include several of the extensions
automatically, but you can include others using a mathjax configuration
script prior to loading MathJax.  For example

.. code-block:: html

    <script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
      MathJax.Hub.Config({ TeX: { extensions: ["autobold.js"] }});
    </script>
    <script type="text/javascript"
        src="https://example.com/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS_HTML">
    </script>

will load the `autobold` TeX extension in addition to those already
included in the ``TeX-AMS_HTML`` configuration file.

You can also load these extensions from within a math expression using
the non-standard ``\require{extension}`` macro.  For example

.. code-block:: latex

    \(\require{color}\)

would load the `color` extension into the page.  This way you you can
load extensions into pages that didn't load them in their
configurations (and prevents you from having to load all the
extensions into all pages even if they aren't used).

It is also possible to create a macro that will autoload an extension
when it is first used (under the assumption that the extension will
redefine it to perform its true function).  For example

.. code-block:: html

    <script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
    MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready",function () {
      MathJax.Hub.Insert(MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.macros,{
        cancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
        bcancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
        xcancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
        cancelto: ["Extension","cancel"]
      });
    });
    </script>

would declare the ``\cancel``, ``\bcancel``, ``\xcancel``, and
``\cancelto`` macros to load the `cancel` extension (where they are
actually defined).  Whichever is used first will cause the extension
to be loaded, redefining all four to their proper values.  Note that
this may be better than loading the extension explicitly, since it
avoids loading the extra file on pages where these macros are *not*
used.  The `sample autoloading macros
<https://github.com/mathjax/MathJax/blob/master/test/sample-autoload.html>`_
example page shows this in action.  The `autoload-all` extension below
defines such macros for *all* the extensions so that if you include
it, MathJax will have access to all the macros it knows about.

The main extensions are described below.

.. note::

  Additional third-party extensions are available through the 
  :ref:`Third Party Extensions repository <ThirdParty>`.


Action
------

The `action` extension gives you access to the MathML ``<maction>``
element.  It defines three new non-standard macros:

.. describe:: \\mathtip{math}{tip}

    Use ``tip`` (in math mode) as tooltip for ``math``.

.. describe:: \\texttip{math}{tip}

    Use ``tip`` (in text mode) as tooltip for ``math``.

.. describe:: \\toggle{math1}{math2}...\\endtoggle

    Show ``math1``, and when clicked, show ``math2``, and so on.
    When the last one is clicked, go back to math1.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["action.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


AMSmath and AMSsymbols
----------------------

The `AMSmath` extension implements AMS math environments and macros, and
the `AMSsymbols` extension implements macros for accessing the AMS symbol
fonts.  These are already included in the combined configuration files that
load the TeX input processor.  To use these extensions in your own
configurations, add them to the `extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["AMSmath.js", "AMSsymbols.js", ...]
    }

See the list of control sequences at the end of this document for details
about what commands are implemented in these extensions.

If you are not using one of the combined configuration files, the `AMSmath`
extension will be loaded automatically when you first use one of the math
environments it defines, but you will have to load it explicitly if you
want to use the other macros that it defines.  The `AMSsymbols` extension
is not loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly if you want
to use the macros it defines.

Both extensions are included in all the combined configuration files
that load the TeX input processor.


AMScd
-----

The `AMScd` extensions implements the `CD` environment for commutative
diagrams.  See the `AMScd guide
<http://www.jmilne.org/not/Mamscd.pdf>`_ for more information on how
to use the `CD` environment.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["AMScd.js"]
    }

Alternatively, if the extension hasn't been loaded in the
configuration, you can use ``\require{AMScd}`` to load it from within a
TeX expression.  Note that you only need to include this once on the
page, not every time the `CD` environment is used.

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


Autobold
--------

The `autobold` extension adds ``\boldsymbol{...}`` around mathematics that
appears in a section of an HTML page that is in bold.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["autobold.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** loaded by the combined configuration files.


BBox
----

The `bbox` extension defines a new macro for adding background colors,
borders, and padding to your math expressions.

.. describe:: \\bbox[options]{math}

    puts a bounding box around ``math`` using the provided ``options``.
    The options can be one of the following:

    1.  A color name used for the background color.
    2.  A dimension (e.g., ``2px``) to be used as a padding around the
        mathematics (on all sides).
    3.  Style attributes to be applied to the mathematics (e.g.,
        ``border:1px solid red``).
    4.  A combination of these separated by commas.

Here are some examples:

.. code-block:: latex

    \bbox[red]{x+y}      % a red box behind x+y
    \bbox[2pt]{x+1}      % an invisible box around x+y with 2pt of extra space
    \bbox[red,2pt]{x+1}  % a red box around x+y with 2pt of extra space
    \bbox[5px,border:2px solid red]
                         % a 2px red border around the math 5px away

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
but it will be loaded automatically, so you do not need to include it
in your `extensions` array.


Begingroup
----------

The `begingroup` extension implements commands that provide a
mechanism for localizing macro defintions so that they are not
permanent.  This is useful if you have a blog site, for example, and
want to isolate changes that your readers make in their comments so
that they don't affect later comments.

It defines two new non-standard macros, ``\begingroup`` and
``\endgroup``, that are used to start and stop a local namespace for
macros.  Any macros that are defined between the ``\begingroup`` and
``\endgroup`` will be removed after the ``\endgroup`` is executed.
For example, if you put ``\(\begingroup\)`` at the top of each reader's
comments and ``\(\endgroup\)`` at the end, then any macros they define
within their response will be removed after it is processed.

In addition to these two macros, the `begingroup` extension defines
the standard ``\global`` and ``\gdef`` control sequences from TeX.
(The ``\let``, ``\def``, ``\newcommand``, and ``\newenvironment``
control sequences are already defined in the core TeX input jax.)

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["begingroup.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


Cancel
------

The `cancel` extension defines the following macros:

.. describe:: \\cancel{math}

    Strikeout ``math`` from lower left to upper right.

.. describe:: \\bcancel{math}

    Strikeout ``math`` from upper left to lower right.

.. describe:: \\xcancel{math}

    Strikeout ``math`` with an "X".

.. describe:: \\cancelto{value}{math}

    Strikeout ``math`` with an arrow going to ``value``.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["cancel.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


Color
-----

The ``\color`` command in the core TeX input jax is not standard in
that it takes the mathematics to be colored as one of its parameters,
whereas the LaTeX ``\color`` command is a switch that changes the
color of everything that follows it.

The `color` extension changes the ``\color`` command to be compatible
with the LaTeX implementation, and also defines ``\colorbox``,
``\fcolorbox``, and ``\definecolor``, as in the LaTeX color package.
It defines the standard set of colors (Apricot, Aquamarine,
Bittersweet, and so on), and provides the RGB and grey-scale color
spaces in addition to named colors.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["color.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands,
and have ``\color`` be compatible with LaTeX usage.


Enclose
-------

The `enclose` extension gives you access to the MathML ``<menclose>``
element for adding boxes, ovals, strikethroughs, and other marks over
your mathematics.  It defines the following non-standard macro:

.. describe:: \\enclose{notation}[attributes]{math}

    Where ``notation`` is a comma-separated list of MathML
    ``<menclose>`` notations (e.g., ``circle``, ``left``,
    ``updiagonalstrike``, ``longdiv``, etc.), ``attributes`` are
    MathML attribute values allowed on the ``<menclose>`` element
    (e.g., ``mathcolor="red"``, ``mathbackground="yellow"``), and
    ``math`` is the mathematics to be enclosed. See the `MathML 3
    specification <http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML/chapter3.html#presm.menclose>`_
    for more details on ``<menclose>``.

For example

.. code-block:: latex

   \enclose{circle}[mathcolor="red"]{x}
   \enclose{circle}[mathcolor="red"]{\color{black}{x}}
   \enclose{circle,box}{x}
   \enclose{circle}{\enclose{box}{x}}

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["enclose.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


Extpfeil
--------

The `extpfeil` extension adds more macros for producing extensible
arrows, including ``\xtwoheadrightarrow``, ``\xtwoheadleftarrow``,
``\xmapsto``, ``\xlongequal``, ``\xtofrom``, and a non-standard
``\Newextarrow`` for creating your own extensible arrows.  The latter
has the form

.. describe:: \\Newextarrow{\\cs}{lspace,rspace}{unicode-char}

    where ``\cs`` is the new control sequence name to be defined,
    ``lspace`` and ``rspace`` are integers representing the amount of
    space (in suitably small units) to use at the left and right of
    text that is placed above or below the arrow, and ``unicode-char``
    is a number representing a unicode character position in either
    decimal or hexadecimal notation.

For example

.. code-block:: latex

   \Newextarrow{\xrightharpoonup}{5,10}{0x21C0}

defines an extensible right harpoon with barb up.  Note that MathJax
knows how to stretch only a limited number of characters, so you may
not actually get a stretchy character this way.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["extpfeil.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


HTML
----

The `HTML` extension gives you access to some HTML features like
styles, classes, element ID's and clickable links.  It defines the
following non-standard macros:

.. describe:: \\href{url}{math}

    Makes ``math`` be a link to the page given by ``url``.

.. describe:: \\class{name}{math}

    Attaches the CSS class ``name`` to the output associated with
    ``math`` when it is included in the HTML page.  This allows your
    CSS to style the element.

.. describe:: \\cssId{id}{math}

    Attaches an id attribute with value ``id`` to the output
    associated with ``math`` when it is included in the HTML page.
    This allows your CSS to style the element, or your javascript to
    locate it on the page.

.. describe:: \\style{css}{math}

    Adds the give ``css`` declarations to the element associated with
    ``math``.

For example:

.. code-block:: latex

    x \href{why-equal.html}{=} y^2 + 1

    (x+1)^2 = \class{hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}

    (x+1)^2 = \cssId{step1}{\style{visibility:hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}}

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
but it will be loaded automatically when any of these macros is used,
so you do not need to include it explicitly in your configuration.


mhchem
------

The `mhchem` extensions implements the ``\ce``, ``\cf``, and ``\cee``
chemical equation macros of the LaTeX `mhchem` package.  See the
`mhchem CTAN page <http://www.ctan.org/pkg/mhchem>`_ for more
information and a link to the documentation for `mhchem`.

For example

.. code-block:: latex

    \ce{C6H5-CHO}
    \ce{$A$ ->[\ce{+H2O}] $B$}
    \ce{SO4^2- + Ba^2+ -> BaSO4 v}

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["mhchem.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.

Beginning with v2.7, the extension provides a configuration option
to switch to `mhchem v3 <https://mhchem.github.io/MathJax-mhchem/>`_,
a complete refactor of mhchem contributed by
the author of the original LaTeX package.

You can control this behavior using the ``legacy`` value which defaults
to ``true``.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      mhchem: { legacy: true }
    }


noErrors
--------

The `noErrors` extension prevents TeX error messages from being
displayed and shows the original TeX code instead.  You can configure
whether the dollar signs are shown or not for in-line math, and
whether to put all the TeX on one line or use multiple lines (if the
original text contained line breaks).

This extension is loaded by all the combined configuration files that
include the TeX input processor.  To enable the `noErrors` extension in
your own configuration, or to modify its parameters, add something like the
following to your :meth:`MathJax.Hub.Config()` call:

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["noErrors.js"],
      noErrors: {
        inlineDelimiters: ["",""],   // or ["$","$"] or ["\\(","\\)"]
        multiLine: true,             // false for TeX on all one line
        style: {
          "font-size":   "90%",
          "text-align":  "left",
          "color":       "black",
          "padding":     "1px 3px",
          "border":      "1px solid"
          // add any additional CSS styles that you want
          //  (be sure there is no extra comma at the end of the last item)
        }
      }
    }

Display-style math is always shown in multi-line format, and without
delimiters, as it will already be set off in its own centered
paragraph, like standard display mathematics.

The default settings place the invalid TeX in a multi-line box with a
black border. If you want it to look as though the TeX is just part of
the paragraph, use

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      noErrors: {
        inlineDelimiters: ["$","$"],   // or ["",""] or ["\\(","\\)"]
        multiLine: false,
        style: {
          "font-size": "normal",
          "border": ""
        }
      }
    }

You may also wish to set the font family or other CSS values here.

If you are using a combined configuration file that loads the TeX
input processor, it will also load the `noErrors` extension
automatically.  If you want to disable the `noErrors` extension so
that you receive the normal TeX error messages, use the following
configuration:

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: { noErrors: { disabled: true } }

Any math that includes errors will be replaced by an error message
indicating what went wrong.


noUndefined
-----------

The `noUndefined` extension causes undefined control sequences to be
shown as their macro names rather than generating error messages. So
``$X_{\xxx}$`` would display as an "X" with a subscript consisting of the
text ``\xxx`` in red.

This extension is loaded by all the combined configuration files that
include the TeX input processor.  To enable the `noUndefined` extension
in your own configuration, or to modify its parameters, add something like
the following to your :meth:`MathJax.Hub.Config()` call:

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["noUndefined.js"],
      noUndefined: {
        attributes: {
          mathcolor: "red",
          mathbackground: "#FFEEEE",
          mathsize: "90%"
        }
      }
    }

The ``attributes`` setting specifies attributes to apply to the
``mtext`` element that encodes the name of the undefined macro.  The
default values set ``mathcolor`` to ``"red"``, but do not set any
other attributes.  This example sets the background to a light pink,
and reduces the font size slightly.

If you are using a combined configuration file that loads the TeX
input processor, it will also load the `noUndefined` extension
automatically.  If you want to disable the `noUndefined` extension so
that you receive the normal TeX error messages for undefined macros,
use the following configuration:

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: { noUndefined: { disabled: true } }

Any math that includes an undefined control sequence name will be
replaced by an error message indicating what name was undefined.


Unicode support
---------------

The `unicode` extension implements a ``\unicode{}`` extension to TeX
that allows arbitrary unicode code points to be entered in your
mathematics.  You can specify the height and depth of the character
(the width is determined by the browser), and the default font from
which to take the character.

Examples:

.. code-block:: latex

    \unicode{65}                        % the character 'A'
    \unicode{x41}                       % the character 'A'
    \unicode[.55,0.05]{x22D6}           % less-than with dot, with height .55em and depth 0.05em
    \unicode[.55,0.05][Geramond]{x22D6} % same taken from Geramond font
    \unicode[Garamond]{x22D6}           % same, but with default height, depth of .8em,.2em

Once a size and font are provided for a given unicode point, they need
not be specified again in subsequent ``\unicode{}`` calls for that
character.

The result of ``\unicode{...}`` will have TeX class `ORD` (i.e., it
will act like a variable).  Use ``\mathbin{...}``, ``\mathrel{...}``,
etc., to specify a different class.

Note that a font list can be given in the ``\unicode{}`` macro, but
Internet Explorer has a buggy implementation of the ``font-family``
CSS attribute where it only looks in the first font in the list that
is actually installed on the system, and if the required glyph is not
in that font, it does not look at later fonts, but goes directly to
the default font as set in the `Internet-Options/Font` panel.  For
this reason, the default font list for the ``\unicode{}`` macro is
``STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS'``, so if the user has :term:`STIX`
fonts, the symbol will be taken from that (almost all the symbols are
in `STIXGeneral`), otherwise MathJax tries `Arial Unicode MS`.

The `unicode` extension is loaded automatically when you first use the
``\unicode{}`` macro, so you do not need to add it to the `extensions`
array.  You can configure the extension as follows:

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      unicode: {
        fonts: "STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS'"
      }
    }


Autoload-all
------------

The `autoload-all` extension predefines all the macros from the
extensions above so that they autoload the extensions when first
used.  A number of macros already do this, e.g., ``\unicode``, but
this extension defines the others to do the same.  That way MathJax
will have access to all the macros that it knows about.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["autoload-all.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.

Note that `autoload-all` redefines ``\color`` to be the one from the
`color` extension (the LaTeX-compatible one rather than the
non-standard MathJax version).  This is because ``\colorbox`` and
``\fcolorbox`` autoload the `color` extension, which will cause
``\color`` to be redefined, and so for consistency, ``\color`` is
redefined immediately.

If you wish to retain the original definition of ``\color``, then use
the following

.. code-block:: html

    <script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
    MathJax.Hub.Config({
      TeX: { extensions: ["autoload-all.js"] }
    });
    MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX autoload-all Ready", function () {
      var MACROS = MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.macros;
      MACROS.color = "Color";
      delete MACROS.colorbox;
      delete MACROS.fcolorbox;
    });
    </script>

mediawiki-texvc
---------------

The `mediawiki-texvc` extension predefines macros that match
the behavior of the `MediaWiki Math Extension 
<https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Math>`__.

To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the
`extensions` array in the TeX block.

.. code-block:: javascript

    TeX: {
      extensions: ["mediawiki-texvc.js"]
    }

This extension is **not** included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.


.. _tex-commands:

Supported LaTeX commands
========================

This is a long list of the TeX macros supported by MathJax.  If the
macro is defined in an extension, the name of the extension follows
the macro name.  If the extension is in brackets, the extension will
be loaded automatically when the macro or environment is first used.

More complete details about how to use these macros, with examples and
explanations, is available at Carol Fisher's `TeX Commands Available
in MathJax
<http://www.onemathematicalcat.org/MathJaxDocumentation/TeXSyntax.htm>`_ page.

Symbols
-------

.. code-block:: latex

    #
    %
    &
    ^
    _
    {
    }
    ~
    '

    \   (backslash-space)
    \!
    \#
    \$
    \%
    \&
    \,
    \:
    \;
    \>
    \\
    \_
    \{
    \|
    \}

A
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \AA                     mediawiki-texvc
    \above
    \abovewithdelims
    \acute
    \alef                   mediawiki-texvc
    \aleph
    \alpha
    \Alpha                  mediawiki-texvc
    \amalg
    \And
    \and                    mediawiki-texvc
    \ang                    mediawiki-texvc
    \angle
    \approx
    \approxeq               AMSsymbols
    \arccos
    \arcsin
    \arctan
    \arg
    \array
    \Arrowvert
    \arrowvert
    \ast
    \asymp
    \atop
    \atopwithdelims

B
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \Bbb                    mediawiki-texvc
    \backepsilon            AMSsymbols
    \backprime              AMSsymbols
    \backsim                AMSsymbols
    \backsimeq              AMSsymbols
    \backslash
    \backslash
    \bar
    \barwedge               AMSsymbols
    \Bbb
    \Bbbk                   AMSsymbols
    \bbox                  [bbox]
    \bcancel                cancel
    \because                AMSsymbols
    \begin
    \begingroup             begingroup      non-standard
    \beta
    \Beta                   mediawiki-texvc
    \beth                   AMSsymbols
    \between                AMSsymbols
    \bf
    \Big
    \big
    \bigcap
    \bigcirc
    \bigcup
    \Bigg
    \bigg
    \Biggl
    \biggl
    \Biggm
    \biggm
    \Biggr
    \biggr
    \Bigl
    \bigl
    \Bigm
    \bigm
    \bigodot
    \bigoplus
    \bigotimes
    \Bigr
    \bigr
    \bigsqcup
    \bigstar                AMSsymbols
    \bigtriangledown
    \bigtriangleup
    \biguplus
    \bigvee
    \bigwedge
    \binom                  AMSmath
    \blacklozenge           AMSsymbols
    \blacksquare            AMSsymbols
    \blacktriangle          AMSsymbols
    \blacktriangledown      AMSsymbols
    \blacktriangleleft      AMSsymbols
    \blacktriangleright     AMSsymbols
    \bmod
    \bold                   mediawiki-texvc
    \boldsymbol            [boldsymbol]
    \bot
    \bowtie
    \Box                    AMSsymbols
    \boxdot                 AMSsymbols
    \boxed                  AMSmath
    \boxminus               AMSsymbols
    \boxplus                AMSsymbols
    \boxtimes               AMSsymbols
    \brace
    \bracevert
    \brack
    \breve
    \buildrel
    \bul                    mediawiki-texvc
    \bullet
    \Bumpeq                 AMSsymbols
    \bumpeq                 AMSsymbols

C
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \C                      mediawiki-texvc
    \cal
    \cancel                 cancel
    \cancelto               cancel
    \cap
    \Cap                    AMSsymbols
    \cases
    \cdot
    \cdotp
    \cdots
    \ce                     mhchem
    \cee                    mhchem
    \centerdot              AMSsymbols
    \cf                     mhchem
    \cfrac                  AMSmath
    \check
    \checkmark              AMSsymbols
    \chi
    \Chi                    mediawiki-texvc
    \choose
    \circ
    \circeq                 AMSsymbols
    \circlearrowleft        AMSsymbols
    \circlearrowright       AMSsymbols
    \circledast             AMSsymbols
    \circledcirc            AMSsymbols
    \circleddash            AMSsymbols
    \circledR               AMSsymbols
    \circledS               AMSsymbols
    \class                 [HTML]           non-standard
    \clubs                  mediawiki-texvc
    \clubsuit
    \cnums                  mediawiki-texvc
    \colon
    \color                  color
    \colorbox               color
    \complement             AMSsymbols
    \Complex                mediawiki-texvc
    \cong
    \coppa                  mediawiki-texvc
    \Coppa                  mediawiki-texvc
    \coprod
    \cos
    \cosh
    \cot
    \coth
    \cr
    \csc
    \cssId                 [HTML]           non-standard
    \cup
    \Cup                    AMSsymbols
    \curlyeqprec            AMSsymbols
    \curlyeqsucc            AMSsymbols
    \curlyvee               AMSsymbols
    \curlywedge             AMSsymbols
    \curvearrowleft         AMSsymbols
    \curvearrowright        AMSsymbols

D
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \dagger
    \Dagger                 mediawiki-texvc
    \daleth                 AMSsymbols
    \Darr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \dashleftarrow          AMSsymbols
    \dashrightarrow         AMSsymbols
    \dashv
    \dbinom                 AMSmath
    \ddagger
    \ddddot                 AMSmath
    \dddot                  AMSmath
    \ddot
    \ddots
    \DeclareMathOperator    AMSmath
    \definecolor            color
    \def                   [newcommand]
    \deg
    \Delta
    \delta
    \det
    \dfrac                  AMSmath
    \diagdown               AMSsymbols
    \diagup                 AMSsymbols
    \diamond
    \Diamond                AMSsymbols
    \diamonds               mediawiki-texvc
    \diamondsuit
    \digamma                AMSsymbols
    \Digamma                mediawiki-texvc
    \dim
    \displaylines
    \displaystyle
    \div
    \divideontimes          AMSsymbols
    \dot
    \doteq
    \Doteq                  AMSsymbols
    \doteqdot               AMSsymbols
    \dotplus                AMSsymbols
    \dots
    \dotsb
    \dotsc
    \dotsi
    \dotsm
    \dotso
    \doublebarwedge         AMSsymbols
    \doublecap              AMSsymbols
    \doublecup              AMSsymbols
    \Downarrow
    \downarrow
    \downdownarrows         AMSsymbols
    \downharpoonleft        AMSsymbols
    \downharpoonright       AMSsymbols

E
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \ell
    \empty                  mediawiki-texvc
    \emptyset
    \enclose                enclose         non-standard
    \end
    \endgroup               begingroup      non-standard
    \enspace
    \epsilon
    \Epsilon                mediawiki-texvc
    \eqalign
    \eqalignno
    \eqcirc                 AMSsymbols
    \eqref                 [AMSmath]
    \eqsim                  AMSsymbols
    \eqslantgtr             AMSsymbols
    \eqslantless            AMSsymbols
    \equiv
    \eta
    \Eta                    mediawiki-texvc
    \eth                    AMSsymbols
    \euro                   mediawiki-texvc
    \exist                  mediawiki-texvc
    \exists
    \exp

F
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \fallingdotseq          AMSsymbols
    \fbox
    \fcolorbox              color
    \Finv                   AMSsymbols
    \flat
    \forall
    \frac
    \frac                   AMSmath
    \frak
    \frown

G
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \Game                   AMSsymbols
    \Gamma
    \gamma
    \gcd
    \gdef                   begingroup
    \ge
    \geneuro                mediawiki-texvc
    \geneuronarrow          mediawiki-texvc
    \geneurowide            mediawiki-texvc
    \genfrac                AMSmath
    \geq
    \geqq                   AMSsymbols
    \geqslant               AMSsymbols
    \gets
    \gg
    \ggg                    AMSsymbols
    \gggtr                  AMSsymbols
    \gimel                  AMSsymbols
    \global                 begingroup
    \gnapprox               AMSsymbols
    \gneq                   AMSsymbols
    \gneqq                  AMSsymbols
    \gnsim                  AMSsymbols
    \grave
    \gt
    \gt
    \gtrapprox              AMSsymbols
    \gtrdot                 AMSsymbols
    \gtreqless              AMSsymbols
    \gtreqqless             AMSsymbols
    \gtrless                AMSsymbols
    \gtrsim                 AMSsymbols
    \gvertneqq              AMSsymbols

H
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \H                      mediawiki-texvc
    \hAar                   mediawiki-texvc
    \harr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \Harr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \hat
    \hbar
    \hbox
    \hdashline
    \hearts                 mediawiki-texvc
    \heartsuit
    \hline
    \hom
    \hookleftarrow
    \hookrightarrow
    \hphantom
    \href                  [HTML]
    \hskip
    \hslash                 AMSsymbols
    \hspace
    \Huge
    \huge
    \idotsint               AMSmath

I
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \iff
    \iiiint                 AMSmath
    \iiint
    \iint
    \Im
    \image                  mediawiki-texvc
    \imath
    \impliedby              AMSsymbols
    \implies                AMSsymbols
    \in
    \inf
    \infin                  mediawiki-texvc
    \infty
    \injlim                 AMSmath
    \int
    \intercal               AMSsymbols
    \intop
    \isin                   mediawiki-texvc
    \iota
    \Iota                   mediawiki-texvc
    \it

J
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \jmath
    \Join                   AMSsymbols

K
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \kappa
    \Kappa                  mediawiki-texvc
    \ker
    \kern
    \koppa                  mediawiki-texvc
    \Koppa                  mediawiki-texvc

L
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \label                 [AMSmath]
    \Lambda
    \lambda
    \land
    \lang                   mediawiki-texvc
    \langle
    \LARGE
    \Large
    \large
    \larr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \Larr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \lArr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \LaTeX
    \lbrace
    \lbrack
    \lceil
    \ldotp
    \ldots
    \le
    \leadsto                AMSsymbols
    \left
    \Leftarrow
    \leftarrow
    \leftarrowtail          AMSsymbols
    \leftharpoondown
    \leftharpoonup
    \leftleftarrows         AMSsymbols
    \Leftrightarrow
    \leftrightarrow
    \leftrightarrows        AMSsymbols
    \leftrightharpoons      AMSsymbols
    \leftrightsquigarrow    AMSsymbols
    \leftroot
    \leftthreetimes         AMSsymbols
    \leq
    \leqalignno
    \leqq                   AMSsymbols
    \leqslant               AMSsymbols
    \lessapprox             AMSsymbols
    \lessdot                AMSsymbols
    \lesseqgtr              AMSsymbols
    \lesseqqgtr             AMSsymbols
    \lessgtr                AMSsymbols
    \lesssim                AMSsymbols
    \let                   [newcommand]
    \lfloor
    \lg
    \lgroup
    \lhd                    AMSsymbols
    \lim
    \liminf
    \limits
    \limsup
    \ll
    \llap
    \llcorner               AMSsymbols
    \Lleftarrow             AMSsymbols
    \lll                    AMSsymbols
    \llless                 AMSsymbols
    \lmoustache
    \ln
    \lnapprox               AMSsymbols
    \lneq                   AMSsymbols
    \lneqq                  AMSsymbols
    \lnot
    \lnsim                  AMSsymbols
    \log
    \Longleftarrow
    \longleftarrow
    \Longleftrightarrow
    \longleftrightarrow
    \longmapsto
    \Longrightarrow
    \longrightarrow
    \looparrowleft          AMSsymbols
    \looparrowright         AMSsymbols
    \lor
    \lower
    \lozenge                AMSsymbols
    \lrarr                  mediawiki-texvc
    \Lrarr                  mediawiki-texvc
    \lrArr                  mediawiki-texvc
    \lrcorner               AMSsymbols
    \Lsh                    AMSsymbols
    \lt
    \lt
    \ltimes                 AMSsymbols
    \lVert                  AMSmath
    \lvert                  AMSmath
    \lvertneqq              AMSsymbols

M
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \maltese                AMSsymbols
    \mapsto
    \mathbb
    \mathbf
    \mathbin
    \mathcal
    \mathchoice            [mathchoice]
    \mathclose
    \mathfrak
    \mathinner
    \mathit
    \mathop
    \mathopen
    \mathord
    \mathpunct
    \mathrel
    \mathring               AMSmath
    \mathrm
    \mathscr
    \mathsf
    \mathstrut
    \mathtip                action          non-standard
    \mathtt
    \matrix
    \max
    \mbox
    \measuredangle          AMSsymbols
    \mho                    AMSsymbols
    \mid
    \middle
    \min
    \mit
    \mkern
    \mmlToken                               non-standard
    \mod
    \models
    \moveleft
    \moveright
    \mp
    \mskip
    \mspace
    \mu
    \Mu                     mediawiki-texvc
    \multimap               AMSsymbols

N
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \N                      mediawiki-texvc
    \nabla
    \natural
    \natnums                mediawiki-texvc
    \ncong                  AMSsymbols
    \ne
    \nearrow
    \neg
    \negmedspace            AMSmath
    \negthickspace          AMSmath
    \negthinspace
    \neq
    \newcommand            [newcommand]
    \newenvironment        [newcommand]
    \Newextarrow            extpfeil
    \newline
    \nexists                AMSsymbols
    \ngeq                   AMSsymbols
    \ngeqq                  AMSsymbols
    \ngeqslant              AMSsymbols
    \ngtr                   AMSsymbols
    \ni
    \nLeftarrow             AMSsymbols
    \nleftarrow             AMSsymbols
    \nLeftrightarrow        AMSsymbols
    \nleftrightarrow        AMSsymbols
    \nleq                   AMSsymbols
    \nleqq                  AMSsymbols
    \nleqslant              AMSsymbols
    \nless                  AMSsymbols
    \nmid                   AMSsymbols
    \nobreakspace           AMSmath
    \nolimits
    \normalsize
    \not
    \notag                 [AMSmath]
    \notin
    \nparallel              AMSsymbols
    \nprec                  AMSsymbols
    \npreceq                AMSsymbols
    \nRightarrow            AMSsymbols
    \nrightarrow            AMSsymbols
    \nshortmid              AMSsymbols
    \nshortparallel         AMSsymbols
    \nsim                   AMSsymbols
    \nsubseteq              AMSsymbols
    \nsubseteqq             AMSsymbols
    \nsucc                  AMSsymbols
    \nsucceq                AMSsymbols
    \nsupseteq              AMSsymbols
    \nsupseteqq             AMSsymbols
    \ntriangleleft          AMSsymbols
    \ntrianglelefteq        AMSsymbols
    \ntriangleright         AMSsymbols
    \ntrianglerighteq       AMSsymbols
    \nu
    \Nu                     mediawiki-texvc
    \nVDash                 AMSsymbols
    \nVdash                 AMSsymbols
    \nvDash                 AMSsymbols
    \nvdash                 AMSsymbols
    \nwarrow

O
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \O                      mediawiki-texvc
    \odot
    \officialeuro           mediawiki-texvc
    \oint
    \oldstyle
    \Omega
    \omega
    \omicron
    \Omicron                mediawiki-texvc
    \ominus
    \operatorname           AMSmath
    \oplus
    \or                     mediawiki-texvc
    \oslash
    \otimes
    \over
    \overbrace
    \overleftarrow
    \overleftrightarrow
    \overline
    \overrightarrow
    \overset
    \overwithdelims
    \owns

P
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \P                      mediawiki-texvc
    \pagecolor              mediawiki-texvc
    \parallel
    \part                   mediawiki-texvc
    \partial
    \perp
    \phantom
    \Phi
    \phi
    \Pi
    \pi
    \pitchfork              AMSsymbols
    \plusmn                 mediawiki-texvc
    \pm
    \pmatrix
    \pmb
    \pmod
    \pod
    \Pr
    \prec
    \precapprox             AMSsymbols
    \preccurlyeq            AMSsymbols
    \preceq
    \precnapprox            AMSsymbols
    \precneqq               AMSsymbols
    \precnsim               AMSsymbols
    \precsim                AMSsymbols
    \prime
    \prod
    \projlim                AMSmath
    \propto
    \Psi
    \psi

Q
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \Q                      mediawiki-texvc
    \qquad
    \quad

R
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \R                      mediawiki-texvc
    \raise
    \rang                   mediawiki-texvc
    \rangle
    \rarr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \Rarr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \rArr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \rbrace
    \rbrack
    \rceil
    \Re
    \real                   mediawiki-texvc
    \reals                  mediawiki-texvc
    \Reals                  mediawiki-texvc
    \ref                   [AMSmath]
    \renewcommand          [newcommand]
    \renewenvironment      [newcommand]
    \require                               non-standard
    \restriction            AMSsymbols
    \rfloor
    \rgroup
    \rhd                    AMSsymbols
    \rho
    \Rho                    mediawiki-texvc
    \right
    \Rightarrow
    \rightarrow
    \rightarrowtail         AMSsymbols
    \rightharpoondown
    \rightharpoonup
    \rightleftarrows        AMSsymbols
    \rightleftharpoons
    \rightleftharpoons      AMSsymbols
    \rightrightarrows       AMSsymbols
    \rightsquigarrow        AMSsymbols
    \rightthreetimes        AMSsymbols
    \risingdotseq           AMSsymbols
    \rlap
    \rm
    \rmoustache
    \root
    \Rrightarrow            AMSsymbols
    \Rsh                    AMSsymbols
    \rtimes                 AMSsymbols
    \Rule                                  non-standard
    \rVert                  AMSmath
    \rvert                  AMSmath

S
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \S
    \sampi                  mediawiki-texvc
    \Sampi                  mediawiki-texvc
    \scr
    \scriptscriptstyle
    \scriptsize
    \scriptstyle
    \sdot                   mediawiki-texvc
    \searrow
    \sect                   mediawiki-texvc
    \sec
    \setminus
    \sf
    \sharp
    \shortmid               AMSsymbols
    \shortparallel          AMSsymbols
    \shoveleft              AMSmath
    \shoveright             AMSmath
    \sideset                AMSmath
    \Sigma
    \sigma
    \sim
    \simeq
    \sin
    \sinh
    \skew
    \small
    \smallfrown             AMSsymbols
    \smallint
    \smallsetminus          AMSsymbols
    \smallsmile             AMSsymbols
    \smash
    \smile
    \spades                 mediawiki-texvc
    \Space
    \space
    \spadesuit
    \sphericalangle         AMSsymbols
    \sqcap
    \sqcup
    \sqrt
    \sqsubset               AMSsymbols
    \sqsubseteq
    \sqsupset               AMSsymbols
    \sqsupseteq
    \square                 AMSsymbols
    \stackrel
    \star
    \stigma                 mediawiki-texvc
    \Stigma                 mediawiki-texvc
    \strut
    \style                 [HTML]          non-stanard
    \sub                    mediawiki-texvc
    \sube                   mediawiki-texvc
    \subset
    \Subset                 AMSsymbols
    \subseteq
    \subseteqq              AMSsymbols
    \subsetneq              AMSsymbols
    \subsetneqq             AMSsymbols
    \substack               AMSmath
    \succ
    \succapprox             AMSsymbols
    \succcurlyeq            AMSsymbols
    \succeq
    \succnapprox            AMSsymbols
    \succneqq               AMSsymbols
    \succnsim               AMSsymbols
    \succsim                AMSsymbols
    \sum
    \sup
    \supe                   mediawiki-texvc
    \supset
    \Supset                 AMSsymbols
    \supseteq
    \supseteqq              AMSsymbols
    \supsetneq              AMSsymbols
    \supsetneqq             AMSsymbols
    \surd
    \swarrow

T
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \tag                   [AMSmath]
    \tan
    \tanh
    \tau
    \Tau                    mediawiki-texvc
    \tbinom                 AMSmath
    \TeX
    \text
    \textbf
    \textit
    \textrm
    \textsf
    \textstyle
    \texttt
    \texttip                action         non-standard
    \textvisiblespace       mediawiki-texvc
    \tfrac                  AMSmath
    \therefore              AMSsymbols
    \Theta
    \theta
    \thetasym               mediawiki-texvc
    \thickapprox            AMSsymbols
    \thicksim               AMSsymbols
    \thinspace
    \tilde
    \times
    \tiny
    \Tiny                                  non-standard
    \to
    \toggle                 action         non-standard
    \top
    \triangle
    \triangledown           AMSsymbols
    \triangleleft
    \trianglelefteq         AMSsymbols
    \triangleq              AMSsymbols
    \triangleright
    \trianglerighteq        AMSsymbols
    \tt
    \twoheadleftarrow       AMSsymbols
    \twoheadrightarrow      AMSsymbols

U
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \uarr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \uArr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \Uarr                   mediawiki-texvc
    \ulcorner               AMSsymbols
    \underbrace
    \underleftarrow
    \underleftrightarrow
    \underline
    \underrightarrow
    \underset
    \unicode               [unicode]       non-standard
    \unlhd                  AMSsymbols
    \unrhd                  AMSsymbols
    \Uparrow
    \uparrow
    \Updownarrow
    \updownarrow
    \upharpoonleft          AMSsymbols
    \upharpoonright         AMSsymbols
    \uplus
    \uproot
    \Upsilon
    \upsilon
    \upuparrows             AMSsymbols
    \urcorner               AMSsymbols

V
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \varcoppa               mediawiki-texvc
    \varDelta               AMSsymbols
    \varepsilon
    \varGamma               AMSsymbols
    \varinjlim              AMSmath
    \varkappa               AMSsymbols
    \varLambda              AMSsymbols
    \varliminf              AMSmath
    \varlimsup              AMSmath
    \varnothing             AMSsymbols
    \varOmega               AMSsymbols
    \varphi
    \varPhi                 AMSsymbols
    \varpi
    \varPi                  AMSsymbols
    \varprojlim             AMSmath
    \varpropto              AMSsymbols
    \varPsi                 AMSsymbols
    \varrho
    \varsigma
    \varSigma               AMSsymbols
    \varstigma              mediawiki-texvc
    \varsubsetneq           AMSsymbols
    \varsubsetneqq          AMSsymbols
    \varsupsetneq           AMSsymbols
    \varsupsetneqq          AMSsymbols
    \vartheta
    \varTheta               AMSsymbols
    \vartriangle            AMSsymbols
    \vartriangleleft        AMSsymbols
    \vartriangleright       AMSsymbols
    \varUpsilon             AMSsymbols
    \varXi                  AMSsymbols
    \vcenter
    \vdash
    \Vdash                  AMSsymbols
    \vDash                  AMSsymbols
    \vdots
    \vec
    \vee
    \veebar                 AMSsymbols
    \verb                  [verb]
    \Vert
    \vert
    \vline                  mediawiki-texvc
    \vphantom
    \Vvdash                 AMSsymbols

W
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \wedge
    \weierp                 mediawiki-texvc
    \widehat
    \widetilde
    \wp
    \wr

X
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \Xi
    \xi
    \xcancel                cancel
    \xleftarrow             AMSmath
    \xlongequal             extpfeil
    \xmapsto                extpfeil
    \xrightarrow            AMSmath
    \xtofrom                extpfeil
    \xtwoheadleftarrow      extpfeil
    \xtwoheadrightarrow     extpfeil

Y
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \yen                    AMSsymbols

Z
-

.. code-block:: latex

    \Z                      mediawiki-texvc
    \zeta
    \Zeta                   mediawiki-texvc


Environments
------------

LaTeX environments of the form ``\begin{XXX} ... \end{XXX}`` are
provided where ``XXX`` is one of the following:

.. code-block:: latex

    align		   [AMSmath]
    align*		   [AMSmath]
    alignat		   [AMSmath]
    alignat*		   [AMSmath]
    aligned		   [AMSmath]
    alignedat		   [AMSmath]
    array

    Bmatrix
    bmatrix

    cases
    CD                      AMSmath

    eqnarray
    eqnarray*
    equation
    equation*

    gather		   [AMSmath]
    gather*		   [AMSmath]
    gathered		   [AMSmath]

    matrix
    multline		   [AMSmath]
    multline*		   [AMSmath]

    pmatrix

    smallmatrix		    AMSmath
    split		   [AMSmath]
    subarray		    AMSmath

    Vmatrix
    vmatrix