File: mathtex.html

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mathtex 1.03-1
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: buster, jessie, jessie-kfreebsd, sid, squeeze, stretch, wheezy
  • size: 540 kB
  • ctags: 301
  • sloc: ansic: 3,863; makefile: 50
file content (2545 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 131,004 bytes parent folder | download
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<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<br>
<hr size=4>
<center>
 <table cellspacing=10>
  <tr>
   <td align="center">
      <a href="#preview"><img id="imageTop1" onclick="eqntext('imageTop1')"
      src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?f=b_o+\frac{a_1}{b_1+\frac{a_2}
      {b_2+\frac{a_3}{b_3+a_4}}}" alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </td>
   <td align="center" valign="middle">
      <center><font color="maroon" size=4><b>
      <nobr>m a t h T e X &nbsp; <!-- u s e r s &nbsp; -->
      m a n u a l</nobr></b> <br>
      <font size=3>( for mathTeX version 1.03 )</font> <br>
      <font size=3> <b>Click for:</b> &nbsp;
        <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.zip">
        <font size=4>download&nbsp;mathTeX</font></a> </font>
      </font></center> </td>
   <td align="center">
      <a href="#preview"><img id="imageTop2" onclick="eqntext('imageTop2')"
      src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?
      \usepackage{mathrsfs}{\mathscr J}^{ij}=\frac12\varepsilon_{ijk}
      \left[\begin{array}{cc}\sigma_k&0\\0&\sigma_k\end{array}\right]"
      alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> <br>
      <a href="#examples">more_examples...</a> </td>
  </tr>
 </table>
</center>
<hr size=4>
<center><b><font color="maroon" size=3>
Copyright <font size=5>&copy;</font> 2007-2009,
<a href="http://www.forkosh.com">John Forkosh Associates, Inc.</a> <br>
email: <a href="mailto:john&#64;forkosh&#46;com">john&#64;forkosh&#46;com</a>
</font></b> <br><br>
<a href="#preview"><img id="timestamp1" onclick="eqntext('timestamp1')"
src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\parstyle\usepackage{color}
\large\color{blue}\begin{center}\today\\\time\end{center}"
alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </center>

<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ Table of Contents and QuickStart Summary
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<br>
<p> <font color="blue"> This manual contains more information
than you'll probably need to read.  If you follow the
QuickStart instructions below, try installing mathTeX immediately.
If you need more information,
continue reading until you feel comfortable trying to install mathTeX.
Return to the manual as needed.
Prerequisites are: some knowledge of Unix shell, of installing cgi's,
of LaTeX. </font>
<font color="maroon"> <br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
     <b>&quot</b><i>Computers are like Old Testament gods<b>:</b>
     lots of rules and no mercy.</i><b>&quot</b><br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
     Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth &nbsp;
     (Doubleday 1988, page 18) </font> </p>

<br> <center>
<table border="0">
<tr> <!-- banner -->
 <td align="center">
   <b><font color="maroon" size=4>
   <u> &nbsp; &nbsp; C o n t e n t s &nbsp; &nbsp; </u></font></b></td>
 <td> &nbsp; </td>
 <td align="center"><b><font color="maroon" size=4>
   <u> &nbsp; &nbsp; Q u i c k S t a r t &nbsp; &nbsp;
   </u></font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td valign="top"> <!-- table of contents -->
  <table cellspacing=0>
   <tr>
    <td valign="top" align="left">
     <font size=4>
      <a href="#introduction">  (1) Introduction </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#dependencies"> dependencies </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#plugins">           plugins </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#alternatives"> alternatives </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#webservice">   web services </a><br>
      <a href="#latexmarkup">   (2) LaTeX markup </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#preview">        input form </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#examples">         examples </a><br>
      <a href="#mathtexmarkup"> (3) MathTeX markup </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#directives"> extra directives </a><br>
      <a href="#install">       (4) Installation </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#messages">   error messages </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#switches"> compile switches </a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#shell">      run from shell </a><br>
 <!-- <a href="#weblog">       () mathTeX Forum </a><br> -->
      <a href="#gpl">           (5) GPL License </a><br>
      <font color="maroon" size=4> <br> <b><u> &nbsp;
      Related &nbsp; Pages &nbsp; </u></b></font> <br>
      <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetextutorial.html" target="_top">
         <font size=4>LaTeX Tutorial</font></a> <br>
      <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mathtexchangelog.html" target="_top">
         <font size=4>mathTeX changeLog</font></a> <br>
     </font>
    </td>
   </tr>
  </table>
 </td>
 <td> &nbsp; </td>
 <td valign="top"> <!-- summary -->
  <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0">
    <!-- tr><td colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">
       <font color="maroon" size="-1">
       <b>&quot</b><i>Computers are like Old Testament gods<b>:</b>
       lots of rules and no mercy.</i><b>&quot</b><br>
       Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth &nbsp;
       (Doubleday 1988, page 18) </font> </td></tr -->
    <tr><td align="right" valign="top">
      <a href="#install">Installation</a>: &nbsp; &nbsp; </td>
      <td> <font color="maroon"><b>Note: The current release of mathTeX
       only <br> runs under Unix-like operating systems.</b></font> <br>
       First, install mathTeX's <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>: <br>
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; </b> a recent <a href="http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html"
       target="_top">TeX&nbsp;distribution</a> with
       <a href="http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/dvipng/"
       target="_top">dvipng</a>,
       <!-- and
       <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org" target="_top">ImageMagick</a --> 
       on <br>
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; </b> your server.  Or see
       <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html"
       target="_top">mimeTeX</a> if you can't. <br>
       Then, download <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.zip">
       mathtex.zip</a> and type <br>
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; unzip mathtex.zip</b> <br>
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; cc mathtex.c &nbsp; \ <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &#150;DDVIPNG=\"$(which dvipng)\" &nbsp; \ <br>
       <!-- &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &#150;DDVIPS=\"$(which dvips)\" &nbsp; \ <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &#150;DCONVERT=\"$(which convert)\" &nbsp; \ <br -->
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &#150;o mathtex.cgi</b> <br>
       <nobr> &nbsp; &nbsp; (see
       <a href="#pathswitches">&#150;D<i>switches</i></a>
       for more information). </nobr> <br>
       Finally, just <br>
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; mv mathtex.cgi </b> to your <b>cgi-bin/</b>
       directory, <br>
       <!-- b> &nbsp; &nbsp; mkdir&nbsp;cgi-bin/mathtex </b>
       for mathTeX's cache, <br -->
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; chmod </b> permissions as necessary, <br>
       and you're all done.
       </td></tr>
    <tr><td colspan="2"> &nbsp; </td></tr>
    <tr><td align="right" valign="top">
      <a href="#introduction">Usage</a>: &nbsp; &nbsp; </td>
      <td>To see the image <br> <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; </b>
       <a href="#preview"><img id="summary1" onclick="eqntext('summary1')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}"
       alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> <br>
       in your html page, just write the tag <br>
       <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &lt;img&nbsp;src="/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?<br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}"&gt;</b> </td></tr>
  </table>
 </td>
</tr>
</table>
</center>


<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ INTRODUCTION
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<h2 id="introduction"> (1) Introduction &nbsp; </h2>

<p> <font color="maroon">MathTeX, licensed under the
    <a href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html" target="_top">gpl</a>,
    is a <a href="http://www.w3.org/CGI/" target="_top">cgi</a> program
    that lets you easily embed
    <a href="http://www-h.eng.cam.ac.uk/help/tpl/textprocessing/latex_maths+pix/latex_maths+pix.html"
    target="_top">LaTeX&nbsp;math</a>
    in your own  html pages, blogs, wikis, etc.</font>
    It parses a LaTeX math expression and immediately emits the
    corresponding gif (or png) image, rather than the usual
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVI_(file_format)"
    target="_top">TeX&nbsp;dvi</a>.
    So just place an html &lt;img&gt; tag in your document
    wherever you want to see the corresponding LaTeX expression.
    For example, </p>
<pre>   <b>&lt;img&nbsp;src="/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?f(x)=\int_{-\infty}^xe^{-t^2}dt"
    alt="" border=0 align="middle"&gt;</b></pre>
    <p class="continue"> immediately generates the corresponding gif,
    displaying
    <a href="#preview"><img id="imageA1" onclick="eqntext('imageA1')"
    src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\small
    f(x)=\int_{-\infty}^xe^{-t^2}dt" alt="" border=0 align=middle></a>
    wherever you put that &lt;img&gt tag. </p>

<h3> <a name="dependencies"> </a>
mathTeX dependencies<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
<p> MathTeX's uses the
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaTeX" target="_top">latex</a> and
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipng" target="_top">dvipng</a>
    programs, along with all necessary fonts, etc, from your
    <a href="http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html"
    target="_top">TeX&nbsp;distribution</a>.  Occasionally, you may need to
    <a href="http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/dvipng/"
    target="_top">download&nbsp;dvipng</a> separately. <br>
    &nbsp; &nbsp; If you can't, or don't want to,
    install dvipng, then you may optionally specify the
    <a href="#dvipsswitch">
    &#150;DDVIPS&nbsp;and&nbsp;&#150;DCONVERT</a>&nbsp;switches when
    <a href="#compilestep">compiling&nbsp;mathTeX</a>.  Then mathTeX uses
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvips" target="_top">dvips</a>
    from your TeX&nbsp;distribution,
    and <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> from the
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org" target="_top">ImageMagick</a>
    package, instead of dvipng. </p>

<p style="margin-bottom:0;"> That is, </p>
    <pre class="medium" style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0"
>   <b>cc &#150;</b>DLATEX<b>=\"</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/</b>latex</b>\"</b> <b>&#150;</b>DDVIPNG<b>=\"</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/</b>dvipng</b>\"</b> mathtex.c <b>&#150;o</b> mathtex.cgi</pre>
<p class="continue" style="margin-bottom:0;margin-top:0;">
    compiles mathtex.cgi with dependencies latex and dvipng, whereas, </p>
    <pre class="medium" style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0"
>   <b>cc &#150;</b>DLATEX<b>=\"</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/</b>latex</b>\"</b> <b>&#150;</b>DDVIPS<b>=\"</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/</b>dvips</b>\"</b> <b>\</b>
   <b>&#150;</b>DCONVERT<b>=\"</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/</b>convert</b>\"</b> mathtex.c <b>&#150;o</b> mathtex.cgi</pre>
<p class="continue" style="margin-top:0;">
    compiles mathtex.cgi with dependencies latex and dvips and convert. <br>
    <b>(</b>Note:&nbsp;dvipng is easily twice as fast
    as dvips/convert, and it produces somewhat smaller image files,
    with no discernible (to me) loss of quality or other downside.
    So I recommend its use if you have it installed or can
    install it.<b>)</b> </p>

<p> These dependencies  &#151; always latex and either dvipng or
    dvips/convert &#151; must all be installed on your server
    before you can run mathTeX.   Ask your ISP or sysadmin if
    you have any questions or problems installing them.  Or see
    <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html" target="_top">mimeTeX</a>
    if you can't install them. </p>

<h4> <a name="convertadvisory"> </a> Advisory for
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvips" target="_top">
    dvips</a>/<a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> users:</h4>
<p class="continue" style="margin-top:0.0em;"> If you're using
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvips" target="_top">dvips</a> and
    and <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> (rather than
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipng" target="_top">dvipng</a>),
    then be advised that recent versions of
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> seem to exhibit a minor bug whereby
    the program's <b>&#150;gamma</b>&nbsp;correction option is ignored
    when converting postscript images to any other format.
    The default, and unchangeable, gamma renders
    acceptable-looking png images, but unacceptably light gif images.
    Earlier versions of
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> seem to respect the
    <b>&#150;gamma</b>&nbsp;option and, moreover, render acceptable
    default gif images anyway.
    So if you're using
    <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvips" target="_top">
    dvips</a>/<a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> and are seeing very light images,
    I'd recommend downloading
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/"
    target="_top">ImageMagick</a>&nbsp;version&nbsp;6.2.6 source from
    <a href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/imagemagick/files/"
    target="_top">http://sourceforge.net/projects/imagemagick/files/</a>
    and building your own version of
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a>.  That should fix your problem.
    Alternatively, an even easier fix is to <!-- you can simply -->
    compile mathtex with the <a href="#gifswitch">-DPNG</a>&nbsp;switch,
    which renders acceptable-looking default png images regardless of
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
    target="_top">convert</a> version.
    </p>

<h3> <a name="plugins"> </a>
mathTeX plugins<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
<p> There's no inherent need to repeatedly write the cumbersome
    &lt;img&gt; tag illustrated above.  You can write your own <a href=
    "http://java.sun.com/j2ee/1.4/docs/tutorial/doc/JSPIntro9.html#wp73314"
    target="_top">custom&nbsp;tags</a>,
    or write a wrapper&nbsp;script around mathTeX to simplify the
    notation. </p>

<p style="margin-bottom:0">  For example,
    the following javascript snippet (based on
    <a href="http://www.mathtran.org" target="_top">mathtran</a>'s
    <a href="http://www.mathtran.org/js/mathtran_img.js"
    target="_top">mathtran_img.js</a>) lets you just write &nbsp;
    <b>&lt;img&nbsp;alt="mathtex:c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"&gt;</b> &nbsp;
    wherever you want to see
    <a href="#preview"><img id="imageJS1" onclick="eqntext('imageJS1')"
    src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\footnotesize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
    alt="" border=0 align=middle></a>&nbsp; </p>
    <pre class="medium" style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0"
>   &lt;script type="text/javascript"&gt;
   &lt;!--
   // Create a namespace to hold variables and functions
   mathtex = new Object();
   // Change this to use your server
   mathtex.imgSrc = "http://www.<i>yourdomain</i>.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?";
   // Transform the whole document: add src to each img with
   // alt text starting with "mathtex:", unless img already has a src.
   mathtex.init = function () {
       if (! document.getElementsByTagName) return;
       var objs = document.getElementsByTagName("img");
       var len  = objs.length;
       for (i=0; i&lt;len; i++) {
          var img = objs[i];
          if (img.alt.substring(0,8) == 'mathtex:')
             if (!img.src) {
                var tex_src = img.alt.substring(8);
                img.src = mathtex.imgSrc + encodeURIComponent(tex_src);
                // Append TEX to the class of the IMG.
                img.className +=' tex'; }
          }
       mathtex.hideElementById("mathtex.error"); }
   // Utility function
   mathtex.hideElementById = function (id) {
       var obj = document.getElementById(id);
       if (obj) obj.style.display = 'none'; }
   // resolve a cross-browser issue (see <a href="http://scottandrew.com/weblog/articles/cbs-events" target="_top">CBS&nbsp;events</a>)
   mathtex.addEvent = function (obj, evType, fn, useCapture) {
       if (obj.addEventListener) { //For Mozilla.
           obj.addEventListener(evType, fn, useCapture);
           return true; }
       else if (obj.attachEvent) { //For Internet Explorer.
           var r = obj.attachEvent("on"+evType, fn);
           return r; }
       }
   // Initialize after entire document is loaded
   mathtex.addEvent(window, 'load', mathtex.init, false);
   --&gt;
   &lt;/script&gt;</pre>

<p style="margin-bottom:0">
    Bulletin boards, wikis, etc, can also incorporate mathTeX images
    with short scripts.  For example, if you're using
    <a href="http://www.phpbb.com" target="_top">phpBB2</a>, then
    <a href="http://www.themathforum.com/" target="_top">Jameson</a>
    contributed the following <!-- typical --> one-line mod that lets
    you write <b>[tex]&nbsp;...&nbsp;[/tex]</b> for mathTeX images: </p>
    <pre class="medium" style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0"
>   #--------[open]-----------------------------------------------------
     /includes/bbcode.php
   #--------[find]-----------------------------------------------------
     // Remove our padding from the string..
   #--------[before, add]----------------------------------------------
     $text = preg_replace('/\[tex\](.*?)\[\/tex\]/ie',
     "'&lt;img src=\"/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?'.rawurlencode('$1').'\" align=\"middle\" /&gt;'",
     $text);</pre>
<p class="continue" style="margin-top:0">
    <!-- &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; --> Similarly, if you're using
    <a href="http://www.phpbb.com" target="_top">phpBB3</a>,
    then no mod is even needed.
    Just click Postings from the Administrator Control Panel,
    and add the Custom BBCode&nbsp;<b>[tex]{TEXT}[/tex]</b> &nbsp;
    with the HTML replacement
    <b>&lt;img&nbsp;src="/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?{TEXT}"&nbsp;align=middle&gt;</b>
    &nbsp; Now you can also write <b>[tex]&nbsp;...&nbsp;[/tex]</b>
    to obtain mathTeX images of the enclosed expression.

<p> Plugins for several additional packages already exist for my other
    math-rendering program, 
    <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html" target="_top">mimeTeX</a>,
    which runs without dependencies, but produces slightly lower
    quality images than LaTeX.  These plugins also work with mathTeX.
    Just substitute <b>mathtex.cgi</b> wherever the instructions say
    <b>mimetex.cgi</b>. </p>
    <center><table>
     <tr> <td align=center> <u>&nbsp;<b>Package</b>&nbsp;</u> </td>
      <td> &nbsp; </td>
      <td align=center> <u>&nbsp;&nbsp;<b>Plugin</b>&nbsp;&nbsp;</u> </td>
      </tr>
     <tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.pmwiki.org/" target="_top">
	  PmWiki</a> </td> <td> &nbsp; </td>
	  <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.pmwiki.org/wiki/Cookbook/MimeTeX"
	  target="_top">mimeTeX&nbsp;plugin</a> </td> </tr>
     <tr> <td align=center>
	  <!-- a href="http://www.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page" target="_top">
	  Wikimedia</a> </td -->
	  <a href="http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki" target="_top">
	  MediaWiki</a> </td>
	  <td align=center> &nbsp; </td>
	  <td align=center>
	  <!-- a href="http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Mimetex_alternative" -->
	  <a href="http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Mimetex_alternative"
	  target="_top">&quot;mimeTeX&nbsp;alternative&quot;</a> </td> </tr>
     <tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.unitorganizer.com/mathwiki/index.php/Main_Page"
	  target="_top">MathWiki</a> </td> <td> &nbsp; </td>
	  <td align=center> <a href=
	  "http://www.unitorganizer.com/mathwiki/index.php/MimetexParser"
	  target="_top">&quot;mimeTeX&nbsp;Parser&quot;</a> </td> </tr>
     <tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://forums.punbb.org/" target="_top">PunBB</a> </td>
	  <td> &nbsp; </td> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.math-linux.com/spip.php?article44"
	  target="_top">mimeTeX&nbsp;plugin</a> </td> </tr>
     <tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.sixapart.com/movabletype/" target="_top">
	  Movable&nbsp;Type</a> </td> <td> &nbsp; </td>
	  <td align=center> <a href=
	  "http://www.unitorganizer.com/myblog/2006/08/creating_equations_in_movable.html"
          target="_top">mimeTeX&nbsp;plugin</a> </td> </tr>
     <tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://wordpress.org/" target="_top">WordPress</a> </td>
	  <td> &nbsp; </td> <td align=center> <a href=
	  "http://www.anlak.com/?page_id=66" target="_top">
     <!-- "http://sixthform.info/steve/wordpress/index.php?p=13&page=2" -->
	  mimeTeX&nbsp;plugin</a> <!-- &nbsp; (see item 9) --> </td> </tr>
     <!--- dead links --->
     <!-- tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.phpbb.com" target="_top">phpBB</a> </td>
	  <td> &nbsp; </td> <td align=center>
	  <a href=
	  "http://www.themathforum.com/math/showthread.php?p=621#post621"
	  target="_top">mimeTeX&nbsp;plugin</a> </td> </tr -->
     <!-- tr> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://www.mamboserver.com/" target="_top">Mambo</a> </td>
	  <td> &nbsp; </td> <td align=center>
	  <a href="http://mamboxchange.com/projects/mimetexbot/"
	  target="_top">&quot;mimeTeX&nbsp;bot&quot;</a> </td> </tr -->
    </table></center>

<p> <b>Please note:</b> If you're writing your own plugin for mathTeX,
    please write code using <b>system(&nbsp;)</b>, or any other
    shell escape mechanisms, carefully.  <b>system(&nbsp;)</b> raises
    security issues, either real ones if used carelessly, or just in
    the minds of system administrators.  Either way, I've received emails
    from people unable to use mathTeX because of unnecessary
    <b>system(&nbsp;)</b> calls prohibited by security-conscious sysadmins.
    MathTeX itself poses minimal risk when used as illustrated above,
    but you're responsible for any plugin/wrapper script you write
    around it. </p>

<h3> <a name="alternatives"> </a>
mathTeX alternatives<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
<p> Other math-on-the-web solutions are discussed at
    <a href="http://www.tug.org/interest.html#web" target="_top">
    www.tug.org/interest.html</a>, and in the
    <a href="http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=LaTeX2HTML"
    target="_top">tex-faq/LaTex2Html</a> and
    <a href="http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=mathml"
    target="_top">tex-faq/mathml</a>.
    Several LaTeX-based solutions
    similar to mathTeX that you may want to look at are
    <a href="http://www.mayer.dial.pipex.com/tex.htm#latexrender"
    target="_top">latexrender</a>,
    <a href="http://www.mathtran.org" target="_top">mathtran</a>,
    <a href="http://www.fourmilab.ch/webtools/textogif/textogif.html"
    target="_top">textogif</a>, and
    <a href="http://www.math.uio.no/~martingu/gladtex/"
    target="_top">gladTeX</a>.
    However, if you can't install a
    <a href="http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html" target="_top">
    TeX&nbsp;distribution</a>
    <!-- and suitable image conversion utilities like
    <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org" target="_top">ImageMagick</a -->
    on your server, then you may prefer to look at a stand-alone
    math rendering program like
    <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html" target="_top">mimeTeX</a>,
    which has no dependencies whatsoever, but which produces slightly
    lower quality images than LaTeX. </p>

<h3> <a name="webservice"> </a>
mathTeX web services<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
 <p> If you have trouble installing mathTeX on your own server, a
     mathTeX web service is currently <!-- (but maybe not permanently) -->
     available.  An &lt;img&gt; tag of the form </p>
<pre><b>  &lt;img&nbsp;src="http://www.forkosh.dreamhost.com/mathtex.cgi?c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
   alt="" border=0 align=middle&gt;</b></pre>
 <p class="continue"> displays
     <a href="#preview"><img id="public1" onclick="eqntext('public1')"
     src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\small c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
     alt="" border=0></a> wherever you put that &lt;img&gt tag
     in your own document.  Note that the typical
     <b>/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?</b> has been replaced by
     <b>http://www.forkosh.dreamhost.com/mathtex.cgi?</b>
     in this &lt;img&gt; tag, using mathTeX on my
     server to render your expression for you.
     For production use, please install mathTeX on your own server. </p>

<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 <p> To encourage you to install mathTeX on your own server,
     one request out of every 25 submitted to mine is
     randomly selected to be rendered with the
     &quot;<a href="#adswitches">advertisement</a>&quot; <br>
     &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
     <a href="#preview"><img id="public2" onclick="eqntext('public2')"
     src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\advertisement c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
     alt="" align="middle" border=0></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; instead of
     just &nbsp; &nbsp;
     <a href="#preview"><img id="public3" onclick="eqntext('public3')"
     src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
     alt="" border=0></a> <br>
     Advertisements are completely disabled when you compile
     mathTeX yourself.  To enable them you must include the
     <a href="#adfrequencyswitch">&#150;DADFREQUENCY</a> switch.
     And in this case you'd typically also include the
     <a href="#advertisementswitch">&#150;DADVERTISEMENT</a> switch
     to define your own advertisement, replacing my default message
     illustrated above. </p>
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->

 <p> Installing mathTeX on your own server sets up a <i>de&nbsp;facto</i>
     web service, unless you compile it with the
   <a href="#refererswitch">&#150;DREFERER=<b>\"</b><i>domain</i><b>\"</b></a>
     switch, restricting requests to that specific <i>domain</i>.
     Until <a href="http://www.w3.org/Math/" target="_top">mathML</a>
     becomes widespread, LaTeX-based web services,
     like mathTeX or <a href="#alternatives">alternatives</a>,
     may be the best math-on-the-web solutions.  If you set one up that's
     intended for public access, <!-- then --> email me its url,
     and I'll add it to the following list... </p>
       <center><table border="1" cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0>
        <tr align="center">
         <td>url of service</td> <td>test</td> </tr>
        <tr align="center">
         <td> http://www.forkosh.dreamhost.com/mathtex.cgi </td>
         <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="server1" onclick="eqntext('server1')"
         src="http://www.forkosh.dreamhost.com/mathtex.cgi?
         c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
        <tr align="center">
         <td> http://www.cyberroadie.org/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi </td>
         <td> <!-- a href="#preview">
	      <img id="server2" onclick="eqntext('server2')"
         src="http://www.cyberroadie.org/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?
         c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a --> unavailable </td> </tr>
<!-- to comment out cyberroadie...
 +      <tr align="center">
 +       <td> http://www.cyberroadie.org/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi </td>
 +       <td> <++++!-- a href="#preview"> <img id="server2" onclick="eqntext('server2')"
 +       src="http://www.cyberroadie.org/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?
 +       c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a --++++> unavailable </td> </tr>
 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
        <tr align="center">
         <td> http://www.problem-solving.be/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi </td>
         <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="server3" onclick="eqntext('server3')"
         src="http://www.problem-solving.be/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?
         c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
        <tr align="center">
         <td> http://www.openmaths.org/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi </td>
         <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="server3" onclick="eqntext('server3')"
         src="http://www.openmaths.org/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?
         c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
       </table></center>
     <p class="continue"> The "test" column just exercises the link
     to its left.  Thanks to everyone. </p>

 <p> An alternative mathTeX-based public web service you may also want to
     consider is <a href="http://mathcache.appspot.com/static/docs.html"
     target="_top">Embedding&nbsp;math&nbsp;with&nbsp;replacemath.js</a>,
     which allows you to embed math in your html pages without any
     &lt;img&gt;&nbsp;tags at all, just by writing LaTeX math markup
     between&nbsp;<nobr>&#036;&#036;...&#036;&#036;</nobr>&nbsp;.
     Just prepare your html document in the form </p>
<pre><b>  &lt;HTML&gt; &lt;HEAD&gt; &lt;TITLE&gt; test page &lt;/TITLE&gt; &lt;/HEAD&gt;
    &lt;BODY&gt;
      Put any LaTeX math expression you like between <code>$$</code>...<code>$$</code>,
      for example &#036;&#036;y=\frac1{1-x^2}&#036;&#036; renders <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\small y=\frac1{1-x^2}" alt="" border=0 align="absmiddle">
    &lt;/BODY&gt;
      &lt;script type="text/javascript"
        src="http://mathcache.s3.amazonaws.com/replacemath.js"&gt; &lt;/script&gt;
      &lt;script type="text/javascript"&gt;
        replaceMath( document.body ); &lt;/script&gt;
  &lt;/HTML&gt;</b></pre>
<p class="continue"> That is, near the bottom of your document,
    after the &lt;<b>/</b>BODY&gt;&nbsp;tag, place exactly the
    two &lt;script&gt;&nbsp;tags shown.  Then, anywhere in
    your document, any LaTeX math expressions surrounded
    by&nbsp;<nobr>&#036;&#036;...&#036;&#036;</nobr> will be rendered
    for you by their public web service. </p>

<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 <p> The drawback to hosting public mathTeX web services is the
     compute and disk resources necessary to run LaTeX and cache its
     results for many thousands of different images (and I may
     be unable to host this one permanently).
     One possible incentive might be a method to monetize the effort.
     Advertising seems to be the standard internet way to monetize
     anything.  With those two thoughts in mind, I built a rudimentary
     <a href="#adswitches">advertising&nbsp;facility</a> into
     mathTeX. <comment , as you can see illustrated above. comment/> </p>

 <p> MathTeX web services could also be monetized by direct subscription.
     Instead of validating users with its
   <a href="#refererswitch">&#150;DREFERER=<b>\"</b><i>domain</i><b>\"</b></a>
     switch, a small MySQL database of valid domains would easily support
     a mathTeX-based subscription service.  You could also provide
     free math&nbsp;rendering with&nbsp;advertisements, whereas paid
     subscribers receive images without&nbsp;ads.  But I haven't programmed
     these enhancements into mathTeX's current release. </p>

 <p> Whether mathTeX's current
     <a href="#adswitches">advertising&nbsp;facility</a>,
     or an enhanced subscription facility,
     serve any useful purpose remains to be seen.
     Perhaps they will just stimulate better ideas
     about proliferating LaTeX-based, math-rendering web services.
     It would be terrific if
     <a href="http://www.tug.org" target="_top">www.tug.org</a>,
     or other supported TeX organizations, host some such free services. </p>
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->


<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ LATEX MATH MARKUP
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<h2 id="latexmarkup"> (2) LaTeX math markup &nbsp; </h2>

 <p> MathTeX uses latex to render images,
     and you must already be familiar with LaTeX
     math markup to use it.  If you're not, many online
     <a href="http://www.tug.org/begin.html#doc" target="_top">
     LaTeX&nbsp;tutorials</a> are readily available.
     You may also want to browse Andrew Roberts'
     <a href="http://www.andy-roberts.net/misc/latex/latextutorial9.html"
     target="_top">Latex&nbsp;Math&nbsp;I</a> and
     <a href="http://www.andy-roberts.net/misc/latex/latextutorial10.html"
     target="_top">Latex&nbsp;Math&nbsp;II</a>, or my own
     <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetextutorial.html" target="_top">
     LaTeX&nbsp;math&nbsp;tutorial</a>.
     You can also download and read the
     <a href="http://www.ams.org/tex/" target="_top">AMS</a>'s
     <a href="ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/short-math-guide.pdf">
     Short&nbsp;math&nbsp;guide</a>. </p>

<h3>  <a name="preview"> </a>
LaTeX markup<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
 <p> Now, to try out mathTeX, just enter any <!-- LaTeX math -->
     expression you like in the Query Box below.  I've started
     you out with a little example already in the box, or
     you can Click any of the <a href="#examples">Examples</a> below
     to place that corresponding expression in the Query Box.
     Then press the Submit button, and mathTeX's rendering should be
     displayed in the little window immediately below it. </p>
     <center>
      <table border="2" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0">
       <tr align="center"><td>
         <form name="expression" action="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi"
         method="get" target="inlineframe">
           <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1">
             <tr align="left"><td align="center">
               <b>First enter your own LaTeX expression,
                or Click any example...</b> <br>
               <textarea name="formdata" rows="5" cols="72"
                >\Large f(x)=\int_{-\infty}^x e^{-t^2}dt</textarea> <br>
             </td></tr>
             <tr align="center"><td>
               <font size="-1"> <input type="button" onClick="cleartext()"
               value="Clear Expression"> &nbsp; &nbsp;
               &nbsp; <input type="submit" value="Submit Expression"> </font>
             </td></tr>
           </table>
         </form> </td></tr>  <tr align="left"><td align="center">
         <b>Now click Submit to see it rendered below...</b> <br>
         <iframe name="inlineframe" align="middle" width="85%" height="110">
         &lt;p&gt;iframe's not supported if you see this.&lt;/p&gt; 
         </iframe>
       </td></tr>
      </table>
     </center>
 <p class="continue"> You should see &nbsp;
     <a href="#preview"><img id="imageB3" onclick="eqntext('imageB3')"
     src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\small
     f(x)=\int\limits_{-\infty}^x~e^{-t^2}dt"
     alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> if you submit the sample expression
     already in the box. </p>

<h3> <a name="examples"> </a>
Examples<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
 <p> Here are various additional random examples further demonstrating
     mathTeX's features and usage.  To see how they're done, Click any
     one of them to place its corresponding expression in the
     <a href="#preview">Query&nbsp;Box</a> above.  Then press Submit
     to re-render it, or you can edit the expression first to suit
     your own purposes.
     <!-- You may also want to look at a
     <a href="lint1d.html">sample&nbsp;document</a>
     prepared using mathTeX to render equations. --> </p>

<table cellspacing=15>
<!-- first example:  taylor series for e^x at various font sizes
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
 <tr>
  <td>
    <font size=5><a name="example1">(1)</a></font> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </td>
  <td align="left" colspan=4>
   <nobr>
    <a href="#preview">
      <img id="example1a" onclick="eqntext('example1a')"
      src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\usepackage{color}\color{red}\large
      e^x=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{x^n}{n!}"
      alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> &nbsp &nbsp
    <a href="#preview">
      <img id="example1b" onclick="eqntext('example1b')"
      src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\usepackage{color}\color{blue}\Large
      e^x=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{x^n}{n!}"
      alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> &nbsp &nbsp
    <a href="#preview">
      <img id="example1c" onclick="eqntext('example1c')"
      src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\Large
      e^x=\lim_{n\to\infty} \left(1+\frac xn\right)^n"
      alt="" border=0 align=middle></a>
   </nobr>
  </td>
 </tr>

<!-- second example:  definition of derivative
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
 <tr>
  <td>
    <font size=5>(2)</font> </td>
  <td align="left" colspan=4>
    <table>
      <tr>
       <td align="left">
         <a href="#preview">
         <img id="example2" onclick="eqntext('example2')"
         src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\large f^\prime(x)\ =
         \lim_{\Delta x\to0}\frac{f(x+\Delta x)-f(x)}{\Delta x}"
         alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </td>
       <td>
         definition of derivative </td>
      </tr>
    </table> </td>
 </tr>

<!-- third example:  demonstrating  \left\{ ... \right.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
 <tr>
  <td>
    <font size=5>(3)</font> </td>
  <td align="left">
    <a href="#preview">
    <img id="example3" onclick="eqntext('example3')"
    src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\LARGE\tilde y=\left\{
    {\ddot x\mbox{ if $\widevec x$ odd}
    \atop\widehat{\,\bar x+1}\mbox{ if even}}\right."
    alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </td>
  <td>
    illustrating <b>\left\{...\right<font size=5>.</font></b> <br>
    and note the accents </td>
 </tr>

<!-- fourth example:  demonstrating \overbrace \underbrace
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
 <tr>
  <td>
    <font size=5>(4)</font> </td>
  <td align="center">
    <a href="#preview">
    <img id="example4" onclick="eqntext('example4')"
    src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\small\overbrace{a,...,a}^{\mbox{k a's}},
    \underbrace{b,...,b}_{\mbox{l b's}}\hspace{10}
    \large\underbrace{\overbrace{a...a}^{\mbox{k a's}},
    \overbrace{b...b}^{\mbox{l b's}}}_{\mbox{k+l elements}}"
    alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </td>
  <td>
    <b>\overbrace{}^{}</b> and <b>\underbrace{}_{}</b> <br>
    (TeXbook page 181, Exercise 18.41) </td>
 </tr>

<!-- fifth example:  demonstrating \array
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
 <tr>
  <td>
    <font size=5>(5)</font> </td>
  <td align="left" colspan=4>
    <table>
      <tr>
        <td align="left">
         <a href="#preview">
         <img id="example5" onclick="eqntext('example5')"
         src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\large A\ =\ \left(
         \begin{array}{cccc}
         a_{11}&a_{12}&\cdots&a_{1n}\\
         a_{21}&a_{22}&\cdots&a_{2n}\\
         \vdots&\vdots&\ddots&\vdots\\
         a_{n1}&a_{n2}&\cdots&a_{nn}\end{array}\right)"
         alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </td>
        <td>
         <b>\begin{array}</b> </td>
      </tr>
    </table> </td>
 </tr>

<!-- sixth example:  demonstrating eqnarray to align equations
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
 <tr>
  <td>
    <font size=5>(6)</font> </td>
  <td align="center">
    <a href="#preview">
    <img id="example6" onclick="eqntext('example6')"
    src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\large\parstyle\begin{eqnarray*}
    x+y+z&=&3\\2y&=&x+z\\2x+y&=&z\end{eqnarray*}"
    alt="" border=0 align=middle></a> </td>
  <td>
    using <b>\begin{eqnarray*}</b> to align equations </td>
 </tr>

<!-- end-of-examples
++++++++++++++++++++ -->
</table>


<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ MATHTEX MARKUP EXTENSIONS
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<h2 id="mathtexmarkup"> (3) MathTeX markup extensions &nbsp; </h2>
 <p> To facilitate its use in html &lt;img&gt; tags,
     mathTeX recognizes several special <b>\</b><i>directives</i>
     <!-- in your math expression --> that modify latex's <!-- underlying -->
     behavior. <!-- , and several <b>&#150;</b><i>directives</i> that modify
     dvipng's (or convert's) behavior. -->
     These <b>\</b><i>directives</i>
     <!-- and <b>&#150;</b><i>directives</i> -->
     are usually interpreted by mathTeX, and then removed from
     your expression before it's submitted to latex for rendering. </p>

 <p style="margin-bottom:0em;"> For example, </p>
     <ul style="margin-top:0em;">
     <li> &lt;img&nbsp;src=<b>"</b>/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?<b>\png&nbsp;x^2"</b>&gt;
     renders <b>x^2</b> as a png image
     <a href="#preview"> <img id="markup1" onclick="eqntext('markup1')"
     src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\png x^2" border=0> </a> instead
     of the <a href="#gifswitch">default&nbsp;gif</a> format. </li>
     <li> &lt;img&nbsp;src=<b>"</b>/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?<b>\usepackage{color}\color{blue}x^2"</b>&gt;
     renders
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="markup2" onclick="eqntext('markup2')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\usepackage{color}\color{blue}x^2"
       border=0> </a> in blue.  In this case, mathTeX removes the familiar
     LaTeX <b>\</b>usepackage directive from your math expression, and
     places it in the preamble where it belongs. </li>
     </ul>

 <p> You can have as many special mathTeX <b>\</b><i>directives</i>
     <!-- and <b>&#150;</b><i>directives</i> --> in an expression
     as you like.  They're recognized anywhere at all in an expression,
     though these examples show them at the beginning.
     To simplify readability, additional examples below are
     more tersely illustrated as
     <b>"</b><i>query-string</i><b>"</b> rather than as
     &lt;img&nbsp;src=<b>"</b>/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?<i>query-string</i><b>"</b>&gt;.
     </p>

<h3> <a name="directives"> </a>
mathTeX directives<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
     <dl>
      <dt> <a name="styledirective"> </a> <b>\displaystyle</b> or
      <b>\textstyle</b> or <b>\parstyle</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX's usual <a href="#styleswitch">default</a>
       wraps the ?query-string expression
       &nbsp; <b>"\int_0^1&nbsp;f(x)dx"</b> &nbsp; as &nbsp;
       <b>\[&nbsp;\int_0^1&nbsp;f(x)dx&nbsp;\]</b>, &nbsp; rendering
       it in LaTeX's <b>\</b>displaystyle math mode as
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="styledir1" onclick="eqntext('styledir1')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\int_0^1f(x)dx" border=0
       align="middle"></a>. <br>
          &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; But the expression &nbsp;
       <b>"\textstyle&nbsp;\int_0^1&nbsp;f(x)dx"</b> &nbsp; is wrapped
       as &nbsp; <b>$&nbsp;\int_0^1&nbsp;f(x)dx&nbsp;$</b>, &nbsp;
       rendering
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="styledir2" onclick="eqntext('styledir2')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\textstyle\int_0^1f(x)dx"
       border=0 align="middle"></a> instead.
       However, if you compiled mathtex.cgi with the
       <a href="#styleswitch">-DTEXTSTYLE</a> option, then
       <b>\</b>textstyle is the default, and you can write &nbsp;
       <b>\displaystyle</b> &nbsp; in your expressions to override it. <br>
          &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Finally, writing &nbsp; <b>\parstyle</b>
       &nbsp; in an expression leaves it completely unwrapped, and rendered
       in LaTeX's paragraph mode.  When using &nbsp; <b>\parstyle</b>,
       &nbsp; write your own <b>\[&nbsp;\]</b>'s and <b>$&nbsp;$</b>'s
       as needed.  For example, &nbsp;
       <b>"\parstyle\noindent&nbsp;the&nbsp;answer&nbsp;is&nbsp;$\frac89$"</b>
       &nbsp; renders &nbsp;
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="styledir3" onclick="eqntext('styledir3')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\parstyle\noindent the anwser is $\frac89$"
       border=0 align="middle"></a>. &nbsp;
       <!-- The special &nbsp; <b>\parstyle</b> &nbsp; directive is
       interpreted and removed by mathTeX, whereas <b>\</b>noindent is
       passed on to LaTeX. -->
       In this case you could just as easily write a LaTeX
       <b>\</b>mbox{&nbsp;} in math mode.  But you may find
       &nbsp; <b>\parstyle</b> &nbsp; useful for expressions
       using LaTeX's eqnarray environment, or for other purposes. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="usepackagedirective"> </a>
      <b>\usepackage{</b><i>packagename</i><b>}</b> </dt>
       <dd> When mathTeX sees a \usepackage in your expression,
       it's removed from the expression and placed in the preamble.
       So, for example, &nbsp;
       <b>\usepackage{color}&nbsp;\color{blue}&nbsp;x^2+y^2</b> &nbsp;
       renders
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="pkgdir1" onclick="eqntext('pkgdir1')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\usepackage{color}\color{blue}x^2+y^2"
       border=0></a> in blue.  You can have up to nine
       \usepackages's in an expression.  The preamble of mathTeX's
       <a href="#usepackageswitch">default</a> wrapper script already
       contains \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}, \usepackage{amsmath}
       \usepackage{amsfonts} and \usepackage{amssymb}. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="fontsizedirective"> </a>
      <b>\tiny</b> thru <b>\Huge</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX moves LaTeX's ten standard size directives
       outside the math mode wrapper, so that they can have their
       intended effect.  For example, the expression &nbsp;
       <b>"\Large&nbsp;x^2"</b> &nbsp; is wrapped as &nbsp;
       <b>\Large&nbsp;\[&nbsp;x^2&nbsp;\]</b>, &nbsp; rendering
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="fontdir1" onclick="eqntext('fontdir1')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\Large x^2" border=0></a>. &nbsp;
       LaTeX's <a href="#fontsizeswitch"><b>\</b>normalsize&nbsp;default</a>
       renders
       <a href="#preview"> <img id="fontdir2" onclick="eqntext('fontdir2')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x^2" border=0></a>. <!-- br>
          &nbsp; &nbsp; --> &nbsp; However, if your expression contains
       mathTeX's &nbsp; <b>\parstyle</b> &nbsp; directive, then any
       LaTeX size directives are left in place, exactly where
       you've written them. <!-- br>
          &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; LaTeX note: &nbsp;
      <b>\tiny</b> thru <b>\Huge</b> select a font size for your _entire_
      expression.  Use LaTeX's <b>\mbox{&nbsp;}</b> to resize a part, e.g.,
      <b>\Large&nbsp;e^{-\mbox{\small&nbsp;$x^2$}}</b>
      selects \Large as the overall font size
      but sets x^2 as \small. --> </dd>

      <dt> <a name="dpidirective"> </a>
      <b>\dpi{</b><i>dots-per-inch</i><b>}</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX runs dvipng (or convert) at
       <a href="#dpiswitch">default&nbsp;screen&nbsp;resolution</a>
       of 120dpi.
       The directive <b>\dpi{300}</b> generates a much larger
       300dpi image instead.  Here are samples of several
       dpi's rendered at \scriptsize and \normalsize,
         <center><table border="1" cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0>
           <tr align="center">
             <td>dpi</td> <td>\scriptsize</td> <td>\normalsize</td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>100</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi1" onclick="eqntext('dpi1')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{100}
              \scriptsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi2" onclick="eqntext('dpi2')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{100}
              \normalsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>120</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi3" onclick="eqntext('dpi3')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{120}
              \scriptsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi4" onclick="eqntext('dpi4')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{120}
              \normalsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>160</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi5" onclick="eqntext('dpi5')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{160}
              \scriptsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi6" onclick="eqntext('dpi6')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{160}
              \normalsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>200</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi7" onclick="eqntext('dpi7')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{200}
              \scriptsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="dpi8" onclick="eqntext('dpi8')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dpi{200}
              \normalsize c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
         </table></center> </dd>

      <dt> <a name="gammadirective"> </a>
      <b>\gammacorrection{</b><i>gamma-correction</i><b>}</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX runs dvipng with
       <a href="#gammaswitch">default&nbsp;gamma</a>=2.5
       (or convert with default&nbsp;0.5).
       The directive <b>\gammacorrection{3.5}</b> renders a
       darker-than-usual gamma=3.5 image when run with dvipng
       (or lighter-than-usual when run with convert).
       <!-- See <a href="#gammaswitch">&#150;DGAMMA&nbsp;switch</a>
       for some samples. --> <br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>Note:</b> This gamma&nbsp;correction
       confusion arises, I believe, as follows.  Consider a grayscale from
       x=0&nbsp;for&nbsp;black&nbsp;to&nbsp;x=1&nbsp;for&nbsp;white.
       Then, the canonical formula to apply
       gamma&nbsp;correction&nbsp;<img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?
       \gamma" align="bottom">&nbsp;is&nbsp;<img
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\mbox{x}\mapsto \mbox{x}^{1/\gamma}"
       align="bottom">, whereby
       <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\mbox{\raisebox{.5mm}{$\gamma$}}<1"
       align="bottom">&nbsp;becomes&nbsp;blacker and
       <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\mbox{\raisebox{.5mm}{$\gamma$}}>1"
       align="bottom">&nbsp;becomes&nbsp;whiter.  The convert program
       appears to follow this convention, whereas dvipng applies
       <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\mbox{x}\mapsto \mbox{x}^{\gamma}"
       align="bottom"> instead. <br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Here are some samples (unchanging
       grayscale values up and down a column signal the corresponding
       program is unavailable) <br>
         <center><table border="1" cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> gamma </td> <td> dvipng </td> <td> dvips/convert </td> </tr>
           <!-- tr align="center">
             <td> <b>0.125</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam1a" onclick="eqntext('gam1a')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{0.125} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam2a" onclick="eqntext('gam2a')"
      src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
      \gammacorrection{0.125} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr -->
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>0.25</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam1" onclick="eqntext('gam1')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{0.25} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam2" onclick="eqntext('gam2')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
              \gammacorrection{0.25} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>0.50</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam3" onclick="eqntext('gam3')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{0.50} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam4" onclick="eqntext('gam4')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
              \gammacorrection{0.50} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>1.0</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam5" onclick="eqntext('gam5')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{1.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam6" onclick="eqntext('gam6')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
              \gammacorrection{1.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>2.0</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam7" onclick="eqntext('gam7')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{2.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam8" onclick="eqntext('gam8')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
              \gammacorrection{2.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> <b>4.0</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam9" onclick="eqntext('gam9')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{4.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam10" onclick="eqntext('gam10')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
              \gammacorrection{4.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <!-- tr align="center">
             <td> <b>8.0</b> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam11" onclick="eqntext('gam11')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvipng
              \gammacorrection{8.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="gam12" onclick="eqntext('gam12')"
              src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\dvips
              \gammacorrection{8.0} c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}" border=0> </a> </td> </tr -->
         </table></center> </dd>

      <dt> <a name="gifdirective"> </a>
      <b>\gif</b> or <b>\png</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX's <a href="#gifswitch">default</a> renders
       expressions as gif images.
       If you want a png image instead, write the directive
       &nbsp; <b>\png</b> &nbsp; in your expression.
       However, if you compiled mathtex.cgi with the
       <a href="#gifswitch">&#150;DPNG&nbsp;switch</a>,
       then png is the default, and you can write
       &nbsp; <b>\gif</b> &nbsp; in your expression to obtain
       a gif image. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="dvipngdirective"> </a>
      <b>\dvips</b> or <b>\dvipng</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX uses dvipng when it's available,
       or dvips and convert otherwise, to render LaTeX's
       dvi output as gif or png images.  If all three programs
       are available on your server, then expressions containing
       &nbsp; <b>\dvips</b> &nbsp; are rendered using dvips/convert
       instead of dvipng.  Or, when dvips/convert is the default
       (see <a href="#switchesdirective">\switches</a> below),
       expressions containing &nbsp; <b>\dvipng</b> &nbsp; are
       rendered using dvipng instead of dvips/convert. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="quietdirective"> </a>
      <b>\quiet</b> or <b>\noquiet</b> or <b>\nquiet{<i>n</i>}</b> </dt>
       <dd> If any "!&nbsp;LaTeX&nbsp;Error:" is emitted while
       processing your expression, mathTeX's
       <a href="#quietswitch">default</a> replies
       &lt;Enter&gt; to the first three errors, and then
       replies&nbsp;"x", halting LaTeX before it produces a&nbsp;.dvi file.
       But if your expression contains &nbsp; <b>\quiet</b>, &nbsp;
       then mathTeX replies&nbsp;"q" to the first error,
       making LaTeX enter batchmode,
       whereas if your expression contains &nbsp; <b>\noquiet</b>, &nbsp;
       then mathTeX replies&nbsp;"x" to the first error,
       halting LaTeX immediately.
       If your expression contains &nbsp;<b>\nquiet{<i>n</i>}</b>, &nbsp;
       then mathTeX replies &lt;Enter&gt; to the first&nbsp;<i>n</i> errors,
       and then replies&nbsp;"x". </dd>

      <dt> <a name="cachedirective"> </a>
      <b>\cache</b> or <b>\nocache</b> </dt>
       <dd> By default, mathTeX saves each new image
       in its <a href="#cacheswitch">cache&nbsp;directory</a>,
       rather than re-rendering the same image every time
       the same expression is submitted.  But expressions
       containing &nbsp; <b>\nocache</b> &nbsp; are not cached.
       Expressions containing <b>\today</b> and/or
       <a href="#timedirective">\time</a> are automatically
       not cached.  Otherwise, include <b>\nocache</b> in your
       expression if it contains volatile information that might
       affect its appearance between renderings.
       (The <b>\cache</b> directive forces the image of that
       expression to be cached, but is usually unnecessary
       since caching is the default.) </dd>

      <dt> <a name="msgleveldirective"> </a>
      <b>\msglevel{</b><i>verbosity</i><b>}</b> </dt>
       <dd> To help debug problems that matheTeX's
       <a href="#messages">error&nbsp;messages</a>
       don't resolve, resubmit the same failed expression
       with &nbsp; <b>\msglevel{9}</b> &nbsp; added. <br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; After it fails again,
       login to a shell on your server, and
       &nbsp; <b>cd&nbsp;cgi-bin/mathtex/</b> &nbsp; to
       mathTeX's cache directory.  Then &nbsp;
       <b>ls&nbsp;-alt|less</b> &nbsp; to see the most recent
       files.  These should include &nbsp;
       <i>yourexpression</i><b>.out</b> &nbsp;
       (and <i>yourexpression</i><b>.gif</b> if an image was created),
       where filename <i>yourexpression</i> is the 32-character
       MD5&nbsp;hash of your failed expression. <br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Now &nbsp; <b>cd&nbsp;..</b> &nbsp;
       back up to your cgi-bin/ directory, and you should see a new
       directory <b>cgi-bin/</b><i>yourexpression</i><b>/</b>
       created by mathTeX. &nbsp; <b>cd</b> to it, and follow
       the <a href="#commandlineerrors">command-line&nbsp;error</a>
       instructions below.  When done, you should probably
       &nbsp; <b>rm&nbsp;-r&nbsp;cgi-bin/</b><i>yourexpression</i><b>/</b>
       &nbsp; which is no longer needed (ditto the .out and .gif files
       in mathTeX's cache if you want to clean up completely). </dd>

      <dt> <a name="whichdirective"> </a>
      <b>\which{</b><i>programname</i><b>}</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX must be compiled with several
       <a href="#pathswitches">&#150;D<i>switches</i></a>
       that specify paths to its <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>.
       If you can't determine these required paths, mathTeX's
       &nbsp; <b>\which{</b><i>programname</i><b>}</b> &nbsp;
       may provide some help (also see
       <a href="#switchesdirective">\switches</a> below).
       For example, <!-- on this machine, -->
         <center><table border="1" cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0>
           <tr align="center">
             <td>directive</td> <td>renders</td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> \which{latex} </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="which1" onclick="eqntext('which1')"
             src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\which{latex}"
             border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> \which{dvipng} </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="which2" onclick="eqntext('which2')"
             src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\which{dvipng}"
             border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> \which{dvips} </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="which3" onclick="eqntext('which3')"
             src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\which{dvips}"
             border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
           <tr align="center">
             <td> \which{convert} </td>
             <td> <a href="#preview"> <img id="which4" onclick="eqntext('which4')"
             src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\which{convert}"
             border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
         </table></center>
       displays known paths to mathTeX's dependencies, as they're
       installed on this server.
       However, there's a small "Catch-22" (circular logic that
       may bite you)<b>:</b> mathTeX must already know these paths
       before it runs the programs that display them.
       You may be able to temporarily circumvent this
       problem by compiling <br>
    <pre style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0"
>   <b>cc</b> mathtex.c <b>&#150;o</b> mathtex.cgi</pre>
       without any required switches at all.  When compiled like this,
       mathTeX uses <b>which</b> to determine the
       required paths.  If they're found, then mathTeX will run
       and display them<b>;</b>
       if not, you'll likely see <a href="#message7">message&nbsp;7</a>
       or <a href="#message9">message&nbsp;9</a> instead. <!-- br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; --> If mathTeX does run, and displays
       the required paths, you should immediately re-compile it with
       the required <a href="#pathswitches">&#150;D<i>switches</i></a>.
       Execution time can be doubled, or even worse, when mathTeX
       has to find these paths itself. <br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; When <b>\which{</b><i>programname</i><b>}</b>
       can't find the path, mathTeX displays
       <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\parstyle\fbox{\footnotesize
       which(programname) = not found}" align="middle" border=0> instead.
       But mathTeX may also display
       <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\parstyle\fbox{\footnotesize
       locate(programname) = /path/to/programname}" align="middle" border=0>,
       signalling that Unix&nbsp;which failed.  In this case, mathTeX
       searches your server's locate&nbsp;database, if it exists,
       and displays that path instead.  The "not&nbsp;found" message
       signals which and locate both failed. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="switchesdirective"> </a>
      <b>\switches</b> </dt>
       <dd> Submitting the expression &nbsp; <b>\switches</b> &nbsp;
       to mathTeX renders <center>
       <a href="#preview"><img id="switch1" onclick="eqntext('switch1')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\switches" align="bottom"
       border=0></a>&nbsp;<font size="+3"><b>,</b></font> </center>
       displaying several (more will be added) of mathTeX's
       <a href="#switches">compile-line&nbsp;switches</a>.
       "Program&nbsp;image" isn't really a switch: it's the filename
       of the running program, usually &nbsp; mathtex.cgi &nbsp;
       unless you compiled it differently. <br>
            &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "Paths" displays what mathTeX knows
       about the full&nbsp;paths to its
       <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>.  On the
       right-hand&nbsp;side of each path is the source of that information.
       There are four possible sources, listed in order of reliablility
       (most reliable first):
       <ul>
        <li> <b>(switch)</b> &nbsp; means you compiled mathTeX with a
          <a href="#pathswitches">&#150;D<i>switch</i></a> for that path.
          You should always compile mathTeX with its
          <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a><b>:</b> &nbsp;
          <b>&#150;DLATEX</b>, and either <b>&#150;DDVIPNG</b> or both
          <b>&#150;DDVIPS</b>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<b>&#150;DCONVERT</b>.
          When that's not possible, read
          <a href="#whichdirective">\which{&nbsp;}</a> above
          and temporarily compile mathTeX without them. </li>
        <li> <b>(which)</b> &nbsp; means the corresponding
          <a href="#pathswitches">&#150;D<i>switch</i></a> was not
          supplied, but Unix&nbsp;which found the program.  If that's
          latex or another of your
          <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>, then re-compile
          mathTeX with a &#150;D<i>switch</i> containing the displayed
          information. </li>
        <li> <b>(locate)</b> &nbsp; means Unix&nbsp;which failed,
          but your server's locate&nbsp;database found the path.
          Again, re-compile mathTeX if that's one of your
          <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>. </li>
        <li> <b>(default)</b> &nbsp; means no path information
          was found.  A default path programmed into mathTeX is
          displayed instead.  This default is frequently wrong.
          In fact, <b>(default)</b> typically means that the
          corresponding program isn't installed on your server at all.
          In that case, if the program is one of your
          <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>, you'll likely
          see <a href="#message7">message&nbsp;7</a> or
          <a href="#message9">message&nbsp;9</a> instead of the
          \switches output illustrated above. </li>
       </ul>
       Either dvipng or dvips&nbsp;and&nbsp;convert
       can render LaTeX's dvi output as gif or png images.
       MathTeX's default choice is based on the reliablity of path
       information to these programs<b>:</b> &nbsp; (switch)
       is most reliable, followed by (which) or (locate),
       rated equally, and finally (default) is least realiable.
       If a (switch) path to dvipng is available (i.e., if you compiled
       mathTeX with a &#150;DDVIPNG switch), then dvipng is default.
       Otherwise, if (switch) paths to both dvips and convert are
       available, then they're default.  Otherwise, (which) or (locate)
       paths are preferred to (default), and dvipng wins a "tie".
       </dd>

      <dt> <a name="timedirective"> </a>
      <b>\time</b> </dt>
       <dd> LaTeX's <b>\</b>today is usually sufficient for the
       slow-paced world of print.  But you may want finer-grained
       resolution for the faster-paced online world.  mathTeX provides
       &nbsp; <b>\time</b> &nbsp; for this purpose, replacing it with
       the current hh:mm:ss wherever it occurs.  The
       <a href="#timestamp1">date/timestamp</a>
       at the top of this document is rendered by mathTeX with an
       expression like &nbsp;
       "\parstyle\begin{center}\today\\\time\end{center}". &nbsp;
       You can see the exact expression by clicking on
       <a href="#timestamp1">that&nbsp;image</a>.
       I'm not reproducing it here because mathTeX doesn't
       cache images containing <b>\</b>today or <b>\</b>time.
       So use &nbsp; <b>\time</b> &nbsp; sparingly because
       every occurrence is re-rendered through LaTeX. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="advertisementdirective"> </a>
      <b>\advertisement</b> </dt>
       <dd> An expression containing &nbsp; <b>\advertisement</b> &nbsp;
       is displayed along with your
       <a href="#adswitches">mathTeX&nbsp;advertisement</a>
       rather than by itself, regardless of
       <a href="#adfrequencyswitch">-DADFREQUENCY</a>. For example,
       <center><table border="0">
       <tr align="center"> <td>
         <b><u> &nbsp; c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2} &nbsp; </u></b> </td>
         <td> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </td> <td>
         <b><u> &nbsp; \advertisement c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2} &nbsp; </u></b>
         </td> </tr>
       <tr align="center"> <td>
         <a href="#preview"><img id="addir1" onclick="eqntext('addir1')"
         src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
         alt="" border=0> </a> </td> <td> &nbsp; </td> <td>
         <a href="#preview"><img id="addir2" onclick="eqntext('addir2')"
         src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\advertisement c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
       </table></center>
       See <a href="#advertisementswitch">Advertisement</a>
       to replace the default advertisement, illustrated above,
       with your own. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="versiondirective"> </a>
      <b>\version</b> </dt>
       <dd> An expression containing &nbsp; <b>\version</b> &nbsp;
       is displayed along with mathTeX's current version number.
       For example,
       <center><table border="0">
       <tr align="center"> <td>
         <b><u> &nbsp; \version c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2} &nbsp; </u></b>
         </td> </tr>
       <tr align="center"> <td>
         <a href="#preview"><img id="verdir1" onclick="eqntext('verdir1')"
         src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\version c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr>
       </table></center> </dd>

      <dt> <a name="environmentdirective"> </a>
      <b>\environment</b> </dt>
       <dd> Submitting the expression &nbsp; <b>\environment</b> &nbsp;
       to mathTeX renders <center>
       <a href="#preview"><img id="environ1" onclick="eqntext('environ1')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\environment" align="bottom"
       border=0></a></center>
       displaying the http environment variables known to mathTeX.
       This is primarily a programming aid, showing information
       available to mathTeX that might facilitate future enhancements. </dd>
     </dl>


<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ INSTALLATION AND TESTING
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<h2 id="install"> (4) Installation and Testing &nbsp; </h2>
<font color="maroon"><b>Note: The current release of mathTeX only runs <br>
on Unix-like operating systems.</b></font> <br>
    <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
      <tr><td colspan=2><hr size="2">
          Very quickly &nbsp; --- &nbsp;
          First, install mathTeX's
          <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>: </td></tr>
      <tr><td> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </td>
          <td>a recent </b><a href="http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html"
          target="_top">TeX&nbsp;distribution</a>
          with <a href="http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/dvipng/"
          target="_top">dvipng</a>,
          <!-- and <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org"
          target="_top">ImageMagick</a> --> <br>
          on your server, or see
          <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html"
          target="_top">mimeTeX</a> if you can't. </td></tr>
      <tr><td colspan=2>
          Then, download
          <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.zip">mathtex.zip</a>
          and type </td></tr>
      <tr><td> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </td>
          <td><b>unzip mathtex.zip</b> <br>
              <b>cc mathtex.c &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ <br>
              &nbsp; &#150;DDVIPNG=\"$(which dvipng)\" &nbsp; \ <br>
              <!-- &nbsp; &#150;DCONVERT=\"$(which convert)\" &nbsp; \ <br -->
              &nbsp; &#150;o mathtex.cgi</b> <br>
              <nobr>(see
              <a href="#pathswitches">&#150;D<i>switches</i></a>
              below for more information). </nobr> </td></tr>
      <tr><td colspan=2> Finally, </td></tr>
      <tr><td> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </td>
          <td> <b>mv&nbsp;mathtex.cgi</b> &nbsp; to your
               <b>cgi-bin/</b> directory, <br>
               <!-- b>mkdir&nbsp;cgi-bin/mathtex/</b>
               &nbsp; for mathTeX's cache, <br -->
               <b>chmod</b> permissions as necessary,
               and you're all done. </td></tr>
      <tr><td colspan=2>
        Read the rest of this section only if you want
        more information.<hr size="2"></td>
     </tr></table>

<p class="continue"> mathTeX's source code is standard Unix C,
    which should compile and run without change on
    any posix-compliant Unix platform.
    <font color="maroon"><b>The current release of mathTeX only
    runs under Unix-like operating systems.</b></font>
    <!-- Instructions below are for Unix.  Modify them as necessary
    for your particular situation (note the -DWINDOWS switch if
    applicable). -->
    The three steps needed to compile, install and test
    mathTeX are: </p>

  <h3 style="margin-bottom:0;">
  (1) Install LaTeX <!-- and ImageMagick, -->
  and download mathTeX<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
  <ul style="margin-top:0">
   <li> First, make sure you have a recent <br>
        <nobr> <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </b>
          <a href="http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html"
          target="_top">TeX&nbsp;distribution</a>
          with <a href="http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/dvipng/"
          target="_top">dvipng</a>
          installed on your server. </nobr> <br>
        MathTeX's <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a> are the
        <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaTeX"
        target="_top">latex</a> and
        <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipng"
        target="_top">dvipng</a>
        programs, along with all necessary fonts, etc, from your
        TeX&nbsp;distribution. <br>
        <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </b>
             If you prefer to compile mathTeX with the optional
        <a href="#dvipsswitch">&#150;DDVIPS&nbsp;and&nbsp;&#150;DCONVERT</a>
        switches (<a href="#compilestep">Step&nbsp;2</a> immediately below),
        then <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvips"
        target="_top">dvips</a>
        from your TeX&nbsp;distribution, and
        <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
        target="_top">convert</a> from the
        <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org" target="_top">ImageMagick</a>
        package, are used instead of dvipng. <br>
        <b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </b>
             These  <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>
        &#151; always latex and either dvipng or dvips/convert &#151;
        must all be installed on your server
        before you can run mathTeX.  Ask your ISP or sysadmin
        if you have any questions or problems installing them.
        Or see <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html"
        target="_top">mimeTeX</a> if you can't install them.
        </li>
   <li> Then download and unzip 
        <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.zip">
        mathtex.zip</a> in any convenient working directory.
        Your working directory should now contain
        <center> <table cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0>
         <tr><td width=100>README</td> <td>mathTeX release notes</td></tr>
          <tr><td>COPYING</td>    <td>GPL license, version 3, under which
                                     you may use mathTeX</td></tr>
          <tr><td>mathtex.c</td>  <td>mathTeX source program and all
                                     required functions</td></tr>
          <tr><td>mathtex.html</td> <td>this file, the mathTeX user
                                     manual</td></tr>
        </table> </center> </li>
  </ul>

  <h3 style="margin-bottom:0;"> <a name="compilestep"> </a>
  (2) Compile mathTeX and test it
  from the Unix shell<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
  <ul style="margin-top:0">
   <li> To compile a mathTeX executable that emits default
        gif images generated by dvipng (recommended), just type <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              cc &nbsp; mathtex.c &nbsp;
              &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ </b></nobr><br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              &#150;DDVIPNG=\"$(which dvipng)\" &nbsp;
              &#150;o &nbsp; mathtex.cgi </b></nobr><br>
        Alternatively, to compile a mathTeX executable that emits default
        gif images generated by dvips/convert, just type <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              cc &nbsp; mathtex.c &nbsp;
              &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ </b></nobr><br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              &#150;DDVIPS=\"$(which dvips)\" &nbsp;
              &#150;DCONVERT=\"$(which convert)\" &nbsp; \ </b></nobr><br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              &#150;o &nbsp; mathtex.cgi </b></nobr><br>
        But note that dvipng is easily twice as fast
        as dvips/convert, and it produces somewhat smaller image files. <br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
             For default png (instead of gif) images, add the optional
        <b>&#150;DPNG</b>&nbsp;switch to either <b>cc</b>&nbsp;command
        above.  All of mathTeX's optional
        <a href="#switches">compile-line&nbsp;switches</a> are discussed
        below. <br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
             The <a href="#pathswitches">required&nbsp;switches</a>
        shown above define paths to mathTeX's
        <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>, either latex and dvipng,
        or latex and dvips/convert.
        See <a href="#pathswitches">required&nbsp;switches</a>&nbsp;below
        for additional information about these path switches, including
        discussion of that <b>$(which</b>&nbsp;<i>program</i><b>)</b>
        construction.
        <!-- If not explicitly supplied on the compile line,
        they default to <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              &#150;DLATEX=\"/usr/share/texmf/bin/latex\" </b></nobr> <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              &#150;DDVIPNG=\"/usr/share/texmf/bin/dvipng\" </b></nobr> <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              &#150;DCONVERT=\"/usr/bin/convert\" </b></nobr> <br> -->
        </li>
   <!-- li> Windows compile notes: <ul>
        <li> If (and only if) you're compiling a Windows executable,
        then add <b>&#150;DWINDOWS</b><br>
             <nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>gcc -DWINDOWS
             mathtex.c &#150;o mathtex.exe</b></nobr> <br>
        The above Unix-like syntax works with
        <a href="http://www.mingw.org" target="_top">MinGW</a> and
        <a href="http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/" target="_top">djgpp</a>
        Windows compilers, but probably not with most others,
        where it's only intended as a "template". </li>
        </ul> <br> </li -->
   <li> Immediately after compiling mathTeX, test it
        from the Unix shell by typing <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              ./mathtex.cgi &nbsp; "x^2+y^2" &nbsp; &#150;m 9
              &nbsp; &#150;o test </b></nobr> <br>
        at the command prompt.  After the copyright notice,
        screen output should look something like
    <pre class="medium" style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;">
    mathTeX> running image:     ./mathtex.cgi
    mathTeX> input expression:  "x^2+y^2"
    mathTeX> working directory: 8dfaf8281769c217b7e78b27a4747285/
    mathTeX> output image file: test.gif </pre>
        Bring up the output&nbsp;file <b>test.gif</b> in your browser,
        which should display the rendered image of <b>x^2+y^2</b>.
        If it does, you can <b>rm&nbsp;-r</b> that working directory
        and proceed to the next (Install) step.
        If not, there's some error that <b>_must_</b> be fixed before
        proceeding<b>:</b> mathTeX is not going to emit gifs from
        your server if it won't run from the command line. <br>
        <font color="maroon"> <a name="commandlineerrors"> </a>
        <b>To troubleshoot command-line errors...</b></font>
        <ul>
        <li> First, &nbsp; <b>cd&nbsp;8dfaf8281769c217b7e78b27a4747285/</b>
         &nbsp; to that working&nbsp;directory (whose name is the
         32-character MD5 hash of your expression)
         shown on the screen output above. </li>
        <li> If it's not an empty file, &nbsp; <b>view&nbsp;latex.err</b>
         &nbsp; A message something like
         &nbsp; <b>latex:&nbsp;command&nbsp;not&nbsp;found</b> &nbsp;
         probably means that your
         &nbsp; <b>&#150;DLATEX=\"path/to/latex\"</b> &nbsp;
         is wrong, or that latex is installed wrong.
         Fix that, or any other indicated error, and then
         re-compile mathTeX and test it again. </li>
        <li> Otherwise, if latex.err is empty, then
         &nbsp; <b>view&nbsp;latex.out</b> &nbsp; which
         contains runtime messages issued by latex,
         including messages reporting unresolved errors.
         For example, <b>\usepackage{junk}</b> reports the error
         <b>File&nbsp;`junk.sty'&nbsp;not&nbsp;found.</b> &nbsp;
         Find and fix any reported errors, and then
         re-compile mathTeX and test it again. </li>
        <li> If latex.err and latex.out contain no errors,
         then latex.dvi should contain the dvi image of
         your expression.  Check it with <b>xdvi</b> or any
         other dvi&nbsp;viewer supplied with your latex distribution.
         Then view dvipng.err and dvipng.out for any reported errors
         (note that dvipng emits a benign copyright message to dvipng.out).
         <!-- Then view dvips.err and dvips.out for any reported errors
         (note that dvips emits a benign copyright message to dvips.err),
         and check dvips.ps with <b>gv</b> or any other
         postscript viewer.  Finally, view convert.err and convert.out
         for any reported errors. --> </li>
        <li> You should have found some error along the way.
         Troubleshoot as necessary.
         Your most likely (and most obvious) problems are:
         <a href="#dependencies">mathTeX's&nbsp;dependencies</a>
         are installed incorrectly or not at all, you compiled
         mathtex.cgi with the wrong paths (check <b>which</b>'s
         output), or you don't have rw permissions in the directory
         you're testing from. </li>
        </ul> </li>
  </ul>

  <h3 style="margin-bottom:0;">
  (3) Install mathTeX and test it from a browser<font size=5>...</font> </h3>
  <ul style="margin-top:0">
   <li> Install your compiled mathtex.cgi executable only after
        successfully testing it from the Unix shell.  Just <br>
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              mv&nbsp;mathtex.cgi</b> &nbsp; to your web server's
              <b>cgi-bin/</b> directory, </nobr> <br>
        <!-- nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              mkdir&nbsp;cgi-bin/mathtex/</b>
              &nbsp; for mathTeX's cache, </nobr> <br -->
        <nobr><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
              chmod</b> permissions as necessary,
              and you're all done. </nobr> <br>
        <b>cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi</b> must be executable by your web server,
        and it must have <b>rw</b> permissions in the <b>cgi-bin/</b>
        directory where it's installed.  The first time it runs,
        mathtex.cgi will <b>mkdir&nbsp;mathtex/</b>, where rendered
        images are subsequently cached.  Permissions and ownerships
        must be set to allow this.
        <!-- and the <b>cgi-bin/mathtex/</b> cache directory must be <b>rw</b>
        by mathtex.cgi. --> <b>chmod&nbsp;755</b> typically works,
        <!-- for both, --> but ask your ISP or sysadmin if you have
        any questions or problems. </li>
   <li> Immediately after installation, type a url into your browser's
        locator window something like <br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
     <b>http://www.</b><i>yourdomain</i><b>.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message</b> <br>
        which should display <a href="#message1">message&nbsp;1</a><br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
        <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message" alt="" border=0
        align=middle> <br>
        in the upper-left corner of your window.  If, instead, you see
        <a href="#message0a">Not&nbsp;Found</a> or
        <a href="#message0b">Error&nbsp;500</a> emitted by your server,
        then mathTeX isn't running.  Check that you installed
        it in the correct directory, set its permissions properly, etc. </li>
   <li> The preceding test just checked that mathtex.cgi runs from
        your server.  This current test checks that your &#150DLATEX, etc,
        paths are correct, and that mathtex.cgi has rw permissions in your
        cgi-bin/ directory.  Type a url into your browser's locator
        window something like <br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
     <b>http://www.</b><i>yourdomain</i><b>.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x^2+y^2</b> <br>
        which should display &nbsp;
        <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x^2+y^2" alt="" border=0
        align=middle> &nbsp; in the upper-left corner of your window,
        just like clicking this link does, which tests my mathtex.cgi, <br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
        <a href="http://www.forkosh.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x^2+y^2"
        target="_top">http://www.forkosh.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x^2+y^2</a>
        <br> If you see the same image from your own
        &nbsp; <i>yourdomain</i> &nbsp; link, then you've completed
        a successful mathTeX installation. <br>
        &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
             Otherwise, you'll probably see one of mathTeX's
        <a href="#messages">error&nbsp;messages</a> illustrated below.
        Read the accompanying description, and try to resolve the
        problem accordingly. </li>
  </ul>

<h3> <a name="messages"> </a>
Run-time error messages<font size=5>...</font></h3>
 <p> Gif images for 15 messages are embedded in mathTeX,
     displayable so long as mathtex.cgi can run from your server,
     even without latex and without rw permissions
     in your cgi-bin/ directory.  In addition, your server may display
     the first two messages below if mathtex.cgi can't run.
     Any embedded mathTeX message can be intentionally displayed
     by submitting an expression containing the
     special mathTeX directive <b>\message{1}</b> through
     <b>\message{15}</b> (an out-of-bounds argument, or
     <b>\message</b> with no argument, displays message&nbsp;<b>1</b>).
     Otherwise, various errors signal "unintentional" displays of
     the corresponding message, e.g., if your &#150;DLATEX&nbsp;switch
     specifies the wrong path to latex, then you'll see
     <a href="#message7">message&nbsp;7</a> (unless some earlier
     error supercedes it). </p>
     <center> <table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 width="95%" border=0>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <u><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; Message &nbsp; &nbsp; </b></u> </td>
         <td align="center">
         <u><b> &nbsp; &nbsp; Description &nbsp; &nbsp; </b></u> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message0a"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <!-- maybe tr valign="top" --> <td align="center">
         <b>The requested URL was not found.</b> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         You typed the wrong url, or mathtex.cgi is not
         installed where you think it is.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message0b"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <b>Internal server error 500</b> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         If mathtex.cgi's permissions are chmod'ed improperly,
         if your account isn't set up to run cgi's, etc,
         then mathTeX will not run at all.
         You'll probably see this error message emitted by your
         server instead.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message1"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{1}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Immediately after installing mathtex.cgi
         to your cgi-bin/ directory, type a url of the form <br>
         <nobr> &nbsp; &nbsp; <font size="-1"><b><i>yourdomain</i>.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message</b></font></nobr> <br>
         into your browser.  You should see this message.
         It means mathtex.cgi ran successfully,
         its permissions are set properly, and the account hosting
         <i>yourdomain</i> can run cgi's.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message2"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         </a><img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{2}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Traps any otherwise unidentified error condition.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message3"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{3}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         The combination of permissions/ownerships on mathtex.cgi itself,
         and on the cgi-bin/ directory where it's installed, prohibit mathTeX
         from creating its cache directory mathtex/ underneath
         cgi-bin/.  Change permissions/ownerships as needed.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message4"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{4}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left"> Same problem
         as <a href="#message3">message&nbsp;3</a> above,
         except this time mathTeX can't create a temporary
         work directory under cgi-bin/.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message5"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{5}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Unanticipated error.  MathTeX should be able to
         cd to a directory it just created.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message6"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{6}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Unanticipated error.  MathTeX should be able to
         open a file (for write) in a directory it just created.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message7"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{7}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Either latex is not installed,
         or your <b>&#150;DLATEX</b> path to it is incorrect.
         It's also possible that the shell host on which you compiled
         mathTeX has different volumes or mount points than your server
         (see <a href="#pathswitches">path&nbsp;switches</a>).
         Check with your ISP or sysadmin, or try mathTeX's
         <a href="#whichdirective">\which&nbsp;directive</a>.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message8"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{8}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         A simple latex error, like \alfa instead of \alpha,
         should not cause this problem (unless your expression
         contains <a href="#quietdirective">\noquiet</a>).
         It's more likely caused by a missing font or package,
         etc.  Simplify your expression until it works, and see
         if that helps identify the cause.  Or add
         <a href="#msgleveldirective">\msglevel{9}</a>
         to your expression, and check files latex.out and latex.err
         for error messages.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message9"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{9}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Either dvipng is not installed,
         or your <b>&#150;DDVIPNG</b> path to it is incorrect.
         Also see the remark in <a href="#message7">message&nbsp;7</a>.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message10"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{10}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Rerun the same expression with
         <a href="#msgleveldirective">\msglevel{9}</a>
         added.  Then check files latex.out and latex.err,
         and dvipng.out and dvipng.err for any clues to
         the cause of this error.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message11"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{11}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Either dvips is not installed,
         or your <b>&#150;DDVIPS</b> path to it is incorrect.
         Also see the remark in <a href="#message7">message&nbsp;7</a>.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message12"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{12}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Rerun the same expression with
         <a href="#msgleveldirective">\msglevel{9}</a>
         added.  Then check files latex.out and latex.err,
         and dvips.out and dvips.err for any clues to
         the cause of this error.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message13"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{13}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Either convert is not installed,
         or your <b>&#150;DCONVERT</b> path to it is incorrect.
         Also see the remark in <a href="#message7">message&nbsp;7</a>.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message14"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{14}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         Rerun the same expression with
         <a href="#msgleveldirective">\msglevel{9}</a>
         added.  Then check files latex.out and latex.err,
         dvips.out and dvips.err, and convert.out and
         convert.err for any clues to the cause of this error.
         </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td> <a name="message15"> </a> </td> </tr>
      <tr> <td align="center">
         <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\message{15}"
         alt="" align="middle" border=0> </td>
         <td class="paragraph" align="left">
         An image file was apparently created successfully,
         but is now inaccessible to mathTeX.  Rerun the same
         expression.  If it fails again, rerun it with
         <a href="#msgleveldirective">\msglevel{9}</a>
         added.  Then check all .out and .err files
         for any clues to the cause of this error.
         </td> </tr>
      </table> </center>

<h3> <a name="switches"> </a>
Compile-line switches<font size=5>...</font></h3>

     <dl>
      <dt> <a name="pathswitches"> </a> <font color="black">
      <b>Required switches</b><font size=5>...</font></font> <br> </dt>
       <dd style="margin-left:0em;">
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
            MathTeX's required <b>&#150;D</b> switches
       specify paths to the programs it needs to render
       LaTeX expressions as images.  Your Unix <b>PATH</b> environment
       variable usually contains the directories where these programs
       reside.  And in that case, the Unix shell command
       &nbsp; <b>which</b>&nbsp;<i>progname</i> &nbsp; emits the
       string &nbsp; <i>/path/to/progname</i>. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
            Then you can manually copy <b>which</b>'s
       output to the switch, e.g., if &nbsp; <b>which&nbsp;latex</b>
       &nbsp; emits &nbsp; <b>/usr/bin/latex</b> &nbsp;
       then just write the switch &nbsp;
       <b>&#150;DLATEX=\"/usr/bin/latex\"</b> &nbsp;
       Alternatively, you can use the Unix shell's
       &nbsp; <b>$(&nbsp;)</b> &nbsp; construction to automatically
       pipe <b>which</b>'s output into the switch, e.g., &nbsp;
       <b>&#150;DLATEX=\"$(which&nbsp;latex)\"</b> &nbsp;
       automatically places that same path to latex between the
       literal <b>\"&nbsp;&nbsp;\"</b> quotes. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
            If <b>which</b> doesn't work, you must nevertheless
       make sure that latex and mathTeX's other
       <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a> are all installed
       on your server.  Then determine the proper paths to them
       yourself (ask your ISP or sysadmin, or try mathTeX's
       <a href="#whichdirective">\which&nbsp;directive</a>),
       and manually write mathTeX's required <b>&#150;D</b>
       switches as described above.<br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
            Occasionally, <b>which</b> may seem
       to work, but actually doesn't, because your shell account
       and internet server are hosted on different machines,
       with different volumes mounted and/or different mount
       points.  When this happens, server volumes are
       nfs-mounted by your shell machine, so you can work
       on your internet files.  Conversely, shell volumes aren't
       necessarily mounted by the server, so latex could be
       visible from your shell but not from the server.
       Check with your ISP or sysadmin about network topology
       if you suspect something like this, or mathTeX's
       <a href="#whichdirective">\which&nbsp;directive</a>
       may help.  In any case,
       mathTeX's <a href="#dependencies">dependencies</a>,
       latex and either dvipng or dvips/convert, must be
       available to your server, and you must compile
       mathtex.cgi with their paths on your server. </dd>

      <dt> <b>&#150;DLATEX=\"/</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/latex\" <br>
      &#150;DDVIPNG=\"/</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/dvipng\" </b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX always requires the <b>&#150;DLATEX</b>&nbsp;switch,
       and its recommended default (using
       <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipng"
       target="_top">dvipng</a> to render
       latex's dvi output as gif or png images)
       also requires the <b>&#150;DDVIPNG</b>&nbsp;switch.
       So your standard <b>cc</b> command to compile mathTeX looks like <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> cc &nbsp; mathtex.c &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DDVIPNG=\"$(which dvipng)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;o &nbsp; mathtex.cgi </b> <br>
       </dd>

      <dt> <a name="dvipsswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DDVIPS=\"/</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/dvips\" <br>
      &#150;DCONVERT=\"/</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/convert\" </b> </dt>
       <dd> If you can't (or don't want to) use dvipng, 
       then compile mathTeX with the <b>&#150;DDVIPS</b> and
       <b>&#150;DCONVERT</b>&nbsp;switches (instead of &#150;DDVIPNG).
       Then
       <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvips" target="_top">dvips</a>
       from your <a href="http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html"
       target="_top">TeX&nbsp;distribution</a>, and
       <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/convert.php"
       target="_top">convert</a> from the
       <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org" target="_top">ImageMagick</a>
       package, are used (instead of dvipng) to render latex's dvi output
       as gif or png images.
       In this case, your <b>cc</b> command to compile mathTeX looks like <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> cc &nbsp; mathtex.c &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DDVIPS=\"$(which dvips)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DCONVERT=\"$(which convert)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;o &nbsp; mathtex.cgi </b> <br>
       Finally, if all three programs (dvipng and dvips and convert)
       are installed on your server, you can compile mathTeX with all
       the <b>&#150;D</b>&nbsp;switches.  This defaults to dvipng,
       but permits users to submit expressions containing the special
       <a href="#dvipsdirective">\dvips</a> and
       <a href="#dvipsdirective">\dvipng</a> directives, regardless of
       mathTeX's default.  So a comprehensive <b>cc</b> command looks
       like <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> cc &nbsp; mathtex.c &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DLATEX=\"$(which latex)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DDVIPNG=\"$(which dvipng)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DDVIPS=\"$(which dvips)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;DCONVERT=\"$(which convert)\" &nbsp; \ </b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
         <b> &#150;o &nbsp; mathtex.cgi </b> <br>
       along with any other optional switches you choose
       from those described below, </dd>

      <dt> <a name="optionalswitches"> </a> <font color="black">
      <b>Optional switches</b><font size=5>...</font></font> <br> </dt>
       <dd style="margin-left:0em;">
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
            In addition to the &#150;DLATEX and &#150;DDVIPNG
       switches required on the mathTeX's compile line, as discussed above,
       you may also include the following optional <b>&#150;D</b> switches,
       whose functionality is discussed below.  Whenever a switch takes
       a value, its <font color="maroon"><b>default&nbsp;value</b></font>
       is illustrated.  An
       <font color="maroon"><i>italicized&nbsp;value</i></font>
       means there is no default. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="cacheswitch"> </a> <b>&#150;DCACHE=\"mathtex/\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> By default, mathTeX saves each new image it renders
       to a file in directory &nbsp; <b>mathtex/</b> &nbsp; (relative
       to the cgi-bin/ directory where you installed mathtex.cgi).
       Then, every time it's given the same expression, mathTeX
       reads that file rather than re-rendering the same image.
       You can specify any other cache directory with the &nbsp;
       <b>&#150;DCACHE=\"</b><i>path</i><b>/\"</b> &nbsp; switch.
       Either way, mathTeX's cache directory must be read/writable by
       it, so set permissions (typically chmod&nbsp;755) as necessary. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; mathTeX occasionally disables caching,
       e.g., expressions containing <b>\today</b> are
       always re-rendered since the date may have changed.
       Otherwise, caching is mandatory and cannot be disabled. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Cached image files are named
       <i>filename</i><b>.gif</b> or <i>filename</i><b>.png</b>,
       where <i>filename</i> is the 32-character MD5 hash of the
       LaTeX expression.  When caching a new image, mathTeX also
       updates the file <i>path</i><b>/mathtex.log</b> containing
       a timestamp, filename, LaTeX expression, and http&nbsp;referer
       for each new file created.  A sample entry looks like
<pre>---------------------------------------------------------------------
2007-10-11:09:00:53am            f8ccc8dd93c8eeb1d9c40b353ef781e0.gif
\LARGE x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}
http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html
---------------------------------------------------------------------</pre></dd>

      <dt> <a name="gifswitch"> </a><b>&#150;DGIF</b>
      &nbsp; or &nbsp; <b>&#150;DPNG</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX generates gif or png images.  Users can specify
       which format they want by including a 
       <a href="#gifdirective"><b>\gif</b>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<b>\png</b></a>
       mathTeX&nbsp;directive in submitted
       expressions.  Otherwise, mathTeX's default is specified at
       compile time by a &nbsp; <b>&#150;DGIF</b> &nbsp; or
       &nbsp; <b>&#150;DPNG</b> &nbsp; switch.  If a submitted expression
       contains neither directive, and if mathTeX was compiled with
       neither switch, then gif is the default. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="styleswitch"> </a> <b>&#150;DDISPLAYSTYLE</b>
      &nbsp; or &nbsp;  <b>&#150;DTEXTSTYLE</b>
      &nbsp; or &nbsp; <b>&#150;DPARSTYLE</b> </dt>
       <dd> mathTeX's default wraps user expressions inside
       &nbsp; <b>\[&nbsp;&nbsp;\]</b>, &nbsp; rendering
       generated images in LaTeX's <b>\</b>displaystyle math mode.
       The &nbsp; <b>&#150;DTEXTSTYLE</b> &nbsp; switch wraps expressions
       inside &nbsp; <b>$&nbsp;&nbsp;$</b>, &nbsp; rendering
       generated images in LaTeX's <b>\</b>textstyle math mode.
       And the &nbsp; <b>&#150;DPARSTYLE</b> &nbsp; switch
       leaves expressions unwrapped, rendering
       generated images in LaTeX's default paragraph mode.
       Users can override any compiled default with a mathTeX
       <a href="#styledirective">style&nbsp;directive</a>. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="fontsizeswitch"> </a> <b>&#150;DFONTSIZE=5</b> </dt>
       <dd> You can specify &nbsp; <b>&#150;DFONTSIZE=1</b> &nbsp;
       thru &nbsp; <b>&#150;DFONTSIZE=10</b> &nbsp; on mathTeX's
       compile line, corresponding to default LaTeX font sizes
       <b>\</b>tiny thru <b>\</b>Huge.  If no switch is supplied,
       the default&nbsp;<b>5</b> corresponds to <b>\</b>normalsize.
       Users can override any compiled default with a mathTeX
       <a href="#fontsizedirective">\tiny...\Huge&nbsp;directive</a>. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="dpiswitch"> </a> <b>&#150;DDPI=\"120\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> The &nbsp; <b>&#150;DPI</b> &nbsp; switch changes mathTeX's
       default <a href="#dpidirective">screen&nbsp;resolution</a>
       of <b>\"120\"</b> dots-per-inch, which you enter as a string.
       <a href="#dpidirective">Some&nbsp;samples</a>
       are illustrated above. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="gammaswitch"> </a> <b>&#150;DGAMMA=\"2.5\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> The &nbsp; <b>&#150;DGAMMA</b> &nbsp; switch changes mathTeX's
       default <a href="#gammadirective">gamma&nbsp;correction</a>
       of <b>\"2.5\"</b>&nbsp;(for&nbsp;dvipng), which you enter
       as a string.  <a href="#gammadirective">Some&nbsp;samples</a>
       are illustrated above. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="quietswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DQUIET</b> &nbsp; &nbsp; or <br>
      <b>&#150;DNOQUIET</b> &nbsp; &nbsp; or <br>
      <b>&#150;DNQUIET=</b><i>n</i> </dt>
       <dd> If any "!&nbsp;LaTeX&nbsp;Error:" is emitted while
       processing your expression, mathTeX's default replies
       &lt;Enter&gt; to the first three errors, and then
       replies&nbsp;"x", halting LaTeX before it produces a&nbsp;.dvi file.
       Compiling mathTeX with &nbsp; <b>&#150;DQUIET</b> &nbsp;
       replies&nbsp;"q" to the first error, making LaTeX enter batchmode,
       whereas compiling with &nbsp; <b>&#150;DNOQUIET</b> &nbsp;
       replies&nbsp;"x" to the first error, halting LaTeX immediately.
       Compiling mathTeX with &nbsp; <b>&#150;DNQUIET=</b><i>n</i> &nbsp;
       replies &lt;Enter&gt; to the first&nbsp;<i>n</i> errors, and then
       replies&nbsp;"x".
       User expressions may contain <a href="#quietdirective">
       <b>\quiet</b>,&nbsp;<b>\noquiet</b>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<b>\nquiet{</b><i>n</i><b>}</b></a>
       to override any compiled default. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="refererswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DREFERER=\"</b><i>domain</i><b>\"</b> &nbsp; &nbsp; or <br>
      <b>&#150;DREFERER=\"</b><i>domain1,domain2,etc</i><b>\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> If you compile mathTeX without a &nbsp;
       <b>&#150;DREFERER=\"&nbsp;\"</b> &nbsp; switch, then anyone on
       the internet can use your mathtex.cgi program by writing a url
       of the form &nbsp;
       <b>http://www.</b><i>yourdomain</i><b>.com/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?x^2+y^2</b>.
       &nbsp;  So you're essentially providing mathTeX as a free
       <a href="#webservice">web&nbsp;service</a>.  I encourage this if
       you have the compute and disk resources to spare. </br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Otherwise, if compiled with &nbsp;
       <b>&#150;DREFERER=\"</b><i>domain</i><b>\"</b>, &nbsp; then mathTeX
       performs a case-insensitive search of the environment variable
       HTTP_REFERER to verify that it contains the authorized
       &nbsp; <i>domain</i> &nbsp; as a substring. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Or, if given a comma-separated list
       containing several &nbsp; <i>domain</i>'s</i> &nbsp; (second
       form of the switch), then HTTP_REFERER must contain either
       <i>domain1</i> or <i>domain2</i>, or <i>etc</i>, as a
       (case-insensitive) substring. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; If HTTP_REFERER doesn't contain a substring
       matching any of these <i>domain</i>(s), then mathTeX emits the
       error message image (reporting HTTP_REFERER on the first line) <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
       <img src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\invalidreferer\small\sqrt{a^2+b^2}"
       alt="" border=0> <br>
       instead of the requested image. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="killtimeswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DKILLTIME=10</b> </dt>
       <dd> Some expressions can unintentionally (or not) force LaTeX
       to loop endlessly, causing mathTeX to hang.  To avoid this problem,
       if LaTeX fails to complete within KILLTIME seconds, mathTeX
       kills it and emits an error.  The built-in code for this purpose
       is in mathTeX's timelimit(&nbsp;) function, which was adapted from
       <a href="http://devel.ringlet.net/sysutils/timelimit/"
       target="_top">timelimit-1.4</a>.
       Compiling mathTeX with &nbsp; <b>&#150;KILLTIME=0</b> &nbsp;
       places no timelimit restrictions on LaTeX whatsoever;
       probably not a good idea. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="timelimitswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DTIMELIMIT=\"/</b><i>path</i><b>/</b><i>to</i><b>/timelimit\"
      </b> </dt>
       <dd> Rather than using mathTeX's built-in timelimit(&nbsp;) code to
       throttle LaTeX (see <a href="#killtimeswitch">&#150;DKILLTIME</a>
       immediately above), you may optionally install a standalone
       copy of <a href="http://devel.ringlet.net/sysutils/timelimit/"
       target="_top">timelimit-1.4</a> and use that instead.
       Compiling mathTeX with a switch of the form
       &nbsp; <b>&#150;TIMELIMIT=\"$(which&nbsp;timelimit)\"</b> &nbsp;
       uses your installed program instead of mathTeX's built-in
       timelimit(&nbsp;) function to throttle LaTeX.
       </dd>

      <dt> <a name="maxmsglevelswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DMAXMSGLEVEL=999999</b> </dt>
       <dd> If you're running mathTeX as a
       <a href="#webservice">web&nbsp;service</a>,
       you should probably compile it with the
       &nbsp; <b>&#150;DMAXMSGLEVEL=0</b> &nbsp; switch.
       This sets the maximum verbosity allowed in a
       <a href="#msgleveldirective">\msglevel{&nbsp;}&nbsp;directive</a>.
       At <b>9</b> and above, the work directory and files
       temporarily created by mathTeX to run latex are left in place
       as a debugging aid.  These remain on your file&nbsp;system
       unless manually removed.  And remote users can't
       access them, anyway. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="usepackageswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DUSEPACKAGE=\"</b><i>filename</i><b>\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> The preamble of mathTeX's default LaTeX wrapper script
       already contains \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}, \usepackage{amsmath}
       \usepackage{amsfonts} and \usepackage{amssymb}.  All these packages
       are used with every expression submitted to mathTeX for rendering.
       And a specific expression may contain one or more
       <a href="#usepackagedirective">
       <b>\usepackage{&nbsp;}</b>&nbsp;directive</a>'s
       applied to that expression only.
       However, if you want additional packages applied to every
       expression, edit a file containing lines of the form <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>usepackage{color}<b>\n"</b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>usepackage{bm}<b>\n"</b> <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"</b><i>etc</i><b>\n"</b> <br>
       and place a corresponding
       <b>&#150;</b>DUSEPACKAGE=\"<i>filename</i><b>\"</b>
       switch on mathTeX's compile line.
       Every line in the file is enclosed in <b>"</b>quotes<b>"</b>,
       contains a <b>\n</b> before the closing quote, and
       all other backslashes are written as double-backslashes <b>\\</b>.
       And note that, although <b>\</b>usepackage's are illustrated,
       you aren't limited to them.
       All directives from this file are just placed in mathTeX's preamble.
       So you can modify the preamble any way you like. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="newcommandswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DNEWCOMMAND=\"</b><i>filename</i><b>\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> Besides modifying the preamble, you may also
       want to modify the LaTeX wrapper script's body,
       particularly with (though not limited to)
       <b>\</b>newcommand's.
       Again, edit a file containing lines of the form <br>
       <nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>newcommand{\\vec}[2]{\\left({#1}_1,\\ldots,{#1}_{#2}\\right)}<b>\n"</b></nobr> <br>
       <!-- &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>newcommand{}{}<b>\n"</b> <br> -->
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"</b><i>etc</i><b>\n"</b> <br>
       and place a corresponding
       <b>&#150;</b>DNEWCOMMAND=\"<i>filename</i><b>\"</b>
       switch on mathTeX's compile line.
       The same editing rules apply: every line in the file is
       enclosed in <b>"</b>quotes<b>"</b>,
       contains a <b>\n</b> before the closing quote, and all other
       backslashes are written as double-backslashes <b>\\</b>. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>\</b>renewcommand's in this file are
       useful to disable LaTeX commands that might pose security risks
       in mathTeX.  For example, although Unix's /etc/passwd file
       doesn't actually contain passwords, you probably don't want
       users submitting expressions like <b>\</b>input{/etc/passwd}.
       MathTeX already disables <b>\</b>input with <br>
       <nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>renewcommand{\\input}[1]{\\mbox{[[$\\backslash$input\\{#1\\} illegal]]}}\n"</b></nobr> <br>
       which just displays &nbsp; [[<b>\</b>input{file}&nbsp;illegal]]
       &nbsp; when the user tries to &nbsp; <b>\</b>input{file}. &nbsp;
       You may want to disable other commands as well. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="adswitches"> </a> <font color="black">
      <b>Advertising switches</b><font size=5>...</font></font> <br> </dt>
       <dd style="margin-left:0em;"> The next two switches
       set up a mathTeX web service that embeds advertising messages
       along with rendered images.  See
       <a href="#webservice">mathTeX&nbsp;web&nbsp;service</a> above
       for further discussion. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="adfrequencyswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DADFREQUENCY=0</b> </dt>
       <dd> If ADFREQUENCY is defined as a positive number <b><i>n</i></b>,
       then one request out of every <b><i>n</i></b> submitted to mathTeX
       is randomly selected to be displayed along with a pre-defined
       "advertisement".  For example, if your expression is
       &nbsp; <b>\large\int_0^xe^{-x^2}dx</b>, &nbsp; then the default
       advertisement displays <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
       <a href="#preview"><img id="adswitch1" onclick="eqntext('adswitch1')"
        src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\large\advertisement
        \int_0^xe^{-x^2}dx" alt="" align="middle" border=0></a>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; instead of just &nbsp; &nbsp;
       <a href="#preview"><img id="adswitch2" onclick="eqntext('adswitch2')"
        src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\large
        \int_0^xe^{-x^2}dx" alt="" align="middle" border=0></a> <br>
       See the <b>&#150;DADVERTISEMENT</b> switch immediately below
       for instructions to define your own advertisement replacing
       my default. </dd>

      <dt> <a name="advertisementswitch"> </a>
      <b>&#150;DADVERTISEMENT=\"</b><i>filename</i><b>\"</b> </dt>
       <dd> To define your own advertisement, replacing my default
       illustrated immediately above, edit a file containing lines
       of the form <br>
	<nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>begin{center}<b>\n"</b></nobr><br>
	<nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>fbox{$<b>\\</b>mbox{<b>\\</b>footnotesize<b>\\</b>LaTeX{} rendering courtesy of}<b>\n"</b></nobr><br>
	<nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>atop <b>\\</b>mbox{<b>\\</b>scriptsize http://www.forkosh.com/mathtex.html}$}<b>\\\\ \n"</b></nobr><br>
        <nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>vspace*{-4mm}<b>\n"</b></nobr><br>
	<nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"</b> %%beginmath%% %%expression%% %%endmath%% <b>\n"</b></nobr><br>
	<nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"\\</b>end{center}<b>\n"</b></nobr><br>
       Use the same editing rules as &#150;DUSEPACKAGE and &#150;DNEWCOMMAND
       above: every line in the file is enclosed in <b>"</b>quotes<b>"</b>,
       contains a <b>\n</b> before the closing quote, and all other
       backslashes are written as double-backslashes <b>\\</b>.
       Note <b>\\\\</b> at the end of the third line,
       which LaTeX sees as <b>\\</b>.  The entire example shows how my
       default advertisement is defined. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Your advertisement may consist of any valid
       LaTeX commands you like.  But it must somewhere contain the line <br>
	<nobr>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <b>"</b> %%beginmath%% %%expression%% %%endmath%% <b>\n"</b></nobr><br>
       which is replaced by the user's expression, surrounded by whatever
       math mode delimiters it specifies.  The document remains in paragraph
       mode, allowing &nbsp; <b>$&nbsp;$</b> &nbsp; and
       &nbsp; <b>\[&nbsp;\]</b> &nbsp; to be placed wherever you like. <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Once mathTeX is compiled with your advertisement,
       test it by submitting an expression like &nbsp;
       <b>\advertisement&nbsp;x^2+y^2</b> &nbsp; containing the special
       mathTeX
       <a href="#advertisementdirective">\advertisement&nbsp;directive</a>,
       which forces that
       expression to be rendered with your advertisement.  In this case
       (and with my default advertisement message) we see <br>
       &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
       <a href="#preview"><img id="adswitch3" onclick="eqntext('adswitch3')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\advertisement x^2+y^2"
       alt="" align="middle" border=0></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; instead of
       just &nbsp; &nbsp;
       <a href="#preview"><img id="adswitch4" onclick="eqntext('adswitch4')"
       src="../cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?\png x^2+y^2"
       alt="" border=0></a> <br>
       regardless of your ADFREQUENCY value. </dd>
     </dl>

<h3> <a name="shell">
Running mathTeX from the shell<font size=5>...</font></a> </h3>
 <p> MathTeX is usually run by your web server as a cgi program,
     obtaining its input expression from the query-string of an
     html &lt;img&gt; tag.  But you can also run mathTeX from your Unix
     shell, supplying all input on the command line.  For example,
     &nbsp; <b>./mathtex.cgi&nbsp;"x^2+y^2"&nbsp;&#150;o&nbsp;equation1</b>
     &nbsp; renders an image of <b>x^2+y^2</b> in file <b>equation1.gif</b>.
     And with the &nbsp; <b>&#150;m&nbsp;9</b> &nbsp; switch, it's
     also useful for testing. </p>

 <p> The complete command-line syntax for mathTeX is </p>
   <pre>
   ./mathtex.cgi "expression"     expression in quotes, e.g., "x^2+y^2",
               | -f input_file    or read (unquoted) expression from input_file
               [ -o output_file ] write image to ouput_file instead of cache
               [ -m msglevel ]    verbosity of debugging message level
               [ -c cache_directory ]   path to cache directory

   "expression"    Either place LaTeX expression directly on
        the command line, between "quotes", with no -switch
        preceding it, or.....

   -f input_file   .....read (unquoted) expression from input_file.
        The input_file may contain the expression on one line
        or spread out over many lines.  If -o is not also given,
        it defaults to the same filename, e.g., -f expression.tex
        produces output file expression.tex.gif unless an
        explicit -o switch is given.

   -o output_file  write output gif or png image to this filename,
        with .gif or .png extension added to it.  If you want the
        image file written in a directory other than your pwd,
        then specify  -o path/output_file  instead.

   -m msglevel     0-99, controls verbosity/message level for
        debugging output.  If msglevel>=9 then the temporary
        directory containing latex-dvips-convert output is
        not removed.  This is your major debugging aid.

   -c cache_directory  If you specify  -o output_file  then no
        cache directory is used (-c is ignored even if you supply it).
        But if you don't specify  -o output_file  then mathTeX writes
        the rendered image to a filename in its usual cache directory
        path.  This switch maintains the standard mathTeX filename
        convention, but writes files into the specified cache directory
        instead.

   Test or Debugging Example:

     ./mathtex.cgi "\Large\frac1{\sqrt{x^2+y^2}}" -o equation1 -m 9
        creates file equation1.gif and saves all the intermediate
        work in temp subdirectory 673d88e172f77f0aafabf6d72e5777ba/
        which is the MD5 hash of the input expression.

     After the copyright notice, screen output from the above command
     should look something like
        mathTeX> running image:     ./mathtex.cgi
        mathTeX> input expression:  "\Large\frac1{\sqrt{x^2+y^2}}"
        mathTeX> working directory: 673d88e172f77f0aafabf6d72e5777ba/
        mathTeX> output image file: equation1.gif

   Production Example (same as above, but without -m 9):

     ./mathtex.cgi "\Large\frac1{\sqrt{x^2+y^2}}" -o equation1
        creates file equation1.gif containing an image of
        the expression (all intermediate work files are removed).

     After the copyright notice, screen output from the above command
     should look something like
        mathTeX> input expression:  "\Large\frac1{\sqrt{x^2+y^2}}"
        mathTeX> output image file: equation1.gif
     Redirect stdout to /dev/null if you don't want to see it.
   </pre>


<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ GPL
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<h2 id="gpl"> (5) GPL License &nbsp; </h2>

<font color="black">
<b>&quot</b><i>My grandfather once told me there are two kinds of people:<br>
&nbsp &nbsp Those who do the work and those who take the credit.<br>
&nbsp &nbsp He told me to try to be in the first group; there was much
less competition.</i><b>&quot</b><br>
Indira Gandhi, the late Prime Minister of India</font> <br>

 <p> MathTeX's copyright is registered by me with the US Copyright Office,
     and I hereby license it to you under the terms and conditions of the
     <a href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html" target="_top">GPL</a>.
     There is no official support of any kind whatsoever,
     and you use mathTeX entirely at your own risk, with no guarantee
     of any kind, in particular with no warranty of merchantability. </p>

 <p> By using mathTeX, you warrant that you have read, understood
     and agreed to these terms and conditions, and that you possess
     the legal right and ability to enter into this agreement
     and to use mathTeX in accordance with it. </p>

 <p> Hopefully, the law and ethics regarding computer programs will
     evolve to make this kind of obnoxious banter unnecessary.
     In the meantime, please forgive me my paranoia. </p>

 <p> To protect your own intellectual property, I recommend
     <a href="http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/circs/circ1.html"
     target="_top">Copyright&nbsp;Basics</a> from The Library of Congress,
     in particular <a href="http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ61.html"
     target="_top">Circular&nbsp;61</a>, Copyright Registration for
     Computer Programs.
     <!-- and similarly,
     <a href="http://www.abanet.org/intelprop/comm106/106copy.html"
     target="_top">Copyright Basics</a> from The American Bar Association. -->
     Very briefly, download
     <a href="http://www.copyright.gov/forms/formtxi.pdf">Form&nbsp;TX</a>
     and follow the included instructions.
     In principle, you automatically own the copyright
     to anything you write the moment it's on paper.  In practice,
     if the matter comes under dispute, the courts look _very_ favorably
     on you for demonstrating your intent by registering the copyright.
     For example, courts will stop unauthorized use of unregistered
     material, but monetary damages are awarded _only_ if you
     register the copyright before infringement occurs. </p>


<!-- +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ CONCLUDING REMARKS
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -->
<h2 id="remarks"> Concluding Remarks &nbsp; </h2>

<p> I hope you find mathTeX useful.  If so, a contribution to your
  country's <a href="http://www.tug.org" target="_top">TeX Users Group</a>,
  or to the <a href="http://www.gnu.org" target="_top">GNU</a> project, is
  suggested, especially if you're a company that's currently profitable. </p>
  

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