File: mathtex.c

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mathtex 1.03-1
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: buster, jessie, jessie-kfreebsd, sid, squeeze, wheezy
  • size: 540 kB
  • ctags: 301
  • sloc: ansic: 3,863; makefile: 50
file content (5635 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 320,464 bytes parent folder | download
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/****************************************************************************
 *
 * Copyright(c) 2007-2009, John Forkosh Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
 *           http://www.forkosh.com   mailto: john@forkosh.com
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * This file is part of mathTeX, which is free software. You may redistribute
 * and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License,
 * version 3 or later, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *      MathTeX is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
 * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, not even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY.
 * See the GNU General Public License for specific details.
 *      By using mathTeX, you warrant that you have read, understood and
 * agreed to these terms and conditions, and that you possess the legal
 * right and ability to enter into this agreement and to use mathTeX
 * in accordance with it.
 *      Your mathtex.zip distribution should contain the file COPYING,
 * an ascii text copy of the GNU General Public License, version 3.
 * If not, point your browser to  http://www.gnu.org/licenses/
 * or write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
 * 59 Temple Place, Suite 330,  Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Purpose:   o	MathTeX, licensed under the gpl, lets you easily embed
 *		LaTeX math in your html pages or blogs, wikis, bb's, etc.
 *		It submits a LaTeX math expression to latex, and
 *		immediately emits the corresponding gif image, rather than
 *		the usual TeX dvi.
 *		For example,
 *		 <img src="/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\int_{-\infty}^xe^{-t^2}dt"
 *		  alt="" border=0 align=middle>
 *		immediately generates the corresponding gif image,
 *		displaying the rendered expression wherever you put
 *		that <img> tag.
 *		But there's no inherent need to repeatedly write
 *		cumbersome <img> tags as illustrated above.  You can write
 *		your own custom tags, or write a wrapper script around
 *		mathTeX to simplify the notation.
 *		See http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html for more information.
 *
 * Functions:	=============================================================
 *		main(argc,argv)     latex's math expression and emits gif/png
 *		mathtex(expression,filename)  create image of math expression
 *		setpaths(method)     set paths for latex,dvipng,dvips,convert
 *		isnotfound(filename)  check "... 2>.err" file for "not found"
 *		validate(expression) remove illegal \commands from expression
 *		advertisement(expression,mode)  wrap expression in ad message
 *		mathlog(expression,filename)          write entry in log file
 *		makepath(oath,name,extension)   construct path/name.extension
 *		isfexists(filename)      check whether or not filename exists
 *		isdexists(dirname)      check whether or not directory exists
 *		whichpath(program,nlocate)         determines path to command
 *		locatepath(program,nlocate) tries locate if whichpath() fails
 *		rrmdir(path)                                       rm -r path
 *		emitcache(cachefile,maxage,isbuffer) dump cachefile to stdout
 *		readcachefile(cachefile,buffer)    read cachefile into buffer
 *		crc16(s)                               16-bit crc of string s
 *		md5str(instr)                      md5 hash library functions
 *		unescape_url(url)             xlate all %xx's in url to ascii
 *		x2c(what)    xlate a single hex "xx" to equivalent ascii char
 *		timelimit(command,killtime)   throttle command after killtime
 *		getdirective(string,directive,iscase,isvalid,nargs,args) \dir
 *		mathprep(expression)           preprocessor for mathTeX input
 *		strwstr(string,substr,white,sublen)     find substr in string
 *		strreplace(string,from,to,iscase,nreplace)  change from to to
 *		strchange(nfirst,from,to)   change nfirst chars of from to to
 *		isstrstr(string,snippets,iscase)    is any snippet in string?
 *		nomath(s)          removes/replaces any LaTeX math chars in s
 *		strwrap(s,linelen,tablen)insert \n's and spaces to wrap lines
 *		strpspn(s,reject,segment) non-{[()]} chars of s not in reject
 *		strqspn(s,q,isunescape) find matching " or ' in quoted string
 *		timestamp(tzdelta,ifmt)       returns current date:time stamp
 *		tzadjust(tzdelta,year,month,day,hour)   adjust time for tzone
 *		daynumber(year,month,day)     #calendar days from Jan 1, 1973
 *		emitembedded(imagenum,isquery)  emit embedded image to stdout
 *		embeddedimages(imagenum,nbytes,imgtype)   embedded gif or png
 *
 * Source:	mathtex.c
 *
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes      o	See the comment block above each function
 *		for more information about it.
 *	      o	MathTeX runs only under Unix-like operating systems.
 *		To compile mathTeX
 *		   cc mathtex.c -DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" \
 *		   -DDVIPNG=\"$(which dvipng)\" \
 *		   -DDVIPS=\"$(which dvips)\" \
 *		   -DCONVERT=\"$(which convert)\" \
 *		   -o mathtex.cgi
 *		And see discussion of optional -D switches below.
 *		To install mathTeX
 *		   (a) mv mathtex.cgi to your cgi-bin/ directory
 *		       and chmod its permissions as necessary
 *		   (b) mkdir cgi-bin/mathtex  which is the cache directory
 *		       and chmod its permissions so mathtex.cgi can rw it.
 *		See http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html for more information.
 *	      o	The timelimit() code is adapted from
 *		   http://devel.ringlet.net/sysutils/timelimit/
 *		Compile with -DTIMELIMIT=\"$(which timelimit)\" to use an
 *		installed copy of that program rather than the built-in code.
 *	      o	Some program parameters adjustable by optional -D switches on
 *		mathTeX's compile line are illustrated with default values...
 *		-DLATEX=\"/usr/share/texmf/bin/latex\"  path to LaTeX program
 *		-DDVIPNG=\"/usr/share/texmf/bin/dvipng\"dvipng(same as latex)
 *		-DDVIPS=\"/usr/share/texmf/bin/dvips\"  dvips (same as latex)
 *		-DCONVERT=\"/usr/bin/convert\"     path to convert executable
 *		-DCACHE=\"mathtex/\"     relative path to mathTeX's cache dir
 *		-DTIMELIMIT=\"/usr/local/bin/timelimit\"    path to timelimit
 *		-WARNTIME=10   #secs latex can run using standalone timelimit
 *		-KILLTIME=10   #secs latex can run using built-in timelimit()
 *		-DGIF                                         emit gif images
 *		-DPNG                                         emit png images
 *		-DDISPLAYSTYLE                            \[ \displaystyle \]
 *		-DTEXTSTYLE                                    $ \textstyle $
 *		-DPARSTYLE       paragraph mode, supply your own $ $ or \[ \]
 *		-DFONTSIZE=5           1=\tiny,...,5=\normalsize,...,10=\Huge
 *		-DUSEPACKAGE=\"filename\"       file containing \usepackage's
 *		-DNEWCOMMAND=\"filename\"       file containing \newcommand's
 *		-DDPI=\"120\"        dvipng -D DPI  parameter (as \"string\")
 *		-DGAMMA=\"2.5\"   dvipng --gamma GAMMA  param (as \"string\")
 *		-DNOQUIET     -halt-on-error (default reply q(uiet) to error)
 *		-DTEXTAREANAME=\"formdata\"   <textarea name=...> in a <form>
 *		-DREFERER=\"\"         comma-separated list of valid referers
 *		-DMAXINVALID=0     max length expression from invalid referer
 *		-DADFREQUENCY=0  one request out of n displayed along with ad
 *		-DADVERTISEMENT=\"filename\"      file containing ad template
 *		See http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html for more information.
 *
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Revision History:
 * See http://www.forkosh.com/mathtexchangelog.html for more information.
 * 10/11/07	J.Forkosh	Installation Version 1.00.
 * 02/17/08	J.Forkosh	Version 1.01
 * 03/06/09	J.Forkosh	Version 1.02
 * 08/14/09	J.Forkosh	Version 1.03
 *
 ****************************************************************************/

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Standard header files
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* ---
 * standard headers
 * ---------------- */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>
char	*strcasestr();			/* non-standard extension */
#include <ctype.h>
#include <time.h>
extern	char **environ;			/* for \environment directive */

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Information adjustable by -D switches on compile line
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* ---
 * executable paths (e.g., path/latex including filename of executable image)
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- determine which switches have been explicitly specified --- */
#if defined(LATEX)
  #define ISLATEXSWITCH 1		/* have -DLATEX=\"path/latex\" */
#else
  #define ISLATEXSWITCH 0		/* no -DLATEX switch */
  #define LATEX "/usr/share/texmf/bin/latex" /* default path to latex */
#endif
#if defined(DVIPNG)
  #define ISDVIPNGSWITCH 1		/* have -DDVIPNG=\"path/dvipng\" */
#else
  #define ISDVIPNGSWITCH 0		/* no -DDVIPNG switch */
  #define DVIPNG "/usr/share/texmf/bin/dvipng"/* default path to dvipng */
#endif
#if defined(DVIPS)
  #define ISDVIPSSWITCH 1		/* have -DDVIPS=\"path/dvips\" */
#else
  #define ISDVIPSSWITCH 0		/* no -DDVIPS switch */
  #define DVIPS "/usr/share/texmf/bin/dvips" /* default path to dvips */
#endif
#if defined(CONVERT)
  #define ISCONVERTSWITCH 1		/* have -DCONVERT=\"path/convert\" */
#else
  #define ISCONVERTSWITCH 0		/* no -DCONVERT switch */
  #define CONVERT "/usr/bin/convert"	/* default path to convert */
#endif
#if defined(TIMELIMIT)
  #define ISTIMELIMITSWITCH 1	    /* have -DTIMELIMIT=\"path/timelimit\" */
#else
  #define ISTIMELIMITSWITCH 0		/* no -DTIMELIMIT switch */
  #define TIMELIMIT "/usr/local/bin/timelimit" /* default path to timelimit*/
#endif
/* --- paths, as specified by -D switches, else from whichpath() --- */
static	char latexpath[256] = LATEX,  dvipngpath[256] = DVIPNG,
 	dvipspath[256] = DVIPS,  convertpath[256] = CONVERT,
	timelimitpath[256] = TIMELIMIT;
/* --- source of path info: 0=default, 1=switch, 2=which, 3=locate --- */
static	int  islatexpath=ISLATEXSWITCH, isdvipngpath=ISDVIPNGSWITCH,
	isdvipspath=ISDVIPSSWITCH, isconvertpath=ISCONVERTSWITCH,
	istimelimitpath=ISTIMELIMITSWITCH;
/* ---
 * cache path -DCACHE=\"path/\" specifies directory
 * ------------------------------------------------ */
#if !defined(CACHE)
  #define CACHE "mathtex/"		/* relative to mathtex.cgi */
#endif
#if !defined(CACHELOG)
  #define CACHELOG "mathtex.log"	/* default cache log file */
#endif
#define	MAXAGE 7200			/* maxage in cache is 7200 secs */
static	int  iscaching = 1;		/* true if caching images */
static	char cachepath[256] = CACHE;	/* path to cached image files */
/* ---
 * image method info specifying dvipng or dvips/convert
 * use dvipng if -DDVIPNG supplied (or -DDVIPNGMETHOD specified),
 * else use dvips/convert if -DDVIPS supplied (or -DDVIPSMETHOD specified)
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#if    defined(DVIPNGMETHOD) || ISDVIPNGSWITCH==1
  #define IMAGEMETHOD 1
#elif  defined(DVIPSMETHOD)  || (ISDVIPSSWITCH==1 && ISDVIPNGSWITCH==0)
  #define IMAGEMETHOD 2
#elif !defined(IMAGEMETHOD)
  #define IMAGEMETHOD 1
#endif
static	int  imagemethod = IMAGEMETHOD;	/* 1=dvipng, 2=dvips/convert */
/* ---
 * image type info specifying gif, png
 * ----------------------------------- */
#if defined(GIF)
  #define IMAGETYPE 1
#endif
#if defined(PNG)
  #define IMAGETYPE 2
#endif
#if !defined(IMAGETYPE)
  #define IMAGETYPE 1
#endif
static	int  imagetype = IMAGETYPE;	/* 1=gif, 2=png */
static	char *extensions[] = { NULL,	/* image type file .extensions */
  "gif", "png", NULL };
/* ---
 * \[ \displaystyle \]  or  $ \textstyle $  or  \parstyle
 * ------------------------------------------------------ */
#if defined(DISPLAYSTYLE)
  #define MATHMODE 0
#endif
#if defined(TEXTSTYLE)
  #define MATHMODE 1
#endif
#if defined(PARSTYLE)
  #define MATHMODE 2
#endif
#if !defined(MATHMODE)
  #define MATHMODE 0
#endif
static	int  mathmode = MATHMODE; /* 0=display 1=text 2=paragraph */
/* ---
 * font size info 1=\tiny ... 10=\Huge
 * ----------------------------------- */
#if !defined(FONTSIZE)
  #define FONTSIZE 5
#endif
static	int  fontsize = FONTSIZE;	/* 1=tiny ... 10=Huge */
static	char *sizedirectives[] = { NULL, /* fontsize directives */
  "\\tiny", "\\scriptsize", "\\footnotesize", "\\small", "\\normalsize",
  "\\large", "\\Large", "\\LARGE", "\\huge", "\\Huge", NULL };
/* ---
 * dpi/density info for dvipng/convert
 * ----------------------------------- */
#if !defined(DPI)
  #define DPI "120"
#endif
static	char density[256] = DPI;	/*-D/-density arg for dvipng/convert*/
/* ---
 * default -gamma for convert is 0.5, or --gamma for dvipng is 2.5
 * --------------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	DVIPNGGAMMA "2.5"		/* default gamma for dvipng */
#define	CONVERTGAMMA "0.5"		/* default gamma for convert */
#if !defined(GAMMA)
  #define ISGAMMA 0			/* no -DGAMMA=\"gamma\" switch */
  #if IMAGEMETHOD == 1			/* for dvipng... */
    #define GAMMA DVIPNGGAMMA		/* ...default gamma is 2.5 */
  #elif IMAGEMETHOD == 2		/* for convert... */
    #define GAMMA CONVERTGAMMA		/* ...default gamma is 0.5 */
  #else					/* otherwise... */
    #define GAMMA "1.0"			/* ...default gamma is 1.0 */
  #endif
#else
  #define ISGAMMA 1			/* -DGAMMA=\"gamma\" supplied */
#endif
static	char gamma[256] = GAMMA;	/* -gamma arg for convert() */
/* ---
 * latex -halt-on-error or quiet
 * ----------------------------- */
#if defined(QUIET)
  #define ISQUIET 99999			/* reply q */
#elif  defined(NOQUIET)
  #define ISQUIET 0			/* reply x (-halt-on-error) */
#elif  defined(NQUIET)
  #define ISQUIET NQUIET		/* reply NQUIET <Enter>'s then x */
#else
  #define ISQUIET 3			/* default reply 3 <Enter>'s then x*/
#endif
static	int  isquiet = ISQUIET;		/* >99=quiet, 0=-halt-on-error */
/* ---
 * timelimit -tWARNTIME -TKILLTIME
 * ------------------------------- */
#if !defined(KILLTIME)			/* no -DKILLTIME given... */
  #define NOKILLTIMESWITCH		/* ...remember that fact below */
  #if ISTIMELIMITSWITCH == 0		/* standalone timelimit disabled */
    #if defined(WARNTIME)		/* have WARNTIME but not KILLTIME */
      #define KILLTIME (WARNTIME)	/* so use WARNTIME for KILLTIME */
    #else				/* neither WARNTIME nor KILLTIME */
      #define KILLTIME (10)		/* default for built-in timelimit()*/
      /*#define KILLTIME (0)*/		/* disable until debugged */
    #endif
  #else					/* using standalone timelimit */
    #define KILLTIME (1)		/* always default -T1 killtime */
  #endif
#endif
#if !defined(WARNTIME)			/*no -DWARNTIME given for timelimit*/
  #if ISTIMELIMITSWITCH == 0		/* and no -DTIMELIMIT path either */
    #define WARNTIME (-1)		/* so standalone timelimit disabled*/
  #else					/*have path to standalone timelimit*/
    #if !defined(NOKILLTIMESWITCH)	/* have KILLTIME but not WARNTIME */
      #define WARNTIME (KILLTIME)	/* so use KILLTIME for WARNTIME */
      #undef  KILLTIME			/* but not for standalone killtime */
      #define KILLTIME (1)		/* default -T1 killtime instead */
    #else				/* neither KILLTIME nor WARNTIME */
      #define WARNTIME (10)		/* so default -t10 warntime */
    #endif
  #endif
#endif
static	int  warntime=WARNTIME, killtime=KILLTIME; /* -twarn -Tkill values */
/* ---
 * compile (or not) built-in timelimit() code
 * ------------------------------------------ */
#if ISTIMELIMITSWITCH==0 && KILLTIME>0	/*no -DTIMELIMIT, but have KILLTIME*/
  #define ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT 1		/* so we need built-in code */
#else
  #define ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT 0		/* else we don't need built-in code*/
#endif
static	int  iscompiletimelimit=ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT; /* 1=use timelimit() */
#if ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT			/*header files, etc for timelimit()*/
  /* --- header files for timelimit() --- */
  #include <sys/signal.h>
  #include <sys/wait.h>
  #include <unistd.h>
  #include <signal.h>
  #include <sysexits.h>
  /*#define EX_OSERR	71*/		/* system error (e.g., can't fork) */
  #define HAVE_SIGACTION
  /* --- global variables for timelimit() --- */
  volatile int	fdone, falarm, fsig, sigcaught;
#endif
/* ---
 * additional latex \usepackage{}'s
 * -------------------------------- */
static	int  npackages = 0;		/* number of additional packages */
static	char packages[9][128];		/* additional package names */
static	char packargs[9][128];		/* optional arg for package */
/* ---
 * <textarea name=TEXTAREANAME ...> in a <form>
 * -------------------------------------------- */
#if !defined(TEXTAREANAME)
  #define TEXTAREANAME "formdata"
#endif
/* ---
 * comma-separated list of HTTP_REFERER's allowed/denied to use mathTeX
 * -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#if !defined(REFERER)
  #define REFERER "\000"
#endif
#if !defined(DENYREFERER)
  #define DENYREFERER "\000"
#endif
#if !defined(MAXINVALID)		/* longest length expression */
  #define MAXINVALID 0			/* from an invalid referer */
#endif					/* that will be rendered w/o error */
/* ---
 * time zone delta t (in hours)
 * ---------------------------- */
#if !defined(TZDELTA)
  #define TZDELTA 0
#endif
/* ---
 * default uses locatepath() if whichpath() fails
 * ---------------------------------------------- */
#if !defined(NOWHICH)
  #define ISWHICH 1
#else
  #define ISWHICH 0
#endif
#if !defined(NOLOCATE)
  #define ISLOCATE 1
#else
  #define ISLOCATE 0
#endif
/* ---
 * one image in every ADFREQUENCY will be wrapped inside "advertisement"
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#if !defined(ADFREQUENCY)
  #define ADFREQUENCY 0			/* never show advertisement if 0 */
#endif
static	int  adfrequency = ADFREQUENCY;	/* advertisement frequency */
/* ---
 * debugging and error reporting
 * ----------------------------- */
#if !defined(MSGLEVEL)
  #define MSGLEVEL 1
#endif
#if !defined(MAXMSGLEVEL)
  #define MAXMSGLEVEL 999999
#endif
static	int  msglevel = MSGLEVEL;	/* message level for verbose/debug */
static	FILE *msgfp = NULL;		/* output in command-line mode */
char	*strwrap();			/* help format debugging messages */
#define	showmsg(showlevel,label,data)	/* default message format */ \
	if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=(showlevel) ) { \
	  fprintf(msgfp,(strlen(label)+strlen(data)<64? \
	  "\nmathTeX> %s: %s\n" : "\nmathTeX> %s:\n         %s\n"), \
	  (label),strwrap((data),64,-9)); fflush(msgfp); } else
static	int  msgnumber = 0;		/* embeddedimages() in query mode */
#define	MAXEMBEDDED 15			/* 1...#embedded images available */
#define	TESTMESSAGE 1			/* msg# for mathTeX test message */
#define	UNKNOWNERROR 2			/* msg# for non-specific error */
#define	CACHEFAILED 3			/* msg# if mkdir cache failed */
#define	MKDIRFAILED 4			/* msg# if mkdir tempdir failed */
#define	CHDIRFAILED 5			/* msg# if chdir tempdir failed */
#define	FOPENFAILED 6			/* msg# if fopen(latex.tex) failed */
#define	SYLTXFAILED 7			/* msg# if system(latex) failed */
#define	LATEXFAILED 8			/* msg# if latex failed */
#define	SYPNGFAILED 9			/* msg# if system(dvipng) failed */
#define	DVIPNGFAILED 10			/* msg# if dvipng failed */
#define	SYPSFAILED 11			/* msg# if system(dvips) failed */
#define	DVIPSFAILED 12			/* msg# if dvips failed */
#define	SYCVTFAILED 13			/* msg# if system(convert) failed */
#define	CONVERTFAILED 14		/* msg# if convert failed */
#define	EMITFAILED 15			/* msg# if emitcache() failed */
static	char *embeddedtext[] = { NULL,	/* text of embedded image messages */
  "(1) mathTeX test message:\\"		/* msg#1 mathTeX "okay" test */
  "cgi program running okay.",
  "(2) mathTeX failed: probably due to\\" /* msg#2 general error message */
  "bad paths, permissions, or installation.",
  "(3) Can't mkdir cgi-bin/mathtex/\\"	/* msg#3 can't create cache dir */
  "cache directory: check permissions.",
  "(4) Can't mkdir cgi-bin/tempnam/\\"	/* msg#4 */
  "work directory: check permissions.",
  "(5) Can't cd cgi-bin/tempnam/\\"	/* msg#5 */
  "work directory: check permissions.",
  "(6) Can't fopen(\"latex.tex\") file:\\" /* msg#6 */
  "check permissions.",
  "(7) Can't run latex program:\\"	/* msg#7 */
  "check -DLATEX=\"path\", etc.",
  "(8) latex ran but failed:\\"		/* msg#8 */
  "check your input expression.",
  "(9) Can't run dvipng program:\\"	/* msg#9 */
  "check -DDVIPNG=\"path\", etc.",
  "(10) dvipng ran but failed:",	/* msg#10 */
  "(11) Can't run dvips program:\\"	/* msg#11 */
  "check -DDVIPS=\"path\", etc.",
  "(12) dvips ran but failed:",		/* msg#12 */
  "(13) Can't run convert program:\\"	/* msg#13 */
  "check -DCONVERT=\"path\", etc.",
  "(14) convert ran but failed:",	/* msg#14 */
  "(15) Can't emit cached image:\\"	/* msg#15 */
  "check permissions.",
  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-*embeddedtext[] --- */
/* ---
 * output file (from shell mode)
 * ----------------------------- */
static	char outfile[256] = "\000";	/* output file, or empty for default*/
/* ---
 * temporary work directory
 * ------------------------ */
static	char tempdir[256] = "\000";	/* temporary work directory */
/* ---
 * internal buffer sizes
 * --------------------- */
#if !defined(MAXEXPRSZ)
  #define MAXEXPRSZ (32767)		/*max #bytes in input tex expression*/
#endif
#if !defined(MAXGIFSZ)
  #define MAXGIFSZ (131072)		/* max #bytes in output GIF image */
#endif

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unix or Windows header files
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* ---
 * compiling under Windows if -DWINDOWS explicitly supplied or...
 * -------------------------------------------------------------- */
#if !defined(WINDOWS)		/* -DWINDOWS not explicitly given by user */
  #if defined(_WINDOWS) || defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) \
  ||  defined(DJGPP)		/* try to recognize windows compilers */ \
  ||  defined(_USRDLL)		/* must be WINDOWS if compiling for DLL */
    #define WINDOWS		/* signal windows */
  #endif
#endif
/* ---
 * unix headers
 * ------------ */
#if !defined(WINDOWS)		/* if not compiling under Windows... */
  #include <unistd.h>
  #include <sys/types.h>
  #include <sys/stat.h>
  #include <dirent.h>
#endif
/* ---
 * windows-specific header info
 * ---------------------------- */
#if defined(WINDOWS)		/* Windows opens stdout in char mode, and */
  #include <fcntl.h>		/* precedes every 0x0A with spurious 0x0D.*/
  #include <io.h>		/* So emitcache() issues a Win _setmode() */
				/* call to put stdout in binary mode. */
  #if defined(_O_BINARY) && !defined(O_BINARY)  /* only have _O_BINARY */
    #define O_BINARY _O_BINARY	/* make O_BINARY available, etc... */
    #define setmode  _setmode
    #define fileno   _fileno
  #endif
  #if defined(_O_BINARY) || defined(O_BINARY)  /* setmode() now available */
    #define HAVE_SETMODE	/* so we'll use setmode() */
  #endif
#endif
static	int iswindows =		/* 1 if running under Windows, or 0 if not */
  #ifdef WINDOWS
    1;				/* 1 when program running under Windows */
  #else
    0;				/* 0 when not running under Windows */
  #endif

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
application macros
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check if a string is empty --- */
#define	isempty(s)  ((s)==NULL?1:(*(s)=='\000'?1:0))
/* --- last char of a string --- */
#define	lastchar(s) (isempty(s)?'\000':*((s)+(strlen(s)-1)))
/* --- check for thischar in accept --- */
#define	isthischar(thischar,accept) \
	( (thischar)!='\000' && !isempty(accept) \
	&& strchr((accept),(thischar))!=(char *)NULL )
/* --- skip/find whitespace --- */
#define	WHITESPACE  " \t\n\r\f\v"	/* skipped whitespace chars */
#define	skipwhite(thisstr)  if ( (thisstr) != NULL ) \
	thisstr += strspn(thisstr,WHITESPACE)
#define	findwhite(thisstr)  while ( !isempty(thisstr) ) \
	if ( isthischar(*(thisstr),WHITESPACE) ) break; else (thisstr)++
	/* thisstr += strcspn(thisstr,WHITESPACE) */
/* --- skip \command (i.e., find char past last char of \command) --- */
#define	skipcommand(thisstr)  while ( !isempty(thisstr) ) \
	if ( !isalpha(*(thisstr)) ) break; else (thisstr)++
/* --- strip leading and trailing whitespace --- */
#define	trimwhite(thisstr) if ( (thisstr) != NULL ) { \
	int thislen = strlen(thisstr); \
	while ( --thislen >= 0 ) \
	  if ( isthischar((thisstr)[thislen],WHITESPACE) ) \
	    (thisstr)[thislen] = '\000'; \
	  else break; \
	if ( (thislen = strspn((thisstr),WHITESPACE)) > 0 ) \
	  strcpy((thisstr),(thisstr)+thislen); } else
/* --- strncpy() n bytes and make sure it's null-terminated --- */
#define	strninit(target,source,n) if( (target)!=NULL && (n)>=0 ) { \
	  char *thissource = (source); \
	  (target)[0] = '\000'; \
	  if ( (n)>0 && thissource!=NULL ) { \
	    strncpy((target),thissource,(n)); \
	    (target)[(n)] = '\000'; } }
/* --- min and max of args --- */
#define	max2(x,y)  ((x)>(y)? (x):(y))	/* larger of 2 arguments */
#define	min2(x,y)  ((x)<(y)? (x):(y))	/* smaller of 2 arguments */

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
other application global data
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- getdirective() global data --- */
static	int  argformat   = 0;		/* 111... if arg not {}-enclosed */
static	int  optionalpos = 0;		/* # {args} before optional [args] */
static	int  noptional   = 0;		/* # optional [args] found */
static	char optionalargs[8][512] =	/* buffer for optional args */
  { "\000", "\000", "\000", "\000", "\000", "\000", "\000", "\000" };


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	main ( argc, argv )
 * Purpose:	driver for mathtex.c
 *		emits, usually to stdout, a gif or png image
 *		of a LaTeX math expression entered either as
 *		    (1)	html query string from a browser (most typical), or
 *		    (2)	a query string from an html <form method="get">
 *			whose <textarea name=TEXTAREANAME>
 *			(usually for demo), or
 *		    (3)	command-line arguments (usually just to test).
 *		If no input supplied, expression defaults to "f(x)=x^2",
 *		treated as test (input method 3).
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Command-Line Arguments:
 *		When running mathTeX from the command-line, rather than
 *		from a browser (usually just for testing), syntax is
 *		     ./mathtex	[-m msglevel]	verbosity of debugging output
 *				[-c cachepath ]	name of cache directory
 *				[expression	expression, e.g., x^2+y^2,
 *		-m   0-99, controls verbosity level for debugging output
 *		     >=9 retains all directories and files created
 *		-c   cachepath specifies relative path to cache directory
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Exits:	0=success (always exits 0, regardless of success/failure)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o For an executable that emits gif images
 *		     cc mathtex.c -o mathtex.cgi
 *		or, alternatively, for an executable that emits png images
 *		     cc -DPNG mathtex.c -o mathtex.cgi
 *		See Notes at top of file for other compile-line -D options.
 *	      o	Move executable to your cgi-bin directory and either
 *		point your browser to it directly in the form
 *		     http://www.yourdomain.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?f(x)=x^2
 *		or put a tag in your html document of the form
 *		     <img src="/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?f(x)=x^2"
 *		       border=0 align=middle>
 *		where f(x)=x^2 (or any other expression) will be displayed
 *		either as a gif or png image (as per -DIMAGETYPE flag).
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	main ( int argc, char *argv[] )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- expression to be emitted --- */
static	char exprbuffer[MAXEXPRSZ+1] = "\000"; /* input TeX expression */
char	hashexpr[MAXEXPRSZ+1] = "\000";	/* usually use md5 of original expr*/
char	*expression = exprbuffer;	/* ptr to expression */
char	*query = getenv("QUERY_STRING"); /* getenv("QUERY_STRING") result */
int	isquery = 0;			/* true if input from QUERY_STRING */
/* --- preprocess expression for special mathTeX directives, etc --- */
char	*mathprep();			/* preprocess expression */
int	unescape_url();			/* convert %20 to blank space, etc */
int	strreplace(), irep=0;		/* look for keywords in expression */
char	*strchange();			/* edit expression */
char	*getdirective(), argstring[256]; /* look for \density, \usepackage */
int	validate();			/* remove \input, etc */
int	advertisement(), crc16();	/*wrap expression in advertisement*/
char	*adtemplate = NULL;		/* usually use default message */
char	*nomath();			/* remove math chars from string */
/* --- referer initialization variables --- */
char	*http_referer = getenv("HTTP_REFERER"); /* referer using mathTeX */
int	isvalidreferer = 1;		/* can this referer use mathTeX? */
struct	{ char *deny;			/* http_referer can't contain this */
	int msgnumber; }		/* emit invalid_referer_msg[msg#] */
	htaccess[] = {			/* ".htaccess" table for deny */
	#ifdef HTACCESS			/* eg, -DHTACCESS=\"htaccess.txt\" */
	  #include HTACCESS		/* eg,  {"",1},  for no referer */
	#endif
	{ NULL, -999 } };		/* trailer */
/* --- other initialization variables --- */
char	*whichpath();			/* look for latex,dvipng,etc */
int	setpaths();			/* set paths to latex,dvipng,etc */
int	isstrstr();			/* find any snippet in string */
int	isdexists();			/* check whether cache dir exists */
int	perm_all = (S_IRWXU|S_IRWXG|S_IRWXO); /* 777 permissions */
int	readcachefile(), nbytes=0;	/*read expr for -f command-line arg*/
char	*timestamp();			/*for \time (in addition to \today)*/
int	emitembedded();			/* in case latex can't run */
int	timelimit();			/* just to check stub or built-in */
int	iscolorpackage = 0;		/* true if \usepackage{color} found*/
/* --- image rendering --- */
int	mathtex();			/* generate new image using LaTeX */
/* --- image caching --- */
int	emitcache();			/* emit cached image if it exists */
int	maxage = MAXAGE;		/* max-age is typically two hours */
char	*makepath();			/* construct full path/filename.ext*/
char	*md5str(), *md5hash=NULL;	/* md5 has of expression */
int	mathlog();			/* log requests */
/* --- messages --- */
char	*copyright1 =			/* copyright, gnu/gpl notice */
 "+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n"
 "|mathTeX vers 1.03, Copyright(c) 2007-2009, John Forkosh Associates, Inc|\n"
 "+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n"
 "| mathTeX is free software, licensed to you under terms of the GNU/GPL  |\n"
 "|           and comes with absolutely no warranty whatsoever.           |\n",
 *copyright2 =				/* second part of copyright */
 "|     See http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html for complete details.     |\n"
 "+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+";
char	*usage1 =			/* usage instructions */
 "Command-line Usage:\n"
 "  ./mathtex.cgi \"expression\"     expression, e.g., \"x^2+y^2\"\n"
 "            | -f input_file      or read expression from input_file\n"
 "            [ -o output_file ]   write image to ouput_file\n"
 "            [ -m msglevel ]      verbosity / message level\n"
 "            [ -c cache ]         path to cache directory\n",
 *usage2 =				/* second part of usage */
 "Example:\n"
 "  ./mathtex.cgi \"x^2+y^2\" -o equation1\n"
 "creates equation1.gif containing image of x^2+y^2\n";
char	*versiontemplate =		/* mathTeX version "adtemplate" */
 "\\begin{center}\n"
 "\\fbox{\\footnotesize mathTeX version 1.03}\\\\ \\vspace*{-.2in}"
 "%%beginmath%% %%expression%% %%endmath%%\n"
 "\\end{center}\n";
char	whichtemplate[512] =		/* mathTeX which "adtemplate" */
 "\\begin{center}\n"
 "\\fbox{\\footnotesize %%whichpath%%}\\\\ \\vspace*{-.2in}"
 "%%beginmath%% %%expression%% %%endmath%%\n"
 "\\end{center}\n";
int	maxinvalidmsg = 2;		/* max invalid_referer_msg[] index */
char	*invalid_referer_msg[] = {	/* invalid referer messages */
 /* --- message#0 (default invalid_referer message) --- */
 "\\parstyle\\usepackage{color}\\small\\color{red}\\noindent "
 "\\fbox{$\\mbox{\\textbf{%%referer%%}}\\atop "
 "\\mbox{\\textbf{is not authorized to use mathTeX on this server}}$}",
 /* --- message#1 ("provide http_referer" message) --- */
 "\\parstyle\\usepackage{color}\\small\\color{red}\\noindent "
 "\\fbox{$\\mbox{\\textbf{To use the public math\\TeX{} server,}}\\atop "
 "\\mbox{\\textbf{please provide your HTTP\\_REFERER}}$}",
 /* --- message#2 ("production use" message) --- */
 "\\parstyle\\usepackage{color}\\small\\color{red}\\noindent "
 "\\fbox{$\\mbox{\\textbf{For production use, please install mathtex.cgi on}}\\atop "
 "\\mbox{\\textbf{your own server.  See www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html}}$}",
 /* --- end-of-table trailer --- */
 NULL } ; /* --- end-of-invalid_referer_msg[] --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- set global variables --- */
msgfp = NULL;				/* for query mode output */
msgnumber = 0;				/* no errors to report yet */
if ( imagetype < 1 || imagetype > 2 ) imagetype = 1;   /* keep in bounds */
if ( imagemethod<1 || imagemethod>2 ) imagemethod = 1; /* keep in bounds */
/* ---
 * check QUERY_STRING query for expression
 * --------------------------------------- */
if ( query != NULL )			/* check query string from environ */
  if ( strlen(query) >= 1 )		/* caller gave us a query string */
    { strninit(expression,query,MAXEXPRSZ); /* so use it as expression */
      isquery = 1; }			/* and set isquery flag */
if ( !isquery )				/* empty query string */
  { char *host = getenv("HTTP_HOST"),	/* additional getenv("") results */
    *name = getenv("SERVER_NAME"), *addr = getenv("SERVER_ADDR");
    if ( host!=NULL || name!=NULL || addr!=NULL ) /* assume http query */
      {	isquery = 1;			/* set flag to signal query */
	strcpy(expression,"\\fbox{\\rm No expression supplied}"); }
  } /* --- end-of-if(!isquery) --- */
/* ---
 * process command-line args (only if not a query)
 * ----------------------------------------------- */
if ( !isquery				/* don't have an html query string */
/*&&   argc>1*/ ) {			/* and have command-line args */
  int	argnum = 0;			/*argv[] index for command-line args*/
  int	isendofswitches = 0;		/* -- arg signals no more -switches */
  msglevel = 3;				/*adjust minimum shell message level*/
  msgfp = stdout;			/* for comamnd-line mode output */
  while ( argc > ++argnum ) {		/*check for switches and expression*/
    if ( *argv[argnum] == '-'		/* have some -switch */
    &&   !isendofswitches ) {		/* and haven't seen a -- arg yet*/
      char *field = argv[argnum] + 1;	/* ptr to char(s) following - */
      char flag = tolower((int)(*field)); /* single char following - */
      field++;				/* bump past flag */
      trimwhite(field);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
      if ( isempty(field) ) {		/* no chars after -flag char, so */
        if ( flag == '-' )		/* have -- arg, so */
          isendofswitches = 1;		/* signal no more -switches */
        else				/* have a single char flag, so */
          field = argv[++argnum]; }	/* arg following flag is its value */
      switch ( flag ) {			/* see what user wants to tell us */
	/* --- unrecognized -switch flag --- */
	default: /*argnum--;*/  break;
	/* --- interpret recognized flags --- */
	case 'c': strcpy(cachepath,field);
		if ( strlen(cachepath) < 1  /* path is an empty string */
		||   strcmp(cachepath,"none") == 0 )  /* or keyword "none" */
		  iscaching = 0;	/* so disable caching */
		break;
	case 'm': msglevel = atoi(field);   break;
	case 'f': nbytes = readcachefile(field,(unsigned char *)exprbuffer);
	        exprbuffer[nbytes] = '\000'; /* null-terminate expression */
		if ( !isempty(outfile) ) break; /* default to same outfile */
	case 'o': strcpy(outfile,field); /* output file for image */
	        trimwhite(outfile);	/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
	        break;
	} /* --- end-of-switch(flag) --- */
      } /* --- end-of-if(*argv[argnum]=='-') --- */
    else				/* expression if arg not a -flag */
      strcpy(exprbuffer,argv[argnum]);	/* take last unswitched arg */
    } /* --- end-of-while(argc>++argnum) --- */
  if ( isempty(expression) ) {		/*no expression, show usage and quit*/
    if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=3 )	/* user needs usage instructions */
      fprintf(msgfp,"%s%s\n%s%s\n",copyright1,copyright2, /*show copyright*/
      usage1,usage2);			/* and show usage */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* quit */
  } /* --- end-of-if(!isquery) --- */
/* ---
 * pre-process expression
 * ---------------------- */
if ( !isempty(TEXTAREANAME) )		/* if <form>'s are allowed */
 if ( isquery )				/*check for <form> on query strings*/
  if(memcmp(expression,TEXTAREANAME,strlen(TEXTAREANAME))==0) { /*have form*/
    char *delim = strchr(expression,'='); /* find = following TEXTAREANAME */
    if ( delim != (char *)NULL )	/* found unescaped equal sign */
      strcpy(expression,delim+1);	/* shift name= out of expression */
    while ( (delim=strchr(expression,'+')) != NULL ) /*unescaped plus sign*/
      *delim = ' ';			/* is "shorthand" for blank space */
    unescape_url(expression);		/*convert %20, etc (twice for form)*/
    } /* --- end-of-if(memcmp()==0) --- */
unescape_url(expression);		/* convert %20 to blank space, etc */
mathprep(expression);			/* convert &lt; to <, etc */
validate(expression);			/* remove \input, etc */
/* ---
 * check if this http_referer is allowed to use mathTeX
 * ---------------------------------------------------- */
msgnumber = 0;				/* default invalid message number */
/* --- see if user fails to match -DREFERER list of valid domains --- */
if ( isquery )				/* not relevant if in command mode */
  if ( !isempty(REFERER) )		/* nor if compiled w/o -DREFERER= */
    if ( !isstrstr(http_referer,REFERER,0) ) /* invalid http_referer */
      isvalidreferer = 0;		/* signal invalid referer */
/* --- see if user matches -DDENYREFERER list of invalid domains --- */
if ( isquery )				/* not relevant if in command mode */
  if ( isvalidreferer )			/* or if alteady invalid */
    if ( !isempty(DENYREFERER) )	/*nor if compiled w/o -DDENYREFERER*/
      if ( isstrstr(http_referer,DENYREFERER,0) ) /* invalid http_referer */
        isvalidreferer = 0;		/* signal invalid referer */
/* --- see if user matches -DHTACCESS list of invalid domains --- */
if ( isquery )				/* not relevant if in command mode */
  if ( isvalidreferer ) {		/* or if alteady invalid */
    int	iaccess=0;			/* htaccess[] index */
    msgnumber = (-999);			/* 0 or positive if match found */
    for ( iaccess=0; msgnumber<0; iaccess++ ) { /*run thru htaccess[] table*/
      char *deny = htaccess[iaccess].deny; /* referer to be denied */
      if ( deny == NULL ) break;	/* null signals end-of-table */
      if ( isempty(deny) )		/* signal to check for no referer */
	{ if ( isempty(http_referer) )	/* http_referer not supplied */
	   msgnumber = htaccess[iaccess].msgnumber; } /* so set message# */
      else				/* have referer to check for */
       if ( !isempty(http_referer) )	/* and have referer to be checked */
	if ( isstrstr(http_referer,deny,0) ) /* invalid http_referer */
	 msgnumber = htaccess[iaccess].msgnumber; /* so set message# */
      } /* --- end-of-for(iaccess) --- */
    if ( msgnumber >= 0 )		/* deny access to this referer */
      isvalidreferer = 0; }		/* signal invalid referer */
/* --- render short expressions even for invalid referers --- */
if ( !isvalidreferer )			/* have an invalied referer */
  if ( MAXINVALID > 0 )			/* but short expressions allowed */
    if ( strlen(expression) <= MAXINVALID ) /* and this one is short enough*/
      isvalidreferer = 1;		/* so let it through */
/* --- check for invalidreferer directive (user wants to see message)  --- */
if ( getdirective(expression,"\\invalidreferer",1,0,1,argstring)
!=   NULL ) {				/* found \invalidreferer directive */
  isvalidreferer = 0;			/* signal invalid referer */
  msgnumber = atoi(argstring); }	/* requested message number */
/* --- substitute invalid referer message if referer is indeed invalid --- */
if ( !isvalidreferer ) {		/* invalid referer detected */
  if ( msgnumber<0 || msgnumber>maxinvalidmsg ) /* check message range */
    msgnumber = 0;			/* default if out-of-bounds */
  strcpy(expression,invalid_referer_msg[msgnumber]); /* choose message */
  strreplace(expression,"%%referer%%",	/* replace actual referer */
    (isempty(http_referer)?"your domain":nomath(http_referer)),0,0); }
msgnumber = 0;				/* reset global message number */
/* ---
 * check for embedded image \message directive (which supercedes everything)
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( getdirective(expression,"\\message",1,0,1,argstring)
!=   NULL ) {				/* found \message directive */
  if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=1 )	/* copyright notice */
    fprintf(msgfp,"%s%s\n",copyright1,copyright2); /* always show copyright*/
  msgnumber = atoi(argstring);		/* requested message number */
  emitembedded(msgnumber,(isquery?2:0)); /* emit image, suppress msgfp */
  goto end_of_job; }			/*nothing to do after emitting image*/
/* ---
 * check for \switches directive (which supercedes everything else)
 * ---------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\switches","",0,0) /* remove \switches */
>=   1 ) {				/* found \switches */
  char	*pathsource[] = { "default", "switch", "which", "locate" };
  /*iscaching = 0;*/			/* don't cache \switches image */
  *expression = '\000';			/* reset expression */
  setpaths(imagemethod);		/* set paths */
  strcat(expression,"\\parstyle");	/* set paragraph mode */
  strcat(expression,"\\small\\tt");	/* set font,size */
  strcat(expression,"\\fparbox{");	/* emit -Dswitches in framed box */
  strcat(expression,"Program image...\\\\\n"); /* image */
  sprintf(expression+strlen(expression),"%s\\\\",argv[0]);
  strcat(expression,"Paths...\\\\\n");	/* paths */
  sprintf(expression+strlen(expression), /* latex path */
    "-DLATEX=$\\backslash$\"%s$\\backslash$\" \\ (%s)\\\\ \n",
    latexpath,pathsource[islatexpath]);
  sprintf(expression+strlen(expression), /* dvipng path */
    "-DDVIPNG=$\\backslash$\"%s$\\backslash$\" \\ (%s)\\\\ \n",
    dvipngpath,pathsource[isdvipngpath]);
  sprintf(expression+strlen(expression), /* dvips path */
    "-DDVIPS=$\\backslash$\"%s$\\backslash$\" \\ (%s)\\\\ \n",
    dvipspath,pathsource[isdvipspath]);
  sprintf(expression+strlen(expression), /* convert path */
    "-DCONVERT=$\\backslash$\"%s$\\backslash$\" \\ (%s)\\\\ \n",
    convertpath,pathsource[isconvertpath]);
  strcat(expression,"}");		/* end-of-\fparbox{} */
  } /* --- end-of-if(strreplace("\\switches")>=1) --- */
else					/* no \switches in expression */
 /* ---
  * check for \environment directive (which supercedes everything else)
  * ------------------------------------------------------------------- */
 if ( strreplace(expression,"\\environment","",0,0) /* remove \environment */
 >=   1 ) {				/* found \environment */
  int	ienv = 0;			/* environ[] index */
  /*iscaching = 0;*/			/* don't cache \environment image */
  *expression = '\000';			/* reset expression */
  setpaths(imagemethod);		/* set paths */
  strcat(expression,"\\parstyle");	/* set paragraph mode */
  strcat(expression,"\\scriptsize\\tt"); /* set font,size */
  strcat(expression,"\\noindent");	/* don't indent first line */
  strcat(expression,"\\begin{verbatim}"); /* begin verbatim environment */
  for ( ienv=0; ; ienv++ ) {		/* loop over environ[] strings */
    if ( environ[ienv] == (char *)NULL ) break; /* null terminates list */
    if ( *(environ[ienv]) == '\000' ) break; /* double-check empty string */
    sprintf(expression+strlen(expression), /* display environment string */
    "  %2d. %s \n", ienv+1,strwrap(environ[ienv],50,-6));
    /* "%2d.\\ \\ %s\\ \\\\ \n", ienv+1,nomath(environ[ienv])); */
    } /* --- end-of-for(ienv) --- */
  strcat(expression,"\\end{verbatim}");	/* end verbatim environment */
  } /* --- end-of-if(strreplace("\\environment")>=1) --- */
/* ---
 * save copy of expression before further preprocessing for MD5 hash
 * ------------------------------------------------------------------ */
strcpy(hashexpr,expression);		/* save unmodified expr for hash */
/* ---
 * check for \which directive (supercedes everything not above)
 * ------------------------------------------------------------ */
if ( getdirective(expression,"\\which",1,0,1,argstring)
!=   NULL ) {				/* found \which directive */
  int	ispermitted = 1;		/* true if a legitimate request */
  int	nlocate = 1;			/* use locate if which fails */
  char	*path = NULL;			/* whichpath() to argstring program*/
  char	whichmsg[512];			/* displayed message */
  trimwhite(argstring);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
  if ( isempty(argstring) ) ispermitted = 0; /* arg is an empty string */
  else {				/* have non-empty argstring */
    int	arglen = strlen(argstring);	/* #chars in argstring */
    if ( strcspn(argstring,WHITESPACE) < arglen /* embedded whitespace */
    ||   strcspn(argstring,"{}[]()<>") < arglen /* illegal char */
    ||   strcspn(argstring,"|/\"\'\\") < arglen /* illegal char */
    ||   strcspn(argstring,"`!@%&*+=^")< arglen /* illegal char */
    ) ispermitted = 0;			/*probably not a legitimate request*/
    } /* --- end-of-if/else(isempty(argstring)) --- */
  if ( ispermitted ) {			/* legitimate request */
    path = whichpath(argstring,&nlocate); /* path to argstring program */
    sprintf(whichmsg,			/* display path or "not found" */
      "%s(%s) = %s", (path==NULL||nlocate<1?"which":"locate"),
       argstring,(path!=NULL?path:"not found")); }
  else					/* display "not permitted" message */
    sprintf(whichmsg,"which(%s) = not permitted", argstring);
  strreplace(whichtemplate,"%%whichpath%%",whichmsg,0,0); /*insert message*/
  adtemplate = whichtemplate;		/* set which message */
  adfrequency = 1;			/* force its display */
  /*iscaching = 0;*/			/* don't cache it */
  if ( path != NULL )			/* change \ to $\backslash$ */
    /*strreplace(path,"\\","$\\backslash$",0,0)*/; /* make \ displayable */
  /*strcpy(expression,"\\parstyle\\small\\tt ");*/ /* re-init expression */
  /*strcat(expression,"\\fparbox{");*/	/* emit path in framed box */
  /*sprintf(expression+strlen(expression),*/ /* display path or "not found" */
    /*"which(%s) = %s",argstring,(path!=NULL?path:"not found"));*/
  /*strcat(expression,"}");*/		/* end-of-\fparbox{} */
  } /* --- end-of-if(getdirective("\\which")!=NULL) --- */
/* ---
 * check for embedded directives, remove them and set corresponding values
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check for displaystyle/textstyle/parstyle directives --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\displaystyle","",0,0) /*remove \displaystyle*/
>=   1 ) mathmode = 0;			/* found \displaystyle so set flag*/
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\textstyle","",0,0) /* remove \textstyle */
>=   1 ) mathmode = 1;			/* found \textstyle so reset flag */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\parstyle","",0,0) /* remove \parstyle */
>=   1 ) mathmode = 2;			/* found \parstyle so reset flag */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\parmode","",0,0) /*\parmode same as \parstyle*/
>=   1 ) mathmode = 2;			/* found \parmode so reset flag */
/* --- check for quiet/halt directives (\quiet or \halt) --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\quiet","",0,0) /*remove occurrences of \quiet*/
>=   1 ) isquiet = 64;			/* found \quiet so set isquiet flag*/
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\noquiet","",0,0) /* remove \noquiet */
>=   1 ) isquiet = 0;			/* found \noquiet so reset flag */
if ( getdirective(expression,"\\nquiet",1,0,1,argstring) /*\nquiet{#Enters}*/
!=   NULL ) {				/* found \nquiet{#<Enter>'s} */
  isquiet = atoi(argstring); }		/* interpret arg as isquiet value */
/* --- replace \time directive with timestamp (similar to \today) --- */
if ( strstr(expression,"\\time") != NULL ) { /* user wants a timestamp */
  strreplace(expression,"\\time",timestamp(TZDELTA,3),0,0); /* insert time */
  maxage = 5;				/* re-render after 5 secs */
  iscaching = 0; }			/* don't cache \time */
if ( strstr(expression,"\\today") != NULL ) { /* user has a datestamp */
  iscaching = 0; }			/* don't cache \today either */
/* --- check for fontsize directives (\tiny ... \Huge) --- */
if ( mathmode != 2 )			/*latex sets font size in \parstyle*/
  for (irep=1; !isempty(sizedirectives[irep]); irep++) /*1=\tiny...10=\Huge*/
    if ( strreplace(expression,sizedirectives[irep],"",1,0) /*remove \size*/
    >=   1 ) fontsize = irep;		/* found \size so set fontsize */
/* --- check for usepackage directives --- */
while ( npackages < 9 )			/* no more than 9 extra packages */
  if ( getdirective(expression,"\\usepackage",1,0,-1,packages[npackages])
  ==   NULL )  break;			/* no more \usepackage directives */
  else {				/* found another \usepackage */
    /* --- check for optional \usepackage [args] --- */
    *(packargs[npackages]) = '\000';	/* init for no optional args */
    if ( noptional > 0 ) {		/* but we found an optional arg */
      strninit(packargs[npackages],optionalargs[0],255); } /*copy the first*/
    /* --- check for particular packages --- */
    if ( strstr(packages[npackages],"color") != NULL ) /*\usepackage{color}*/
      iscolorpackage = 1;		/* set color package flag */
    npackages++; }			/* bump package count */
/* --- see if we need any packages not already \usepackage'd by user --- */
if ( npackages < 9			/* have room for one more package */
&&   !iscolorpackage )			/* \usepackage{color} not specified*/
  if ( strstr(expression,"\\color") != NULL ) { /* but \color is used */
    strcpy(packages[npackages],"color"); /* so \usepackage{color} is needed*/
    *(packargs[npackages]) = '\000';	/* no optional args */
    npackages++; }			/* bump package count */
/* --- check for advertisement directive (\advertisement) --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\advertisement","",0,0) /*remove \advertisement*/
>=   1 ) adfrequency = 1;		/* force advertisement display */
/* --- check for version directive (\version) --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\version","",0,0) /* remove \version */
>=   1 ) { adtemplate = versiontemplate; /* set version message */
  adfrequency = 1; }			/* and force its display */
/* --- check for image type directives (\gif or \png) --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\png","",0,0) /* remove occurrences of \png */
>=   1 ) imagetype = 2;			/* found -png so set png imagetype */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\gif","",0,0) /* remove occurrences of \gif */
>=   1 ) imagetype = 1;			/* found -gif so set gif imagetype */
/* --- check for image method directives (\dvips or \dvipng) --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\dvipng","",0,0) /*remove occurrences of \dvipng*/
>=   1 ) {				/* found -dvipng in expression */
  imagemethod = 1;			/* set dvipng imagemethod */
  if ( !ISGAMMA ) strcpy(gamma,DVIPNGGAMMA); } /* default dvipng gamma */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\dvips","",0,0) /* remove occurrences of -dvips*/
>=   1 ) {				/* found -dvips in expression */
  imagemethod = 2;			/* set dvips/convert imagemethod */
  if ( !ISGAMMA ) strcpy(gamma,CONVERTGAMMA); } /* default convert gamma */
/* --- check for convert/dvipng command's -density/-D parameter --- */
if ( getdirective(expression,"\\density",1,1,1,density) /*look for \density*/
==   NULL )				/* no \density directive */
  getdirective(expression,"\\dpi",1,1,1,density); /* so try \dpi instead */
/* --- check for convert command's \gammacorrection parameter --- */
getdirective(expression,"\\gammacorrection",1,1,1,gamma); /*look for \gamma*/
/* --- check for \cache or \nocache directive --- */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\cache","",0,0) /* remove \cache */
>=   1 ) iscaching = 1;			/* cache this image */
if ( strreplace(expression,"\\nocache","",0,0) /* remove \nocache */
>=   1 ) iscaching = 0;			/* don't cache this image */
/* ---
 * check for empty expression
 * -------------------------- */
trimwhite(expression);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
if ( isempty(expression) )		/* no expression supplied */
  if ( adfrequency != 1 )		/* and not a forced message */
    strcpy(expression,"\\fbox{\\rm No expression supplied}"); /* error msg */
/* ---
 * check for "advertisement"
 * ------------------------- */
if ( adfrequency > 0 ) {		/* advertising enabled */
  int	npump = crc16(expression)%16;	/* #times, 0-15, to pump rand() */
  srand(atoi(timestamp(TZDELTA,4)));	/* init rand() with mmddhhmmss */
  while ( npump-- >= 0 ) rand();	/* pre-pump rand() before use */
  if ( rand()%adfrequency == 0 ) {	/* once every adfrequency calls */
    advertisement(expression,adtemplate); /*wrap expression in advertisement*/
    if ( strcasestr(hashexpr,"\\advertisement") == NULL ) /* random ad */
      strchange(0,hashexpr,"\\advertisement "); } } /* signal ad in expr */
/* ---
 * hash the expression for name of cached image file
 * ------------------------------------------------- */
md5hash = md5str(hashexpr);		/* md5 hash of original expression */
/* ---
 * check for \msglevel{msglevel} for debugging
 * ------------------------------------------- */
if ( getdirective(expression,"\\msglevel",1,0,1,argstring)/*look for \msglvl*/
!=   NULL )				/* found \msglevel directive */
  if ( (msglevel = min2(atoi(argstring),MAXMSGLEVEL)) /*assign new msglevel*/
  >    0 )				/* user wants messages */
  if ( isquery )			/* can't write messages to stdout */
    msgfp = fopen(makepath(NULL,md5hash,".out"),"w"); /* file md5hash.out */
/* ---
 * emit initial messages
 * --------------------- */
if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=1 ) {	/*copyright notice and path to image*/
  fprintf(msgfp,"%s%s\n",copyright1,copyright2); /* always show copyright */
  showmsg(3,"running image",argv[0]);	/* and executable image if verbose */
  showmsg(2,"input expression",hashexpr); /* and input expression */
  if ( msglevel >= 8 ) {		/* and if very verbose */
    fprintf(msgfp,			/* timelimit info */
      "\nmathTeX> %s timelimit: warn/killtime=%d/%d, path=%s\n",
      (timelimit("",-99)==992?"Built-in":"Stub"), warntime, killtime,
      (istimelimitpath?timelimitpath:"none"));
    fflush(msgfp); }			/* flush message buffer */
  } /* --- end-of-if(msgfp!=NULL&&msglevel>=1) --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Emit cached image or render the expression
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( md5hash != NULL ) {		/* md5str() almost surely succeeded*/
  /* ---
   * check for cache directory, and create it if it doesn't already exist
   * -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  if ( isempty(outfile) )		/* no explicit output file given */
    if ( !isdexists(makepath(NULL,NULL,NULL)) ) /* and no cache directory */
      if ( mkdir(makepath(NULL,NULL,NULL),perm_all) /* so make cache dir */
      !=   0 ) {			/* failed, emit embedded error image*/
        emitembedded(CACHEFAILED,isquery); /* emit CACHEFAILED message */
        goto end_of_job; }		/* quit if failed to mkdir cache */
  /* ---
   * emit cached image if it already exists
   * -------------------------------------- */
  if ( isquery )			/* re-render if running from shell */
    if ( iscaching )			/* or if not caching image */
      if(emitcache(makepath(NULL,md5hash,extensions[imagetype]),maxage,0) > 0)
        goto end_of_job;		/* done if cached image emitted */
  /* ---
   * first log caching request for new image
   * --------------------------------------- */
  if ( msglevel >= 1 )			/* check if logging */
    if ( iscaching )			/* only log images being cached */
      if ( isempty(outfile) )		/* and not saved to explicit outfile*/
        mathlog(hashexpr,md5hash);	/* log request for new image */
  /* ---
   * now generate the new image and emit it
   * -------------------------------------- */
  /* --- set up name for temporary work directory --- */
  /*strninit(tempdir,tmpnam(NULL),255);*/ /* maximum name length is 255 */
  strninit(tempdir,md5hash,255);	/* maximum name length is 255 */
  /* --- additional message --- */
  showmsg(9,"working directory",tempdir); /* working directory */
  /* --- mathtex() generates the image and saves it to file --- */
  if ( mathtex(expression,md5hash)	/* generate new image */
  ==   imagetype ) {			/* and emit cache if succeeded */
    /* --- succeeded, so emit the newly-generated image --- */
    if ( isquery )			/* don't emit cache to shell stdout*/
      emitcache(makepath(NULL,md5hash,extensions[imagetype]),maxage,0); }
  else {				/* latex failed to run */
    /* --- failed, so emit the embedded image of an error message --- */
    if ( msgnumber < 1 ) msgnumber = 2;	/* general failure message */
    emitembedded(msgnumber,isquery); }	/* emit message image */
  /* ---
   * remove images not being cached
   * ------------------------------ */
  if ( !iscaching )			/* don't want this image cached */
    if ( isempty(outfile) )		/* unless explicit outfile provided*/
      remove(makepath(NULL,md5hash,extensions[imagetype])); /* remove file */
  } /* --- end-of-if(md5hash!=NULL) --- */
end_of_job:
  if ( msgfp!=NULL && msgfp!=stdout )	/* have an open message file */
    fclose(msgfp);			/* so close it at eoj */
  exit ( 0 );
} /* --- end-of-function main() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	mathtex ( expression, filename )
 * Purpose:	create image of latex math expression
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	expression (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing latex math expression
 *		filename (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing filename but not .extension
 *				of output file (should be the md5 hash
 *				of expression)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		imagetype if successful, 0=error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	created file will be filename.gif if imagetype=1
 *		or filename.png if imagetype=2.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	mathtex ( char *expression, char *filename )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- latex wrapper document template --- */
char  latexwrapper[MAXEXPRSZ+16384] =
	"\\documentclass[10pt]{article}\n"
	"\\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}\n"
	"\\usepackage{amsmath}\n"
	"\\usepackage{amsfonts}\n"
	"\\usepackage{amssymb}\n"
	/*"\\usepackage{bm}\n"*/	/* bold math */
	#if defined(USEPACKAGE)		/* cc -DUSEPACKAGE=\"filename\" */
	  #include USEPACKAGE		/* filename with \usepackage{}'s */
	#endif				/* or anything for the preamble */
	"%%usepackage%%\n"
      #if 0
        "\\def\\stackboxes#1{\\vbox{\\def\\\\{\\egroup\\hbox\\bgroup}"
        "\\hbox\\bgroup#1\\egroup}}\n"
        "\\def\\fparbox#1{\\fbox{\\stackboxes{#1}}}\n"
      #endif
	"\\pagestyle{empty}\n"
	"\\begin{document}\n"
	"%%%\\renewcommand{\\input}[1]"	/* don't let users \input{} */
	"{\\mbox{[[$\\backslash$input\\{#1\\} illegal]]}}\n"
	#if defined(NEWCOMMAND)		/* cc -DNEWCOMMAND=\"filename\" */
	  #include NEWCOMMAND		/* filename with \newcommand{}'s */
	#endif				/* or anything for the document */
	"%%fontsize%%\n"
	"%%beginmath%% "
	"%%expression%% \n"		/* \n in case expression contains %*/
	" %%endmath%%\n"
	"\\end{document}\n";
char  errormsg[1024] =			/* latex runs but can't make .dvi */
	"\\fbox{\\footnotesize $\\mbox{Latex failed, probably due to} "
	"\\atop \\mbox{an error in your expression.}$}";
char  usepackage[1024] = "\000";	/* additional \usepackage{}'s */
char  convertargs[1024] =		/* args/switches for convert */
	" -density %%dpi%% -gamma %%gamma%%"
	/*" -border 0% -fuzz 2%"*/
	" -trim -transparent \"#FFFFFF\" ";
char  dvipngargs[1024] =		/* args/switches for dvipng */
	" --%%imagetype%% -D %%dpi%% --gamma %%gamma%%"
	" -bg Transparent -T tight -v"	/* -q for quiet, -v for verbose */
	" -o %%giffile%% ";		/* output filename supplied as -o */
/* --- other variables --- */
static	int iserror = 0;		/* true if procesing error message */
int	setpaths();			/* set paths for latex,dvipng,etc */
char	*makepath(), latexfile[256],giffile[256]="\000"; /*path/filename.ext*/
FILE	*latexfp = NULL;		/* latex wrapper file for expression*/
char	command[2048], subcommand[1024]; /* system(command) runs latex, etc */
char	*beginmath[] = { "\\[", "$", " " }, /* start math mode */
	*endmath[] =   { "\\]", "$", " " }; /* end math mode */
int	perm_all = (S_IRWXU|S_IRWXG|S_IRWXO); /* 777 permissions */
int	dir_stat = 0;			/* 1=mkdir okay, 2=chdir okay */
int	sys_stat = 0;			/* system() return status */
int	isdexists(), isfexists(),	/* check if dir, .dvi file created */
	isnotfound();			/* check .err file for "not found" */
int	strreplace();			/* replace template directives */
int	ipackage = 0;			/* packages[] index 0...npackages-1*/
int	rrmdir();			/* rm -r */
int	gifpathlen = 0;			/* ../ or ../../ prefix of giffile */
int	status = 0;			/* imagetype or 0=error */
int	timelimit();			/* and using built-in timelimit() */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Make temporary work directory and change to it
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
msgnumber = 0;				/* no error to report yet */
if ( !isdexists(tempdir/*filename*/) )	/* if temp directory doesn't exist */
  if ( mkdir(tempdir/*filename*/,perm_all) /* make temp dirextory */
  !=   0 ) {				/* mkdir failed */
    msgnumber = MKDIRFAILED;		/* set corresponding message number*/
    goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
dir_stat++;				/* signal mkdir successful */
if ( chdir(tempdir/*filename*/)		/* cd to temp directory */
!=   0 ) {				/* cd  failed */
    msgnumber = CHDIRFAILED;		/* set corresponding message number*/
    goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
dir_stat++;				/* signal chdir successful */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
set up latex directives for user-specified additional \usepackage{}'s
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( !iserror )				/* don't \usepackage for error */
 if ( npackages > 0 )			/* have additional packages */
  for ( ipackage=0; ipackage<npackages; ipackage++ ) { /*make \usepackage{}*/
    strcat(usepackage,"\\usepackage");	/* start with a directive */
    if ( !isempty(packargs[ipackage]) ) { /* have an optional arg */
      strcat(usepackage,"[");		/* begin optional argument */
      strcat(usepackage,packargs[ipackage]); /* add optional arg */
      strcat(usepackage,"]"); }		/* finish optional arg */
    strcat(usepackage,"{");		/* begin package name argument */
    strcat(usepackage,packages[ipackage]); /* add package name */
    strcat(usepackage,"}\n"); }		/* finish constructing directive */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Replace "keywords" in latex template with expression and other directives
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- replace %%beginmath%%...%%endmath%% with \[...\] or with $...$ --- */
  if ( mathmode<0 || mathmode>2 ) mathmode=0; /* mathmode validity check */
  strreplace(latexwrapper,"%%beginmath%%",beginmath[mathmode],1,0);
  strreplace(latexwrapper,"%%endmath%%",endmath[mathmode],1,0);
/* --- replace %%fontsize%% in template with \tiny...\Huge --- */
  strreplace(latexwrapper,"%%fontsize%%",sizedirectives[fontsize],1,0);
/* --- replace %%usepackage%% in template with extra \usepackage{}'s --- */
  strreplace(latexwrapper,"%%usepackage%%",usepackage,1,0);
/* --- replace %%expression%% in template with expression --- */
  strreplace(latexwrapper,"%%expression%%",expression,1,0);
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Create latex document wrapper file containing expression
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
strcpy(latexfile,makepath("","latex",".tex")); /* latex filename latex.tex */
latexfp = fopen(latexfile,"w");		/* open latex file for write */
if ( latexfp == NULL ) {		/* couldn't open latex file */
  msgnumber = FOPENFAILED;		/* set corresponding message number*/
  goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
fprintf(latexfp,"%s",latexwrapper);	/* write file */
fclose(latexfp);			/* close file after writing it */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Set paths to programs we'll need to run
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
setpaths(imagemethod);
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Execute the latex file
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- initialize system(command); to execute the latex file --- */
*command = '\000';			/* init command as empty string */
/* --- run latex under timelimit if explicitly given -DTIMELIMIT switch --- */
if ( istimelimitpath			/* given explict -DTIMELIMIT path */
&&   warntime > 0			/* and positive warntime, and... */
&&   !iscompiletimelimit ) {		/* not using built-in timelimit() */
  if ( killtime < 1 ) killtime=1;	/* don't make trouble for timelimit*/
  strcat(command,makepath("",timelimitpath,NULL)); /* timelimit program */
  if ( isempty(command) )		/* no path to timelimit */
    warntime = (-1);			/*reset flag to signal no timelimit*/
  else {				/* have path to timelimit program */
    sprintf(command+strlen(command),	/* add timelimit args after path */
      " -t%d -T%d ",warntime,killtime); }
  } /* --- end-of-if(warntime>0) --- */
/* --- path to latex executable image followed by args --- */
strcpy(subcommand,makepath("",latexpath,NULL)); /* running latex program */
if ( isempty(subcommand) ) {		/* no program path to latex */
  msgnumber = SYLTXFAILED;		/* set corresponding error message */
  goto end_of_job; }			/* signal failure and emit error */
strcat(command,subcommand);		/* add latex path (after timelimit)*/
strcat(command," ");			/* add a blank before latex args */
strcat(command,latexfile);		/* run on latexfile we just wrote */
if ( isquiet > 0 ) {			/* to continue after latex error */
    if ( isquiet > 99 )			/* explicit q requested */
      system("echo \"q\" > reply.txt");	/* reply  q  to latex error prompt */
    else {				/* reply <Enter>'s followed by x */
      int  nquiet = isquiet;		/* this many <Enter>'s before x */
      FILE *freply =fopen("reply.txt","w"); /* open reply.txt for write */
      if ( freply != NULL ) {		/* opened successfully */
	while ( --nquiet >= 0 )		/* nquiet times... */
	  fputs("\n",freply);		/* ...write <Enter> to reply.txt */
	fputs("x",freply);		/* finally followed by an x */
	fclose(freply); } }		/* close reply.txt */
    strcat(command," < reply.txt"); }	/*by redirecting stdin to reply.txt*/
  else strcat(command," < /dev/null");	/* or redirect stdin to /dev/null */
strcat(command," >latex.out 2>latex.err"); /* redirect stdout and stderr */
showmsg(5,"latex command executed",command); /* show latex command executed*/
/* --- execute the latex file --- */
sys_stat = timelimit(command,killtime);	/* throttle the latex command */
if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=3 )	/* and show command's return status*/
  fprintf(msgfp,"\nmathTeX> system() return status: %d\n", sys_stat);
if ( sys_stat == (-1)			/* system(latex) failed */
||   !isfexists(makepath("","latex",".dvi")) ) { /*latex didn't create .dvi*/
  if ( !iserror ) {			/* don't recurse if errormsg fails */
    iserror = 1;			/* set error flag */
    status = mathtex(errormsg,filename); /* recurse just once for error msg*/
    goto end_of_job; }			/* ignore original expression */
  else {				/* ignore 2nd try to recurse */
    msgnumber =				/* set corresponding message number*/
      (sys_stat==(-1)?SYLTXFAILED:	/* system() failed */
      (isnotfound("latex")?SYLTXFAILED:	/* latex program not found */
      LATEXFAILED));			/* latex ran but failed */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
  } /* --- end-of-if(system()==-1||!isfexists()) --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construct the output path/filename.[gif,png] for the image file
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( isempty(outfile)			/* using default cache directory */
||   !isthischar(*outfile,"/\\") ) {	/* or just given a relative path */
  strcpy(giffile,"../");		/* output file will be in cache */
  if ( iserror ) strcat(giffile,"../");	/* we're in error subdirectory */
  gifpathlen = strlen(giffile); }	/* #chars in ../ or ../../ prefix */
if ( isempty(outfile) )			/* using default output filename */
  strcat(giffile,makepath(NULL,filename,extensions[imagetype]));
else					/* have an explicit output file */
  strcat(giffile,makepath("",outfile,extensions[imagetype]));
showmsg(3,"output image file",giffile+gifpathlen); /* show output filename */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Run dvipng for .dvi-to-gif/png
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( imagemethod == 1 ) {		/*dvipng method requested (default)*/
  /* ---
   * First replace "keywords" in dvipngargs template with actual values
   *------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /* --- replace %%imagetype%% in dvipng arg template with gif or png --- */
  strreplace(dvipngargs,"%%imagetype%%",extensions[imagetype],1,0);
  /* --- replace %%dpi%% in dvipng arg template with actual dpi --- */
  strreplace(dvipngargs,"%%dpi%%",density,1,0);
  /* --- replace %%gamma%% in dvipng arg template with actual gamma --- */
  strreplace(dvipngargs,"%%gamma%%",gamma,1,0);
  /* --- replace %%giffile%% in dvipng arg template with actual giffile --- */
  strreplace(dvipngargs,"%%giffile%%",giffile,1,0);
  /* ---
   * And run dvipng to convert .dvi file directly to .gif/.png
   *---------------------------------------------------------- */
  strcpy(command,makepath("",dvipngpath,NULL)); /* running dvipng program */
  if ( isempty(command) ) {		/* no program path to dvipng */
    msgnumber = SYPNGFAILED;		/* set corresponding error message */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* signal failure and emit error */
  strcat(command,dvipngargs);		/* add dvipng switches */
  strcat(command,makepath("","latex",".dvi")); /* run dvipng on latex.dvi */
  strcat(command," >dvipng.out 2>dvipng.err"); /* redirect stdout, stderr */
  showmsg(5,"dvipng command executed",command); /* dvipng command executed */
  sys_stat = system(command);		/* execute the dvipng command */
  if ( sys_stat == (-1)			/* system(dvipng) failed */
  ||   !isfexists(giffile) ) {		/*or dvipng failed to create giffile*/
    msgnumber =				/* set corresponding message number*/
      (sys_stat==(-1)?SYPNGFAILED:	/* system() failed */
      (isnotfound("dvipng")?SYPNGFAILED: /* dvipng program not found */
      DVIPNGFAILED));			/* dvipng ran but failed */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
  } /* --- end-of-if(imagemethod==1) --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Run dvips for .dvi-to-postscript and convert for postscript-to-gif/png
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( imagemethod == 2 ) {		/* dvips/convert method requested */
  /* ---
   * First run dvips to convert .dvi file to .ps postscript
   *------------------------------------------------------- */
  strcpy(command,makepath("",dvipspath,NULL)); /* running dvips program */
  if ( isempty(command) ) {		/* no program path to dvips */
    msgnumber = SYPSFAILED;		/* set corresponding error message */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* signal failure and emit error */
  strcat(command," -E ");		/* add -E switch and a blank */
  strcat(command,makepath("","latex",".dvi")); /* run dvips on latex.dvi */
  strcat(command," -o ");		/* to produce output in */
  strcat(command,makepath("","dvips",".ps")); /* dvips.ps postscript file */
  strcat(command," >dvips.out 2>dvips.err"); /* redirect stdout, stderr */
  showmsg(5,"dvips command executed",command); /* dvips command executed */
  sys_stat = system(command);		/* execute system(dvips) */
  if ( sys_stat == (-1)			/* system(dvips) failed */
  ||   !isfexists(makepath("","dvips",".ps")) ) { /*dvips didn't create .ps*/
    msgnumber =				/* set corresponding message number*/
      (sys_stat==(-1)?SYPSFAILED:	/* system() failed */
      (isnotfound("dvips")?SYPSFAILED:	/* dvips program not found */
      DVIPSFAILED));			/* dvips ran but failed */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
  /* ---
   * Then replace "keywords" in convertargs template with actual values
   *------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /* --- replace %%dpi%% in convert arg template with actual density --- */
  strreplace(convertargs,"%%dpi%%",density,1,0);
  /* --- replace %%gamma%% in convert arg template with actual gamma --- */
  strreplace(convertargs,"%%gamma%%",gamma,1,0);
  /* ---
   * And run convert to convert .ps file to .gif/.png
   *-------------------------------------------------- */
  strcpy(command,makepath("",convertpath,NULL)); /*running convert program*/
  if ( isempty(command) ) {		/* no program path to convert */
    msgnumber = SYCVTFAILED;		/* set corresponding error message */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* signal failure and emit error */
  strcat(command,convertargs);		/* add convert switches */
  strcat(command,makepath("","dvips",".ps")); /* convert from postscript */
  strcat(command," ");			/* field separator */
  strcat(command,giffile);		/* followed by ../cache/filename */
  strcat(command," >convert.out 2>convert.err"); /*redirect stdout, stderr*/
  showmsg(5,"convert command executed",command); /*convert command executed*/
  sys_stat = system(command);		/* execute system(convert) command */
  if ( sys_stat == (-1)			/* system(convert) failed */
  ||   !isfexists(giffile) ) {		/* or convert didn't create giffile*/
    msgnumber =				/* set corresponding message number*/
      (sys_stat==(-1)?SYCVTFAILED:	/* system() failed */
      (isnotfound("convert")?SYCVTFAILED: /* convert program not found */
      CONVERTFAILED));			/* convert ran but failed */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* and quit */
  } /* --- end-of-if(imagemethod==2) --- */
status = imagetype;			/* signal success */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Back to caller
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
end_of_job:
  if ( dir_stat >= 2 ) chdir("..");	/* return up to original dir */
  if ( dir_stat >= 1 ) rrmdir(tempdir/*filename*/); /*rm -r temp working dir*/
  iserror = 0;				/* always reset error flag */
  return ( status );
} /* --- end-of-function mathtex() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	setpaths ( method )
 * Purpose:	try to set accurate paths for latex,dvipng,dvips,convert
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	method (I)	1 for dvipng, 2 for dvips/convert, 0 for both
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	setpaths ( int method )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
char	*programpath=NULL, *whichpath(); /* look for latex,dvipng,etc */
int	nlocate = 0;			/*if which fails, #locate|grep hits*/
static	int islatexwhich=0, isdvipngwhich=0, /* set true after we try */
	isdvipswhich=0, isconvertwhich=0,    /*whichpath() for that program*/
	istimelimitwhich=0;
/* ---
 * set paths, either from -DLATEX=\"path/latex\", etc, or call whichpath()
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- path for latex program --- */
if ( !ISLATEXSWITCH && !islatexwhich ) { /* no -DLATEX=\"path/latex\" */
  islatexwhich = 1;			/* signal that which already tried */
  nlocate = ISLOCATE;			/* use locate if which fails??? */
  if ( (programpath=whichpath("latex",&nlocate)) /* try to find latex path */
  !=   NULL ) {				/* succeeded */
    islatexpath = (nlocate==0?2:3);	/* set flag signalling which() */
    strninit(latexpath,programpath,255); } }/*so copy path from whichpath()*/
/* --- path for timelimit program --- */
if ( 0 )				/* only use explicit -DTIMELIMIT */
 if ( warntime > 0 )			/* have -DWARNTIME or -DTIMELIMIT */
  if ( !ISTIMELIMITSWITCH		/*no -DTIMELIMIT=\"path/timelimit\"*/
  &&   !istimelimitwhich ) {
    istimelimitwhich = 1;		/* signal that which already tried */
    nlocate = ISLOCATE;			/* use locate if which fails??? */
    if ( (programpath=whichpath("timelimit",&nlocate)) /* try to find path */
    !=   NULL ) {			/* succeeded */
      istimelimitpath = (nlocate==0?2:3); /* set flag signalling which() */
      strninit(timelimitpath,programpath,255); } } /* copy from whichpath()*/
/* --- path for dvipng program --- */
if ( method != 2 )			/* not needed for dvips/convert */
 if ( !ISDVIPNGSWITCH && !isdvipngwhich ) { /* no -DDVIPNG=\"path/dvipng\" */
  isdvipngwhich = 1;			/* signal that which already tried */
  nlocate = ISLOCATE;			/* use locate if which fails??? */
  if ( (programpath=whichpath("dvipng",&nlocate)) /* try to find dvipng */
  !=   NULL ) {				/* succeeded */
    isdvipngpath = (nlocate==0?2:3);	/* set flag signalling which() */
    strninit(dvipngpath,programpath,255); } }/*so copy path from whichpath()*/
/* --- path for dvips program --- */
if ( method != 1 )			/* not needed for dvipng */
 if ( !ISDVIPSSWITCH && !isdvipswhich ) { /* no -DDVIPS=\"path/dvips\" */
  isdvipswhich = 1;			/* signal that which already tried */
  nlocate = ISLOCATE;			/* use locate if which fails??? */
  if ( (programpath=whichpath("dvips",&nlocate)) /* try to find dvips path */
  !=   NULL ) {				/* succeeded */
    isdvipspath = (nlocate==0?2:3);	/* set flag signalling which() */
    strninit(dvipspath,programpath,255); } }/* so copy path from whichpath()*/
/* --- path for convert program --- */
if ( method != 1 )			/* not needed for dvipng */
 if ( !ISCONVERTSWITCH && !isconvertwhich ){/*no -DCONVERT=\"path/convert\"*/
  isconvertwhich = 1;			/* signal that which already tried */
  nlocate = ISLOCATE;			/* use locate if which fails??? */
  if ( (programpath=whichpath("convert",&nlocate)) /* try to find convert */
  !=   NULL ) {				/* succeeded */
    isconvertpath = (nlocate==0?2:3);	/* set flag signalling which() */
    strninit(convertpath,programpath,255); } } /*copy path from whichpath()*/
/* --- adjust imagemethod to comply with available programs --- */
if ( method != imagemethod		/* ignore recursive call */
&&   method != 0 ) goto end_of_job;	/* but 0 is a call for both methods*/
if ( imagemethod == 1 )			/* dvipng wanted */
  if ( !isdvipngpath ) {		/* but we have no real path to it */
    if ( method == 1 ) setpaths(2);	/* try to set dvips/convert paths */
    if ( isdvipspath && isconvertpath )	{ /* and we do have dvips, convert */
      imagemethod = 2;			/* so flip default to use them */
      if ( !ISGAMMA ) strcpy(gamma,CONVERTGAMMA); } }/*default convert gamma*/
if ( imagemethod == 2 )			/* dvips, convert wanted */
  if ( !isdvipspath || !isconvertpath ) {/*but we have no real paths to them*/
    if ( method == 2 ) setpaths(1);	/* try to set dvipng path */
    if ( isdvipngpath ) {		/* and we do have dvipng path */
      imagemethod = 1;			/* so flip default to use it */
      if ( !ISGAMMA ) strcpy(gamma,DVIPNGGAMMA); } }/* default dvipng gamma */
/* --- back to caller --- */
end_of_job:
  return ( 1 );
} /* --- end-of-function setpaths() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	isnotfound ( filename )
 * Purpose:	check a  "... 2>filename.err" file for a "not found" message,
 *		indicating the corresponding program path is incorrect
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	filename (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing filename (an .err extension
 *				is tacked on, just pass the filename)
 *				to be checked for "not found" message
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1 if filename.err contains "not found",
 *				0 otherwise (or for any error)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	isnotfound ( char *filename )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	status = 0;			/* set 1 if "not found" found */
int	isfexists();			/* check if filename exists */
char	command[256];			/* grep program */
FILE    *grepout = NULL;		/* grep's stdout */
char	grepline[256];			/* line from grep's stdout */
int	strreplace();			/* make sure "not found" was found */
int	nlines = 0;			/* #lines read */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
grep filename.err for filename (i.e., the program name), then check each
such line for "not found", "no such", etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- initialization --- */
if ( isempty(filename) ) goto end_of_job; /* no input filename supplied */
sprintf(command,"%s.err",filename);	/* look for filename.err */
if ( !isfexists(command) ) {		/* filename.err doesn't exist */
  status = 1;				/* assume this means "not found" */
  goto end_of_job; }			/* and return that to caller */
/* --- grep filename.err for filename (i.e., for the program name) --- */
sprintf(command,"grep -i \"%s\" %s.err",filename,filename); /*construct cmd*/
/* --- use popen() to invoke grep --- */
grepout = popen( command, "r" );	/* issue grep and capture stdout */
if( grepout == NULL ) goto end_of_job;	/* failed */
/* --- read the pipe one line at a time --- */
while ( fgets(grepline,255,grepout)	/* get next line */
!= NULL ) {				/* not at eof yet */
  if ( strreplace(grepline,"not found","",0,0) /* check for "not found" */
  >    0 ) nlines++;			/* count another "not found" line */
  if ( strreplace(grepline,"no such","",0,0) /* check for "no such" */
  >    0 ) nlines++;			/* count another "no such" line */
  } /* --- end-of-while(fgets()!=NULL) -- */
if ( nlines > 0 ) status = 1;		/* "not found" found */
/* --- pclose() waits for command to terminate --- */
pclose( grepout );			/* finish */
end_of_job:				/* back to caller */
  return ( status );			/*1 if filename contains "not found"*/
} /* --- end-of-function isnotfound() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	validate ( expression )
 * Purpose:	remove/replace illegal \commands from expression
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	expression (I/O) pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing latex expression to be validated.
 *				Upon return, invalid \commands have been
 *				removed or replaced
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		#illegal \commands found (hopefully 0)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	Ignore this note and see the one below it instead...
 *		  This routine is currently "stubbed out",
 *		  i.e., the invalid[] list of invalid \commands is empty.
 *		  Instead, \renewcommand's are embedded in the LaTeX wrapper.
 *		  So the user's -DNEWCOMMAND=\"filename\" can contain
 *		  additional \renewcomand's for any desired validity checks.
 *	      o	Because some \renewcommand's appear to occasionally cause
 *		latex to go into a loop after encountering syntax errors,
 *		I'm now using validate() to disable \input, etc.
 *		For example, the following short document...
 *		  \documentclass[10pt]{article}
 *		  \begin{document}
 *		  \renewcommand{\input}[1]{dummy renewcommand}
 *		  %%\renewcommand{\sqrt}[1]{dummy renewcommand}
 *		  %%\renewcommand{\beta}{dummy renewcommand}
 *		  \[ \left( \begin{array}{cccc} 1 & 0 & 0 &0
 *		  \\ 0 & 1  %%% \end{array}\right)
 *		  \]
 *		  \end{document}
 *		reports a  "! LaTeX Error:"  and then goes into
 *		a loop if you reply q.  But if you comment out the
 *		\renewcommand{\input} and uncomment either or both
 *		of the other \renewcommand's, then latex runs to
 *		completion (with the same syntax error, of course,
 *		but without hanging).
 *
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	validate ( char *expression )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- list of invalid \commands --- */
static	struct {
	  int  action;			/* 0=ignore, 1=apply, 2=abort */
	  char *command;		/* invalid \command */
	  int  nargs;			/* #args, \command{arg1}...{nargs} */
	  int  optionalpos;		/* #{args} before optional [arg] */
	  int  argformat;		/* 0=LaTeX {arg} or [arg], 1=arg */
	  char *displaystring; }	/* display this instead */
	invalid[] = {			/* list of invalid commands */
	  #if defined(INVALID)		/* cc -DINVALID=\"filename\" */
	    #include INVALID		/* filename with invalid \commands */
	  #endif			/* as illustrated below... */
	/* actn  "command"        #args pos fmt "replacement string" or NULL
	 * ---- ----------------- ----- --- --- -------------------------- */
	  { 1,  "\\newcommand",      2,  1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\providecommand",  2,  1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\renewcommand",    2,  1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\input",           1, -1,  0,  NULL },
	/* --plain TeX commands with non-{}-enclosed args we can't parse-- */
	  { 1,  "\\def",             2, -1, 20,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\edef",            2, -1, 20,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\gdef",            2, -1, 20,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\xdef",            2, -1, 20,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\loop",            0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\csname",          0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\catcode",         0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\output",          0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\everycr",         0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\everypar",        0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\everymath",       0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\everyhbox",       0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\everyvbox",       0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\everyjob",        0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\openin",          0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\read",            0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\openout",         0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	  { 1,  "\\write",           0, -1,  0,  NULL },
	/* --- other dangerous notation --- */
	  { 1,  "^^",                0, -1,  0,  NULL },
#if 0
	/* --- test cases --- */
	/*{ 1,  "\\input",      1,  -1,  0,
		"{\\mbox{$\\backslash$input\\{#1\\}}}" },*/
	  { 1,  "\\input",      1,  -1,  0,
		"{\\mbox{~$\\backslash$input\\{#1\\}~not~permitted~}}" },
	  { 1,  "\\newcommand", 2,   1,  0, NULL},
		 /*"{\\mbox{~$\\backslash$newcommand\\{#1\\}[#0]\\{#2\\}"
		 "~not~permitted~}}" },*/
#endif
	  { 0, NULL, 0, -1, 0, NULL } } ; /* end-of-list */
/* --- other variables --- */
int	ninvalid = 0,			/* #invalid =commands found */
	ivalid = 0;			/* invalid[ivalid] list index */
char	*getdirective(), *pcommand=NULL; /* find and remove invalid command */
static	char args[10][512]= {"","","","","","","","","",""}; /*\cmd{arg}'s*/
char	*pargs[11] = { args[0],args[1],args[2],args[3], /* ptrs to them */
	args[4],args[5],args[6],args[7],args[8],args[9], NULL };
char	display[2048], argstr[256], optstr[1024]; /*displaystring with args*/
char	*strchange();			/* place display where command was */
int	strreplace();			/* replace #1 with args[0], etc */
char	*nomath();			/* change \ to \\, { to \{, etc */
int	iarg=0, iopt=0;			/* args[], optionalargs[] indexes */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( isempty(expression) )		/* no input to validate */
  goto end_of_job;			/* so quit */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Check each invalid command in list
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
for ( ivalid=0; !isempty(invalid[ivalid].command); ivalid++ ) { /*run list*/
  /* --- extract local copy of invalid command list elements --- */
  int	action        = invalid[ivalid].action; /* 0=ignore,1=apply,2=abort*/
  char	*command      = invalid[ivalid].command; /* invalid \command */
  int	nargs         = invalid[ivalid].nargs; /*number of \command {arg}'s*/
  int	myoptionalpos = invalid[ivalid].optionalpos; /*#{args} before [arg]*/
  int	myargformat   = invalid[ivalid].argformat; /* 0={arg},1=arg*/
  char	*displaystring= invalid[ivalid].displaystring; /*display template*/
  /* --- arg format info --- */
  int	nfmt=0,isnegfmt=0,argfmt[9]={0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}; /*argformat digits*/
  /* --- args returned as (char *) if nargs=1 or (char **) if nargs>1 --- */
  void	*argptr = (nargs<2?(void *)args[0]:(void *)pargs); /*(char * or **)*/
  /* --- find and remove/replace all invalid command occurrences --- */
  if ( action < 1 ) continue;		/* ignore this invalid \command */
  optionalpos = myoptionalpos;		/* set global arg for getdirective */
  argformat = myargformat;		/* set global arg for getdirective */
  /* --- interpret argformat digits --- */
  if ( argformat != 0 ) {		/* have argformat */
    int	myfmt = argformat;		/* local copy */
    if ( myfmt < 0 ) { isnegfmt=1; myfmt=(-myfmt); } /* check sign */
    while ( myfmt>0 && nfmt<9 ) {	/* have more format digits */
      argfmt[nfmt] = myfmt%10;		/* store low-order decimal digit */
      myfmt /= 10;			/* and shift it out */
      nfmt++; }				/* count another format digit */
    } /* --- end-of-if(argformat!=0) --- */
  /* --- remove/replace each occurrence of invalid \command --- */
  while ( (pcommand = getdirective(expression,command,1,0,nargs,argptr))
  != NULL ) {				/* found and removed an occurrence */
    ninvalid++;				/* count another invalid \command */
    if ( noptional >= 8 ) noptional=7;	/* don't overflow our buffers */
    /* --- construct optional [arg]...[arg] for display --- */
    *optstr = '\000';			/*init optional [arg]...[arg] string*/
    if ( noptional > 0 )		/* have optional [args] */
      for ( iopt=0; iopt<noptional; iopt++ ) /* construct "[arg]...[arg]" */
	if ( !isempty(optionalargs[iopt]) ) { /* have an optional arg */
	  strcat(optstr,"[");		/* leading [ for optional arg */
	  strcat(optstr,nomath(optionalargs[iopt])); /*optional arg string*/
	  strcat(optstr,"]"); }		/* trailing ] */
    /* --- construct error message display or use supplied template --- */
    if ( isempty(displaystring) ) {	/*replace \command by not~permitted*/
      strcpy(display,"\\mbox{~\\underline{"); /* underline error in \mbox{}*/
      strcat(display,nomath(command));	/* command without \ */
      for ( iarg=0; iarg<nargs; iarg++ ) { /* add {args} and any [args] */
	int ifmt = (nfmt<=iarg?0:argfmt[nfmt-iarg-1]); /* arg format digit */
	if ( iarg==myoptionalpos && noptional>0 ) /* [args] belong here */
	  strcat(display,optstr);	/* insert them before next {arg} */
	if ( isempty(args[iarg]) ) break; /* no more args */
	if(ifmt==0) strcat(display,"\\{"); /* insert leading \{ for arg */
	strcat(display,nomath(args[iarg])); /* arg */
	if(ifmt==0) strcat(display,"\\}"); } /* trailing \} for arg */
      strcat(display,"~not~permitted}~}"); } /* finish error, close \mbox{}*/
    else {				/*replace \command by displaystring*/
      strcpy(display,displaystring);	/* local copy of display template */
      if ( noptional < 1 )		/* no optional args */
	strreplace(display,"[#0]","",0,0); /* so remove tag from template */
      for ( iarg=0; iarg<nargs; iarg++ ) { /* replace #1 with args[0], etc */
	if ( iarg==myoptionalpos && noptional>0 ) /* [args] belong here */
	  strreplace(display,"[#0]",optstr,0,0); /*insert them before {arg}*/
	if ( isempty(args[iarg]) ) break; /* no more args */
	else {				/* have an arg */
	  sprintf(argstr,"#%d",iarg+1);	/* #1 in template displays args[0] */
	  strreplace(display,argstr,nomath(args[iarg]),0,0); } /* replace */
        } /* --- end-of-for(iarg) --- */
      } /* --- end-of-if/else(isempty(displaystring)) --- */
    strchange(0,pcommand,display);	/* place display where command was */
    for ( iarg=0; iarg<10; iarg++ ) *args[iarg] = '\000'; /* reset args */
    } /* --- end-of-while(getdirective()!=NULL) --- */
  } /* --- end-of-for(ivalid) --- */
end_of_job:
  return ( ninvalid );			/* back to caller with #invalid */
} /* --- end-of-function validate() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	advertisement ( expression, message )
 * Purpose:	wrap expression in advertisement message
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	expression (I/O) pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing expression to be "wrapped",
 *				and returning wrapped expression
 *		message (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing template for advertisement
 *				message, or NULL to use default message
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1 if successful, 0=error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	advertisement ( char *expression, char *message )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- advertisement template --- */
char  *adtemplate =
	#if defined(ADVERTISEMENT)	/* cc -DADVERTISEMENT=\"filename\" */
	  #include ADVERTISEMENT	/* filename with advertisement */
	#else				/* formatted as illustrated below */
	"\\begin{center}\n"
	"\\fbox{$\\mbox{\\footnotesize\\LaTeX{} rendering courtesy of}\\atop\n"
	"\\mbox{\\scriptsize http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html}$}\\\\ \n"
	"\\vspace*{-4mm}\n"
	" %%beginmath%% %%expression%% %%endmath%% \n"
	"\\end{center}\n"
	#endif
	;				/* terminating semicolon */
/* --- other variables --- */
char	adbuffer[MAXEXPRSZ+2048];	/*construct wrapped expression here*/
char	*beginmath[] = { "\\[", "$", " " }, /* start math mode */
	*endmath[] =   { "\\]", "$", " " }; /* end math mode */
int	strreplace();			/* replace %%keywords%% with values*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
wrap expression in advertisement
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- start with template --- */
if ( isempty(message) )			/* caller didn't supply message */
  message = adtemplate;			/* so use default message */
strcpy(adbuffer,message);		/* copy message template to buffer */
/* --- replace %%beginmath%%...%%endmath%% with \[...\] or with $...$ --- */
  if ( mathmode<0 || mathmode>2 ) mathmode=0; /* out-of-bounds sanity check*/
  if ( isempty(expression) ) mathmode = 2; /*ad only, no need for math mode*/
  strreplace(adbuffer,"%%beginmath%%",beginmath[mathmode],1,0);
  strreplace(adbuffer,"%%endmath%%",endmath[mathmode],1,0);
/* --- replace %%expression%% in template with expression --- */
  strreplace(adbuffer,"%%expression%%",expression,1,0);
/* --- replace original expression --- */
strcpy(expression,adbuffer);		/* expression mow wrapped in ad */
mathmode = 2;				/* \[...\] already in expression */
return ( 1 );				/* always just return 1 */
} /* --- end-of-function advertisement() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	mathlog ( expression, filename )
 * Purpose:	write entry in log file
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	expression (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing latex math expression
 *		filename (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing filename but not .extension
 *				of output file
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1 if successful, 0=error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	mathlog ( char *expression, char *filename )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
FILE	*filefp = NULL;			/* fopen(filename) for logfile */
char	*timestamp();			/* time stamp for logged messages */
char	*makepath();			/* construct full path/filename.ext*/
char	*http_referer = getenv("HTTP_REFERER"); /* referer using mathTeX */
char	*dashes =			/* separates logfile entries */
 "--------------------------------------------------------------------------";
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
write message to cache log file
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( !isempty(CACHELOG) ) {		/* if a logfile is given */
  if ( (filefp=fopen(makepath(NULL,CACHELOG,NULL),"a")) /*open logfile*/
  !=   NULL ) {				/* ignore logging if can't open */
    int isreflogged = 0;		/* set true if http_referer logged */
    fprintf(filefp,"%s                 %s\n", /* timestamp, md5 file */
    timestamp(TZDELTA,0),		/* timestamp */
    makepath("",filename,extensions[imagetype])); /* hashed filename */
    fprintf(filefp,"%s\n",expression);	/* expression in filename */
    if ( !isempty(http_referer) ) {	/* show referer if we have one */
      int loglen = strlen(dashes);	/* #chars on line in log file*/
      char *refp = http_referer;	/* line to be printed */
      isreflogged = 1;			/* signal http_referer logged*/
      while ( 1 ) {			/* printed in parts if needed*/
	fprintf(filefp,"%.*s\n",loglen,refp); /* print a part */
	if ( strlen(refp) <= loglen ) break;  /* no more parts */
	refp += loglen; }		/* bump ptr to next part */
      } /* --- end-of-if(!isempty(http_referer)) --- */
    if ( !isreflogged )			/* http_referer not logged */
      fprintf(filefp,"http://none\n");	/* so log dummy referer line */
    fprintf(filefp,"%s\n",dashes);	/* separator line */
    fclose(filefp);			/* close logfile immediately */
    } /* --- end-of-if(filefp!=NULL) --- */
  } /* --- end-of-if(!isempty(CACHELOG)) --- */
return ( 1 );
} /* --- end-of-function mathlog() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	makepath ( path, name, extension )
 * Purpose:	return string containing path/name.extension
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	path (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing "" path or path/ or NULL to
 *				use cachepath if caching enabled
 *		name (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing filename but not .extension
 *				of output file or NULL
 *		extension (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing extension or NULL
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	"cachepath/filename.extension" or NULL=error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*makepath ( char *path, char *name, char *extension )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	char namebuff[512];		/* buffer for constructed filename */
char	*filename = NULL;		/*ptr to filename returned to caller*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
construct filename
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- validity checks --- */
/*if ( isempty(name) ) goto end_of_job;*/ /* no name supplied by caller */
/* --- start with caller's path/ or default path to cache directory --- */
*namebuff = '\000';			/* re-init namebuff */
if ( path == NULL ) {			/* use default path to cache */
  if ( !isempty(cachepath) )		/* have a cache path */
    strcpy(namebuff,cachepath); }	/* begin filename with path */
else					/* or use caller's supplied path */
  if ( *path != '\000' )		/* if it's not an empty string */
    strcpy(namebuff,path);		/* begin filename with path */
if ( !isempty(namebuff) )		/* have a leading path */
  if ( !isthischar(lastchar(namebuff),"\\/") ) /* no \ or / at end of path */
    strcat(namebuff,(iswindows?"\\":"/")); /* so add windows\ or unix/ */
/* --- add name after path/ (name arg might just be a blank space) --- */
if ( !isempty(name) ) {			/* name supplied by caller */
  if ( !isempty(namebuff) )		/* and if we already have a path */
    if ( isthischar(*name,"\\/") ) name++; /* skip leading \ or / in name */
  strcat(namebuff,name); }		/* name concatanated after path/ */
/* --- add extension after path/name */
if ( !isempty(extension) ) {		/* have a filename extension */
  if ( !isthischar(lastchar(namebuff),".") ) { /* no . at end of name */
    if ( !isthischar(*extension,".") )	/* and extension has no leading . */
      strcat(namebuff,".");		/* so we need to add our own . */
    strcat(namebuff,extension); }	/* add extension after path/name. */
  else					/* . already at end of name */
    strcat(namebuff,			/* add extension without . */
    (!isthischar(*extension,".")?extension:extension+1)); /*skip leading . */
  } /* --- end-of-if(!isempty(extension)) --- */
filename = namebuff;			/* successful name back to caller */
/*end_of_job:*/
  return ( filename );			/* back with name or NULL=error */
} /* --- end-of-function makepath() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	isfexists ( filename )
 * Purpose:	check whether or not filename exists
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	filename (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing filename to check for
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1 = filename exists, 0 = not
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	isfexists ( char *filename )
{
FILE	*fp = (isempty(filename)?NULL:fopen(filename,"r")); /* try to fopen*/
int	status = 0;			/* init for non-existant filename */
if ( fp != NULL ) {			/* but filename does exist */
  status = 1;				/* so flip status */
  fclose(fp); }				/* and close the file */
return ( status );			/* tell caller if we found filename*/
} /* --- end-of-function isfexists() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	isdexists ( dirname )
 * Purpose:	check whether or not directory exists
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	dirname (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing directory name to check for
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1 = directory exists, 0 = not
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	isdexists ( char *dirname )
{
int	status = 0;			/* init for non-existant dirname */
if ( !isempty(dirname) ) {		/* must have directory name */
  char	directory[512];			/* local copy of dirname */
  DIR	*dp = NULL;			/* dp=opendir() opens directory */
  strcpy(directory,dirname);		/* start with name given by caller */
  if ( !isthischar(lastchar(directory),"/") ) /* no / at end of directory */
    strcat(directory,"/");		/* so add one ourselves */
  if ( (dp=opendir(directory)) != NULL ) { /* dirname exists */
    status = 1;				/* so flip status */
    closedir(dp); }			/* and close the directory */
  } /* --- end-of-if(!isempty(dirname)) --- */
return ( status );			/* tell caller if we found dirname */
} /* --- end-of-function isdexists() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	whichpath ( program, nlocate )
 * Purpose:	determines the path to program with popen("which 'program'")
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	program (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing program whose path is desired
 *		nlocate (I/0)	addr of int containing NULL to ignore,
 *				or (addr of int containing) 0 to *not*
 *				use locate if which fails.  If non-zero,
 *				use locate if which fails, and return
 *				number of locate lines (if locate succeeds)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	path to program, or NULL for any error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*whichpath ( char *program, int *nlocate )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	char pathbuff[256];		/* buffer for returned path */
char	command[256];			/* which program */
FILE    *whichout = NULL;		/* which's stdout */
int	nchars = 0,			/* read whichout one char at a time*/
	pathchar;			/* fgetc(whichout) */
char	*path = NULL;			/* either pathbuff or NULL=error */
char	*locatepath();			/* try locate if which fails */
int	islocate = (nlocate==NULL? 1 : (*nlocate!=0?1:0)); /* 1=use locate*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Issue which command and read its output
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check if which() suppressed --- */
if ( !ISWHICH ) return ( NULL );	/*not running which, return failure*/
/* --- first construct the command --- */
if ( isempty(program) ) goto end_of_job; /* no input */
sprintf(command,"which %s",program);	/* construct command */
/* --- use popen() to invoke which --- */
whichout = popen( command, "r" );	/* issue which and capture stdout */
if( whichout == NULL ) goto end_of_job;	/* failed */
/* --- read the pipe one char at a time --- */
while ( (pathchar=fgetc(whichout))	/* get one more char */
!= EOF ) {				/* not at eof yet */
  pathbuff[nchars] = (char)pathchar;	/* store the char */
  if ( ++nchars >= 255 ) break; }	/* don't overflow buffer */
pathbuff[nchars] = '\000';		/* null-terminate path */
trimwhite(pathbuff);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
/* --- pclose() waits for command to terminate --- */
pclose( whichout );			/* finish */
if ( nchars > 0 ) {			/* found path with which */
  path = pathbuff;			/* give user successful path */
  if ( islocate && nlocate!=NULL ) *nlocate = 0; } /* signal we used which */
end_of_job:
  if ( path == NULL )			/* which failed to find program */
    if ( islocate )			/* and we're using locate */
      path = locatepath(program,nlocate); /* try locate instead */
  return ( path );			/* give caller path to command */
} /* --- end-of-function whichpath() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	locatepath ( program, nlocate )
 * Purpose:	determines the path to program with popen("locate 'program'")
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	program (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing program whose path is desired
 *		nlocate (O)	addr to int returning #lines locate|grep
 *				found, or NULL to ignore
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	path to program, or NULL for any error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*locatepath ( char *program, int *nlocate )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	char pathbuff[256];		/* buffer for returned path */
char	command[256];			/* locate program | grep /program$ */
FILE    *locateout = NULL;		/* locate's stdout */
char	pathline[256];			/* read locateout one line at a time*/
int	nlines = 0;			/* #lines read */
int	linelen=0, pathlen = 9999;	/* choose shortest path */
char	*path = NULL;			/* either pathbuff or NULL=error */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Issue locate|grep command and read its output
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- first construct the command --- */
if ( isempty(program) ) goto end_of_job; /* no input */
/*if ( strlen(program) < 2 ) goto end_of_job; */ /* might run forever */
sprintf(command,"locate -q -r \"/%s$\" | grep \"bin\"",program);
/* --- use popen() to invoke locate|grep --- */
locateout = popen( command, "r" );	/* issue locate and capture stdout */
if( locateout == NULL ) goto end_of_job; /* failed */
/* --- read the pipe one line at a time --- */
while ( fgets(pathline,255,locateout)	/* get next line */
!= NULL ) {				/* not at eof yet */
  trimwhite(pathline);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
  if ( (linelen=strlen(pathline)) > 0 ) { /* ignore empty lines */
    if ( linelen < pathlen ) {		/* new shortest path */
      strcpy(pathbuff,pathline);	/* store shortest for caller */
      pathlen = linelen; }		/* and reset new shortest length */
    nlines++; } }			/* count another non-empty line */
/* --- pclose() waits for command to terminate --- */
pclose( locateout );			/* finish */
if ( pathlen>0 && pathlen<256 ) path = pathbuff; /*give user successful path*/
if ( nlocate != NULL ) *nlocate = nlines; /* and number of locate|grep hits*/
end_of_job:
  return ( path );			/* give caller path to command */
} /* --- end-of-function locatepath() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	rrmdir ( path )
 * Purpose:	rm -r path
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	path (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing path to be rm'ed,
 *				relative to cwd.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		0 = success, -1 = error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	Based on Program 4.7, pages 108-111, in
 *		Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment,
 *		W. Richard Stevens, Addison-Wesley 1992, ISBN 0-201-56317-7
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	rrmdir ( char *path )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
DIR	*directory = NULL;		/* opendir() opens path directory */
struct	dirent	*entry = NULL;		/* readdir() gives directory entry */
struct	stat	st_info;		/* lstat() gives info about entry */
char	nextpath[512], *pnext=NULL;	/* recurse path/filename in dir */
int	status = (-1);			/* init in case of any error */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Check file type at path
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( path != NULL )			/* have path argument */
  if ( *path != '\000' )		/* and it's not an empty string */
    if ( strcmp(path,".") != 0		/* and it's not "." */
    &&   strcmp(path,"..") != 0 )	/* and also not ".." */
      status = lstat(path,&st_info);	/* what kind of file is at path? */
if ( status < 0 ) goto end_of_job;	/* no kind of file found at path */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Recurse level if file is a directory
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( S_ISDIR(st_info.st_mode) ) {	/* have a directory */
  /* ---
   * Initialization
   * -------------- */
  /* --- init path for each file in directory --- */
  strcpy(nextpath,path);		/* start with path from caller */
  pnext = nextpath + strlen(path);	/* ptr to '\000' at end of path */
  if ( *(pnext-1) != '/' )		/* no trailing / at end of path */
    *pnext++ = '/';			/* so add one */
  *pnext = '\000';			/* null-terminate nextpath */
  /* --- open the directory at caller's path (with trailing /) --- */
  directory = opendir(nextpath);	/* open the directory */
  /* ---
   * Run through all files in directory
   * ---------------------------------- */
  if ( directory != NULL ) {		/* directory successfully opened */
    while ( (entry = readdir(directory)) /* next entry in directory */
    != NULL )				/* NULL signals end-of-directory */
      if ( strcmp(entry->d_name,".") != 0      /* filename not "." */
      &&   strcmp(entry->d_name,"..") != 0 ) { /* and also not ".." */
        strcpy(pnext,entry->d_name);	/* add filename to path */
        status = rrmdir(nextpath); }	/* recurse */
    closedir(directory);		/* close directory after last file */
    showmsg(29,"rrmdir removing directory",path); /* show directory removed*/
    } /* --- end-of-if(directory!=NULL) --- */
  } /* --- end-of-if(S_ISDIR(st_info.st_mode)) --- */
else					/* file isn't a directory */
  showmsg(29,"     rrmdir removing file",path); /* show file removed */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Remove file or directory (keep it for debugging if msglevel>=9)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( msglevel < 9 ) status = remove(path); /* remove file or directory */
end_of_job:
  return ( status );
} /* --- end-of-function rrmdir() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	emitcache ( cachefile, maxage, isbuffer )
 * Purpose:	dumps bytes from cachefile to stdout
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	cachefile (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing full path to file to be dumped,
 *				or contains buffer of bytes to be dumped
 *		maxage (I)	int containing maxage. in seconds, for
 *				http header, or -1 to not emit headers
 *		isbuffer (I)	>=1 if cachefile is buffer of bytes to be
 *				dumped, and if isbuffer>=9 it's the #bytes
 *				in buffer to be dumped.  Otherwise,
 *				strlen(cachefile) determines #bytes.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		#bytes dumped (0 signals error)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	emitcache ( char *cachefile, int maxage, int isbuffer )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	nbytes=0, readcachefile();	/* read cache file */
FILE	*emitptr = stdout;		/* emit cachefile to stdout */
unsigned char buffer[MAXGIFSZ+1];	/* bytes from cachefile */
unsigned char *buffptr = buffer;	/* ptr to buffer */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check that files opened okay --- */
if ( emitptr == (FILE *)NULL )		/* failed to open emit file */
  goto end_of_job;			/* so return 0 bytes to caller */
/* --- read the file if necessary --- */
if ( isbuffer ) {			/* cachefile is buffer */
 buffptr = (unsigned char *)cachefile;	/* so reset buffer pointer */
 nbytes = (isbuffer<9?strlen((char *)buffptr):isbuffer); }/*determine #bytes*/
else					/* cachefile is file name */
 if ( (nbytes = readcachefile(cachefile,buffer)) /* read the file */
 < 1 ) {				/* file not read */
   msgnumber = EMITFAILED;		/* signal error */
   goto end_of_job; }			/* quit if file not read */
/* --- first emit http headers if requested --- */
if ( /*isemitcontenttype*/		/* content-type lines enabled */
/*&&*/ maxage >= 0 )			/* caller wants http headers */
 { /* --- emit mime content-type line --- */
   fprintf( emitptr, "Cache-Control: max-age=%d\n",maxage );
   fprintf( emitptr, "Content-Length: %d\n",nbytes );
   fprintf( emitptr, "Content-type: image/%s\n\n",extensions[imagetype] ); }
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
set stdout to binary mode (for Windows)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* emitptr = fdopen(STDOUT_FILENO,"wb"); */  /* doesn't work portably, */
#ifdef WINDOWS				/* so instead... */
  #ifdef HAVE_SETMODE			/* prefer (non-portable) setmode() */
    if ( setmode ( fileno (stdout), O_BINARY) /* windows specific call */
    == -1 ) ; /* handle error */	/* sets stdout to binary mode */
  #else					/* setmode() not available */
    #if 1
      freopen ("CON", "wb", stdout);	/* freopen() stdout binary */
    #else
      stdout = fdopen (STDOUT_FILENO, "wb"); /* fdopen() stdout binary */
    #endif
  #endif
#endif
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
emit bytes from cachefile
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- write bytes to stdout --- */
if ( fwrite(buffptr,sizeof(unsigned char),nbytes,emitptr) /* write buffer */
<    nbytes )				/* failed to write all bytes */
  nbytes = 0;				/* reset total count to 0 */
end_of_job:
  return ( nbytes );			/* back with #bytes emitted */
} /* --- end-of-function emitcache() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	readcachefile ( cachefile, buffer )
 * Purpose:	read cachefile into buffer
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	cachefile (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing full path to file to be read
 *		buffer (O)	pointer to unsigned char string
 *				returning contents of cachefile
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		#bytes read (0 signals error)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	readcachefile ( char *cachefile, unsigned char *buffer )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
FILE	*cacheptr = fopen(cachefile,"rb"); /*open cachefile for binary read*/
unsigned char cachebuff[512];		/* bytes from cachefile */
int	buflen = 256,			/* #bytes we try to read from file */
	nread = 0,			/* #bytes actually read from file */
	maxbytes = MAXGIFSZ,		/* max #bytes returned in buffer */
	nbytes = 0;			/* total #bytes read */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check that files opened okay --- */
if ( cacheptr == (FILE *)NULL ) goto end_of_job; /*failed to open cachefile*/
/* --- check that output buffer provided --- */
if ( buffer == (unsigned char *)NULL ) goto end_of_job; /* no buffer */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
read bytes from cachefile
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
while ( 1 )
  {
  /* --- read bytes from cachefile --- */
  nread = fread(cachebuff,sizeof(unsigned char),buflen,cacheptr); /* read */
  if ( nbytes + nread > maxbytes )	/* block too big for buffer */
    nread = maxbytes - nbytes;		/* so truncate it */
  if ( nread < 1 ) break;		/* no bytes left in cachefile */
  /* --- store bytes in buffer --- */
  memcpy(buffer+nbytes,cachebuff,nread); /* copy current block to buffer */
  /* --- ready to read next block --- */
  nbytes += nread;			/* bump total #bytes emitted */
  if ( nread < buflen ) break;		/* no bytes left in cachefile */
  if ( nbytes >= maxbytes ) break;	/* avoid buffer overflow */
  } /* --- end-of-while(1) --- */
end_of_job:
  if ( cacheptr != NULL ) fclose(cacheptr); /* close file if opened */
  return ( nbytes );			/* back with #bytes emitted */
} /* --- end-of-function readcachefile() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	crc16 ( s )
 * Purpose:	16-bit crc of string s
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	s (I)		pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				whose crc is desired
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		16-bit crc of s
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	From Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed, page 900.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	crc16 ( char *s )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compute the crc
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
unsigned short crc = 0;			/* returned crc */
int	ibit;				/* for(ibit) eight one-bit shifts */
while ( !isempty(s) ) {			/* while there are still more chars*/
  crc = (crc ^ (*s)<<8);		/* add next char */
  for ( ibit=0; ibit<8; ibit++ )	/* generator polynomial */
    if ( crc & 0x8000 ) { crc<<=1; crc=crc^4129; }
    else crc <<= 1;
  s++;					/* next xhar */
  } /* --- end-of-while(!isempty(s)) --- */
return ( (int)crc );			/* back to caller with crc */
} /* --- end-of-function crc16() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	md5str ( instr )
 * Purpose:	returns null-terminated character string containing
 *		md5 hash of instr (input string)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	instr (I)	pointer to null-terminated char string
 *				containing input string whose md5 hash
 *				is desired
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to null-terminated 32-character
 *				md5 hash of instr
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	Other md5 library functions are included below.
 *		They're all taken from Christophe Devine's code,
 *		which (as of 04-Aug-2004) is available from
 *		     http://www.cr0.net:8040/code/crypto/md5/
 *	      o	The P,F,S macros in the original code are replaced
 *		by four functions P1()...P4() to accommodate a problem
 *		with Compaq's vax/vms C compiler.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- #include "md5.h" --- */
#ifndef uint8
  #define uint8  unsigned char
#endif
#ifndef uint32
  #define uint32 unsigned long int
#endif
typedef struct
  { uint32 total[2];
    uint32 state[4];
    uint8 buffer[64];
  } md5_context;
void md5_starts( md5_context *ctx );
void md5_update( md5_context *ctx, uint8 *input, uint32 length );
void md5_finish( md5_context *ctx, uint8 digest[16] );
/* --- md5.h --- */
#define GET_UINT32(n,b,i)                       \
  { (n) = ( (uint32) (b)[(i)    ]       )       \
        | ( (uint32) (b)[(i) + 1] <<  8 )       \
        | ( (uint32) (b)[(i) + 2] << 16 )       \
        | ( (uint32) (b)[(i) + 3] << 24 ); }
#define PUT_UINT32(n,b,i)                       \
  { (b)[(i)    ] = (uint8) ( (n)       );       \
    (b)[(i) + 1] = (uint8) ( (n) >>  8 );       \
    (b)[(i) + 2] = (uint8) ( (n) >> 16 );       \
    (b)[(i) + 3] = (uint8) ( (n) >> 24 ); }
/* --- P,S,F macros defined as functions --- */
void P1(uint32 *X,uint32 *a,uint32 b,uint32 c,uint32 d,int k,int s,uint32 t)
  { *a += (uint32)(d ^ (b & (c ^ d))) + X[k] + t;
    *a  = ((*a<<s) | ((*a & 0xFFFFFFFF) >> (32-s))) + b;
    return; }
void P2(uint32 *X,uint32 *a,uint32 b,uint32 c,uint32 d,int k,int s,uint32 t)
  { *a += (uint32)(c ^ (d & (b ^ c))) + X[k] + t;
    *a  = ((*a<<s) | ((*a & 0xFFFFFFFF) >> (32-s))) + b;
    return; }
void P3(uint32 *X,uint32 *a,uint32 b,uint32 c,uint32 d,int k,int s,uint32 t)
  { *a += (uint32)(b ^ c ^ d) + X[k] + t;
    *a  = ((*a<<s) | ((*a & 0xFFFFFFFF) >> (32-s))) + b;
    return; }
void P4(uint32 *X,uint32 *a,uint32 b,uint32 c,uint32 d,int k,int s,uint32 t)
  { *a += (uint32)(c ^ (b | ~d)) + X[k] + t;
    *a  = ((*a<<s) | ((*a & 0xFFFFFFFF) >> (32-s))) + b;
    return; }

/* --- entry point (this one little stub written by me)--- */
char *md5str( char *instr )
  { static char outstr[64];
    unsigned char md5sum[16];
    md5_context ctx;
    int j;
    md5_starts( &ctx );
    md5_update( &ctx, (uint8 *)instr, strlen(instr) );
    md5_finish( &ctx, md5sum );
    for( j=0; j<16; j++ )
      sprintf( outstr + j*2, "%02x", md5sum[j] );
    outstr[32] = '\000';
    return ( outstr ); }

/* --- entry point (all md5 functions below by Christophe Devine) --- */
void md5_starts( md5_context *ctx )
  { ctx->total[0] = 0;
    ctx->total[1] = 0;
    ctx->state[0] = 0x67452301;
    ctx->state[1] = 0xEFCDAB89;
    ctx->state[2] = 0x98BADCFE;
    ctx->state[3] = 0x10325476; }

void md5_process( md5_context *ctx, uint8 data[64] )
  { uint32 X[16], A, B, C, D;
    GET_UINT32( X[0],  data,  0 );
    GET_UINT32( X[1],  data,  4 );
    GET_UINT32( X[2],  data,  8 );
    GET_UINT32( X[3],  data, 12 );
    GET_UINT32( X[4],  data, 16 );
    GET_UINT32( X[5],  data, 20 );
    GET_UINT32( X[6],  data, 24 );
    GET_UINT32( X[7],  data, 28 );
    GET_UINT32( X[8],  data, 32 );
    GET_UINT32( X[9],  data, 36 );
    GET_UINT32( X[10], data, 40 );
    GET_UINT32( X[11], data, 44 );
    GET_UINT32( X[12], data, 48 );
    GET_UINT32( X[13], data, 52 );
    GET_UINT32( X[14], data, 56 );
    GET_UINT32( X[15], data, 60 );
    A = ctx->state[0];
    B = ctx->state[1];
    C = ctx->state[2];
    D = ctx->state[3];
    P1( X, &A, B, C, D,  0,  7, 0xD76AA478 );
    P1( X, &D, A, B, C,  1, 12, 0xE8C7B756 );
    P1( X, &C, D, A, B,  2, 17, 0x242070DB );
    P1( X, &B, C, D, A,  3, 22, 0xC1BDCEEE );
    P1( X, &A, B, C, D,  4,  7, 0xF57C0FAF );
    P1( X, &D, A, B, C,  5, 12, 0x4787C62A );
    P1( X, &C, D, A, B,  6, 17, 0xA8304613 );
    P1( X, &B, C, D, A,  7, 22, 0xFD469501 );
    P1( X, &A, B, C, D,  8,  7, 0x698098D8 );
    P1( X, &D, A, B, C,  9, 12, 0x8B44F7AF );
    P1( X, &C, D, A, B, 10, 17, 0xFFFF5BB1 );
    P1( X, &B, C, D, A, 11, 22, 0x895CD7BE );
    P1( X, &A, B, C, D, 12,  7, 0x6B901122 );
    P1( X, &D, A, B, C, 13, 12, 0xFD987193 );
    P1( X, &C, D, A, B, 14, 17, 0xA679438E );
    P1( X, &B, C, D, A, 15, 22, 0x49B40821 );
    P2( X, &A, B, C, D,  1,  5, 0xF61E2562 );
    P2( X, &D, A, B, C,  6,  9, 0xC040B340 );
    P2( X, &C, D, A, B, 11, 14, 0x265E5A51 );
    P2( X, &B, C, D, A,  0, 20, 0xE9B6C7AA );
    P2( X, &A, B, C, D,  5,  5, 0xD62F105D );
    P2( X, &D, A, B, C, 10,  9, 0x02441453 );
    P2( X, &C, D, A, B, 15, 14, 0xD8A1E681 );
    P2( X, &B, C, D, A,  4, 20, 0xE7D3FBC8 );
    P2( X, &A, B, C, D,  9,  5, 0x21E1CDE6 );
    P2( X, &D, A, B, C, 14,  9, 0xC33707D6 );
    P2( X, &C, D, A, B,  3, 14, 0xF4D50D87 );
    P2( X, &B, C, D, A,  8, 20, 0x455A14ED );
    P2( X, &A, B, C, D, 13,  5, 0xA9E3E905 );
    P2( X, &D, A, B, C,  2,  9, 0xFCEFA3F8 );
    P2( X, &C, D, A, B,  7, 14, 0x676F02D9 );
    P2( X, &B, C, D, A, 12, 20, 0x8D2A4C8A );
    P3( X, &A, B, C, D,  5,  4, 0xFFFA3942 );
    P3( X, &D, A, B, C,  8, 11, 0x8771F681 );
    P3( X, &C, D, A, B, 11, 16, 0x6D9D6122 );
    P3( X, &B, C, D, A, 14, 23, 0xFDE5380C );
    P3( X, &A, B, C, D,  1,  4, 0xA4BEEA44 );
    P3( X, &D, A, B, C,  4, 11, 0x4BDECFA9 );
    P3( X, &C, D, A, B,  7, 16, 0xF6BB4B60 );
    P3( X, &B, C, D, A, 10, 23, 0xBEBFBC70 );
    P3( X, &A, B, C, D, 13,  4, 0x289B7EC6 );
    P3( X, &D, A, B, C,  0, 11, 0xEAA127FA );
    P3( X, &C, D, A, B,  3, 16, 0xD4EF3085 );
    P3( X, &B, C, D, A,  6, 23, 0x04881D05 );
    P3( X, &A, B, C, D,  9,  4, 0xD9D4D039 );
    P3( X, &D, A, B, C, 12, 11, 0xE6DB99E5 );
    P3( X, &C, D, A, B, 15, 16, 0x1FA27CF8 );
    P3( X, &B, C, D, A,  2, 23, 0xC4AC5665 );
    P4( X, &A, B, C, D,  0,  6, 0xF4292244 );
    P4( X, &D, A, B, C,  7, 10, 0x432AFF97 );
    P4( X, &C, D, A, B, 14, 15, 0xAB9423A7 );
    P4( X, &B, C, D, A,  5, 21, 0xFC93A039 );
    P4( X, &A, B, C, D, 12,  6, 0x655B59C3 );
    P4( X, &D, A, B, C,  3, 10, 0x8F0CCC92 );
    P4( X, &C, D, A, B, 10, 15, 0xFFEFF47D );
    P4( X, &B, C, D, A,  1, 21, 0x85845DD1 );
    P4( X, &A, B, C, D,  8,  6, 0x6FA87E4F );
    P4( X, &D, A, B, C, 15, 10, 0xFE2CE6E0 );
    P4( X, &C, D, A, B,  6, 15, 0xA3014314 );
    P4( X, &B, C, D, A, 13, 21, 0x4E0811A1 );
    P4( X, &A, B, C, D,  4,  6, 0xF7537E82 );
    P4( X, &D, A, B, C, 11, 10, 0xBD3AF235 );
    P4( X, &C, D, A, B,  2, 15, 0x2AD7D2BB );
    P4( X, &B, C, D, A,  9, 21, 0xEB86D391 );
    ctx->state[0] += A;
    ctx->state[1] += B;
    ctx->state[2] += C;
    ctx->state[3] += D; }

void md5_update( md5_context *ctx, uint8 *input, uint32 length )
  { uint32 left, fill;
    if( length < 1 ) return;
    left = ctx->total[0] & 0x3F;
    fill = 64 - left;
    ctx->total[0] += length;
    ctx->total[0] &= 0xFFFFFFFF;
    if( ctx->total[0] < length )
        ctx->total[1]++;
    if( left && length >= fill )
      { memcpy( (void *) (ctx->buffer + left),
                (void *) input, fill );
        md5_process( ctx, ctx->buffer );
        length -= fill;
        input  += fill;
        left = 0; }
    while( length >= 64 )
      { md5_process( ctx, input );
        length -= 64;
        input  += 64; }
    if( length >= 1 )
      memcpy( (void *) (ctx->buffer + left),
              (void *) input, length ); }

void md5_finish( md5_context *ctx, uint8 digest[16] )
  { static uint8 md5_padding[64] =
     { 0x80, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
          0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
          0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
          0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    uint32 last, padn;
    uint32 high, low;
    uint8 msglen[8];
    high = ( ctx->total[0] >> 29 )
         | ( ctx->total[1] <<  3 );
    low  = ( ctx->total[0] <<  3 );
    PUT_UINT32( low,  msglen, 0 );
    PUT_UINT32( high, msglen, 4 );
    last = ctx->total[0] & 0x3F;
    padn = ( last < 56 ) ? ( 56 - last ) : ( 120 - last );
    md5_update( ctx, md5_padding, padn );
    md5_update( ctx, msglen, 8 );
    PUT_UINT32( ctx->state[0], digest,  0 );
    PUT_UINT32( ctx->state[1], digest,  4 );
    PUT_UINT32( ctx->state[2], digest,  8 );
    PUT_UINT32( ctx->state[3], digest, 12 ); }
/* --- end-of-function md5str() and "friends" --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Functions:	int  unescape_url ( char *url )
 *		char x2c ( char *what )
 * Purpose:	unescape_url replaces 3-character sequences %xx in url
 *		    with the single character represented by hex xx.
 *		x2c returns the single character represented by hex xx
 *		    passed as a 2-character sequence in what.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	url (I)		char * containing null-terminated
 *				string with embedded %xx sequences
 *				to be converted.
 *		what (I)	char * whose first 2 characters are
 *				interpreted as ascii representations
 *				of hex digits.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		length of url string after replacements.
 *		( char )	x2c returns the single char
 *				corresponding to hex xx passed in what.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	These two functions were taken from util.c in
 *   ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Web/httpd/Unix/ncsa_httpd/cgi/ncsa-default.tar.Z
 *	      o	Added ^M,^F,etc, and +'s to blank xlation 0n 01-Oct-06
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int unescape_url ( char *url ) {
    int x=0, y=0;
    char x2c();
    static char *hex="0123456789ABCDEFabcdef";
    int xlatectrl=1, xlateblank=0/*1*/;
    /* ---
     * first xlate ctrl chars and +'s to blanks
     * ---------------------------------------- */
    if ( xlatectrl || xlateblank ) {	/*xlate ctrl chars and +'s to blanks*/
      char *ctrlchars = (!xlateblank? "\n\t\v\b\r\f\a\015" :
           (!xlatectrl? "+" : "+\n\t\v\b\r\f\a\015" ));
      int  urllen = strlen(url);	/* total length of url string */
      /* --- replace ctrlchars with blanks --- */
      while ( (x=strcspn(url,ctrlchars)) < urllen ) /* found a ctrlchar */
	url[x] = ' ';			/*replace ctrl char or + with blank*/
      /* --- get rid of leading/trailing ctrlchars (now whitespace) --- */
      trimwhite(url);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
      } /* --- end-of-if(xlatectrl||xlateblank) --- */
    /* ---
     * now xlate %nn to corresponding char (original ncsa code)
     * -------------------------------------------------------- */
    for(x=y=0;url[y];++x,++y)
      if((url[x] = url[y]) == '%')
	if(isthischar(url[y+1],hex)
	&& isthischar(url[y+2],hex))
	  { url[x] = x2c(&url[y+1]);
	    y+=2; }
    url[x] = '\000';
    return x;
} /* --- end-of-function unescape_url() --- */
/* --- entry point --- */
char x2c(char *what) {
    char digit;
    digit = (what[0] >= 'A' ? ((what[0] & 0xdf) - 'A')+10 : (what[0] - '0'));
    digit *= 16;
    digit += (what[1] >= 'A' ? ((what[1] & 0xdf) - 'A')+10 : (what[1] - '0'));
    return(digit);
} /* --- end-of-function x2c() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	timelimit ( char *command, int killtime )
 * Purpose:	Issues a system(command) call, but throttles command
 *		after killtime seconds if it hasn't already completed.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	command (I)	char * to null-terminated string
 *				containing system(command) to be executed
 *		killtime (I)	int containing maximum #seconds
 *				to allow command to run
 *				to array of returned arg strings
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		return status from command,
 *				or -1 for any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	The timelimit() code is adapted from
 *		   http://devel.ringlet.net/sysutils/timelimit/
 *		Compile with -DTIMELIMIT=\"$(which timelimit)\" to use an
 *		installed copy of timelimit rather than this built-in code.
 *	      o if symbol ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT is false, a stub function
 *		that just issues system(command) is compiled instead.
 * ======================================================================= */
#if !ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT
/* --- entry point for stub timelimit() function --- */
int	timelimit(char *command, int killtime) {
  if ( isempty(command) )		/* no command given */
    return( (killtime==(-99)?991:(-1)) ); /* return -1 or stub identifier */
  return ( system(command) ); }		/* just issue system(command) */
#else
/* --- entry points for signal handlers --- */
void	sigchld(int sig)    { fdone  = 1; }
void	sigalrm(int sig)    { falarm = 1; }
void	sighandler(int sig) { sigcaught = sig; fsig = 1; }

/* --- entry point --- */
int	timelimit(char *command, int killtime)
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
pid_t	pid = 0;
int	killsig = (int)(SIGKILL);
int	setsignal();
int	status = (-1);
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
check args
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( isempty(command) )			/* no command given */
  return( (killtime==(-99)?992:(-1)) );	/* return -1 or built-in identifier*/
if ( killtime < 1   ) return ( system(command) ); /* throttling disabled */
if ( killtime > 999 ) killtime = 999;	/* default maximum to 999 seconds */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
install signal handlers
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
fdone = falarm = fsig = sigcaught = 0;
if ( setsignal(SIGALRM, sigalrm)    < 0 ) return(-1);
if ( setsignal(SIGCHLD, sigchld)    < 0 ) return(-1);
if ( setsignal(SIGTERM, sighandler) < 0 ) return(-1);
if ( setsignal(SIGHUP,  sighandler) < 0 ) return(-1);
if ( setsignal(SIGINT,  sighandler) < 0 ) return(-1);
if ( setsignal(SIGQUIT, sighandler) < 0 ) return(-1);
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
fork off the child process
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
fflush(NULL);				/* flush all buffers before fork */
if ( (pid=fork()) < 0 ) return(-1);	/* failed to fork */
if ( pid == 0 ) {			/* child process... */
  status = system(command);		/* ...submits command */
  _exit(status); }			/* and _exits without user cleanup */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
parent process sleeps for allowed time
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
alarm(killtime);
while ( !(fdone||falarm||fsig) ) pause();
alarm(0);
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
send kill signal if child hasn't completed command
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( fsig )  return(-1);		/* some other signal stopped child */
if ( !fdone ) kill(pid, killsig);	/* not done, so kill it */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
return status of child pid
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( waitpid(pid, &status, 0) == -1 ) return(-1); /* can't get status */
if ( 1 ) return(status);		/* return status to caller */
#if 0					/* interpret status */
  if ( WIFEXITED(status) )
	return (WEXITSTATUS(status));
  else if ( WIFSIGNALED(status) )
	return (WTERMSIG(status) + 128);
  else
	return (EX_OSERR);
#endif
} /* --- end-of-function timelimit() --- */

/* --- entry point --- */
int	setsignal ( int sig, void (*handler)(int) )
{
 #ifdef HAVE_SIGACTION
    struct  sigaction act;
    memset(&act, 0, sizeof(act));
    act.sa_handler = handler;
    act.sa_flags = 0;
    #ifdef SA_NOCLDSTOP
      act.sa_flags |= SA_NOCLDSTOP;
    #endif
    if (sigaction(sig, &act, NULL) < 0) return(-1);
 #else
    if (signal(sig, handler) == SIG_ERR) return(-1);
 #endif
    return(0);
} /* --- end-of-function setsignal() --- */
#endif /* ISCOMPILETIMELIMIT */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	getdirective(string, directive, iscase, isvalid, nargs, args)
 * Purpose:	Locates the first \directive{arg1}...{nargs} in string,
 *		returns arg1...nargs in args[],
 *		and removes \directive and its args from string.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	string (I/0)	char * to null-terminated string from which
 *				the first occurrence of \directive will be
 *				interpreted and removed
 *		directive (I)	char * to null-terminated string containing
 *				the \directive to be interpreted in string
 *		iscase (I)	int containing 1 if match of \directive
 *				in string should be case-sensitive,
 *				or 0 if match is case-insensitive.
 *		isvalid (I)	int containing validity check option:
 *				0=no checks, 1=must be numeric
 *		nargs (I)	int containing (maximum) number of
 *				{args} following \directive, or 0 if none.
 *		args (O)	void * interpreted as (char *) if nargs=1
 *				to return the one and only arg,
 *				or interpreted as (char **) if nargs>1
 *				to array of returned arg strings
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to first char after removed \directive, or
 *				NULL if \directive not found, or any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	If optional [arg]'s are found, they're stored in the global
 *		optionalargs[] buffer, and the noptional counter is bumped.
 *	      o	set global argformat's decimal digits for each arg,
 *		e.g., 1357... means 1 for 1st arg, 3 for 2nd, 5 for 3rd, etc.
 *		0 for an arg is the default format (i.e., argformat=0),
 *		and means it's formatted as a LaTeX {arg} or [arg].
 *		1 for an arg means arg terminated by first non-alpha char
 *		2 means arg terminated by {   (e.g., as for /def)
 *		8 means arg terminated by first whitespace char
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*getdirective ( char *string, char *directive,
	int iscase, int isvalid, int nargs, void *args )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	iarg = (-1);			/* init to signal error */
char	*pfirst = NULL,			/* ptr to 1st char of directive */
	*plast = NULL,			/* ptr past last char of last arg */
	*plbrace=NULL, *prbrace=NULL;	/* ptr to left,right brace of arg */
int	fldlen = 0;			/* #chars between { and } delims */
char	argfld[512];			/* {arg} characters */
int	nfmt=0,isnegfmt=0,argfmt[9]={0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}; /*argformat digits*/
int	gotargs = (args==NULL?0:1);	/* true if args array supplied */
int	isdalpha = 1;			/* true if directive ends with alpha*/
char	*strpspn(char *s,char *reject,char *segment); /*non-() not in rej*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Find first \directive in string
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
noptional = 0;				/* no optional [args] yet */
for ( iarg=0; iarg<8; iarg++ )		/* for each one... */
  *optionalargs[iarg] = '\000';		/* re-init optional [arg] buffer */
if ( argformat != 0 ) {			/* have argformat */
  int	myfmt = argformat;		/* local copy */
  if ( myfmt < 0 ) { isnegfmt=1; myfmt=(-myfmt); } /* check sign */
  while ( myfmt>0 && nfmt<9 ) {		/* have more format digits */
    argfmt[nfmt] = myfmt%10;		/* store low-order decimal digit */
    myfmt /= 10;			/* and shift it out */
    nfmt++; }				/* count another format digit */
  } /* --- end-of-if(argformat!=0) --- */
if ( isempty(directive) ) goto end_of_job; /* no input \directive given */
if ( !isalpha((int)(directive[strlen(directive)-1])) )isdalpha=0;/*not alpha*/
pfirst = string;			/* start at beginning of string */
while ( 1 ) {				/* until we find \directive */
  if ( !isempty(pfirst) )		/* still have string from caller */
    pfirst =				/* ptr to 1st char of directive */
     (iscase>0? strstr(pfirst,directive): /* case-sensistive match */
      strcasestr(pfirst,directive));	/* case-insensistive match */
  if ( isempty(pfirst) ) {		/* \directive not found in string */
    pfirst = NULL;			/* signal \directive not found */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* quit, signalling error to caller*/
  plast = pfirst + strlen(directive);	/*ptr to fist char past directive*/
  if ( !isdalpha || !isalpha((int)(*plast)) ) break; /* found \directive */
  pfirst = plast;			/* keep looking */
  plast = NULL;				/* reset plast */
  } /* --- end-of-while(1) --- */
if ( nargs < 0 ) {			/* optional [arg] may be present */
  nargs = -nargs;			/* flip sign back to positive */
  /*noptional = 1;*/ }			/* and set optional flag */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Get arguments
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
iarg = 0;				/* no args yet */
if ( nargs > 0 )			/* \directive has {args} */
  while ( iarg < nargs+noptional ) {	/* get each arg */
    int karg = iarg-noptional;		/* non-optional arg index */
    int kfmt = (nfmt<=karg?0:argfmt[nfmt-karg-1]); /* arg format digit */
    /* --- find left { and right } arg delimiters --- */
    plbrace = plast;			/*ptr to fist char past previous arg*/
    skipwhite(plbrace);			/* push it to first non-white char */
    if ( isempty(plbrace) ) break;	/* reached end-of-string */
    /* --- check LaTeX for single-char arg or {arg} or optional [arg] --- */
    if ( kfmt == 0 ) {			/* interpret LaTeX {arg} format */
     if ( !isthischar(*plbrace,(iarg==optionalpos+noptional?"{[":"{")) ) {
      /* --- single char argument --- */
      plast = plbrace + 1;		/* first char after single-char arg*/
      argfld[0] = *plbrace;		/* arg field is this one char */
      argfld[1] = '\000'; }		/* null-terminate field */
     else {				/* have {arg} or optional [arg] */
      /* note: to use for validation, need robust {} match like strpspn() */
      if ( (prbrace = strchr(plbrace,(*plbrace=='{'?'}':']'))) /*right }or]*/
      ==   NULL ) break;		/*and no more args if no right brace*/
      if ( 1 )				/* true to use strpspn() */
	prbrace = strpspn(plbrace,NULL,NULL); /* push to matching } or ] */
      plast = prbrace + 1;		/* first char after right brace */
      /* --- extract arg field between { and } delimiters --- */
      fldlen = (int)(prbrace-plbrace) - 1; /* #chars between { and } delims*/
      if ( fldlen >= 256 ) fldlen=255;	/* don't overflow argfld[] buffer */
      if ( fldlen > 0 )			/* have chars in field */
        memcpy(argfld,plbrace+1,fldlen); /*copy field chars to local buffer*/
      argfld[fldlen] = '\000';		/* and null-terminate field */
      trimwhite(argfld);		/* trim whitespace from argfld */
      } /* --- end-of-if/else(!isthischar(*plbrace,...)) --- */
     } /* --- end-of-if(kfmt==0) --- */
    /* --- check plain TeX for arg terminated by whitespace --- */
    if ( kfmt != 0 ) {			/* interpret plain TeX arg format */
     char *parg = NULL;			/* ptr into arg, used as per kfmt */
     plast = plbrace;			/* start at first char of arg */
     if ( *plast == '\\' ) plast++;	/* skip leading \command backslash */
     /* --- interpret arg according to its format --- */
     switch ( kfmt ) {
       case 1:
       default: skipcommand(plast); break; /* push ptr to non-alpha char */
       case 2: parg = strchr(plast,'{'); /* next arg always starts with { */
	if ( parg != NULL ) plast=parg; else plast++; /* up to { or 1 char */
	break;
       case 8: findwhite(plast); break;	/*ptr to whitespace after last char*/
       } /* --- end-of-switch(kfmt) --- */
     /* --- extract arg field --- */
     fldlen = (int)(plast-plbrace);	/* #chars between in field */
     if ( fldlen >= 256 ) fldlen=255;	/* don't overflow argfld[] buffer */
     if ( fldlen > 0 )			/* have chars in field */
       memcpy(argfld,plbrace,fldlen);	/*copy field chars to local buffer*/
     argfld[fldlen] = '\000';		/* and null-terminate field */
     if ( 1 ) { trimwhite(argfld); }	/* trim whitespace from argfld */
     } /* --- end-of-if(kfmt!=0) --- */
    if ( isvalid != 0 ) {		/* argfld[] validity check desired */
     if ( isvalid == 1 ) {		/* numeric check wanted */
       int validlen = strspn(argfld," +-.0123456789"); /*very simple check*/
       argfld[validlen] = '\000'; }	/* truncate invalid chars */
     } /* --- end-of-if(isvalid!=0) --- */
    /* --- store argument field in caller's array --- */
    if ( kfmt==0 && *plbrace=='[' ) {	/*store [arg] as optionalarg instead*/
     if ( noptional < 8 ) {		/* don't overflow our buffer */
       strninit(optionalargs[noptional],argfld,254); } /*copy to optionalarg*/
     noptional++; }			/* count another optional [arg] */
    else				/*{args} returned in caller's array*/
     if ( gotargs ) {			/*caller supplied address or array*/
      if ( nargs < 2 )			/*just one arg, so it's an address*/ 
        strcpy((char *)args,argfld);	/* so copy arg field there */
      else {				/* >1 arg, so it's a ptr array */
	char *argptr = ((char **)args)[karg]; /* arg ptr in array of ptrs */
	if ( argptr != NULL )		/* array has iarg-th address */
	  strcpy(argptr,argfld);	/* so copy arg field there */
	else gotargs = 0; } }		/* no more addresses in array */
    /* --- completed this arg --- */
    iarg++;				/* bump arg count */
    } /* --- end-of-while(iarg<nargs) --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Back to caller
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
end_of_job:
  if ( 1 ) argformat = 0;		/* always/never reset global arg */
  if ( 1 ) optionalpos = 0;		/* always/never reset global arg */
  if ( pfirst!=NULL && plast!=NULL )	/* have directive field delims */
    strcpy(pfirst,plast);		/*squeeze directive out of string*/
  return ( pfirst );			/* ptr to 1st char after directive */
} /* --- end-of-function getdirective() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	mathprep ( expression )
 * Purpose:	preprocessor for mathTeX input, e.g.,
 *		(a) removes leading/trailing $'s from $$expression$$
 *		(b) xlates &html; special chars to equivalent latex
 *		(c) xlates &#nnn; special chars to equivalent latex
 *		Should only be called once (after unescape_url())
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	expression (I/O) char * to first char of null-terminated
 *				string containing mathTeX/LaTeX expression,
 *				and returning preprocessed string
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to input expression,
 *				or NULL for any parsing error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	The ten special symbols  $ & % # _ { } ~ ^ \  are reserved
 *		for use in LaTeX commands.  The corresponding directives
 *		\$ \& \% \# \_ \{ \}  display the first seven, respectively,
 *		and \backslash displays \.  It's not clear to me whether
 *		or not mathprep() should substitute the displayed symbols,
 *		e.g., whether &#36; better xlates to \$ or to $.
 *		Right now, it's the latter.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*mathprep ( char *expression )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	isym=0, inum=0;			/* symbols[], numbers[] indexes */
char	*strchange();			/* change leading chars of string */
char	*strwstr();			/*use strwstr() instead of strstr()*/
int	strreplace();			/* substitute/from/to/ */
int	ndollars = 0;			/* #leading/trailing $$...$$'s */
int	explen = (isempty(expression)?0:strlen(expression)); /*#input chars*/
/* ---
 * html special/escape chars converted to latex equivalents
 * -------------------------------------------------------- */
char	*htmlsym=NULL;			/* symbols[isym].html */
static	struct { char *html; char *termchar; char *latex; } symbols[] =
 { /* ---------------------------------------------------------
     user-supplied newcommands (different than -DNEWCOMMAND)
   --------------------------------------------------------- */
 #ifdef NEWCOMMANDS			/* -DNEWCOMMANDS=\"filename.h\" */
   #include NEWCOMMANDS
 #endif
   /* ----------------------------------------
    html char termchar  LaTeX equivalent...
   ---------------------------------------- */
   { "&quot",	";",	"\"" },		/* &quot; is first, &#034; */
   { "&amp",	";",	"&" },
   { "&lt",	";",	"<" },
   { "&gt",	";",	">" },
   { "&backslash",";",	"\\" },
   { "&nbsp",	";",	" " /*"~"*/ },
   { "&iexcl",	";",	"{\\mbox{!`}}" },
   { "&brvbar",	";",	"|" },
   { "&plusmn",	";",	"\\pm" },
   { "&sup2",	";",	"{{}^2}" },
   { "&sup3",	";",	"{{}^3}" },
   { "&micro",	";",	"\\mu" },
   { "&sup1",	";",	"{{}^1}" },
   { "&frac14",	";",	"{\\frac14}" },
   { "&frac12",	";",	"{\\frac12}" },
   { "&frac34",	";",	"{\\frac34}" },
   { "&iquest",	";",	"{\\mbox{?`}}" },
   { "&Acirc",	";",	"{\\rm\\hat A}" },
   { "&Atilde",	";",	"{\\rm\\tilde A}" },
   { "&Auml",	";",	"{\\rm\\ddot A}" },
   { "&Aring",	";",	"{\\overset{o}{\\rm A}}" },
   { "&atilde",	";",	"{\\rm\\tilde a}" },
   { "&yuml",	";",	"{\\rm\\ddot y}" },  /* &yuml; is last, &#255; */
   { "&#",	";",	"{[\\&\\#nnn?]}" },  /* all other &#nnn's */
   /* ----------------------------------------
    html tag  termchar  LaTeX equivalent...
   ---------------------------------------- */
   { "< br >",	NULL,	" \000" /*"\\\\"*/ },
   { "< br / >", NULL,	" \000" /*"\\\\"*/ },
   { "< dd >",	NULL,	" \000" },
   { "< / dd >", NULL,	" \000" },
   { "< dl >",	NULL,	" \000" },
   { "< / dl >", NULL,	" \000" },
   { "< p >",	NULL,	" \000" },
   { "< / p >",	NULL,	" \000" },
   /* ---------------------------------------
    garbage  termchar  LaTeX equivalent...
   --------------------------------------- */
   { "< tex >",	NULL,	"\000" },
   { "< / tex >", NULL,	"\000" },
   { NULL,	NULL,	NULL }
 } ; /* --- end-of-symbols[] --- */
/* ---
 * html &#nn chars converted to latex equivalents
 * ---------------------------------------------- */
int	htmlnum=0;			/* numbers[inum].html */
static	struct { int html; char *latex; } numbers[] =
 { /* ---------------------------------------
    html num  LaTeX equivalent...
   --------------------------------------- */
   { 9,		" " },			/* horizontal tab */
   { 10,	" " },			/* line feed */
   { 13,	" " },			/* carriage return */
   { 32,	" " },			/* space */
   { 33,	"!" },			/* exclamation point */
   { 34,	"\"" },			/* &quot; */
   { 35,	"#" },			/* hash mark */
   { 36,	"$" },			/* dollar */
   { 37,	"%" },			/* percent */
   { 38,	"&" },			/* &amp; */
   { 39,	"\'" },			/* apostrophe (single quote) */
   { 40,	")" },			/* left parenthesis */
   { 41,	")" },			/* right parenthesis */
   { 42,	"*" },			/* asterisk */
   { 43,	"+" },			/* plus */
   { 44,	"," },			/* comma */
   { 45,	"-" },			/* hyphen (minus) */
   { 46,	"." },			/* period */
   { 47,	"/" },			/* slash */
   { 58,	":" },			/* colon */
   { 59,	";" },			/* semicolon */
   { 60,	"<" },			/* &lt; */
   { 61,	"=" },			/* = */
   { 62,	">" },			/* &gt; */
   { 63,	"\?" },			/* question mark */
   { 64,	"@" },			/* commercial at sign */
   { 91,	"[" },			/* left square bracket */
   { 92,	"\\" },			/* backslash */
   { 93,	"]" },			/* right square bracket */
   { 94,	"^" },			/* caret */
   { 95,	"_" },			/* underscore */
   { 96,	"`" },			/* grave accent */
   { 123,	"{" },			/* left curly brace */
   { 124,	"|" },			/* vertical bar */
   { 125,	"}" },			/* right curly brace */
   { 126,	"~" },			/* tilde */
   { 160,	"~" },			/* &nbsp; (use tilde for latex) */
   { 166,	"|" },			/* &brvbar; (broken vertical bar) */
   { 173,	"-" },			/* &shy; (soft hyphen) */
   { 177,	"{\\pm}" },		/* &plusmn; (plus or minus) */
   { 215,	"{\\times}" },		/* &times; (plus or minus) */
   { -999,	NULL }
 } ; /* --- end-of-numbers[] --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( explen < 1 ) goto end_of_job;	/* no input expression supplied */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
remove leading/trailing $$...$$'s and set mathmode accordingly
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- count and remove leading/trailing $'s from $$expression$$ --- */
while ( explen > 2 )			/* don't exhaust entire expression */
  if ( expression[0] == '$'		/* have leading $ char */
  &&   expression[explen-1] == '$' ) {	/* and trailing $ char */
    explen -= 2;			/* remove leading and trailing $'s */
    strcpy(expression,expression+1);	/* squeeze out leading $ */
    expression[explen] = '\000';	/* and terminate at trailing $ */
    ndollars++; }			/* count another dollar */
  else break;				/* no more $...$ pairs */
/* --- set mathmode for input $$expression$$ --- */
if ( ndollars > 0 )			/* have $$expression$$ input */
  switch ( ndollars ) {			/* set mathmode accordingly */
    case 1: mathmode = 1; break;	/* $...$ is \textstyle */
    case 2: mathmode = 0; break;	/* $$...$$ is \displaystyle */
    case 3: mathmode = 2; break;	/* $$$...$$$ is \parstyle */
    default: break; }			/* I have no idea what you want */
/* --- check for input \[expression\] if no $$'s --- */
if ( ndollars < 1 )			/* not an $$expression$$ */
  if ( explen > 4 )			/* long enough to contain \[...\] */
    if ( strncmp(expression,"\\[",2) == 0 /* so check for leading \[ */
    &&   strncmp(expression+explen-2,"\\]",2) == 0 ) { /* and trailing \] */
      explen -= 4;			/* remove leading/trailing \[...\] */
      strcpy(expression,expression+2);	/* squeeze out leading \[ */
      expression[explen] = '\000';	/* and terminate at trailing \] */
      mathmode = 0; }			/* set \displaystyle */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
run thru table, converting all occurrences of each html to latex equivalent
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
for ( isym=0; (htmlsym=symbols[isym].html)!=NULL; isym++ )
  {
  char	*htmlterm = symbols[isym].termchar, /* &symbol; terminator */
	*latexsym = symbols[isym].latex, /* latex replacement */
	errorsym[256];			/* error message replacement */
  int	htmllen = strlen(htmlsym),	/* length of html token */
	wstrlen = htmllen,		/* token length found by strwstr() */
	latexlen = strlen(latexsym);	/* length of latex replacement */
  int	isstrwstr = 1,			/* true to use strwstr() */
	istag = (isthischar(*htmlsym,"<")?1:0),	/*html <tag> starts with <*/
	isamp = (isthischar(*htmlsym,"&")?1:0);	/*html char starts with & */
  char	wstrwhite[128] = "i";		/* whitespace chars for strwstr() */
  char	*expptr = expression,		/* ptr within expression */
	*tokptr = NULL;			/*ptr to token found in expression*/
  /* ---
   * xlate every occurrence of current htmlsym command
   * ------------------------------------------------- */
  skipwhite(htmlsym);			/*skip any bogus leading whitespace*/
  htmllen = wstrlen = strlen(htmlsym);	/*reset length of html token and...*/
  istag = (isthischar(*htmlsym,"<")?1:0); /* ...html <tag> starts with < */
  isamp = (isthischar(*htmlsym,"&")?1:0); /* ...html char starts with & */
  if ( isamp ) isstrwstr = 0;		/* don't use strwstr() for &char */
  if ( istag ) {			/* use strwstr() for <tag> */
    isstrwstr = 1;			/* make sure flag is set true */
    if ( !isempty(htmlterm) )		/* got a term char string */
      strninit(wstrwhite,htmlterm,64);	/* interpret it as whitespace arg */
    htmlterm = NULL; }			/* rather than as a terminater */
  while ( (tokptr=(!isstrwstr?strstr(expptr,htmlsym):  /*strtsr or strwstr*/
  strwstr(expptr,htmlsym,wstrwhite,&wstrlen))) /*looks for another htmlsym*/
  != NULL ) {				/* we found another htmlsym */
    char termchar = *(tokptr+wstrlen),	/* char terminating html sequence */
         prevchar = (tokptr==expptr?' ':*(tokptr-1)); /*char preceding tok*/
    int  toklen = wstrlen;		/* tot length of token+terminator */
    /* --- ignore match if leading char escaped (not really a match) --- */
    if ( isthischar(prevchar,"\\") ) {	/* inline symbol escaped */
        expptr = tokptr+toklen;		/*just resume search after literal*/
        continue; }			/* but don't replace it */
    /* --- ignore match if it's just a prefix of a longer expression --- */
    if ( !istag )			/*<br>-type command can't be prefix*/
      if ( isalpha((int)termchar) ) {	/*we just have prefix of longer sym*/
        expptr = tokptr+toklen;		/* just resume search after prefix */
        continue; }			/* but don't replace it */
    /* --- check for &# prefix signalling &#nnn --- */
    if ( strcmp(htmlsym,"&#") == 0 ) {	/* replacing special &#nnn; chars */
      /* --- accumulate chars comprising number following &# --- */
      char anum[32];			/* chars comprising number after &# */
      inum = 0;				/* no chars accumulated yet */
      while ( termchar != '\000' ) {	/* don't go past end-of-string */
        if ( !isdigit((int)termchar) ) break; /* and don't go past digits */
        if ( inum > 10 ) break;		/* some syntax error in expression */
        anum[inum] = termchar;		/* accumulate this digit */
        inum++;  toklen++;		/* bump field length, token length */
        termchar = *(tokptr+toklen); }	/* char terminating html sequence */
      anum[inum] = '\000';		/* null-terminate anum */
      /* --- look up &#nnn in number[] table --- */
      htmlnum = atoi(anum);		/* convert anum[] to an integer */
      latexsym = errorsym;		/* init latex replacement for error*/
      strninit(latexsym,symbols[isym].latex,128); /* init error message */
      strreplace(latexsym,"nnn",anum,1,1); /* place actual &#num in message*/
      latexlen = strlen(latexsym);	/* and length of latex replacement */
      for ( inum=0; numbers[inum].html>=0; inum++ ) /* run thru numbers[] */
        if ( htmlnum ==  numbers[inum].html ) { /* till we find a match */
	  latexsym = numbers[inum].latex; /* latex replacement */
	  latexlen = strlen(latexsym);	/* length of latex replacement */
          break; }			/* no need to look any further */
      } /* --- end-of-if(strcmp(htmlsym,"&#")==0) --- */
    /* --- check for optional ; terminator after &symbol --- */
    if ( !istag )			/* html <tag> doesn't have term. */
      if ( termchar != '\000' )		/* token not at end of expression */
        if ( !isempty(htmlterm) )	/* sequence may have terminator */
          toklen += (isthischar(termchar,htmlterm)?1:0); /*add terminator*/
    /* --- replace html command with latex equivalent --- */
    strchange(toklen,tokptr,latexsym);	/* replace html symbol with latex */
    expptr = tokptr + latexlen;		/* resume search after replacement */
    } /* --- end-of-while(tokptr!=NULL) --- */
  } /* --- end-of-for(isymbol) --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
back to caller with preprocessed expression
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
trimwhite(expression);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
showmsg(99,"mathprep expression",expression); /*show preprocessed expression*/
end_of_job:
  return ( expression );
} /* --- end-of-function mathprep() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	strwstr (char *string, char *substr, char *white, int *sublen)
 * Purpose:	Find first substr in string, but wherever substr contains
 *		a whitespace char (in white), string may contain any number
 *		(including 0) of whitespace chars. If white contains I or i,
 *		then match is case-insensitive (and I,i _not_ whitespace).
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	string (I)	char * to null-terminated string in which
 *				first occurrence of substr will be found
 *		substr (I)	char * to null-terminated string containing
 *				"template" that will be searched for
 *		white (I)	char * to null-terminated string containing
 *				whitespace chars.  If NULL or empty, then
 *				" \t\n\r\f\v" (see #define WHITESPACE) used.
 *				If white contains I or i, then match is
 *				case-insensitive (and I,i _not_ considered
 *				whitespace).
 *		sublen (O)	address of int returning "length" of substr
 *				found in string (which may be longer or
 *				shorter than substr itself).
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to first char of substr in string
 *				or NULL if not found or for any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	Wherever a single whitespace char appears in substr,
 *		the corresponding position in string may contain any
 *		number (including 0) of whitespace chars, e.g.,
 *		string="abc   def" and string="abcdef" both match
 *		substr="c d" at offset 2 of string.
 *	      o	If substr="c  d" (two spaces between c and d),
 *		then string must have at least one space, so now "abcdef"
 *		doesn't match.  In general, the minimum number of spaces
 *		in string is the number of spaces in substr minus 1
 *		(so 1 space in substr permits 0 spaces in string).
 *	      o	Embedded spaces are counted in sublen, e.g.,
 *		string="c   d" (three spaces) matches substr="c d"
 *		with sublen=5 returned.  But string="ab   c   d" will
 *		also match substr="  c d" returning sublen=5 and
 *		a ptr to the "c".  That is, the mandatory preceding
 *		space is _not_ counted as part of the match.
 *		But all the embedded space is counted.
 *		(An inconsistent bug/feature is that mandatory
 *		terminating space is counted.)
 *	      o	Moreover, string="c   d" matches substr="  c d", i.e.,
 *		the very beginning of a string is assumed to be preceded
 *		by "virtual blanks".
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*strwstr ( char *string, char *substr, char *white, int *sublen )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
char	*psubstr=substr, *pstring=string,/*ptr to current char in substr,str*/
	*pfound = (char *)NULL;		/*ptr to found substr back to caller*/
char	*pwhite=NULL, whitespace[256];	/* callers white whithout i,I */
int	iscase = 1;			/* case-insensitive if i,I in white*/
int	foundlen = 0;			/* length of substr found in string*/
int	nstrwhite=0, nsubwhite=0,	/* #leading white chars in str,sub */
	nminwhite=0;			/* #mandatory leading white in str */
int	nstrchars=0, nsubchars=0,	/* #non-white chars to be matched */
	isncmp=0;			/*strncmp() or strncasecmp() result*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- set up whitespace --- */
strcpy(whitespace,WHITESPACE);		/*default if no user input for white*/
if ( white != NULL )			/*user provided ptr to white string*/
 if ( *white != '\000' ) {		/*and it's not just an empty string*/
   strcpy(whitespace,white);		/* so use caller's white spaces */
   while ( (pwhite=strchr(whitespace,'i')) != NULL ) /* have an embedded i */
     { iscase = 0; strcpy(pwhite,pwhite+1); } /*set flag and squeeze it out*/
   while ( (pwhite=strchr(whitespace,'I')) != NULL ) /* have an embedded I */
     { iscase = 0; strcpy(pwhite,pwhite+1); } /*set flag and squeeze it out*/
   if ( *whitespace == '\000' )		/* caller's white just had i,I */
     strcpy(whitespace,WHITESPACE); }	/* so revert back to default */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Find first occurrence of substr in string
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( string != NULL )			/* caller passed us a string ptr */
 while ( *pstring != '\000' ) {		/* break when string exhausted */
  char	*pstrptr = pstring;		/* (re)start at next char in string*/
  int	leadingwhite = 0;		/* leading whitespace */
  psubstr = substr;			/* start at beginning of substr */
  foundlen = 0;				/* reset length of found substr */
  if ( substr != NULL )			/* caller passed us a substr ptr */
   while ( *psubstr != '\000' ) {	/*see if pstring begins with substr*/
    /* --- check for end-of-string before finding match --- */
    if ( *pstrptr == '\000' )		/* end-of-string without a match */
      goto nextstrchar;			/* keep trying with next char */
    /* --- actual amount of whitespace in string and substr --- */
    nsubwhite = strspn(psubstr,whitespace); /* #leading white chars in sub */
    nstrwhite = strspn(pstrptr,whitespace); /* #leading white chars in str */
    nminwhite = max2(0,nsubwhite-1);	/* #mandatory leading white in str */
    /* --- check for mandatory leading whitespace in string --- */
    if ( pstrptr != string )		/*not mandatory at start of string*/
      if ( nstrwhite < nminwhite )	/* too little leading white space */
	goto nextstrchar;		/* keep trying with next char */
    /* ---hold on to #whitespace chars in string preceding substr match--- */
    if ( pstrptr == pstring )		/* whitespace at start of substr */
      leadingwhite = nstrwhite;		/* save it as leadingwhite */
    /* --- check for optional whitespace --- */
    if ( psubstr != substr )		/* always okay at start of substr */
      if ( nstrwhite>0 && nsubwhite<1 )	/* too much leading white space */
	goto nextstrchar;		/* keep trying with next char */
    /* --- skip any leading whitespace in substr and string --- */
    psubstr += nsubwhite;		/* push past leading sub whitespace*/
    pstrptr += nstrwhite;		/* push past leading str whitespace*/
    /* --- now get non-whitespace chars that we have to match --- */
    nsubchars = strcspn(psubstr,whitespace); /* #non-white chars in sub */
    nstrchars = strcspn(pstrptr,whitespace); /* #non-white chars in str */
    if ( nstrchars < nsubchars )	/* too few chars for match */
      goto nextstrchar;			/* keep trying with next char */
    /* --- see if next nsubchars are a match --- */
    isncmp = (iscase? strncmp(pstrptr,psubstr,nsubchars): /*case sensitive*/
		strncasecmp(pstrptr,psubstr,nsubchars)); /*case insensitive*/
    if ( isncmp != 0 )			/* no match */
      goto nextstrchar;			/* keep trying with next char */
    /* --- push past matched chars --- */
    psubstr += nsubchars;  pstrptr += nsubchars;  /*nsubchars were matched*/
    } /* --- end-of-while(*psubstr!='\000') --- */
  pfound = pstring + leadingwhite;	/* found match starting at pstring */
  foundlen = (int)(pstrptr-pfound);	/* consisting of this many chars */
  goto end_of_job;			/* back to caller */
  /* ---failed to find substr, continue trying with next char in string--- */
  nextstrchar:				/* continue outer loop */
    pstring++;				/* bump to next char in string */
  } /* --- end-of-while(*pstring!='\000') --- */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Back to caller with ptr to first occurrence of substr in string
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
end_of_job:
  if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=999 ) {	/* debugging/diagnostic output */
    fprintf(msgfp,"strwstr> str=\"%.72s\" sub=\"%s\" found at offset %d\n",
    string,substr,(pfound==NULL?(-1):(int)(pfound-string))); fflush(msgfp); }
  if ( sublen != NULL )			/*caller wants length of found substr*/
    *sublen = foundlen;			/* give it to him along with ptr */
  return ( pfound );			/*ptr to first found substr, or NULL*/
} /* --- end-of-function strwstr() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	strreplace ( string, from, to, iscase, nreplace )
 * Purpose:	Changes the first nreplace occurrences of 'from' to 'to'
 *		in string, or all occurrences if nreplace=0.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	string (I/0)	char * to null-terminated string in which
 *				occurrence of 'from' will be replaced by 'to'
 *		from (I)	char * to null-terminated string
 *				to be replaced by 'to'
 *		to (I)		char * to null-terminated string that will
 *				replace 'from'
 *		iscase (I)	int containing 1 if matches of 'from'
 *				in 'string' should be case-sensitive,
 *				or 0 if matches are case-insensitive.
 *		nreplace (I)	int containing (maximum) number of
 *				replacements, or 0 to replace all.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		number of replacements performed,
 *				or 0 for no replacements or -1 for any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	strreplace ( char *string, char *from, char *to,
	int iscase, int nreplace )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	fromlen = (from==NULL?0:strlen(from)), /* #chars to be replaced */
	tolen = (to==NULL?0:strlen(to)); /* #chars in replacement string */
int	iscommand = (fromlen<2?0:(*from=='\\'?1:0)); /*is from a \command ?*/
char	*pfrom = (char *)NULL,		/*ptr to 1st char of from in string*/
	*pstring = string,		/*ptr past previously replaced from*/
	*strchange();			/* change 'from' to 'to' */
/*int	iscase = 1;*/			/* true for case-sensitive match */
int	nreps = 0;			/* #replacements returned to caller*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
repace occurrences of 'from' in string to 'to'
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( string == (char *)NULL		/* no input string */
||   (fromlen<1 && nreplace<=0) )	/* replacing empty string forever */
  nreps = (-1);				/* so signal error */
else					/* args okay */
  while (nreplace<1 || nreps<nreplace) { /* up to #replacements requested */
    if ( fromlen > 0 )			/* have 'from' string */
      pfrom =				/*ptr to 1st char of from in string*/
       (iscase>0? strstr(pstring,from):	/* case-sensistive match */
        strcasestr(pstring,from));	/* case-insensistive match */
    else  pfrom = pstring;		/*or empty from at start of string*/
    if ( pfrom == (char *)NULL ) break;	/*no more from's, so back to caller*/
    if ( iscommand )			/* ignore prefix of longer string */
      if ( isalpha((int)(*(pfrom+fromlen))) ) {	/* just a longer string */
        pstring = pfrom+fromlen;	/* pick up search after 'from' */
        continue; }			/* don't change anything */
    if ( iscase > 1 ) { ; }		/* ignore \escaped matches */
    if ( strchange(fromlen,pfrom,to)	/* leading 'from' changed to 'to' */
    ==   (char *)NULL ) { nreps=(-1); break; } /* signal error to caller */
    nreps++;				/* count another replacement */
    pstring = pfrom+tolen;		/* pick up search after 'to' */
    if ( *pstring == '\000' ) break;	/* but quit at end of string */
    } /* --- end-of-while() --- */
return ( nreps );			/* #replacements back to caller */
} /* --- end-of-function strreplace() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	strchange ( nfirst, from, to )
 * Purpose:	Changes the nfirst leading chars of `from` to `to`.
 *		For example, to change char x[99]="12345678" to "123ABC5678"
 *		call strchange(1,x+3,"ABC")
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	nfirst (I)	int containing #leading chars of `from`
 *				that will be replace by `to`
 *		from (I/O)	char * to null-terminated string whose nfirst
 *				leading chars will be replaced by `to`
 *		to (I)		char * to null-terminated string that will
 *				replace the nfirst leading chars of `from`
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to first char of input `from`
 *				or NULL for any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	If strlen(to)>nfirst, from must have memory past its null
 *		(i.e., we don't do a realloc)
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*strchange ( int nfirst, char *from, char *to )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	tolen = (to==NULL?0:strlen(to)), /* #chars in replacement string */
	nshift = abs(tolen-nfirst);	/*need to shift from left or right*/
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
shift from left or right to accommodate replacement of its nfirst chars by to
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( tolen < nfirst )			/* shift left is easy */
  strcpy(from,from+nshift);		/* because memory doesn't overlap */
if ( tolen > nfirst )			/* need more room at start of from */
  { char *pfrom = from+strlen(from);	/* ptr to null terminating from */
    for ( ; pfrom>=from; pfrom-- )	/* shift all chars including null */
      *(pfrom+nshift) = *pfrom; }	/* shift chars nshift places right */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
from has exactly the right number of free leading chars, so just put to there
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( tolen != 0 )			/* make sure to not empty or null */
  memcpy(from,to,tolen);		/* chars moved into place */
return ( from );			/* changed string back to caller */
} /* --- end-of-function strchange() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	isstrstr ( char *string, char *snippets, int iscase )
 * Purpose:	determine whether any substring of 'string'
 *		matches any of the comma-separated list of 'snippets',
 *		ignoring case if iscase=0.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	string (I)	char * containing null-terminated
 *				string that will be searched for
 *				any one of the specified snippets
 *		snippets (I)	char * containing null-terminated,
 *				comma-separated list of snippets
 *				to be searched for in string
 *		iscase (I)	int containing 0 for case-insensitive
 *				comparisons, or 1 for case-sensitive
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( int )		1 if any snippet is a substring of
 *				string, 0 if not
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	isstrstr ( char *string, char *snippets, int iscase )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	status = 0;			/*1 if any snippet found in string*/
char	snip[256], *snipptr = snippets,	/* munge through each snippet */
	delim = ',', *delimptr = NULL,	/* separated by delim's */
	*strstrptr = NULL;		/* looking for a match in string */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- arg check --- */
if ( isempty(string)			/*both string and snippets required*/
||   isempty(snippets) ) goto end_of_job; /* quit if either missing */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
extract each snippet and see if it's a substring of string
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
while ( snipptr != NULL ) {		/* while we still have snippets */
  /* --- extract next snippet --- */
  if ( (delimptr = strchr(snipptr,delim)) /* locate next comma delim */
  ==   NULL ) {				/*not found following last snippet*/
    strcpy(snip,snipptr);		/* local copy of last snippet */
    snipptr = NULL; }			/* signal end-of-string */
  else {				/* snippet ends just before delim */
    int sniplen = (int)(delimptr-snipptr) - 1;  /* #chars in snippet */
    memcpy(snip,snipptr,sniplen);	/* local copy of snippet chars */
    snip[sniplen] = '\000';		/* null-terminated snippet */
    snipptr = delimptr + 1; }		/* next snippet starts after delim */
  /* --- check if snippet in string --- */
  strstrptr = (iscase? strstr(string,snip) : strcasestr(string,snip) );
  if ( strstrptr != NULL ) {		/* found snippet in string */
    status = 1;				/* so reset return status */
    break; }				/* no need to check any further */
  } /* --- end-of-while(*snipptr!=0) --- */
end_of_job: return ( status );		/*1 if snippet found in list, else 0*/
} /* --- end-of-function isstrstr() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	nomath ( s )
 * Purpose:	Removes/replaces any LaTeX math chars in s
 *		so that s can be rendered in paragraph mode.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	s (I)		char * to null-terminated string
 *				whose math chars are to be removed/replaced
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to "cleaned" copy of s
 *				or "" (empty string) for any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	The returned pointer addresses a static buffer,
 *		so don't call nomath() again until you're finished
 *		with output from the preceding call.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*nomath ( char *s )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	char sbuff[4096];		/* copy of s with no math chars */
int	strreplace();			/* replace _ with -, etc */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Make a clean copy of s
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check input --- */
*sbuff = '\000';			/* initialize in case of error */
if ( isempty(s) ) goto end_of_job;	/* no input */
/* --- start with copy of s --- */
strninit(sbuff,s,3000);			/* leave room for replacements */
/* --- make some replacements (*must* replace \ first) --- */
strreplace(sbuff,"\\","\\textbackslash ",0,0); /* change all \'s to text */
strreplace(sbuff,"_","\\textunderscore ",0,0); /* change all _'s to text */
strreplace(sbuff,"<","\\textlangle ",0,0); /* change all <'s to text */
strreplace(sbuff,">","\\textrangle ",0,0); /* change all >'s to text */
strreplace(sbuff,"$","\\textdollar ",0,0); /* change all $'s to text */
strreplace(sbuff,"&","\\&",0,0);           /* change every & to \& */
strreplace(sbuff,"%","\\%",0,0);           /* change every % to \% */
strreplace(sbuff,"#","\\#",0,0);           /* change every # to \# */
strreplace(sbuff,"~","\\~",0,0);           /* change every ~ to \~ */
strreplace(sbuff,"{","\\{",0,0);           /* change every { to \{ */
strreplace(sbuff,"}","\\}",0,0);           /* change every } to \} */
strreplace(sbuff,"^","\\ensuremath{\\widehat{~}}",0,0); /* change every ^ */
end_of_job:
  return ( sbuff );			/* back with clean copy of s */
} /* --- end-of-function nomath() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	strwrap ( s, linelen, tablen )
 * Purpose:	Inserts \n's and spaces in (a copy of) s to wrap lines
 *		at linelen and indent them by tablen.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	s (I)		char * to null-terminated string
 *				to be wrapped.
 *		linelen (I)	int containing maximum linelen
 *				between \n's.
 *		tablen (I)	int containing number of spaces to indent
 *				lines.  0=no indent.  Positive means
 *				only indent first line and not others.
 *				Negative means indent all lines except first.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to "line-wrapped" copy of s
 *				or "" (empty string) for any error.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	The returned copy of s has embedded \n's as necessary
 *		to wrap lines at linelen.  Any \n's in the input copy
 *		are removed first.  If (and only if) the input s contains
 *		a terminating \n then so does the returned copy.
 *	      o	The returned pointer addresses a static buffer,
 *		so don't call strwrap() again until you're finished
 *		with output from the preceding call.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*strwrap ( char *s, int linelen, int tablen )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	char sbuff[4096];		/* line-wrapped copy of s */
char	*sol = sbuff;			/* ptr to start of current line*/
char	tab[32] = "                 ";	/* tab string */
int	strreplace();			/* remove \n's */
char	*strchange();			/* add \n's and indent space */
int	finalnewline = (lastchar(s)=='\n'?1:0); /*newline at end of string?*/
int	istab = (tablen>0?1:0);		/* init true to indent first line */
int	rhslen  = 0,			/* remaining right hand side length*/
	thislen = 0,			/* length of current line segment */
	thistab = 0,			/* length of tab on current line */
	wordlen = 0;			/* length to next whitespace char */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Make a clean copy of s
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check input --- */
*sbuff = '\000';			/* initialize in case of error */
if ( isempty(s) ) goto end_of_job;	/* no input */
if ( tablen < 0 ) tablen = (-tablen);	/* set positive tablen */
if ( tablen >= linelen ) tablen = linelen-1; /* tab was longer than line */
tab[min2(tablen,16)] = '\000';		/* null-terminate tab string */
tablen = strlen(tab);			/* reset to actual tab length */
/* --- start with copy of s --- */
strninit(sbuff,s,3000);			/* leave room for \n's and tabs */
if ( linelen < 1 ) goto end_of_job;	/* can't do anything */
trimwhite(sbuff);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
strreplace(sbuff,"\n"," ",0,0);		/* remove any original \n's */
strreplace(sbuff,"\r"," ",0,0);		/* remove any original \r's */
strreplace(sbuff,"\t"," ",0,0);		/* remove any original \t's */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Insert \n's and spaces as needed
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
while ( 1 ) {				/* till end-of-line */
  /* --- init --- */
  trimwhite(sol);			/*remove leading/trailing whitespace*/
  thislen = thistab = 0;		/* no chars in current line yet */
  if ( istab && tablen>0 ) {		/* need to indent this line */
    strchange(0,sol,tab);		/* insert indent at start of line */
    thistab = tablen; }			/* line starts with whitespace tab */
  if ( sol == sbuff ) istab = 1-istab;	/* flip tab flag after first line */
  sol += thistab;			/* skip tab */
  rhslen = strlen(sol);			/* remaining right hand side chars */
  if ( rhslen <= linelen ) break;	/* no more \n's needed */
  if ( 0 && msglevel >= 99 ) {
    fprintf(stdout,"strwrap> rhslen=%d, sol=\"\"%s\"\"\n",rhslen,sol);
    fflush(stdout); }
  /* --- look for last whitespace preceding linelen --- */
  while ( 1 ) {				/* till we exceed linelen */
    wordlen = strcspn(sol+thislen,WHITESPACE); /*ptr to next whitespace char*/
    if ( thislen+thistab+wordlen >= linelen ) break; /*next word won't fit*/
    thislen += (wordlen+1); }		/* ptr past next whitespace char */
  if ( thislen < 1 ) break;		/* line will have one too-long word*/
  sol[thislen-1] = '\n';		/* replace last space with newline */
  sol += thislen;			/* next line starts after newline */
  } /* --- end-of-while(1) --- */
end_of_job:
  if ( finalnewline ) strcat(sbuff,"\n"); /* replace final newline */
  return ( sbuff );			/* back with clean copy of s */
} /* --- end-of-function strwrap() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	strpspn ( char *s, char *reject, char *segment )
 * Purpose:	finds the initial segment of s containing no chars
 *		in reject that are outside (), [] and {} parens, e.g.,
 *		   strpspn("abc(---)def+++","+-",segment) returns
 *		   segment="abc(---)def" and a pointer to the first '+' in s
 *		because the -'s are enclosed in () parens.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	s (I)		(char *)pointer to null-terminated string
 *				whose initial segment is desired
 *		reject (I)	(char *)pointer to null-terminated string
 *				containing the "reject chars"
 *				If reject contains a " or a ', then the
 *				" or ' isn't itself a reject char,
 *				but other reject chars within quoted
 *				strings (or substrings of s) are spanned.
 *		segment (O)	(char *)pointer returning null-terminated
 *				string comprising the initial segment of s
 *				that contains non-rejected chars outside
 *				(),[],{} parens, i.e., all the chars up to
 *				but not including the returned pointer.
 *				(That's the entire string if no non-rejected
 *				chars are found.)
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	pointer to first reject-char found in s
 *				outside parens, or a pointer to the
 *				terminating '\000' of s if there are
 *				no reject chars in s outside all () parens.
 *				But if reject is empty, returns pointer
 *				to matching )]} outside all parens.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	the return value is _not_ like strcspn()'s
 *	      o	improperly nested (...[...)...] are not detected,
 *		but are considered "balanced" after the ]
 *	      o	if reject not found, segment returns the entire string s
 *	      o	but if reject is empty, returns segment up to and including
 *		matching )]}
 *	      o	leading/trailing whitespace is trimmed from returned segment
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*strpspn ( char *s, char *reject, char *segment )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
char	*ps = s;			/* current pointer into s */
char	*strqspn(char *s,char *q,int isunescape); /*span quoted string*/
char	qreject[256]="\000", *pq=qreject, *pr=reject; /*find "or' in reject*/
int	isqspan = 0;			/* true to span quoted strings */
int	depth = 0;			/* () paren nesting level */
int	seglen=0, maxseg=2047;		/* segment length, max allowed */
int	isescaped=0, checkescapes=1;	/* signals escaped chars */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check arguments --- */
if ( isempty(s)				/* no input string supplied */
/*||   isempty(reject)*/ ) goto end_of_job; /* no reject chars supplied */
/* --- set up qreject w/o quotes --- */
if ( !isempty(reject) )			/* have reject string from caller */
  while ( *pr != '\000' ) {		/* until end-of-reject string */
    if ( !isthischar(*pr,"\"\'") )	/* not a " or ' */
      *pq++ = *pr;			/* copy actual reject char */
    else isqspan = 1;			/* span rejects in quoted strings */
    pr++; }				/* next reject char from caller */
*pq = '\000';				/* null-terminate qreject */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
find first char from s outside () parens (and outside ""'s) and in reject
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
while ( *ps != '\000' ) {		/* search till end of input string */
  int spanlen = 1;			/*span 1 non-reject, non-quoted char*/
  if ( !isescaped ) {			/* ignore escaped \(,\[,\{,\),\],\}*/
    if ( isthischar(*ps,"([{") ) depth++;   /* push another paren */
    if ( isthischar(*ps,")]}") ) depth--; } /* or pop another paren */
  if ( depth < 1 ) {			/* we're outside all parens */
    if ( isqspan )			/* span rejects in quoted strings */
      if ( isthischar(*ps,"\"\'") ) {	/* and we're at opening quote */
        pq = strqspn(ps,NULL,0);	/* locate matching closing quote */
        if ( pq != ps )			/* detected start of quoted string */
         if ( *pq == *ps )		/* and found closing quote */
          spanlen = ((int)(pq-ps)) + 1; } /* span the entire quoted string */
    if ( isempty(qreject) ) break;	/* no reject so break immediately */
    if ( isthischar(*ps,qreject) ) break; } /* only break on a reject char */
  if ( checkescapes )			/* if checking escape sequences */
    isescaped = (*ps=='\\'?1:0);	/* reset isescaped signal */
  if ( segment != NULL ) {		/* caller gave us segment */
    int copylen = min2(spanlen,maxseg-seglen); /* don't overflow segment */
    if ( copylen > 0 )			/* have room in segment buffer */
      memcpy(segment+seglen,ps,copylen); } /* so copy non-reject chars */
  seglen += spanlen;  ps += spanlen;	/* bump to next char */
  } /* --- end-of-while(*ps!=0) --- */
end_of_job:
  if ( segment != NULL ) {		/* caller gave us segment */
    if ( isempty(qreject) && !isempty(s) ) { /* no reject char */
      segment[min2(seglen,maxseg)] = *ps;  seglen++; } /*closing )]} to seg*/
    segment[min2(seglen,maxseg)] = '\000'; /* null-terminate the segment */
    trimwhite(segment); }		/* trim leading/trailing whitespace*/
  return ( ps );			/* back to caller */
} /* --- end-of-function strpspn() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	strqspn ( char *s, char *q, int isunescape )
 * Purpose:	finds matching/closing " or ' in quoted string
 *		that begins with " or ', and optionally changes
 *		escaped quotes to unescaped quotes.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	s (I)		(char *)pointer to null-terminated string
 *				that begins with " or ',
 *		q (O)		(char *)pointer returning null-terminated
 *				quoted token, with or without outer quotes,
 *				and with or without escaped inner quotes
 *				changed to unescaped quotes, depending
 *				on isunescape.
 *		isunescape (I)	int containing 1 to change \" to " if s
 *				is "quoted" or change \' to ' if 'quoted',
 *				or containing 2 to change both \" and \'
 *				to unescaped quotes.  Other \sequences aren't
 *				changed.  Note that \\" emits \".
 *				isunescape=0 makes no changes at all.
 *				Note: the following not implemented yet --
 *				If unescape is negative, its abs() is used,
 *				but outer quotes aren't included in q.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	pointer to matching/closing " or '
 *				(or to char after quote if isunescape<0),
 *				or terminating '\000' if none found,
 *				or unchanged (same as s) if not quoted string
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*strqspn ( char *s, char *q, int isunescape )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
char	*ps = s,  *pq = q;		/* current pointer into s, q */
char	quote = '\000';			/* " or ' quote character */
int	qcopy = (isunescape<0?0:1);	/* true to copy outer quotes */
int	isescaped = 0;			/* true to signal \escape sequence */
int	maxqlen = 2400;			/* max length of returned q */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Initialization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- check args --- */
if ( s == NULL ) goto end_of_job;	/* no string supplied */
skipwhite(ps);				/* skip leading whitespace */
if ( *ps == '\000'			/* string exhausted */
||   (!isthischar(*ps,"\"\'")) ) {	/* or not a " or ' quoted string */
  ps = s;  goto end_of_job; }		/*signal error/not string to caller*/
if ( isunescape < 0 ) isunescape = (-isunescape); /* flip positive */
/* --- set quote character --- */
quote = *ps;				/* set quote character */
if ( qcopy && q!=NULL ) *pq++ = quote;	/* and copy it to output token */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
span characters between quotes
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
while ( *(++ps) != '\000' ) {		/* end-of-string always terminates */
  /* --- process escaped chars --- */
  if ( isescaped ) {			/* preceding char was \ */
    if ( *ps != '\\' ) isescaped = 0;	/* reset isescaped flag unless \\ */
    if ( q != NULL ) {			/* caller wants quoted token */
      if ( isunescape==0		/* don't unescape anything */
      ||   (isunescape==1 && *ps!=quote) /* escaped char not our quote */
      ||   (isunescape==2 && (!isthischar(*ps,"\"\'"))) ) /* not any quote */
        if ( --maxqlen > 0 )		/* so if there's room in token */
          *pq++ = '\\';			/*keep original \ in returned token*/
      if ( !isescaped )			/* will have to check 2nd \ in \\ */
        if ( --maxqlen > 0 )		/* if there's room in token */
          *pq++ = *ps; }		/* put escaped char in token */
    continue; }				/* go on to next char in string */
  /* --- check if next char escaped --- */
  if ( *ps == '\\' ) {			/* found escape char */
    isescaped=1; continue; }		/*set flag and process escaped char*/
  /* --- check for unescaped closing quote --- */
  if ( *ps == quote ) {			/* got an unescaped quote */
    if ( qcopy && q!=NULL ) *pq++ = quote; /* copy it to output token */
    if ( 0 && !qcopy ) ps++;		/* return ptr to char after quote */
    goto end_of_job; }			/* back to caller */
  /* --- process other chars --- */
  if ( q != NULL )			/* caller want token returned */
    if ( --maxqlen > 0 )		/* and there's still room in token */
      *pq++ = *ps;			/* put char in  token */
  } /* --- end-of-while(*(++ps)!='\000') --- */
/*ps = NULL;*/  /*pq = q;*/		/* error if no closing quote found */
end_of_job:
  if ( q != NULL ) *pq = '\000';	/* null-terminate returned token */
  return ( ps );			/* return ptr to " or ', or NULL */
} /* --- end-of-function strqspn() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	timestamp ( tzdelta, ifmt )
 * Purpose:	returns null-terminated character string containing
 *		current date:time stamp as ccyy-mm-dd:hh:mm:ss{am,pm}
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	tzdelta (I)	integer, positive or negative, containing
 *				containing number of hours to be added or
 *				subtracted from system time (to accommodate
 *				your desired time zone).
 *		ifmt (I)	integer containing 0 for default format
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Returns:	( char * )	ptr to null-terminated buffer
 *				containing current date:time stamp
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
char	*timestamp( int tzdelta, int ifmt )
{
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	char timebuff[256];		/* date:time buffer back to caller */
/*long	time_val = 0L;*/		/* binary value returned by time() */
time_t	time_val = (time_t)(0);		/* binary value returned by time() */
struct tm *tmstruct=(struct tm *)NULL, *localtime(); /* interpret time_val */
int	year=0, hour=0,ispm=1,		/* adjust year, and set am/pm hour */
	month=0, day=0,			/* adjust day and month for delta  */
	minute=0,second=0;		/* minute and second not adjusted  */
int	tzadjust();			/* time zone adjustment function */
int	daynumber();			/* #days since Jan 1, 1973 */
static	char *daynames[] = { "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",
	 "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday", "Sunday" } ;
static	char *monthnames[] = { "?", "January", "February", "March", "April",
	 "May", "June", "July", "August", "September", "October",
	"November", "December", "?" } ;
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
get current date:time, adjust values, and and format stamp
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- first init returned timebuff in case of any error --- */
*timebuff = '\000';
/* --- get current date:time --- */
time((time_t *)(&time_val));		/* get date and time */
tmstruct = localtime((time_t *)(&time_val)); /* interpret time_val */
/* --- extract fields --- */
year  = (int)(tmstruct->tm_year);	/* local copy of year,  0=1900 */
month = (int)(tmstruct->tm_mon) + 1;	/* local copy of month, 1-12 */
day   = (int)(tmstruct->tm_mday);	/* local copy of day,   1-31 */
hour  = (int)(tmstruct->tm_hour);	/* local copy of hour,  0-23 */
minute= (int)(tmstruct->tm_min);	/* local copy of minute,0-59 */
second= (int)(tmstruct->tm_sec);	/* local copy of second,0-59 */
/* --- adjust year --- */
year += 1900;				/* set century in year */
/* --- adjust for timezone --- */
tzadjust(tzdelta,&year,&month,&day,&hour);
/* --- check params --- */
if ( hour<0  || hour>23
||   day<1   || day>31
||   month<1 || month>12
||   year<1973 ) goto end_of_job;
/* --- adjust hour for am/pm --- */
switch ( ifmt )
  {
  default:
  case 0:
    if ( hour < 12 )			/* am check */
     { ispm=0;				/* reset pm flag */
       if ( hour == 0 ) hour = 12; }	/* set 00hrs = 12am */
    if ( hour > 12 ) hour -= 12;	/* pm check sets 13hrs to 1pm, etc */
    break;
  case 4: break;			/* numeric result */
  } /* --- end-of-switch(ifmt) --- */
/* --- format date:time stamp --- */
switch ( ifmt )
  {
  default:
  case 0:  /* --- 2005-03-05:11:49:59am --- */
    sprintf(timebuff,"%04d-%02d-%02d:%02d:%02d:%02d%s",
    year,month,day,hour,minute,second,((ispm)?"pm":"am"));
    break;
  case 1:  /* --- Saturday, March 5, 2005 --- */
    sprintf(timebuff,"%s, %s %d, %d",
    daynames[daynumber(year,month,day)%7],monthnames[month],day,year);
    break;
  case 2: /* --- Saturday, March 5, 2005, 11:49:59am --- */
    sprintf(timebuff,"%s, %s %d, %d, %d:%02d:%02d%s",
    daynames[daynumber(year,month,day)%7],monthnames[month],day,year,
    hour,minute,second,((ispm)?"pm":"am"));
    break;
  case 3: /* --- 11:49:59am --- */
    sprintf(timebuff,"%d:%02d:%02d%s",
    hour,minute,second,((ispm)?"pm":"am"));
    break;
  case 4: /* --- 1231235959 (mmddhhmmss time as integer) --- */
    sprintf(timebuff,"%d%02d%02d%02d%02d",
    month,day,hour,minute,second);
    break;
  } /* --- end-of-switch(ifmt) --- */
end_of_job:
  return ( timebuff );			/* return stamp to caller */
} /* --- end-of-function timestamp() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	tzadjust ( tzdelta, year, month, day, hour )
 * Purpose:	Adjusts hour, and day,month,year if necessary,
 *		by delta increment to accommodate your time zone.
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	tzdelta (I)	integer, positive or negative, containing
 *				containing number of hours to be added or
 *				subtracted from given time (to accommodate
 *				your desired time zone).
 *		year (I)	addr of int containing        4-digit year
 *		month (I)	addr of int containing month  1=Jan - 12=Dec.
 *		day (I)		addr of int containing day    1-31 for Jan.
 *		hour (I)	addr of int containing hour   0-23
 * Returns:	( int )		1 for success, or 0 for error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	tzadjust ( int tzdelta, int *year, int *month, int *day, int *hour )
{
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	yy = *year, mm = *month, dd = *day, hh = *hour; /*dereference args*/
/* --- calendar data --- */
static	int modays[] =
	{ 0, 31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 0 };
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
check args
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( mm<1 || mm>12 ) return(-1);	/* bad month */
if ( dd<1 || dd>modays[mm] ) return(-1); /* bad day */
if ( hh<0 || hh>23 ) return(-1);	/* bad hour */
if ( tzdelta>23 || tzdelta<(-23) ) return(-1); /* bad tzdelta */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
make adjustments
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- adjust hour --- */
hh += tzdelta;				/* apply caller's delta */
/* --- adjust for feb 29 --- */
modays[2] = (yy%4==0?29:28);		/* Feb has 29 days in leap years */
/* --- adjust day --- */
if ( hh < 0 )				/* went to preceding day */
  { dd--;  hh += 24; }
if ( hh > 23 )				/* went to next day */
  { dd++;  hh -= 24; }
/* --- adjust month --- */
if ( dd < 1 )				/* went to preceding month */
  { mm--;  dd = modays[mm]; }
if ( dd > modays[mm] )			/* went to next month */
  { mm++;  dd = 1; }
/* --- adjust year --- */
if ( mm < 1 )				/* went to preceding year */
  { yy--;  mm = 12;  dd = modays[mm]; }
if ( mm > 12 )				/* went to next year */
  { yy++;  mm = 1;   dd = 1; }
/* --- back to caller --- */
*year=yy; *month=mm; *day=dd; *hour=hh;	/* reset adjusted args */
return ( 1 );
} /* --- end-of-function tzadjust() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	daynumber ( year, month, day )
 * Purpose:	Returns number of actual calendar days from Jan 1, 1973
 *		to the given date (e.g., bvdaynumber(1974,1,1)=365).
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	year (I)	int containing year -- may be either 1995 or
 *				95, or may be either 2010 or 110 for those
 *				years.
 *		month (I)	int containing month, 1=Jan thru 12=Dec.
 *		day (I)		int containing day of month, 1-31 for Jan, etc.
 * Returns:	( int )		Number of days from Jan 1, 1973 to given date,
 *				or -1 for error (e.g., year<1973).
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	daynumber ( int year, int month, int day )
{
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- returned value (note: returned as a default "int") --- */
int	ndays;				/* #days since jan 1, year0 */
/* --- initial conditions --- */
static	int year0 = 73, 		/* jan 1 was a monday, 72 was a leap */
	days4yrs = 1461,		/* #days in 4 yrs = 365*4 + 1 */
	days1yr  = 365;
/* --- table of accumulated days per month (last index not used) --- */
static	int modays[] =
	{ 0, 31, 59, 90, 120, 151, 181, 212, 243, 273, 304, 334, 365 };
/* --- variables for #days since day0 --- */
int	nyears, nfouryrs;		/*#years, #4-yr periods since year0*/
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Check input
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( month < 1 || month > 12 )		/*month used as index, so must be ok*/
	return ( -1 );			/* otherwise, forget it */
if ( year >= 1900 ) year -= 1900;	/*use two-digit years (3 after 2000)*/
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Find #days since jan 1, 1973
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- figure #complete 4-year periods and #remaining yrs till current --- */
nyears = year - year0;			/* #years since year0 */
if ( nyears < 0 ) return ( -1 );	/* we're not working backwards */
nfouryrs = nyears/4;			/* #complete four-year periods */
nyears -= (4*nfouryrs); 		/* remainder excluding current year*/
/* --- #days from jan 1, year0 till jan 1, this year --- */
ndays = (days4yrs*nfouryrs)		/* #days in 4-yr periods */
      +  (days1yr*nyears);		/* +remaining days */
/*if ( year > 100 ) ndays--;*/		/* subtract leap year for 2000AD */
/* --- add #days within current year --- */
ndays += (modays[month-1] + (day-1));
/* --- may need an extra day if current year is a leap year --- */
if ( nyears == 3 )			/*three preceding yrs so this is 4th*/
    { if ( month > 2 )			/* past feb so need an extra day */
	/*if ( year != 100 )*/		/* unless it's 2000AD */
	  ndays++; }			/* so add it in */
return ( (int)(ndays) );		/* #days back to caller */
} /* --- end-of-function daynumber() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	emitembedded ( imagenum, isquery )
 * Purpose:	Emits embedded gif (or png) message to stdout
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	imagenum (I)	int containing image number desired
 *		isquery (I)	int containing 0 for command-line run,
 *				1 for query mode, 2 for query mode but
 *				suppress msgfp output even if it's enabled.
 * Returns:	int		#bytes emitted (returned by emitcache()),
 *				or 0 for failure
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	If mathTeX fails, these images contain
 *		error messages that can be displayed
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
int	emitembedded ( int imagenum, int isquery )
{
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
int	nbytes = 0,			/* #bytes in embedded image */
	imgtype = 0;			/* image type 1=gif,2=png */
unsigned char *eimage=NULL, *embeddedimages(); /* retrieve embedded image */
int	emitcache();			/* emit embedded image to stdout */
int	maxage = MAXAGE;		/* maxage is typically 7200 secs */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Retrieve and emit embedded image
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* --- retrieve image --- */
if ( imagenum<1 || imagenum>MAXEMBEDDED ) imagenum=1; /*out-of-bounds check*/
eimage = embeddedimages(imagenum,&nbytes,&imgtype); /*retrieve image*/
/* --- display message image on stdout --- */
if ( isquery )				/* don't emit error to shell stdout*/
  if ( eimage != NULL ) {		/* have embedded image */
    imagetype = imgtype;		/* set embedded image type */
    nbytes = emitcache((char *)eimage,maxage,nbytes); } /* and emit image */
/* --- show message text on msgfp --- */
if ( isquery != 2 )			/* msgfp output enabled */
  if ( msgfp!=NULL && msglevel>=1 )	/* display on msgfp, too */
    fprintf(msgfp,"\nmathTeX> message#%d %s:\n         %s\n",
    imagenum,(nbytes>0?"succeeded":"failed"),
    strwrap(embeddedtext[imagenum],64,-9));
/* --- back to caller --- */
return ( nbytes );			/* return #bytes emitted, 0=error */
} /* --- end-of-function emitembedded() --- */


/* ==========================================================================
 * Function:	embeddedimages ( imagenum, nbytes, imgtype )
 * Purpose:	Returns unsigned char ptr to embedded gif or png message
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Arguments:	imagenum (I)	int containing image number desired
 *		nbytes (O)	ptr to int returning #bytes in image,
 *				or returning 0 for error
 *		imgtype (O)	ptr to int returning 1=gif, 2=png,
 *				or unchanged for error
 * Returns:	( unsigned char * ) embedded gif or png, or NULL for error
 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Notes:     o	If mathTeX fails, these binary images of gifs/pngs
 *		supply error messages that can be displayed
 *	      o	String initializations for these binary images were
 *		created by my utility file2hex.c, and the important
 *		thing to notice is that the images are broken into
 *		one or more 500-byte strings.  If you change that
 *		length, change variable stringsz correspondingly.
 * ======================================================================= */
/* --- entry point --- */
unsigned char *embeddedimages ( int imagenum, int *nbytes, int *imgtype )
{
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Embedded Image Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* ---
 * Each image broken up into 500-byte strings.  See Notes above.
 * ------------------------------------------------------------- */
static	int stringsz = 500;		/* sizeof each image string */
/* ---
 * image1[] contains a 1885-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{blue}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (1) mathTeX test message:\\cgi program running okay.\\
 * See mathtex.html\#message1}
 * ----------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE1 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE1 1885			/* #bytes in image1[] */
static	unsigned char *image1[] = {
  (unsigned char *) "GIF89a\xc6\x0\x38\x0\x84\x0\x0\xff\xff\xff\x0\x0\xff" 
  "\xff\xff\xff\x99\x99\xff\x64\x64\xff\xb8\xb8\xff--\xff\b\b\xff\xdb\xdb" 
  "\xff\xe\xe\xff}}\xff  \xffOO\xff\x3\x3\xff==\xff\x16\x16\xff\x1\x1\xff" 
  "\x9f\x9f\xff\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0" 
  "\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0!\xf9" 
  "\x4\x1\x0\x0\x0\x0,\x0\x0\x0\x0\xc6\x0\x38\x0\x0\x5\xfe` \x8e\x64i\x9eh" 
  "\xaa\xael\xeb\xbep,\xcf)`\xdfx\xae\xef|\xef\xff\xc0\xa0pH,\x1a\x8f:\x11r" 
  "\xc9l:\x9f\xd0(O)\xadZ\xaf\xd8,\x90\xaa\xedz\xbf`!7L.\x9b\xaf\x63\xde" 
  "\x80\xb0\x43\x38\xb2\bE\xe1L\xaf\xe7\xd2\xba\x82\xe1\xa6\x1f\xdc\x6\vUs" 
  "\x0\x5\t{8\n\x10\x6\x6\a\x8a\x8c\x87\x37\n\v\x1\as\n\x1\t\f;\x83\x42\x9c" 
  "vYx9\a\b6\f\f\r\n8\v~Q\x90\x8b\x39\x4\xac\x8c\x36n;\xe\x10\xa4\x5\x9a<" 
  "\x90\x41\xbd\x9fh\x1>\x3\t\xa2\xa9\x7f\xfQ\xe\xae\xbf\xae\a7\xbf\x37\t" 
  "\xc5\xd1\x37\xcb\x43\xd7\xc0\xa0\xc2=\xaf\x38\a\xc7\x37\xdc\xb0\x10\v\x4" 
  "\n\a\x3\n\xe8\x83\f\x4\x4\x87\f\x10\a\x6\xa9\x6\xe6\xec\x39\xb3\x37\f" 
  "\xe6\v\x9c\b(\x91\xda!\x8f^\xaa~\x4\xfe!\xa8G Y\xc1z:\b\x94;\x97n]\xa5R" 
  "\xfe\n,T\xd0\x10\xc0\xc6\x8e\x0\xdc\xc1\xe3\xb7\xe0\x1e\x83\x62\b\xfe" 
  "\xff\x1\xf0v$\xd4\rp\xc6\x44\xb1\xd2\xf7leMo\t\xfc,x\xb3\xd2\x99\r\x96\?" 
  "k\x2\x90hc\x80P\x0\xe\x2\xcc\xd4\xe1\x8d(\x0\xa3\x6\xd8 \xfdY-\xa8\xd5" 
  "\x9e\x43!\x14\xa5\'\xf5MT\x1b<s\x2\xd8i#\x0\xa9\x5\x9a\x9c\x1a\xc5\x8a" 
  "\xc4\xa5\r\x98\xdf\xc2\xbd\x95\v\xed\x90\x37\x96\x1c\x1f\xd8\x65\x46\x95" 
  "\xa6\x34p\xeb\xc6\x15p\xb0\xa0\xc1@\xa6\x87\x12\x0\xbe\x34`\x9e\x83\x81",
  (unsigned char *) "@\xf5\xed\xed\xabx\x1d\x63\xc7\xa4\x1a\x1fx\x1c\xa9" 
  "\xe1!n\x6\xdeT\xe\xec\xc4-\x0\xb8/\xe9\xa2\xc6qw2\x80\x4\xf6&\xc7\xee" 
  "\xcbZ(\xbd\x1d\x87\x1a\x4\xc2\xbd\a]\xaf\x2\xba\x1e\xdc\xec\xcd\x9b\xf6" 
  "\xab\xdb|\x82\?\x3\xce@\xb8\r\xd8l\xcd\x8d<]\xb5\xed\xb8\x1dhc\xe2\xc0U" 
  "\x9c\xed+t6\xf4\xeey5\xde\x35\x34\xa1\x4\x1aX\x3;\xb0@\x0\xa9\x92W\xa6" 
  "\xb7\x66`\x90z\xac\xd5Z\xf7\x9d\xf\xb6\xbe\r\xf5\xfe\x1\xa0\x1ex\x0\x88" 
  "\x17\x12,\xf7M\xfe\xf5\xce\x12\xa6%\xc4\x8f\x1\x98@\x82@\x82\x88\x1c\x80" 
  "\x8a\x2\r\\\x98\xa1\x2\bTtJ \x5\x34\xe0\xc0\x39\x1b\x62\x88\x8a\r\n\x18" 
  "\xd0@\x0\x10\xad\xf4\x0\x61\xa6\x1c\x10\xc0\x31\x89\xb0\xe8\t!\"\xb2\x61" 
  "\xc0\x8bh\xdd\xb3\x6O!\x8e\xa8\x3:\x1a\x16i\xf\x8f\f\xf8H\x80W\xab,\xe9" 
  "\x91\x87\xba\x15x\xc0\x94\v\x90\xb2#\x8c\xaf\x15\x63\xdd\xfG\x11\xb4\xcb" 
  "\x11\x87\xe1\x10\x66\x11\x37\xe\x11\xe6 \xa4\x8c\xe9\x11\x13h\xaeI\x8b" 
  "\x9b\x37\x84\xb9\x0l\x1c%\x90\x8c\ren\xe9\x3\x1_\xea\x80\x80\x96\xda\x4" 
  "\xaa\x85\x39\x37\x38X\x85i6\xc4\xc2\x3g\x82\x36\x8a\x85\x65\xeb\x4\x13" 
  "\x44\x9e\b\xa8\xe9\xe8\xa5\x98\xdeq]\xa6\x9cv\xca\xe0\xa6\x9e\x86*\xea" 
  "\xf\x88\x8ej\xea\xfq\xe4\x19\x46\xa9\?$\xc0\xd3\xa9Q\xb8\x1a\x45!\xd5}" 
  "\xc1\xea\x9eK\xc1\xea\x84\xa2\xad\xd4\xea\xc5\xad\xba\x6\xcb\x16\x1d\xa6" 
  "\x11\x63RH%\xa1\x5[\x3\xd1H\xe4\xaa\x1\x62\r\xa0\x1b\x1\x1\xfe\xcc\x1" 
  "\x8f\x2\xee`dRN\xd3V\x1b\xd2;\x87H\x84OE\xf9\xfc\xd1m\x1\xd2\xee\x91\xee" 
  "P\x1\x8ckm\xbb\x14Y\xc2,\xbb\xeej\xab,,\xf5\x64\x8b\x15\x1\xb7\x89\xb4" 
  "\xc7Iw\xda\xa9\xaa\x9e\x9bx\xeb@1f\x8d\xb5Kd\?\xed\xe6\x9e\x95\xea=\x96" 
  "\xc8\r\xf\xa4\x92pv+EL\x8aXd\xd9tUd*\"e\xa5k\xfb\xdc\x35\x9cq\'\x3",
  (unsigned char *) "pq\x9f\x0L\x1c\xdel\v\x1c\xc3\xf1\x1b\xcd\xfd\x64)\x13" 
  "n9\xd0%h<1<\xec\x66\xc3&\xb0\xdbJ\b\xff\xd4\xf3/y\x91l\x1em\xc6)\xdd\xf4" 
  "\xd3l\xf1\x9c\x83\xd0\xd0P\xb3\xc0jI{\xc4\xdd\xabQ\xb8\xb5\xcf\r\xd2\xf1" 
  "\x85\xd8K\xe5\xbd\x34\xf4,a\xd7\x85\x3t\xfay\xd7L/m\xc7\xed\xb4\xdb\x36" 
  "\xa4-\xca\xd9\xcf@\x8b\xe1@l\x1fR\x12\x3\x37\xe3\f*\x1f\t\xfu`|L9\xec-K" 
  "\xa7P\xac\t\xcb\xc3\x12h\xa0\xdc\x88\xd3\xa6\x17\xd4\x94\xd3}8A\t>\xa0" 
  "\xc9+\xfe\xe$#\xf9+\x5(R(|M\x98\xc6\xc0\x66\x6\xf8!\x1c\x95ql\xc8\xd4\x1" 
  "\xe7$\xc0\x86\x89_^\xe9\xcd\xeb\aT\x89;-P\xc6l\xe1:%\xca\x8e\x62\x86_" 
  "\x16\xa2N\x2\x46\x9aH|\xf3\xc5\x1b)%\xec\xfa\xbc\xf8]\x3\x80\x61\x12\x41" 
  "\xf0\xcf\xcd\x34\r\x14\xa5\xe\x34\xe7:\x4\xd8\xe9\x3\xe9@p2~\x9dw\xfa)E" 
  "\x9aV\xac_~\xfb\x38\f\x1c\xa7\xe\\K\x1,\xa1\x89\xe\xdd\x1d\x11\xfc\x1b" 
  "\x8a\xfft\x15@C1\xc1U\xea\xc0\x2\xb0Z\x6)\x1f\xa4\xa8\x45\x44\x80\x14]" 
  "\x82%\xc1\'\xac\x61\x82]\x1b\x9c\xb0\x36\xd8\xa8\x5r\xf0\x83\xab\xd2 " 
  "\x1f\x14\xe0\a\xfb\x61!UQ@\xe1\x12T(\xa6\x81\x4.T\xaa\xd3\x84\x1e\xba" 
  "\xa4\x85\x41\xd0j\x13G\xb8\x61\x1e:a\b\x1d\xa8\x64\x41\x8e\xea\xc3\x16" 
  "\x44X\x0\xa1t(\fb\xd3\a\x12|\xe6+\xd6\x44\x43K\xfx\xe1\x19Lq\"R\x89\x30" 
  "\x11\x87i\"\x14\xb2\x31,\xfa,1\x1a\\\x4\xfe\x42\x64\xf4\x10\x9eL\xad\x66" 
  "\n\"<\x8d\"\xe4\x92\x92\x39\xb4\x91\x1c\xe3RG\xb9\xfcU\x8ay@\xe4\x1e\xf1" 
  "\n\x89\x1d\xf\x92\x91\x93\x14\x83_\x3\xc4\x63>\x1e\xc2\x91\x89\xa0\x43" 
  "\x8e\x17\xe9\"R\xfc\x30\x80W\x89\x8b\"\x88lGF>\x92\fJ\x96\x2\\$\xd9\x16" 
  "\xb2\x12\xc2\x89\x33\xee\x0Q*\x12\x1\x1b\xd4\x42;\xad<\x85",
  (unsigned char *) "\x86%K\xd9\xcc\x98V2\xd7\x90\xf2)\x86\xc1\xd6\xec\xa0" 
  "\xe6\xb1Z\xeaG\xf\x8b\xa0\xc7#L\xf6\xb1=\x90\xf2+S\x1\x66Xt\xc2\x93\x95" 
  "\x65\x65+\xa9\x19\x62\x10\xdc`\x96\xd1\\\xc2\x99\xa0\xca\\\xcb<\xc3\xca" 
  "\xb9\x41\x33Q\r@\x9d\xda\x34\xa7\xb9\xb6\xd1\"`\x88\xd3\xf\x34\x35\xc3" 
  "\x19r\x1e&k*3\xdak\x16\x33\xeO&\xe1\x8arA\x5r\xdeR\xab\xcc\xf5\xad/\xb3" 
  "\xa1\x9bo\xfct\x0\xfamS\?\xf9\xa4\\\x1c\x14\xb0\x8cu\xd0\xe9\x18\x94\x9b" 
  "\'!\x94\xb3\xd0\xe6\xd4\xe4\x9e\x63\xc1$uv\xe0NM\xf5 E80\f\xe0\x7f\x90" 
  "\xb2\xd1\xfcu\xb3\x37\x35\x99\xdcx>*\x9f\x4\xbd\x61!\x5\xe2\t\x10)W6\x92" 
  "\xe\x14\x30;\xb1\f\xe6|i\xd2\x0\x1\xc8>-\v\xe9+X\xd6\xd1\x64Z\xf1\xa2" 
  "\x86X\x87\xe7~\x82$\x17\x61\xa9\x42\xd0\x43\x45\x87\xd4\xf1!\x1c\x8d\xc8" 
  "y\xces\xaa\x8e\x90$\x8f@P\xeb\x1f\xdf\x83\xaa\xec\x82\x44\x91\xa4>/\x1cw" 
  "\xf2\'\x91\xbe\x1a\xd5+\xf5\xa8IL\xfa\xd1\x93\x98\x1a%\xdeU\xc9\xa8\xd9I" 
  "R\x84~\xca\x83J1pL72\xa1\xf,%E8\x11\xc2\t}\xdd\x41#\xcb\x98\xc3\x37\x1d" 
  "\x6~bR\x5\x9d\xe6\xc7\x87\x96\xa4\x11\x84_p\x0#=\xea\x85\x2\xe\xd0\b\x1e" 
  "\x84l\x15h\xa4\xd7+T0u\x8f\xd5\xach\x7f\x15\xda\xd1\x9aVR\xa7M-\x18\x32" 
  "\xab\xda\xd6\x16\x81\xb5\xae\x8d\xed\x10i@\xdb\xda\xda\xf6\xb6\xb8\xcd" 
  "\xadnS\x10\x2\x0;",
  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image1[] --- */
/* ---
 * image2[] contains a 2296-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (2) mathTeX failed: probably due to\\bad paths, permissions,
 * or installation.\\See mathtex.html\#message2}
 * ------------------------------------------------------------ */
#define	IMAGETYPE2 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE2 2296			/* #bytes in image2[] */
static	unsigned char *image2[] = {
  (unsigned char *) "GIF89a\x1\x1\x38\x0\x84\x0\x0\xff\xff\xff\xff\x0\x0" 
  "\xff\xff\xff\xff\x99\x99\xff\x64\x64\xff\xb8\xb8\xff--\xff\b\b\xff\xdb" 
  "\xdb\xff\xe\xe\xff}}\xff  \xffOO\xff\x16\x16\xff==\xff\x3\x3\xff\x1\x1" 
  "\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0" 
  "\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0\x0!\xf9\x4" 
  "\x1\x0\x0\x0\x0,\x0\x0\x0\x0\x1\x1\x38\x0\x0\x5\xfe` \x8e\x64i\x9eh\xaa" 
  "\xael\xeb\xbep,\xcftm\x97@\xae\xef|\xef\xff\xc0\xa0pH,\x1a\x8f\xc8\xa4r" 
  "\xc9l\xe6\x44\xce\xa8tJ\xadZ\xaf\xd8!4\xcb\xedz\xbf\xe0\x30p+.\x9b\xcf" 
  "\xe8\xf4\x8e\xacn\xbb\xdfp$\x1b\x38 \xf8\x10\x8e,BQ\x10\xf3\x83{}\x80" 
  "\x7fz\x84\x83\x82:\x81G\x8aps>\x5\x6\x39\x90\x6\v\b9\x3\vU\x82\x5\t\x91;" 
  "\n\x10\x6\x6\a\xa1\xa3\x9e\x9f\v\x1\a}\n\x1\t\f=\x9c\xad>\ty\x9c\xa7\?" 
  "\xb7\\\xba\x42\xbc:\xbe\x44\xc0I\x88Q\x8e=\a\x96\b\r9\xe\xf:\v\x3T\xa7" 
  "\xa2<\x4\xd1\x0\xa3\x39x\?\xe\x10\x96\x5\xb0>\xd4\xc4:\xd6\x39\xd4\x42" 
  "\xe8Y\xea\x41\xec\xe7\xb8\x44\xeeH\xf0M\xc6;\x3\t9\xb3O\n\x97\xcbR\xe" 
  "\xa6\xc1\x9bv@\a=\x1d\t\xf2\x1d|\x17o\xe1\xeyU \xf6\x90\'\x11H\xc5!\x1" 
  "\xa9\xd8\x33x\xeaZ\x81\x0\x88\x2\xf4 \x0\x61\x1\x1\x5\a\xfe\x6(@)\x88\x1" 
  "\x1\x2\x9e\x18@8`\xa0\x1f\xa5\x93\xabxd\xdb\xc1\xc0\xe4\x2\x44\bTY\xf2" 
  "\x81\x92&\x0\x97\x30\xf5=\xf0\x84\xae\'\x81\x9f\x0\x30)`\xd0\x89\xa1\xf" 
  "\x92\xb5\f$\x88\x36\xe0\x81I\x90\x0`N\xb5\x83-\xc1Kh9\x90N3\xfb\xf4\x1a" 
  "\x35\xaa\xff\x12\x34 &\x95j\xa4\xaew\x97\xa6\xf5IN&\xcd~b]*\xd9\x98\xe3@" 
  "\?\x1e\v2\xe9H9\xb1 6\xc7",
  (unsigned char *) "\xe8\xb6\x2X\x90\a\x1b\x41\xab\x6\x1d\xe7 yI3\x0\a\x1" 
  "\xae\x89\xf3$\x99\xb2Uj\x9c\xa3\"\v0\xd4\xa8\x65\x8b\x8a\?Z2\xe0\xcc\xc1" 
  "\x1e\b:\x1a\xd8\x8c\xcd\x1a@\xe9\xca\x94$\xf5n\xfa\xcf\xc0Pm\xbd\x1\xb8" 
  "\x46\x87\x1a\xb7\xea\x89\x9e@\xe5>|\x84\xb0r\xeai\xff-\xc6~\x9a\xe9)\x5" 
  "\x4\x1ax\xe7\x88\xf9\x9c\xe7\x4\x86W\x8a\x94\xe4`\xc1\x83\xe3:\xbf\x87" 
  "\x1f\xff\x1a\xfd\xcaV\xe\x34\xbbNw\xea@\x1eu\t(V\xd6k\x85U\x6\x9ex\x98" 
  "\xf9\xfeG \x2\xde|\xc6\x43~\x8b\xd1G\x8d}\xea\x41\x97\x43\x80\x6\xe5#" 
  "\xc7z@\x18vO$\x5 \xe2\x61|\xdd]h\xd3x\'\x96\xf7\xd8\xe\xfb=\x94\x83W\?D" 
  "\x96\"\x81\xd4\xb4\xb8\x93r\xe=\xd4_$\xea\x1c `6=F\x92\xc0\x8c\x41\x12" 
  "\x38\x99\x1\f\xc0\xb7\x62\x61\x12\x46\xd2\xa2\x85(\xfd\xe8Y\x11\xd6-\x10" 
  "NTd\x11\x80H\x83$\xd2\x18\tJ9\x88\xc7#\x8f^\xea\xe4\x19\x1\xce\x30\xc3" 
  "\xccP\x1f\x91\x45\"\x98\x0\x88Y&\x9a:8P\x80s8n\xe6\xe6\x44\xbc\xf5\xa1" 
  "\xe\x3i\xc6\tKp\x0\x4U\x0\x9cr\x12j\xa8\x91w\xd2sg\x84V!H\xa7\x9a$\"\x19" 
  "h\x3W\x1a\x61\xddS\xc2\x91\x90H\xa0:\xa0\xf4\xc0J\xf\x8c\xaa@\xa9\n \x90" 
  "\xd2T0\x16\xf0\x80\x3\'\xa1z\xea\xa8\xfa\xd0\x16@M\x6\x35\xd0\x1e\x3\f" 
  "\x1c\x10\xc0\x61\xa0\xdcJ\xcc\xacI\xae\n\xe8\x2\xb3\x92J\xab\x1\xbaZy" 
  "\x14\xb2$y\x98\x90\x45\a\xfe\x9c\x64\x16\x0\xc4\xe6\x1a\x10S\xe(0@\x3v" 
  "\xa8\xaa\xd2\xb1\xd8t\xfb\xad\x1d\xc9\"$\x1aO\xd0\xce\xd4\xf\'*%\xb0l" 
  "\xb3\x99J\xf2\xaa\x1d\xccn;\x18\x87\x1d\n\xc1\xeb\x12Jj\xd3\x4\x39I\x4\f" 
  "\x4\x39\xc9\x14\x31\xce\x10\x4\x3\x80p.AT\xf6\x43\xc2;P\xfc\v ;4L%\xbf\?" 
  "\x10Po\xc5\x1a\xc6!\xf2\x10\x17yQ\x8bJ#k",
  (unsigned char *) "\xc1q\xc7\xeb\xee`[\xca\x30\x13%\nwb\xd4\x41s\xcck\xac" 
  "\fq\xf\b\x18\x8c\xf3\xcf@\xa7l]\xd0\x44\x17m\xf4\x13:\x1f\xad\xf4\xd2" 
  "\x38\x13\xc6H\x11O7\x11\x35\xd3T\x1fR\xa8!a\x10&L/U1\xb1I\xd7\"\xd7\x42" 
  "\x84\xd8n\x90m\x84\xc6\xeW\xb5u\xc6\bI\\O\xd2\xe4\x1dQr:q\x8bl\xce\x10w" 
  "\xb7\x91\xb7\xc2\xed\xd0\x17\x63\x39-/a\xdd\xdc]*\x91\x91\x8aU\x1f}x\x8c" 
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/* ---
 * image3[] contains a 2235-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (3) Can't mkdir cgi-bin/mathtex/\\cache directory: check
 * permissions.\\See mathtex.html\#message3}
 * --------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE3 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE3 2235			/* #bytes in image3[] */
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  "\x0;",
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/* ---
 * image4[] contains a 2238-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (4) Can't mkdir cgi-bin/tempnam/\\work directory: check
 * permissions.\\See mathtex.html\#message4}
 * --------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE4 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE4 2238			/* #bytes in image4[] */
static	unsigned char *image4[] = {
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  "\xe0\x90\xe4}\xac\xc4\x61\xc5\xe4W=\x7f\xf9Nt#1aH\"\xc6\x90K\xc9\xf0\"" 
  "\xb9Qa\x1dX\xd5\f\xf>\x5KP\xf7\xca\xc0\xa1RF\xb0*U\xa9r\x95\xa7=U\x92PB" 
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  "\xba\xd5\xb0.\x83\rfM\xebZ\xdb\xfa\xd6\xb8\xce\xb5\xae\x43\x0\x0;",
  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image4[] --- */
/* ---
 * image5[] contains a 2212-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (5) Can't cd cgi-bin/tempnam/\\work directory: check
 * permissions.\\See mathtex.html\#message5}
 * --------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE5 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE5 2212			/* #bytes in image5[] */
static	unsigned char *image5[] = {
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/* ---
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 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (6) Can't fopen("latex.tex") file:\\check permissions.\\
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/* ---
 * image7[] contains a 2110-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (7) Can't run latex program:\\check -DLATEX=$\backslash$
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#define	IMAGETYPE7 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE7 2110			/* #bytes in image7[] */
static	unsigned char *image7[] = {
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/* ---
 * image8[] contains a 1896-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
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#define	IMAGETYPE8 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
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  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image8[] --- */
/* ---
 * image9[] contains a 2215-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (9) Can't run dvipng program:\\check -DDVIPNG=$\backslash$
 * "path$\backslash$", etc.\\See mathtex.html\#message9}
 * --------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE9 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE9 2215			/* #bytes in image9[] */
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/* ---
 * image10[] contains a 1465-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
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 * ---------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE10 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE10 1465		/* #bytes in image10[] */
static	unsigned char *image10[] = {
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  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image10[] --- */
/* ---
 * image11[] contains a 2134-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (11) Can't run dvips program:\\check -DDVIPS=$\backslash$
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 * ---------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE11 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
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/* ---
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#define	IMAGETYPE12 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
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/* ---
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 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
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#define	IMAGETYPE13 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
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  "\x65[\xb3\xee\xf4\n\x9e\xf5\"\x19\x80U\xacS\xf2j\xa5\xbf\x86\x42\x32x]" 
  "\x86\x33v\v\xd9\xc9\x8e\xb6\xb2\xa0-\xedj\xf\xcb\xd7\xd6\xce\xf6\xae\xa8" 
  "\xad\xedn\xaf\x81\xdb\xde\xe\xf7\x19l@\xeer\x9b\xfb\xdc\xe8N\xb7\xba\xd7" 
  "]\x82\x10\x0\x0;",
  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image13[] --- */
/* ---
 * image14[] contains a 1444-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (14) convert ran but failed:\\See mathtex.html\#message14}
 * ---------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE14 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE14 1444		/* #bytes in image14[] */
static	unsigned char *image14[] = {
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  "\xa2\b\aS\xec\xa1\ffs&]\x15\xb6\xc8\xc5\x32\x46\x8a\x8c\x66L\xa3\xa2\xd0" 
  "\xa8\xc6\x36\xea\x89\x8dn\x8c#\x1ch@\xc7:\xda\xf1\x8ex\xcc\xa3\x1e\x65" 
  "\x10\x2\x0;",
  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image14[] --- */
/* ---
 * image15[] contains a 1870-byte gif rendering of expression
 * \usepackage{color}\color{red}\footnotesize\fparbox{
 * (15) Can't emit cached image:\\check permissions.\\
 * See mathtex.html\#message15}
 * ---------------------------------------------------------- */
#define	IMAGETYPE15 1			/* 1=gif, 2=png */
#define	IMAGESIZE15 1870		/* #bytes in image15[] */
static	unsigned char *image15[] = {
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  "\x11r\xc9l:\x9f\xd0\xe8P)\xadZ\xaf\xd8\xec\x91\xaa\xedz\xbf\xe0%7L.\x9b" 
  "\xc1\x63\xde\x80 D<\x82\x5\xc5\xc0V \x16\x10g$BQo\xf3\xf3<i:\x5\x6\x37" 
  "\x84s6\f\xe\x6\v\f6\x3\v>\x3\t\xf\n\x4\v\v\x85\x43\a\t\x86P\x94\x9eP\x5" 
  "\t\x9ap\xa4:\xa0g\x82\x39\ax\x0\f\f\r\n7\x6\t\ao7\v\x88:\x3\r\xae\x36" 
  "\xa7\x43\x5\x8e\x36\xa5M\x4\xbb\xc6N\x6\xca\?\xcc:\xc8y\xab\x37\x93\xac" 
  "\xb3\xc5;\x3\xe<\a\xc4\xd4\xcd\?\xd7\xf\xe0M\xe3R\xcf\x43\xe8\x80\x39" 
  "\xd3\xc5\xca\a\xd7\x0\x6\n\x96\xec;\x5\x1\xbf\x37\xb3\f\x4\x4\x9a\x4\x2," 
  " \xa0\xe0@\x1f\x5x\x18@80O\a\x83\x81\v\n\x10\x80\x30\xb0\xe0\x0z\x6\x1(h" 
  "PH!\xc3x8&1r\xd4\xef\x1f\x35R\x8d\xfe\xe4U\xcc\xf8\nb\x1dH\n\x18\x4\xdb" 
  "\xc7\x11\xc0\xc4\x95\x17\v\xf6)Y\xea\xe1\xc8N\xf/\xd5Q\xc7.\x80\xfx\xd6n" 
  "0\xa8\xa3 \xd2\x8d\x3\xbb\xf6\x19\xe5\x91`\xce\x2\\\x6\xe\xb8\xd3\x41" 
  "\xf4\xc6\xc4GZ\xb3\x16\xd3*O\x13\xba\xae\x86\x2\xd4y\xd0\xa9*\x80\xab\x0" 
  "\xf0\xad\xed$\xb6\xacM\b`\x11\xe4\xb3\xc1\x90\xabY\xb2u\xd1\xb9\x85\v`o" 
  "\xca\xaf\x0\x6\x84%\xd7\xe\x0R\x1c",
  (unsigned char *) "\x8f\xd9\xf5q\f\x92\xce\xde\x1c\a\t,\xdaj7\aZ\x0\xb6" 
  "\xe8)0z\xd6\xaci\xce:\x1e\x90\xc5\x61i\xb3j\xcf\xa7\x43\xd3\v\xf0\x9ao" 
  "\xb3\xd2\x9c\xd5\xb5\xd6\x34\xd5\xc0\x1b\xd9\xa3\x7f\x34\x8e\xcc\xf7\xda" 
  "\xa8\x1b\x1\xe2\x11\x7f\xea\xcd\x86\x1b\xd0\xb3pw\xc6\xf1\xacr_\xea\xa7;" 
  "\xe3\xae,o5\xb0\xe8\x85\xea\xd2:}}\xec\xd3\xdb\xd9\xa5\'\x0oc\xa0I\xc7" 
  "\xe4v4N\t\xf9\x9a\x36\xe7\x97\x1@\xd0G\xcd\x17\xf5=d-\x12^v\xd8\xc9\x93" 
  "\x3\x1\r\xdc\xfe\xf0\x86t\f\x86\x37\xc8\x65\x4\x5\xc8\f>\xae\xb0\x81\x1b" 
  "\x82\n\x16\x80\x97m~\xe5vZA6\b\xf8\xca\x81\t\xda\xf0\x86\?\x81L\xc5\xc3%" 
  "J\x19\x10@0\xf\xd4\x41\x1f\x0\b\x94\x98\r%\x96\xe8\x42#T15\xb0\xc0\x46" 
  "\xb2\x0YY\x1\r<\xc0\x86g\xe<\xd0HAA6\xd0\xe4\x93\xb3\x10i\xe4\xe\f\xdc" 
  "\x62\xc0\x0\b\xf0\x18K$U\x8es\x91\x93\xf4\x80)O\x92)=d\xc9\x42 \t\xc9" 
  "\x64\x98Pfy\xd1\x96\x0\x38p\xc0\x9c\v\xe0\x61\x0\x99\x8e$\xd0\x89|*r\xf3" 
  "\xc3\x45\xfa\xc0\xf2\x43\x1cQ\xd1x\x4\x7f\x38Lf\x4\xa2\x38\xe8\xc3(\xa3" 
  "\x83\xe4\x80\a\xa4\x44\xe8\xb3\xc0z\x96$\xb0\r\x1dI\xf4\xb9\x3\x1\xcd\x1" 
  "\x81\xc0\x9e\xeb\x94jj\xe\x3y\xe5\xd4\x14\x9e~Z\xa8\xf\xfPz\xea\xac\x65" 
  "\x88\x46\x8f\x11\x8d\x85\"\xaa\xac\xb4\xf6\xea+\x9f\xbf\x6+,\x1a\xad\xek" 
  "\xec\xb1M\xe4\xda\xe8\x1f\x95\x32\x8b\xec\xb3\x66(k\xc8LB\xfe\x8c\x12" 
  "\x9f\x16\xa9\xfc\x90-\xb4\x64H;\x9e\x11\x9fy\x11\r\x10\xe3r\xdbm\xb1=" 
  "\x84\xeb\x83\xba\xe6\xb6\x1b\x45\x63\"\xa5\xc4H\x84;\xb9\x94\x18J\x8e<C@" 
  "y6LDI-\xbb\x4\x15Q/\x3\xa9uS\x84\x39\x65\xb4Q!\b\xcc\xa3\x19\x8d\xe;\xb0" 
  "p\xbf\xf3\xf4\x63\x93@\xf4\x42\xdc\x9a\xbb\xb8\xa2\x1b\x97Z\x0\xb0\xd5" 
  "\xddV\x88)&W\xc8t\x15",
  (unsigned char *) "\xf2\xe3\xe\x8cX\x86G\xc9\x61%\x18\xeb\xc8\x34\xe3\x66" 
  "\xc0\x91\v\xe2l\x97\x2\x1b\xc6\x19\x1d`\xe1\xe9\xcc\x31\x11\xed\xd4\xf6" 
  "\xad]\xc0\xd1\xe6\x9dJ\xcb\x1d\xed\xd8o\xf0\xcc\x36\x9dv\xe9\x15\x32\xc0" 
  "\x42\x33_}\x8b\x9d\x85$\xb0j-T\'\x86\x35\xaf\x43\x17\x95\xee\xd2\xb8\xf1" 
  "+^1\xeb\xf9\xd7!\x87\xfcN\xdd\xe0V\x5\f#g\\v/\xe6\xd8\xd7z\xdbU\xb7\"K" 
  "\x97\xed\x43;\x14\xf6\x1b\x36\x86&\x16n\x93]\xfl\xea\x99S\'#\x1e\xb2\xdc" 
  "Uoe@\x1f\t^nC\xe6\x1d\xd9\xe8@\xbe\xfe\xa7i\xe@\x89(\n\xde\x43\x63]^\xa9" 
  "\xa6\x98w*I\x92\x95_F\xfd\xa2\xa2\xdd\x11\x94\xc0\x91\x63\xba\xe$1k\xae" 
  "\xe%#k,\xa8\v\x1\x95\xb0\x9e\x64u`\n\t<\xf1\xc0\x90j\xba\xe\xca\x92\x1d" 
  "\x97\xa4\xe9\x14\x42;\xa7MLz\x83\xf6<\\O\xbd\xf4\xcf\x17\xe6q\x18\xec" 
  "\x86/\xb8\xb7Y(\xc0\fw\xe6\?\x8f~\xfb\xf0\x7f\xf1~\xfc\xf4\x63\x91+\xa1" 
  "\xd3\x97\xb1\x87\xf7z8\xdb\xff\xf5\bp\x5\xf8\x9e\x85:G\x10\"pY\xe8\x83" 
  "\xb5\xeeq\x84\x5\x32\xd0\x14\xcd\x88\x88MpG\xab\x43(e\x11\x33\x2V\xf7V" 
  "\x93%\xf2\x39\x8d:H\b\xd7\xb5`\x83\x8a\x10\r\x10\f\xb0\x90\x5-l\x81\x8b" 
  "\xd3y\x8cg\xbf\x18\x61\x14\xcc\x81\x1a\x5\xc9\x90\a\x9f\xa1\x61\x10\xba" 
  "\x42\x88\x10\t+27\x14\xdfQ \xd0\x10\xa5\xd8K`\xb4;\x98\x45\x30\xb2\x13" 
  "\x7fh\xc2#\r\x99\x97N^\xb1\x90\x86 Q&\x9d\xd8\xd7\xaa\x8a\xb1\x92\x9dT" 
  "\xf1L8a\xfe\x62\rC6\x87\x1\xb4P\x89<\x9a\x62K\x84\xd2\xb0\x8d\xb5\xf1" 
  "\x61\xafp\xa2\x11\x7f\xb2\x46\t\x16\x87\x16\xf4\xa0\xa0\x6\xd3\xd5\x0" 
  "\x11\xb0\x1\x66\x30\xe3\n`\x80\x6\f\xab`\xa5\x14\x81\xc9N {\xb1\x87P\xd5" 
  "\f\x91\x88\x1c\xa4\x87\xe2\xc2\x8c\xac\x30\x83!g\x91\xa4]`v3\x13\xc9\x43" 
  "h\x83\xc1\x85\x61\x1c\x11\xc8;&\x82",
  (unsigned char *) ")[\x84\xde\xf8\xb6\xf7\x80|$-io\x93\x8e\x46\x34\x43" 
  "\xa0\xb9\x81&j\xc1\xb1I\x3\xf4\x38I\xd4\xd8\x92(\b\xd8\x94\xf3\xc2\x86" 
  "\x34\\\x6@kY\x1b\xdb>hi\x83\xde@M4*jZa\xf8\'D\x1e\xdc\xea\x6\xb2\xe0W" 
  "\xdcHH\xcc\xf5\x84\x8d=\xdf\xdc\x66\x96\x1cW\xa0\xe9T\x87\x98\xb8\xd9" 
  "\x83\x2\xc6\x41\xfL]cn\xfc\xfa\xdb\xdd\xe4I\x16o\xa2\xc3=\x9a\xd8&e\xe8@" 
  "\xaa\xe4\xb8\xb0\a\xea\xc3\x81/$g$\x1b\xb5\xf0h\xdb\x91\xd0\x80\f4\xb7" 
  "\x9b\x19\x14\x62q\xc2\x45\xe9\x64\xf9\x8c\x85\xa2\x93\x61\x18\xa1\xc7" 
  "\xd1UD\xd3K}\x19Tt\x99\xc3\x9c\x46\x14:\"\x1c\x10\xf4)\xf6\xd9\x94^(\xd5" 
  "\xe\x5\x90\x82\x1e\x9f+\x6\x9er\x97\xc1\x91\x42IHn\xeaQ$\xa4\x44\x90\xe4" 
  "\x89\x89\xa7\x34\x85\x5\x45.\x16\x11=i\xc4\xa7*\x8cK\x91\"tS\xa4\xc6\x63" 
  "S\xe4\xb4)\x9b\xa6\x1a\xd4\xe5\t/x;z\x93\x8f\xe2\x34\xa7\x3\xd4)\xa8\xaf" 
  "p\x11\x8c\x64\xe4H\x1c\xb4#\x80\x1a\x41\bf\xd6\xaa\x87\x1d\x90M\x1f\xd4" 
  "\xac\xd4\x11\xcc\xe8\xc3\x6:\xc7Pw\xe5\x8f\xa5\x30\x45\x0M\xe9J\rj\x1d" 
  "\xdc*\xebg\x85\a\x94\xf1\xa0`HU\xbfR\xe9\x84\xf9\x11\xb6\t\xd7\xf0_\x18l" 
  "\xc5\xbe\x64\r\xf6\xb1\x98\x95\x82\x63\x33\xcb\xd9\x8eu\xf6\xb3\xf6\xbb," 
  "hG\xcb*\xd2\x9a\xb6\xb1\x34H\xadjW\xcb\xda\xd6\xba\xf6\xb5\x31\b\x1\x0;",
  NULL } ; /* --- end-of-image15[] --- */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other Allocations and Declarations
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* ---
 * aggregate array of embedded images
 * ---------------------------------- */
static	unsigned char **imagetable[] = { NULL,
  image1,     image2,     image3,     image4,     image5,     image6,
  image7,     image8,     image9,     image10,    image11,    image12,
  image13,    image14,    image15,    NULL };
int	imagesizes[] = { 0,
  IMAGESIZE1, IMAGESIZE2, IMAGESIZE3, IMAGESIZE4, IMAGESIZE5, IMAGESIZE6,
  IMAGESIZE7, IMAGESIZE8, IMAGESIZE9, IMAGESIZE10,IMAGESIZE11,IMAGESIZE12,
  IMAGESIZE13,IMAGESIZE14,IMAGESIZE15,0 };
int	imagetypes[] = { 0,
  IMAGETYPE1, IMAGETYPE2, IMAGETYPE3, IMAGETYPE4, IMAGETYPE5, IMAGETYPE6,
  IMAGETYPE7, IMAGETYPE8, IMAGETYPE9, IMAGETYPE10,IMAGETYPE11,IMAGETYPE12,
  IMAGETYPE13,IMAGETYPE14,IMAGETYPE15,0 };
/* ---
 * other variables
 * --------------- */
static	unsigned char image[8192];	/* returned image */
unsigned char **imagestrings = NULL;	/* image1, image2, etc */
int	istring = 0,			/* imagestrings[] index */
	imagesz = 0;			/* sizeof entire image */
/* ---
 * look up requested image (if we have it)
 * --------------------------------------- */
if ( nbytes != NULL ) *nbytes = 0;	/* init for error */
if ( imagenum<1 || imagenum>MAXEMBEDDED ) imagenum=1; /*out-of-bounds check*/
imagestrings = imagetable[imagenum];	/* ptr to array of image strings */
imagesz = imagesizes[imagenum];		/* total #bytes in image */
if ( imagestrings == NULL ) imagesz = 0; /* sanity check */
if ( nbytes != NULL ) *nbytes = imagesz; /* caller wants #bytes in image */
if ( imgtype != NULL ) *imgtype = imagetypes[imagenum]; /* and image type */
/* ---
 * build up images from constituent strings
 * ---------------------------------------- */
if ( imagesz > 8192 ) imagesz = 8192;	/* don't overflow buffer */
memset(image,0,imagesz);		/* zero out returned image buffer */
while ( imagesz > 0 ) {			/* still need more bytes in image */
  unsigned char *string = imagestrings[istring]; /*so get next image string*/
  int	thissz = min2(stringsz,imagesz); /*entire string or image's tail end*/
  if ( string == NULL ) break;		/* looks like a program error */
  memcpy(image+(istring*stringsz),string,thissz); /* concat string to image*/
  imagesz -= thissz;			/* fewer remaining bytes */
  istring++;				/* get them from remaining strings */
  } /* --- end-of-while(imagesz>0) --- */
return ( image );
} /* --- end-of-function embeddedimages() --- */
/* --- end-of-file mathtex.c --- */