File: mdoc.7

package info (click to toggle)
mdocml 1.14.4-1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: bullseye, buster, sid
  • size: 9,096 kB
  • sloc: ansic: 34,421; makefile: 994; sh: 461; perl: 374
file content (3244 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 74,926 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
.\"	$Id: mdoc.7,v 1.271 2018/07/28 18:34:15 schwarze Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2009, 2010, 2011 Kristaps Dzonsons <kristaps@bsd.lv>
.\" Copyright (c) 2010, 2011, 2013-2018 Ingo Schwarze <schwarze@openbsd.org>
.\"
.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
.\"
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
.\" WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
.\" MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
.\" ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
.\" WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
.\" ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
.\" OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
.\"
.Dd $Mdocdate: July 28 2018 $
.Dt MDOC 7
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm mdoc
.Nd semantic markup language for formatting manual pages
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm mdoc
language supports authoring of manual pages for the
.Xr man 1
utility by allowing semantic annotations of words, phrases,
page sections and complete manual pages.
Such annotations are used by formatting tools to achieve a uniform
presentation across all manuals written in
.Nm ,
and to support hyperlinking if supported by the output medium.
.Pp
This reference document describes the structure of manual pages
and the syntax and usage of the
.Nm
language.
The reference implementation of a parsing and formatting tool is
.Xr mandoc 1 ;
the
.Sx COMPATIBILITY
section describes compatibility with other implementations.
.Pp
In an
.Nm
document, lines beginning with the control character
.Sq \&.
are called
.Dq macro lines .
The first word is the macro name.
It consists of two or three letters.
Most macro names begin with a capital letter.
For a list of available macros, see
.Sx MACRO OVERVIEW .
The words following the macro name are arguments to the macro, optionally
including the names of other, callable macros; see
.Sx MACRO SYNTAX
for details.
.Pp
Lines not beginning with the control character are called
.Dq text lines .
They provide free-form text to be printed; the formatting of the text
depends on the respective processing context:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Sh Macro lines change control state.
Text lines are interpreted within the current state.
.Ed
.Pp
Many aspects of the basic syntax of the
.Nm
language are based on the
.Xr roff 7
language; see the
.Em LANGUAGE SYNTAX
and
.Em MACRO SYNTAX
sections in the
.Xr roff 7
manual for details, in particular regarding
comments, escape sequences, whitespace, and quoting.
However, using
.Xr roff 7
requests in
.Nm
documents is discouraged;
.Xr mandoc 1
supports some of them merely for backward compatibility.
.Sh MANUAL STRUCTURE
A well-formed
.Nm
document consists of a document prologue followed by one or more
sections.
.Pp
The prologue, which consists of the
.Sx \&Dd ,
.Sx \&Dt ,
and
.Sx \&Os
macros in that order, is required for every document.
.Pp
The first section (sections are denoted by
.Sx \&Sh )
must be the NAME section, consisting of at least one
.Sx \&Nm
followed by
.Sx \&Nd .
.Pp
Following that, convention dictates specifying at least the
.Em SYNOPSIS
and
.Em DESCRIPTION
sections, although this varies between manual sections.
.Pp
The following is a well-formed skeleton
.Nm
file for a utility
.Qq progname :
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Dd $\&Mdocdate$
\&.Dt PROGNAME section
\&.Os
\&.Sh NAME
\&.Nm progname
\&.Nd one line about what it does
\&.\e\(dq .Sh LIBRARY
\&.\e\(dq For sections 2, 3, and 9 only.
\&.\e\(dq Not used in OpenBSD.
\&.Sh SYNOPSIS
\&.Nm progname
\&.Op Fl options
\&.Ar
\&.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
\&.Nm
utility processes files ...
\&.\e\(dq .Sh CONTEXT
\&.\e\(dq For section 9 functions only.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
\&.\e\(dq Not used in OpenBSD.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh RETURN VALUES
\&.\e\(dq For sections 2, 3, and 9 function return values only.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh ENVIRONMENT
\&.\e\(dq For sections 1, 6, 7, and 8 only.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh FILES
\&.\e\(dq .Sh EXIT STATUS
\&.\e\(dq For sections 1, 6, and 8 only.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh EXAMPLES
\&.\e\(dq .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
\&.\e\(dq For sections 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 printf/stderr messages only.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh ERRORS
\&.\e\(dq For sections 2, 3, 4, and 9 errno settings only.
\&.\e\(dq .Sh SEE ALSO
\&.\e\(dq .Xr foobar 1
\&.\e\(dq .Sh STANDARDS
\&.\e\(dq .Sh HISTORY
\&.\e\(dq .Sh AUTHORS
\&.\e\(dq .Sh CAVEATS
\&.\e\(dq .Sh BUGS
\&.\e\(dq .Sh SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
\&.\e\(dq Not used in OpenBSD.
.Ed
.Pp
The sections in an
.Nm
document are conventionally ordered as they appear above.
Sections should be composed as follows:
.Bl -ohang -offset Ds
.It Em NAME
The name(s) and a one line description of the documented material.
The syntax for this as follows:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Nm name0 ,
\&.Nm name1 ,
\&.Nm name2
\&.Nd a one line description
.Ed
.Pp
Multiple
.Sq \&Nm
names should be separated by commas.
.Pp
The
.Sx \&Nm
macro(s) must precede the
.Sx \&Nd
macro.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Nm
and
.Sx \&Nd .
.It Em LIBRARY
The name of the library containing the documented material, which is
assumed to be a function in a section 2, 3, or 9 manual.
The syntax for this is as follows:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Lb libarm
.Ed
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Lb .
.It Em SYNOPSIS
Documents the utility invocation syntax, function call syntax, or device
configuration.
.Pp
For the first, utilities (sections 1, 6, and 8), this is
generally structured as follows:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Nm bar
\&.Op Fl v
\&.Op Fl o Ar file
\&.Op Ar
\&.Nm foo
\&.Op Fl v
\&.Op Fl o Ar file
\&.Op Ar
.Ed
.Pp
Commands should be ordered alphabetically.
.Pp
For the second, function calls (sections 2, 3, 9):
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.In header.h
\&.Vt extern const char *global;
\&.Ft "char *"
\&.Fn foo "const char *src"
\&.Ft "char *"
\&.Fn bar "const char *src"
.Ed
.Pp
Ordering of
.Sx \&In ,
.Sx \&Vt ,
.Sx \&Fn ,
and
.Sx \&Fo
macros should follow C header-file conventions.
.Pp
And for the third, configurations (section 4):
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Cd \(dqit* at isa? port 0x2e\(dq
\&.Cd \(dqit* at isa? port 0x4e\(dq
.Ed
.Pp
Manuals not in these sections generally don't need a
.Em SYNOPSIS .
.Pp
Some macros are displayed differently in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, particularly
.Sx \&Nm ,
.Sx \&Cd ,
.Sx \&Fd ,
.Sx \&Fn ,
.Sx \&Fo ,
.Sx \&In ,
.Sx \&Vt ,
and
.Sx \&Ft .
All of these macros are output on their own line.
If two such dissimilar macros are pairwise invoked (except for
.Sx \&Ft
before
.Sx \&Fo
or
.Sx \&Fn ) ,
they are separated by a vertical space, unless in the case of
.Sx \&Fo ,
.Sx \&Fn ,
and
.Sx \&Ft ,
which are always separated by vertical space.
.Pp
When text and macros following an
.Sx \&Nm
macro starting an input line span multiple output lines,
all output lines but the first will be indented to align
with the text immediately following the
.Sx \&Nm
macro, up to the next
.Sx \&Nm ,
.Sx \&Sh ,
or
.Sx \&Ss
macro or the end of an enclosing block, whichever comes first.
.It Em DESCRIPTION
This begins with an expansion of the brief, one line description in
.Em NAME :
.Bd -literal -offset indent
The
\&.Nm
utility does this, that, and the other.
.Ed
.Pp
It usually follows with a breakdown of the options (if documenting a
command), such as:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
The arguments are as follows:
\&.Bl \-tag \-width Ds
\&.It Fl v
Print verbose information.
\&.El
.Ed
.Pp
List the options in alphabetical order,
uppercase before lowercase for each letter and
with no regard to whether an option takes an argument.
Put digits in ascending order before all letter options.
.Pp
Manuals not documenting a command won't include the above fragment.
.Pp
Since the
.Em DESCRIPTION
section usually contains most of the text of a manual, longer manuals
often use the
.Sx \&Ss
macro to form subsections.
In very long manuals, the
.Em DESCRIPTION
may be split into multiple sections, each started by an
.Sx \&Sh
macro followed by a non-standard section name, and each having
several subsections, like in the present
.Nm
manual.
.It Em CONTEXT
This section lists the contexts in which functions can be called in section 9.
The contexts are autoconf, process, or interrupt.
.It Em IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
Implementation-specific notes should be kept here.
This is useful when implementing standard functions that may have side
effects or notable algorithmic implications.
.It Em RETURN VALUES
This section documents the
return values of functions in sections 2, 3, and 9.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Rv .
.It Em ENVIRONMENT
Lists the environment variables used by the utility,
and explains the syntax and semantics of their values.
The
.Xr environ 7
manual provides examples of typical content and formatting.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Ev .
.It Em FILES
Documents files used.
It's helpful to document both the file name and a short description of how
the file is used (created, modified, etc.).
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Pa .
.It Em EXIT STATUS
This section documents the
command exit status for section 1, 6, and 8 utilities.
Historically, this information was described in
.Em DIAGNOSTICS ,
a practise that is now discouraged.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Ex .
.It Em EXAMPLES
Example usages.
This often contains snippets of well-formed, well-tested invocations.
Make sure that examples work properly!
.It Em DIAGNOSTICS
Documents error messages.
In section 4 and 9 manuals, these are usually messages printed by the
kernel to the console and to the kernel log.
In section 1, 6, 7, and 8, these are usually messages printed by
userland programs to the standard error output.
.Pp
Historically, this section was used in place of
.Em EXIT STATUS
for manuals in sections 1, 6, and 8; however, this practise is
discouraged.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Bl
.Fl diag .
.It Em ERRORS
Documents
.Xr errno 2
settings in sections 2, 3, 4, and 9.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Er .
.It Em SEE ALSO
References other manuals with related topics.
This section should exist for most manuals.
Cross-references should conventionally be ordered first by section, then
alphabetically (ignoring case).
.Pp
References to other documentation concerning the topic of the manual page,
for example authoritative books or journal articles, may also be
provided in this section.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&Rs
and
.Sx \&Xr .
.It Em STANDARDS
References any standards implemented or used.
If not adhering to any standards, the
.Em HISTORY
section should be used instead.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&St .
.It Em HISTORY
A brief history of the subject, including where it was first implemented,
and when it was ported to or reimplemented for the operating system at hand.
.It Em AUTHORS
Credits to the person or persons who wrote the code and/or documentation.
Authors should generally be noted by both name and email address.
.Pp
See
.Sx \&An .
.It Em CAVEATS
Common misuses and misunderstandings should be explained
in this section.
.It Em BUGS
Known bugs, limitations, and work-arounds should be described
in this section.
.It Em SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
Documents any security precautions that operators should consider.
.El
.Sh MACRO OVERVIEW
This overview is sorted such that macros of similar purpose are listed
together, to help find the best macro for any given purpose.
Deprecated macros are not included in the overview, but can be found below
in the alphabetical
.Sx MACRO REFERENCE .
.Ss Document preamble and NAME section macros
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Dd Ta document date: Cm $\&Mdocdate$ | Ar month day , year
.It Sx \&Dt Ta document title: Ar TITLE section Op Ar arch
.It Sx \&Os Ta operating system version: Op Ar system Op Ar version
.It Sx \&Nm Ta document name (one argument)
.It Sx \&Nd Ta document description (one line)
.El
.Ss Sections and cross references
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Sh Ta section header (one line)
.It Sx \&Ss Ta subsection header (one line)
.It Sx \&Sx Ta internal cross reference to a section or subsection
.It Sx \&Xr Ta cross reference to another manual page: Ar name section
.It Sx \&Pp , \&Lp Ta start a text paragraph (no arguments)
.El
.Ss Displays and lists
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Bd , \&Ed Ta display block:
.Fl Ar type
.Op Fl offset Ar width
.Op Fl compact
.It Sx \&D1 Ta indented display (one line)
.It Sx \&Dl Ta indented literal display (one line)
.It Sx \&Ql Ta in-line literal display: Ql text
.It Sx \&Bl , \&El Ta list block:
.Fl Ar type
.Op Fl width Ar val
.Op Fl offset Ar val
.Op Fl compact
.It Sx \&It Ta list item (syntax depends on Fl Ar type )
.It Sx \&Ta Ta table cell separator in Sx \&Bl Fl column No lists
.It Sx \&Rs , \&%* , \&Re Ta bibliographic block (references)
.El
.Ss Spacing control
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Pf Ta prefix, no following horizontal space (one argument)
.It Sx \&Ns Ta roman font, no preceding horizontal space (no arguments)
.It Sx \&Ap Ta apostrophe without surrounding whitespace (no arguments)
.It Sx \&Sm Ta switch horizontal spacing mode: Op Cm on | off
.It Sx \&Bk , \&Ek Ta keep block: Fl words
.El
.Ss Semantic markup for command line utilities
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Nm Ta start a SYNOPSIS block with the name of a utility
.It Sx \&Fl Ta command line options (flags) (>=0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Cm Ta command modifier (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Ar Ta command arguments (>=0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Op , \&Oo , \&Oc Ta optional syntax elements (enclosure)
.It Sx \&Ic Ta internal or interactive command (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Ev Ta environmental variable (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Pa Ta file system path (>=0 arguments)
.El
.Ss Semantic markup for function libraries
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Lb Ta function library (one argument)
.It Sx \&In Ta include file (one argument)
.It Sx \&Fd Ta other preprocessor directive (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Ft Ta function type (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Fo , \&Fc Ta function block: Ar funcname
.It Sx \&Fn Ta function name:
.Op Ar functype
.Ar funcname
.Oo
.Op Ar argtype
.Ar argname
.Oc
.It Sx \&Fa Ta function argument (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Vt Ta variable type (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Va Ta variable name (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Dv Ta defined variable or preprocessor constant (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Er Ta error constant (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Ev Ta environmental variable (>0 arguments)
.El
.Ss Various semantic markup
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&An Ta author name (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Lk Ta hyperlink: Ar uri Op Ar name
.It Sx \&Mt Ta Do mailto Dc hyperlink: Ar address
.It Sx \&Cd Ta kernel configuration declaration (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Ad Ta memory address (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Ms Ta mathematical symbol (>0 arguments)
.El
.Ss Physical markup
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Em Ta italic font or underline (emphasis) (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Sy Ta boldface font (symbolic) (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&Li Ta typewriter font (literal) (>0 arguments)
.It Sx \&No Ta return to roman font (normal) (no arguments)
.It Sx \&Bf , \&Ef Ta font block:
.Op Fl Ar type | Cm \&Em | \&Li | \&Sy
.El
.Ss Physical enclosures
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Dq , \&Do , \&Dc Ta enclose in typographic double quotes: Dq text
.It Sx \&Qq , \&Qo , \&Qc Ta enclose in typewriter double quotes: Qq text
.It Sx \&Sq , \&So , \&Sc Ta enclose in single quotes: Sq text
.It Sx \&Pq , \&Po , \&Pc Ta enclose in parentheses: Pq text
.It Sx \&Bq , \&Bo , \&Bc Ta enclose in square brackets: Bq text
.It Sx \&Brq , \&Bro , \&Brc Ta enclose in curly braces: Brq text
.It Sx \&Aq , \&Ao , \&Ac Ta enclose in angle brackets: Aq text
.It Sx \&Eo , \&Ec Ta generic enclosure
.El
.Ss Text production
.Bl -column "Brq, Bro, Brc" description
.It Sx \&Ex Fl std Ta standard command exit values: Op Ar utility ...
.It Sx \&Rv Fl std Ta standard function return values: Op Ar function ...
.It Sx \&St Ta reference to a standards document (one argument)
.It Sx \&At Ta At
.It Sx \&Bx Ta Bx
.It Sx \&Bsx Ta Bsx
.It Sx \&Nx Ta Nx
.It Sx \&Fx Ta Fx
.It Sx \&Ox Ta Ox
.It Sx \&Dx Ta Dx
.El
.Sh MACRO REFERENCE
This section is a canonical reference of all macros, arranged
alphabetically.
For the scoping of individual macros, see
.Sx MACRO SYNTAX .
.Ss \&%A
Author name of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
Multiple authors should each be accorded their own
.Sx \%%A
line.
Author names should be ordered with full or abbreviated forename(s)
first, then full surname.
.Ss \&%B
Book title of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
This macro may also be used in a non-bibliographic context when
referring to book titles.
.Ss \&%C
Publication city or location of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%D
Publication date of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
Recommended formats of arguments are
.Ar month day , year
or just
.Ar year .
.Ss \&%I
Publisher or issuer name of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%J
Journal name of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%N
Issue number (usually for journals) of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%O
Optional information of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%P
Book or journal page number of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%Q
Institutional author (school, government, etc.) of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
Multiple institutional authors should each be accorded their own
.Sx \&%Q
line.
.Ss \&%R
Technical report name of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&%T
Article title of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
This macro may also be used in a non-bibliographical context when
referring to article titles.
.Ss \&%U
URI of reference document.
.Ss \&%V
Volume number of an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
.Ss \&Ac
Close an
.Sx \&Ao
block.
Does not have any tail arguments.
.Ss \&Ad
Memory address.
Do not use this for postal addresses.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Ad [0,$]
.Dl \&.Ad 0x00000000
.Ss \&An
Author name.
Can be used both for the authors of the program, function, or driver
documented in the manual, or for the authors of the manual itself.
Requires either the name of an author or one of the following arguments:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-nosplitX" -offset indent -compact
.It Fl split
Start a new output line before each subsequent invocation of
.Sx \&An .
.It Fl nosplit
The opposite of
.Fl split .
.El
.Pp
The default is
.Fl nosplit .
The effect of selecting either of the
.Fl split
modes ends at the beginning of the
.Em AUTHORS
section.
In the
.Em AUTHORS
section, the default is
.Fl nosplit
for the first author listing and
.Fl split
for all other author listings.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.An -nosplit
.Dl \&.An Kristaps Dzonsons \&Aq \&Mt kristaps@bsd.lv
.Ss \&Ao
Begin a block enclosed by angle brackets.
Does not have any head arguments.
This macro is almost never useful.
See
.Sx \&Aq
for more details.
.Ss \&Ap
Inserts an apostrophe without any surrounding whitespace.
This is generally used as a grammatical device when referring to the verb
form of a function.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Fn execve \&Ap d
.Ss \&Aq
Encloses its arguments in angle brackets.
The only important use case is for email addresses.
See
.Sx \&Mt
for an example.
.Pp
Occasionally, it is used for names of characters and keys, for example:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
Press the
\&.Aq escape
key to ...
.Ed
.Pp
For URIs, use
.Sx \&Lk
instead, and
.Sx \&In
for
.Dq #include
directives.
Never wrap
.Sx \&Ar
in
.Sx \&Aq .
.Pp
Since
.Sx \&Aq
usually renders with non-ASCII characters in non-ASCII output modes,
do not use it where the ASCII characters
.Sq <
and
.Sq >
are required as syntax elements.
Instead, use these characters directly in such cases, combining them
with the macros
.Sx \&Pf ,
.Sx \&Ns ,
or
.Sx \&Eo
as needed.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Ao .
.Ss \&Ar
Command arguments.
If an argument is not provided, the string
.Dq file ...\&
is used as a default.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl ".Fl o Ar file"
.Dl ".Ar"
.Dl ".Ar arg1 , arg2 ."
.Pp
The arguments to the
.Sx \&Ar
macro are names and placeholders for command arguments;
for fixed strings to be passed verbatim as arguments, use
.Sx \&Fl
or
.Sx \&Cm .
.Ss \&At
Formats an
.At
version.
Accepts one optional argument:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "v[1-7] | 32vX" -offset indent -compact
.It Cm v[1-7] | 32v
A version of
.At .
.It Cm III
.At III .
.It Cm V | V.[1-4]
A version of
.At V .
.El
.Pp
Note that these arguments do not begin with a hyphen.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.At
.Dl \&.At III
.Dl \&.At V.1
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bsx ,
.Sx \&Bx ,
.Sx \&Dx ,
.Sx \&Fx ,
.Sx \&Nx ,
and
.Sx \&Ox .
.Ss \&Bc
Close a
.Sx \&Bo
block.
Does not have any tail arguments.
.Ss \&Bd
Begin a display block.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Bd
.Fl Ns Ar type
.Op Fl offset Ar width
.Op Fl compact
.Ed
.Pp
Display blocks are used to select a different indentation and
justification than the one used by the surrounding text.
They may contain both macro lines and text lines.
By default, a display block is preceded by a vertical space.
.Pp
The
.Ar type
must be one of the following:
.Bl -tag -width 13n -offset indent
.It Fl centered
Produce one output line from each input line, and center-justify each line.
Using this display type is not recommended; many
.Nm
implementations render it poorly.
.It Fl filled
Change the positions of line breaks to fill each line, and left- and
right-justify the resulting block.
.It Fl literal
Produce one output line from each input line,
and do not justify the block at all.
Preserve white space as it appears in the input.
Always use a constant-width font.
Use this for displaying source code.
.It Fl ragged
Change the positions of line breaks to fill each line, and left-justify
the resulting block.
.It Fl unfilled
The same as
.Fl literal ,
but using the same font as for normal text, which is a variable width font
if supported by the output device.
.El
.Pp
The
.Ar type
must be provided first.
Additional arguments may follow:
.Bl -tag -width 13n -offset indent
.It Fl offset Ar width
Indent the display by the
.Ar width ,
which may be one of the following:
.Bl -item
.It
One of the pre-defined strings
.Cm indent ,
the width of a standard indentation (six constant width characters);
.Cm indent-two ,
twice
.Cm indent ;
.Cm left ,
which has no effect;
.Cm right ,
which justifies to the right margin; or
.Cm center ,
which aligns around an imagined center axis.
.It
A macro invocation, which selects a predefined width
associated with that macro.
The most popular is the imaginary macro
.Ar \&Ds ,
which resolves to
.Sy 6n .
.It
A scaling width as described in
.Xr roff 7 .
.It
An arbitrary string, which indents by the length of this string.
.El
.Pp
When the argument is missing,
.Fl offset
is ignored.
.It Fl compact
Do not assert vertical space before the display.
.El
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Bd \-literal \-offset indent \-compact
   Hello       world.
\&.Ed
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&D1
and
.Sx \&Dl .
.Ss \&Bf
Change the font mode for a scoped block of text.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Bf
.Oo
.Fl emphasis | literal | symbolic |
.Cm \&Em | \&Li | \&Sy
.Oc
.Ed
.Pp
The
.Fl emphasis
and
.Cm \&Em
argument are equivalent, as are
.Fl symbolic
and
.Cm \&Sy ,
and
.Fl literal
and
.Cm \&Li .
Without an argument, this macro does nothing.
The font mode continues until broken by a new font mode in a nested
scope or
.Sx \&Ef
is encountered.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Li ,
.Sx \&Ef ,
.Sx \&Em ,
and
.Sx \&Sy .
.Ss \&Bk
For each macro, keep its output together on the same output line,
until the end of the macro or the end of the input line is reached,
whichever comes first.
Line breaks in text lines are unaffected.
The syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Bk Fl words
.Pp
The
.Fl words
argument is required; additional arguments are ignored.
.Pp
The following example will not break within each
.Sx \&Op
macro line:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Bk \-words
\&.Op Fl f Ar flags
\&.Op Fl o Ar output
\&.Ek
.Ed
.Pp
Be careful in using over-long lines within a keep block!
Doing so will clobber the right margin.
.Ss \&Bl
Begin a list.
Lists consist of items specified using the
.Sx \&It
macro, containing a head or a body or both.
The list syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Bl
.Fl Ns Ar type
.Op Fl width Ar val
.Op Fl offset Ar val
.Op Fl compact
.Op HEAD ...
.Ed
.Pp
The list
.Ar type
is mandatory and must be specified first.
The
.Fl width
and
.Fl offset
arguments accept macro names as described for
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl offset ,
scaling widths as described in
.Xr roff 7 ,
or use the length of the given string.
The
.Fl offset
is a global indentation for the whole list, affecting both item heads
and bodies.
For those list types supporting it, the
.Fl width
argument requests an additional indentation of item bodies,
to be added to the
.Fl offset .
Unless the
.Fl compact
argument is specified, list entries are separated by vertical space.
.Pp
A list must specify one of the following list types:
.Bl -tag -width 12n -offset indent
.It Fl bullet
No item heads can be specified, but a bullet will be printed at the head
of each item.
Item bodies start on the same output line as the bullet
and are indented according to the
.Fl width
argument.
.It Fl column
A columnated list.
The
.Fl width
argument has no effect; instead, the string length of each argument
specifies the width of one column.
If the first line of the body of a
.Fl column
list is not an
.Sx \&It
macro line,
.Sx \&It
contexts spanning one input line each are implied until an
.Sx \&It
macro line is encountered, at which point items start being interpreted as
described in the
.Sx \&It
documentation.
.It Fl dash
Like
.Fl bullet ,
except that dashes are used in place of bullets.
.It Fl diag
Like
.Fl inset ,
except that item heads are not parsed for macro invocations.
Most often used in the
.Em DIAGNOSTICS
section with error constants in the item heads.
.It Fl enum
A numbered list.
No item heads can be specified.
Formatted like
.Fl bullet ,
except that cardinal numbers are used in place of bullets,
starting at 1.
.It Fl hang
Like
.Fl tag ,
except that the first lines of item bodies are not indented, but follow
the item heads like in
.Fl inset
lists.
.It Fl hyphen
Synonym for
.Fl dash .
.It Fl inset
Item bodies follow items heads on the same line, using normal inter-word
spacing.
Bodies are not indented, and the
.Fl width
argument is ignored.
.It Fl item
No item heads can be specified, and none are printed.
Bodies are not indented, and the
.Fl width
argument is ignored.
.It Fl ohang
Item bodies start on the line following item heads and are not indented.
The
.Fl width
argument is ignored.
.It Fl tag
Item bodies are indented according to the
.Fl width
argument.
When an item head fits inside the indentation, the item body follows
this head on the same output line.
Otherwise, the body starts on the output line following the head.
.El
.Pp
Lists may be nested within lists and displays.
Nesting of
.Fl column
and
.Fl enum
lists may not be portable.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&El
and
.Sx \&It .
.Ss \&Bo
Begin a block enclosed by square brackets.
Does not have any head arguments.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Bo 1 ,
\&.Dv BUFSIZ \&Bc
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bq .
.Ss \&Bq
Encloses its arguments in square brackets.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Bq 1 , \&Dv BUFSIZ
.Pp
.Em Remarks :
this macro is sometimes abused to emulate optional arguments for
commands; the correct macros to use for this purpose are
.Sx \&Op ,
.Sx \&Oo ,
and
.Sx \&Oc .
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bo .
.Ss \&Brc
Close a
.Sx \&Bro
block.
Does not have any tail arguments.
.Ss \&Bro
Begin a block enclosed by curly braces.
Does not have any head arguments.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Bro 1 , ... ,
\&.Va n \&Brc
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Brq .
.Ss \&Brq
Encloses its arguments in curly braces.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Brq 1 , ... , \&Va n
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bro .
.Ss \&Bsx
Format the
.Bsx
version provided as an argument, or a default value if
no argument is provided.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Bsx 1.0
.Dl \&.Bsx
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&At ,
.Sx \&Bx ,
.Sx \&Dx ,
.Sx \&Fx ,
.Sx \&Nx ,
and
.Sx \&Ox .
.Ss \&Bt
Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
Prints
.Dq is currently in beta test.
.Ss \&Bx
Format the
.Bx
version provided as an argument, or a default value if no
argument is provided.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Bx 4.3 Tahoe
.Dl \&.Bx 4.4
.Dl \&.Bx
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&At ,
.Sx \&Bsx ,
.Sx \&Dx ,
.Sx \&Fx ,
.Sx \&Nx ,
and
.Sx \&Ox .
.Ss \&Cd
Kernel configuration declaration.
This denotes strings accepted by
.Xr config 8 .
It is most often used in section 4 manual pages.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Cd device le0 at scode?
.Pp
.Em Remarks :
this macro is commonly abused by using quoted literals to retain
whitespace and align consecutive
.Sx \&Cd
declarations.
This practise is discouraged.
.Ss \&Cm
Command modifiers.
Typically used for fixed strings passed as arguments, unless
.Sx \&Fl
is more appropriate.
Also useful when specifying configuration options or keys.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl ".Nm mt Fl f Ar device Cm rewind"
.Dl ".Nm ps Fl o Cm pid , Ns Cm command"
.Dl ".Nm dd Cm if= Ns Ar file1 Cm of= Ns Ar file2"
.Dl ".Cm IdentityFile Pa ~/.ssh/id_rsa"
.Dl ".Cm LogLevel Dv DEBUG"
.Ss \&D1
One-line indented display.
This is formatted by the default rules and is useful for simple indented
statements.
It is followed by a newline.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.D1 \&Fl abcdefgh
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bd
and
.Sx \&Dl .
.Ss \&Db
This macro is obsolete.
No replacement is needed.
It is ignored by
.Xr mandoc 1
and groff including its arguments.
It was formerly used to toggle a debugging mode.
.Ss \&Dc
Close a
.Sx \&Do
block.
Does not have any tail arguments.
.Ss \&Dd
Document date for display in the page footer.
This is the mandatory first macro of any
.Nm
manual.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Dd Ar month day , year
.Pp
The
.Ar month
is the full English month name, the
.Ar day
is an integer number, and the
.Ar year
is the full four-digit year.
.Pp
Other arguments are not portable; the
.Xr mandoc 1
utility handles them as follows:
.Bl -dash -offset 3n -compact
.It
To have the date automatically filled in by the
.Ox
version of
.Xr cvs 1 ,
the special string
.Dq $\&Mdocdate$
can be given as an argument.
.It
The traditional, purely numeric
.Xr man 7
format
.Ar year Ns \(en Ns Ar month Ns \(en Ns Ar day
is accepted, too.
.It
If a date string cannot be parsed, it is used verbatim.
.It
If no date string is given, the current date is used.
.El
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Dd $\&Mdocdate$
.Dl \&.Dd $\&Mdocdate: July 2 2018$
.Dl \&.Dd July 2, 2018
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dt
and
.Sx \&Os .
.Ss \&Dl
One-line indented display.
This is formatted as literal text and is useful for commands and
invocations.
It is followed by a newline.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Dl % mandoc mdoc.7 \e(ba less
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Ql ,
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl literal ,
and
.Sx \&D1 .
.Ss \&Do
Begin a block enclosed by double quotes.
Does not have any head arguments.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Do
April is the cruellest month
\&.Dc
\e(em T.S. Eliot
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dq .
.Ss \&Dq
Encloses its arguments in
.Dq typographic
double-quotes.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Dq April is the cruellest month
\e(em T.S. Eliot
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Qq ,
.Sx \&Sq ,
and
.Sx \&Do .
.Ss \&Dt
Document title for display in the page header.
This is the mandatory second macro of any
.Nm
file.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Dt
.Ar TITLE
.Ar section
.Op Ar arch
.Ed
.Pp
Its arguments are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width section -offset 2n
.It Ar TITLE
The document's title (name), defaulting to
.Dq UNTITLED
if unspecified.
To achieve a uniform appearance of page header lines,
it should by convention be all caps.
.It Ar section
The manual section.
This may be one of
.Cm 1
.Pq General Commands ,
.Cm 2
.Pq System Calls ,
.Cm 3
.Pq Library Functions ,
.Cm 3p
.Pq Perl Library ,
.Cm 4
.Pq Device Drivers ,
.Cm 5
.Pq File Formats ,
.Cm 6
.Pq Games ,
.Cm 7
.Pq Miscellaneous Information ,
.Cm 8
.Pq System Manager's Manual ,
or
.Cm 9
.Pq Kernel Developer's Manual .
It should correspond to the manual's filename suffix and defaults to
the empty string if unspecified.
.It Ar arch
This specifies the machine architecture a manual page applies to,
where relevant, for example
.Cm alpha ,
.Cm amd64 ,
.Cm i386 ,
or
.Cm sparc64 .
The list of valid architectures varies by operating system.
.El
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Dt FOO 1
.Dl \&.Dt FOO 9 i386
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dd
and
.Sx \&Os .
.Ss \&Dv
Defined variables such as preprocessor constants, constant symbols,
enumeration values, and so on.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Dv NULL
.Dl \&.Dv BUFSIZ
.Dl \&.Dv STDOUT_FILENO
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Er
and
.Sx \&Ev
for special-purpose constants,
.Sx \&Va
for variable symbols, and
.Sx \&Fd
for listing preprocessor variable definitions in the
.Em SYNOPSIS .
.Ss \&Dx
Format the
.Dx
version provided as an argument, or a default
value if no argument is provided.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Dx 2.4.1
.Dl \&.Dx
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&At ,
.Sx \&Bsx ,
.Sx \&Bx ,
.Sx \&Fx ,
.Sx \&Nx ,
and
.Sx \&Ox .
.Ss \&Ec
Close a scope started by
.Sx \&Eo .
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Ec Op Ar TERM
.Pp
The
.Ar TERM
argument is used as the enclosure tail, for example, specifying \e(rq
will emulate
.Sx \&Dc .
.Ss \&Ed
End a display context started by
.Sx \&Bd .
.Ss \&Ef
End a font mode context started by
.Sx \&Bf .
.Ss \&Ek
End a keep context started by
.Sx \&Bk .
.Ss \&El
End a list context started by
.Sx \&Bl .
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bl
and
.Sx \&It .
.Ss \&Em
Request an italic font.
If the output device does not provide that, underline.
.Pp
This is most often used for stress emphasis (not to be confused with
importance, see
.Sx \&Sy ) .
In the rare cases where none of the semantic markup macros fit,
it can also be used for technical terms and placeholders, except
that for syntax elements,
.Sx \&Sy
and
.Sx \&Ar
are preferred, respectively.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -compact -offset indent
Selected lines are those
\&.Em not
matching any of the specified patterns.
Some of the functions use a
\&.Em hold space
to save the pattern space for subsequent retrieval.
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bf ,
.Sx \&Li ,
.Sx \&No ,
and
.Sx \&Sy .
.Ss \&En
This macro is obsolete.
Use
.Sx \&Eo
or any of the other enclosure macros.
.Pp
It encloses its argument in the delimiters specified by the last
.Sx \&Es
macro.
.Ss \&Eo
An arbitrary enclosure.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Eo Op Ar TERM
.Pp
The
.Ar TERM
argument is used as the enclosure head, for example, specifying \e(lq
will emulate
.Sx \&Do .
.Ss \&Er
Error constants for definitions of the
.Va errno
libc global variable.
This is most often used in section 2 and 3 manual pages.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Er EPERM
.Dl \&.Er ENOENT
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dv
for general constants.
.Ss \&Es
This macro is obsolete.
Use
.Sx \&Eo
or any of the other enclosure macros.
.Pp
It takes two arguments, defining the delimiters to be used by subsequent
.Sx \&En
macros.
.Ss \&Ev
Environmental variables such as those specified in
.Xr environ 7 .
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Ev DISPLAY
.Dl \&.Ev PATH
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dv
for general constants.
.Ss \&Ex
Insert a standard sentence regarding command exit values of 0 on success
and >0 on failure.
This is most often used in section 1, 6, and 8 manual pages.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Ex Fl std Op Ar utility ...
.Pp
If
.Ar utility
is not specified, the document's name set by
.Sx \&Nm
is used.
Multiple
.Ar utility
arguments are treated as separate utilities.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Rv .
.Ss \&Fa
Function argument or parameter.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Fa
.Qo
.Op Ar argtype
.Op Ar argname
.Qc Ar \&...
.Ed
.Pp
Each argument may be a name and a type (recommended for the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section), a name alone (for function invocations),
or a type alone (for function prototypes).
If both a type and a name are given or if the type consists of multiple
words, all words belonging to the same function argument have to be
given in a single argument to the
.Sx \&Fa
macro.
.Pp
This macro is also used to specify the field name of a structure.
.Pp
Most often, the
.Sx \&Fa
macro is used in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
within
.Sx \&Fo
blocks when documenting multi-line function prototypes.
If invoked with multiple arguments, the arguments are separated by a
comma.
Furthermore, if the following macro is another
.Sx \&Fa ,
the last argument will also have a trailing comma.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Fa \(dqconst char *p\(dq
.Dl \&.Fa \(dqint a\(dq \(dqint b\(dq \(dqint c\(dq
.Dl \&.Fa \(dqchar *\(dq size_t
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Fo .
.Ss \&Fc
End a function context started by
.Sx \&Fo .
.Ss \&Fd
Preprocessor directive, in particular for listing it in the
.Em SYNOPSIS .
Historically, it was also used to document include files.
The latter usage has been deprecated in favour of
.Sx \&In .
.Pp
Its syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Fd
.Li # Ns Ar directive
.Op Ar argument ...
.Ed
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Fd #define sa_handler __sigaction_u.__sa_handler
.Dl \&.Fd #define SIO_MAXNFDS
.Dl \&.Fd #ifdef FS_DEBUG
.Dl \&.Ft void
.Dl \&.Fn dbg_open \(dqconst char *\(dq
.Dl \&.Fd #endif
.Pp
See also
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE ,
.Sx \&In ,
and
.Sx \&Dv .
.Ss \&Fl
Command-line flag or option.
Used when listing arguments to command-line utilities.
Prints a fixed-width hyphen
.Sq \-
directly followed by each argument.
If no arguments are provided, a hyphen is printed followed by a space.
If the argument is a macro, a hyphen is prefixed to the subsequent macro
output.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl ".Fl R Op Fl H | L | P"
.Dl ".Op Fl 1AaCcdFfgHhikLlmnopqRrSsTtux"
.Dl ".Fl type Cm d Fl name Pa CVS"
.Dl ".Fl Ar signal_number"
.Dl ".Fl o Fl"
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Cm .
.Ss \&Fn
A function name.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf . Sx \&Fn
.Op Ar functype
.Ar funcname
.Op Oo Ar argtype Oc Ar argname
.Ed
.Pp
Function arguments are surrounded in parenthesis and
are delimited by commas.
If no arguments are specified, blank parenthesis are output.
In the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, this macro starts a new output line,
and a blank line is automatically inserted between function definitions.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Fn \(dqint funcname\(dq \(dqint arg0\(dq \(dqint arg1\(dq
.Dl \&.Fn funcname \(dqint arg0\(dq
.Dl \&.Fn funcname arg0
.Pp
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Ft functype
\&.Fn funcname
.Ed
.Pp
When referring to a function documented in another manual page, use
.Sx \&Xr
instead.
See also
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE ,
.Sx \&Fo ,
and
.Sx \&Ft .
.Ss \&Fo
Begin a function block.
This is a multi-line version of
.Sx \&Fn .
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Fo Ar funcname
.Pp
Invocations usually occur in the following context:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Pf \. Sx \&Ft Ar functype
.br
.Pf \. Sx \&Fo Ar funcname
.br
.Pf \. Sx \&Fa Qq Ar argtype Ar argname
.br
\&.\.\.
.br
.Pf \. Sx \&Fc
.Ed
.Pp
A
.Sx \&Fo
scope is closed by
.Sx \&Fc .
.Pp
See also
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE ,
.Sx \&Fa ,
.Sx \&Fc ,
and
.Sx \&Ft .
.Ss \&Fr
This macro is obsolete.
No replacement markup is needed.
.Pp
It was used to show numerical function return values in an italic font.
.Ss \&Ft
A function type.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Ft Ar functype
.Pp
In the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, a new output line is started after this macro.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Ft int
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Ft functype
\&.Fn funcname
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE ,
.Sx \&Fn ,
and
.Sx \&Fo .
.Ss \&Fx
Format the
.Fx
version provided as an argument, or a default value
if no argument is provided.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Fx 7.1
.Dl \&.Fx
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&At ,
.Sx \&Bsx ,
.Sx \&Bx ,
.Sx \&Dx ,
.Sx \&Nx ,
and
.Sx \&Ox .
.Ss \&Hf
This macro is not implemented in
.Xr mandoc 1 .
.Pp
It was used to include the contents of a (header) file literally.
The syntax was:
.Pp
.Dl Pf . Sx \&Hf Ar filename
.Ss \&Ic
Designate an internal or interactive command.
This is similar to
.Sx \&Cm
but used for instructions rather than values.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Ic :wq
.Dl \&.Ic hash
.Dl \&.Ic alias
.Pp
Note that using
.Sx \&Bd Fl literal
or
.Sx \&D1
is preferred for displaying code; the
.Sx \&Ic
macro is used when referring to specific instructions.
.Ss \&In
The name of an include file.
This macro is most often used in section 2, 3, and 9 manual pages.
.Pp
When invoked as the first macro on an input line in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, the argument is displayed in angle brackets
and preceded by
.Qq #include ,
and a blank line is inserted in front if there is a preceding
function declaration.
In other sections, it only encloses its argument in angle brackets
and causes no line break.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.In sys/types.h
.Pp
See also
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE .
.Ss \&It
A list item.
The syntax of this macro depends on the list type.
.Pp
Lists
of type
.Fl hang ,
.Fl ohang ,
.Fl inset ,
and
.Fl diag
have the following syntax:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&It Ar args
.Pp
Lists of type
.Fl bullet ,
.Fl dash ,
.Fl enum ,
.Fl hyphen
and
.Fl item
have the following syntax:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&It
.Pp
with subsequent lines interpreted within the scope of the
.Sx \&It
until either a closing
.Sx \&El
or another
.Sx \&It .
.Pp
The
.Fl tag
list has the following syntax:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&It Op Cm args
.Pp
Subsequent lines are interpreted as with
.Fl bullet
and family.
The line arguments correspond to the list's left-hand side; body
arguments correspond to the list's contents.
.Pp
The
.Fl column
list is the most complicated.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&It Ar cell Op Sx \&Ta Ar cell ...
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&It Ar cell Op <TAB> Ar cell ...
.Pp
The arguments consist of one or more lines of text and macros
representing a complete table line.
Cells within the line are delimited by the special
.Sx \&Ta
block macro or by literal tab characters.
.Pp
Using literal tabs is strongly discouraged because they are very
hard to use correctly and
.Nm
code using them is very hard to read.
In particular, a blank character is syntactically significant
before and after the literal tab character.
If a word precedes or follows the tab without an intervening blank,
that word is never interpreted as a macro call, but always output
literally.
.Pp
The tab cell delimiter may only be used within the
.Sx \&It
line itself; on following lines, only the
.Sx \&Ta
macro can be used to delimit cells, and portability requires that
.Sx \&Ta
is called by other macros: some parsers do not recognize it when
it appears as the first macro on a line.
.Pp
Note that quoted strings may span tab-delimited cells on an
.Sx \&It
line.
For example,
.Pp
.Dl .It \(dqcol1 ,\& <TAB> col2 ,\(dq \&;
.Pp
will preserve the whitespace before both commas,
but not the whitespace before the semicolon.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bl .
.Ss \&Lb
Specify a library.
The syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Lb Ar library
.Pp
The
.Ar library
parameter may be a system library, such as
.Cm libz
or
.Cm libpam ,
in which case a small library description is printed next to the linker
invocation; or a custom library, in which case the library name is
printed in quotes.
This is most commonly used in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section as described in
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE .
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Lb libz
.Dl \&.Lb libmandoc
.Ss \&Li
Denotes text that should be in a
.Li literal
font mode.
Note that this is a presentation term and should not be used for
stylistically decorating technical terms.
.Pp
On terminal output devices, this is often indistinguishable from
normal text.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bf ,
.Sx \&Em ,
.Sx \&No ,
and
.Sx \&Sy .
.Ss \&Lk
Format a hyperlink.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Lk Ar uri Op Ar name
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Lk http://bsd.lv \(dqThe BSD.lv Project\(dq
.Dl \&.Lk http://bsd.lv
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Mt .
.Ss \&Lp
Synonym for
.Sx \&Pp .
.Ss \&Ms
Display a mathematical symbol.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Ms Ar symbol
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Ms sigma
.Dl \&.Ms aleph
.Ss \&Mt
Format a
.Dq mailto:
hyperlink.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Mt Ar address
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Mt discuss@manpages.bsd.lv
.Dl \&.An Kristaps Dzonsons \&Aq \&Mt kristaps@bsd.lv
.Ss \&Nd
A one line description of the manual's content.
This is the mandatory last macro of the
.Em NAME
section and not appropriate for other sections.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl Pf . Sx \&Nd mdoc language reference
.Dl Pf . Sx \&Nd format and display UNIX manuals
.Pp
The
.Sx \&Nd
macro technically accepts child macros and terminates with a subsequent
.Sx \&Sh
invocation.
Do not assume this behaviour: some
.Xr whatis 1
database generators are not smart enough to parse more than the line
arguments and will display macros verbatim.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Nm .
.Ss \&Nm
The name of the manual page, or \(em in particular in section 1, 6,
and 8 pages \(em of an additional command or feature documented in
the manual page.
When first invoked, the
.Sx \&Nm
macro expects a single argument, the name of the manual page.
Usually, the first invocation happens in the
.Em NAME
section of the page.
The specified name will be remembered and used whenever the macro is
called again without arguments later in the page.
The
.Sx \&Nm
macro uses
.Sx Block full-implicit
semantics when invoked as the first macro on an input line in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section; otherwise, it uses ordinary
.Sx In-line
semantics.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Sh SYNOPSIS
\&.Nm cat
\&.Op Fl benstuv
\&.Op Ar
.Ed
.Pp
In the
.Em SYNOPSIS
of section 2, 3 and 9 manual pages, use the
.Sx \&Fn
macro rather than
.Sx \&Nm
to mark up the name of the manual page.
.Ss \&No
Normal text.
Closes the scope of any preceding in-line macro.
When used after physical formatting macros like
.Sx \&Em
or
.Sx \&Sy ,
switches back to the standard font face and weight.
Can also be used to embed plain text strings in macro lines
using semantic annotation macros.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl ".Em italic , Sy bold , No and roman"
.Pp
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Sm off
\&.Cm :C No / Ar pattern No / Ar replacement No /
\&.Sm on
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Em ,
.Sx \&Li ,
and
.Sx \&Sy .
.Ss \&Ns
Suppress a space between the output of the preceding macro
and the following text or macro.
Following invocation, input is interpreted as normal text
just like after an
.Sx \&No
macro.
.Pp
This has no effect when invoked at the start of a macro line.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl ".Ar name Ns = Ns Ar value"
.Dl ".Cm :M Ns Ar pattern"
.Dl ".Fl o Ns Ar output"
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&No
and
.Sx \&Sm .
.Ss \&Nx
Format the
.Nx
version provided as an argument, or a default value if
no argument is provided.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Nx 5.01
.Dl \&.Nx
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&At ,
.Sx \&Bsx ,
.Sx \&Bx ,
.Sx \&Dx ,
.Sx \&Fx ,
and
.Sx \&Ox .
.Ss \&Oc
Close multi-line
.Sx \&Oo
context.
.Ss \&Oo
Multi-line version of
.Sx \&Op .
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Oo
\&.Op Fl flag Ns Ar value
\&.Oc
.Ed
.Ss \&Op
Optional part of a command line.
Prints the argument(s) in brackets.
This is most often used in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section of section 1 and 8 manual pages.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Op \&Fl a \&Ar b
.Dl \&.Op \&Ar a | b
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Oo .
.Ss \&Os
Operating system version for display in the page footer.
This is the mandatory third macro of
any
.Nm
file.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Os Op Ar system Op Ar version
.Pp
The optional
.Ar system
parameter specifies the relevant operating system or environment.
It is suggested to leave it unspecified, in which case
.Xr mandoc 1
uses its
.Fl Ios
argument or, if that isn't specified either,
.Fa sysname
and
.Fa release
as returned by
.Xr uname 3 .
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Os
.Dl \&.Os KTH/CSC/TCS
.Dl \&.Os BSD 4.3
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dd
and
.Sx \&Dt .
.Ss \&Ot
This macro is obsolete.
Use
.Sx \&Ft
instead; with
.Xr mandoc 1 ,
both have the same effect.
.Pp
Historical
.Nm
packages described it as
.Dq "old function type (FORTRAN)" .
.Ss \&Ox
Format the
.Ox
version provided as an argument, or a default value
if no argument is provided.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Ox 4.5
.Dl \&.Ox
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&At ,
.Sx \&Bsx ,
.Sx \&Bx ,
.Sx \&Dx ,
.Sx \&Fx ,
and
.Sx \&Nx .
.Ss \&Pa
An absolute or relative file system path, or a file or directory name.
If an argument is not provided, the character
.Sq \(ti
is used as a default.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Pa /usr/bin/mandoc
.Dl \&.Pa /usr/share/man/man7/mdoc.7
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Lk .
.Ss \&Pc
Close parenthesised context opened by
.Sx \&Po .
.Ss \&Pf
Removes the space between its argument and the following macro.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 .Pf Ar prefix macro arguments ...
.Pp
This is equivalent to:
.Pp
.D1 .No \e& Ns Ar prefix No \&Ns Ar macro arguments ...
.Pp
The
.Ar prefix
argument is not parsed for macro names or delimiters,
but used verbatim as if it were escaped.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl ".Pf $ Ar variable_name"
.Dl ".Pf . Ar macro_name"
.Dl ".Pf 0x Ar hex_digits"
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Ns
and
.Sx \&Sm .
.Ss \&Po
Multi-line version of
.Sx \&Pq .
.Ss \&Pp
Break a paragraph.
This will assert vertical space between prior and subsequent macros
and/or text.
.Pp
Paragraph breaks are not needed before or after
.Sx \&Sh
or
.Sx \&Ss
macros or before displays
.Pq Sx \&Bd
or lists
.Pq Sx \&Bl
unless the
.Fl compact
flag is given.
.Ss \&Pq
Parenthesised enclosure.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Po .
.Ss \&Qc
Close quoted context opened by
.Sx \&Qo .
.Ss \&Ql
In-line literal display.
This can for example be used for complete command invocations and
for multi-word code fragments when more specific markup is not
appropriate and an indented display is not desired.
While
.Xr mandoc 1
always encloses the arguments in single quotes, other formatters
usually omit the quotes on non-terminal output devices when the
arguments have three or more characters.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dl
and
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl literal .
.Ss \&Qo
Multi-line version of
.Sx \&Qq .
.Ss \&Qq
Encloses its arguments in
.Qq typewriter
double-quotes.
Consider using
.Sx \&Dq .
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dq ,
.Sx \&Sq ,
and
.Sx \&Qo .
.Ss \&Re
Close an
.Sx \&Rs
block.
Does not have any tail arguments.
.Ss \&Rs
Begin a bibliographic
.Pq Dq reference
block.
Does not have any head arguments.
The block macro may only contain
.Sx \&%A ,
.Sx \&%B ,
.Sx \&%C ,
.Sx \&%D ,
.Sx \&%I ,
.Sx \&%J ,
.Sx \&%N ,
.Sx \&%O ,
.Sx \&%P ,
.Sx \&%Q ,
.Sx \&%R ,
.Sx \&%T ,
.Sx \&%U ,
and
.Sx \&%V
child macros (at least one must be specified).
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
\&.Rs
\&.%A J. E. Hopcroft
\&.%A J. D. Ullman
\&.%B Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation
\&.%I Addison-Wesley
\&.%C Reading, Massachusetts
\&.%D 1979
\&.Re
.Ed
.Pp
If an
.Sx \&Rs
block is used within a SEE ALSO section, a vertical space is asserted
before the rendered output, else the block continues on the current
line.
.Ss \&Rv
Insert a standard sentence regarding a function call's return value of 0
on success and \-1 on error, with the
.Va errno
libc global variable set on error.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Rv Fl std Op Ar function ...
.Pp
If
.Ar function
is not specified, the document's name set by
.Sx \&Nm
is used.
Multiple
.Ar function
arguments are treated as separate functions.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Ex .
.Ss \&Sc
Close single-quoted context opened by
.Sx \&So .
.Ss \&Sh
Begin a new section.
For a list of conventional manual sections, see
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE .
These sections should be used unless it's absolutely necessary that
custom sections be used.
.Pp
Section names should be unique so that they may be keyed by
.Sx \&Sx .
Although this macro is parsed, it should not consist of child node or it
may not be linked with
.Sx \&Sx .
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Pp ,
.Sx \&Ss ,
and
.Sx \&Sx .
.Ss \&Sm
Switches the spacing mode for output generated from macros.
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Sm Op Cm on | off
.Pp
By default, spacing is
.Cm on .
When switched
.Cm off ,
no white space is inserted between macro arguments and between the
output generated from adjacent macros, but text lines
still get normal spacing between words and sentences.
.Pp
When called without an argument, the
.Sx \&Sm
macro toggles the spacing mode.
Using this is not recommended because it makes the code harder to read.
.Ss \&So
Multi-line version of
.Sx \&Sq .
.Ss \&Sq
Encloses its arguments in
.Sq typewriter
single-quotes.
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Dq ,
.Sx \&Qq ,
and
.Sx \&So .
.Ss \&Ss
Begin a new subsection.
Unlike with
.Sx \&Sh ,
there is no convention for the naming of subsections.
Except
.Em DESCRIPTION ,
the conventional sections described in
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE
rarely have subsections.
.Pp
Sub-section names should be unique so that they may be keyed by
.Sx \&Sx .
Although this macro is parsed, it should not consist of child node or it
may not be linked with
.Sx \&Sx .
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Pp ,
.Sx \&Sh ,
and
.Sx \&Sx .
.Ss \&St
Replace an abbreviation for a standard with the full form.
The following standards are recognised.
Where multiple lines are given without a blank line in between,
they all refer to the same standard, and using the first form
is recommended.
.Bl -tag -width 1n
.It C language standards
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-ansiC
.St -ansiC
.It \-ansiC-89
.St -ansiC-89
.It \-isoC
.St -isoC
.It \-isoC-90
.St -isoC-90
.br
The original C standard.
.Pp
.It \-isoC-amd1
.St -isoC-amd1
.Pp
.It \-isoC-tcor1
.St -isoC-tcor1
.Pp
.It \-isoC-tcor2
.St -isoC-tcor2
.Pp
.It \-isoC-99
.St -isoC-99
.br
The second major version of the C language standard.
.Pp
.It \-isoC-2011
.St -isoC-2011
.br
The third major version of the C language standard.
.El
.It POSIX.1 before the Single UNIX Specification
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-p1003.1-88
.St -p1003.1-88
.It \-p1003.1
.St -p1003.1
.br
The original POSIX standard, based on ANSI C.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1-90
.St -p1003.1-90
.It \-iso9945-1-90
.St -iso9945-1-90
.br
The first update of POSIX.1.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1b-93
.St -p1003.1b-93
.It \-p1003.1b
.St -p1003.1b
.br
Real-time extensions.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1c-95
.St -p1003.1c-95
.br
POSIX thread interfaces.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1i-95
.St -p1003.1i-95
.br
Technical Corrigendum.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1-96
.St -p1003.1-96
.It \-iso9945-1-96
.St -iso9945-1-96
.br
Includes POSIX.1-1990, 1b, 1c, and 1i.
.El
.It X/Open Portability Guide version 4 and related standards
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-xpg3
.St -xpg3
.br
An XPG4 precursor, published in 1989.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.2
.St -p1003.2
.It \-p1003.2-92
.St -p1003.2-92
.It \-iso9945-2-93
.St -iso9945-2-93
.br
An XCU4 precursor.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.2a-92
.St -p1003.2a-92
.br
Updates to POSIX.2.
.Pp
.It \-xpg4
.St -xpg4
.br
Based on POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, published in 1992.
.El
.It Single UNIX Specification version 1 and related standards
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-susv1
.St -susv1
.It \-xpg4.2
.St -xpg4.2
.br
This standard was published in 1994.
It was used as the basis for UNIX 95 certification.
The following three refer to parts of it.
.Pp
.It \-xsh4.2
.St -xsh4.2
.Pp
.It \-xcurses4.2
.St -xcurses4.2
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1g-2000
.St -p1003.1g-2000
.br
Networking APIs, including sockets.
.Pp
.It \-svid4
.St -svid4 ,
.br
Published in 1995.
.El
.It Single UNIX Specification version 2 and related standards
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-susv2
.St -susv2
This Standard was published in 1997
and is also called X/Open Portability Guide version 5.
It was used as the basis for UNIX 98 certification.
The following refer to parts of it.
.Pp
.It \-xbd5
.St -xbd5
.Pp
.It \-xsh5
.St -xsh5
.Pp
.It \-xcu5
.St -xcu5
.Pp
.It \-xns5
.St -xns5
.It \-xns5.2
.St -xns5.2
.El
.It Single UNIX Specification version 3
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1-2001" -compact
.It \-p1003.1-2001
.St -p1003.1-2001
.It \-susv3
.St -susv3
.br
This standard is based on C99, SUSv2, POSIX.1-1996, 1d, and 1j.
It is also called X/Open Portability Guide version 6.
It is used as the basis for UNIX 03 certification.
.Pp
.It \-p1003.1-2004
.St -p1003.1-2004
.br
The second and last Technical Corrigendum.
.El
.It Single UNIX Specification version 4
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-p1003.1-2008
.St -p1003.1-2008
.It \-susv4
.St -susv4
.br
This standard is also called
X/Open Portability Guide version 7.
.El
.It Other standards
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "-p1003.1g-2000" -compact
.It \-ieee754
.St -ieee754
.br
Floating-point arithmetic.
.Pp
.It \-iso8601
.St -iso8601
.br
Representation of dates and times, published in 1988.
.Pp
.It \-iso8802-3
.St -iso8802-3
.br
Ethernet local area networks.
.Pp
.It \-ieee1275-94
.St -ieee1275-94
.El
.El
.Ss \&Sx
Reference a section or subsection in the same manual page.
The referenced section or subsection name must be identical to the
enclosed argument, including whitespace.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Sh
and
.Sx \&Ss .
.Ss \&Sy
Request a boldface font.
.Pp
This is most often used to indicate importance or seriousness (not to be
confused with stress emphasis, see
.Sx \&Em ) .
When none of the semantic macros fit, it is also adequate for syntax
elements that have to be given or that appear verbatim.
.Pp
Examples:
.Bd -literal -compact -offset indent
\&.Sy Warning :
If
\&.Sy s
appears in the owner permissions, set-user-ID mode is set.
This utility replaces the former
\&.Sy dumpdir
program.
.Ed
.Pp
See also
.Sx \&Bf ,
.Sx \&Em ,
.Sx \&Li ,
and
.Sx \&No .
.Ss \&Ta
Table cell separator in
.Sx \&Bl Fl column
lists; can only be used below
.Sx \&It .
.Ss \&Tn
Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
Even though the macro name
.Pq Dq tradename
suggests a semantic function, historic usage is inconsistent, mostly
using it as a presentation-level macro to request a small caps font.
.Ss \&Ud
Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
Prints out
.Dq currently under development.
.Ss \&Ux
Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
Prints out
.Dq Ux .
.Ss \&Va
A variable name.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Va foo
.Dl \&.Va const char *bar ;
.Pp
For function arguments and parameters, use
.Sx \&Fa
instead.
For declarations of global variables in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, use
.Sx \&Vt .
.Ss \&Vt
A variable type.
.Pp
This is also used for indicating global variables in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, in which case a variable name is also specified.
Note that it accepts
.Sx Block partial-implicit
syntax when invoked as the first macro on an input line in the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section, else it accepts ordinary
.Sx In-line
syntax.
In the former case, this macro starts a new output line,
and a blank line is inserted in front if there is a preceding
function definition or include directive.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Vt unsigned char
.Dl \&.Vt extern const char * const sys_signame[] \&;
.Pp
For parameters in function prototypes, use
.Sx \&Fa
instead, for function return types
.Sx \&Ft ,
and for variable names outside the
.Em SYNOPSIS
section
.Sx \&Va ,
even when including a type with the name.
See also
.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE .
.Ss \&Xc
Close a scope opened by
.Sx \&Xo .
.Ss \&Xo
Extend the header of an
.Sx \&It
macro or the body of a partial-implicit block macro
beyond the end of the input line.
This macro originally existed to work around the 9-argument limit
of historic
.Xr roff 7 .
.Ss \&Xr
Link to another manual
.Pq Qq cross-reference .
Its syntax is as follows:
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. Sx \&Xr Ar name section
.Pp
Cross reference the
.Ar name
and
.Ar section
number of another man page.
.Pp
Examples:
.Dl \&.Xr mandoc 1
.Dl \&.Xr mandoc 1 \&;
.Dl \&.Xr mandoc 1 \&Ns s behaviour
.Sh MACRO SYNTAX
The syntax of a macro depends on its classification.
In this section,
.Sq \-arg
refers to macro arguments, which may be followed by zero or more
.Sq parm
parameters;
.Sq \&Yo
opens the scope of a macro; and if specified,
.Sq \&Yc
closes it out.
.Pp
The
.Em Callable
column indicates that the macro may also be called by passing its name
as an argument to another macro.
For example,
.Sq \&.Op \&Fl O \&Ar file
produces
.Sq Op Fl O Ar file .
To prevent a macro call and render the macro name literally,
escape it by prepending a zero-width space,
.Sq \e& .
For example,
.Sq \&Op \e&Fl O
produces
.Sq Op \&Fl O .
If a macro is not callable but its name appears as an argument
to another macro, it is interpreted as opaque text.
For example,
.Sq \&.Fl \&Sh
produces
.Sq Fl \&Sh .
.Pp
The
.Em Parsed
column indicates whether the macro may call other macros by receiving
their names as arguments.
If a macro is not parsed but the name of another macro appears
as an argument, it is interpreted as opaque text.
.Pp
The
.Em Scope
column, if applicable, describes closure rules.
.Ss Block full-explicit
Multi-line scope closed by an explicit closing macro.
All macros contains bodies; only
.Sx \&Bf
and
.Pq optionally
.Sx \&Bl
contain a head.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBparm...\(rB\(rB \(lBhead...\(rB
\(lBbody...\(rB
\&.Yc
.Ed
.Bl -column "MacroX" "CallableX" "ParsedX" "closed by XXX" -offset indent
.It Em Macro Ta Em Callable Ta Em Parsed Ta Em Scope
.It Sx \&Bd  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    closed by Sx \&Ed
.It Sx \&Bf  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    closed by Sx \&Ef
.It Sx \&Bk  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    closed by Sx \&Ek
.It Sx \&Bl  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    closed by Sx \&El
.It Sx \&Ed  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    opened by Sx \&Bd
.It Sx \&Ef  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    opened by Sx \&Bf
.It Sx \&Ek  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    opened by Sx \&Bk
.It Sx \&El  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    opened by Sx \&Bl
.El
.Ss Block full-implicit
Multi-line scope closed by end-of-file or implicitly by another macro.
All macros have bodies; some
.Po
.Sx \&It Fl bullet ,
.Fl hyphen ,
.Fl dash ,
.Fl enum ,
.Fl item
.Pc
don't have heads; only one
.Po
.Sx \&It
in
.Sx \&Bl Fl column
.Pc
has multiple heads.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBparm...\(rB\(rB \(lBhead... \(lBTa head...\(rB\(rB
\(lBbody...\(rB
.Ed
.Bl -column "MacroX" "CallableX" "ParsedX" "closed by XXXXXXXXXXX" -offset indent
.It Em Macro Ta Em Callable Ta Em Parsed Ta Em Scope
.It Sx \&It Ta \&No Ta Yes  Ta closed by Sx \&It , Sx \&El
.It Sx \&Nd Ta \&No Ta \&No Ta closed by Sx \&Sh
.It Sx \&Nm Ta \&No Ta Yes  Ta closed by Sx \&Nm , Sx \&Sh , Sx \&Ss
.It Sx \&Sh Ta \&No Ta Yes  Ta closed by Sx \&Sh
.It Sx \&Ss Ta \&No Ta Yes  Ta closed by Sx \&Sh , Sx \&Ss
.El
.Pp
Note that the
.Sx \&Nm
macro is a
.Sx Block full-implicit
macro only when invoked as the first macro
in a
.Em SYNOPSIS
section line, else it is
.Sx In-line .
.Ss Block partial-explicit
Like block full-explicit, but also with single-line scope.
Each has at least a body and, in limited circumstances, a head
.Po
.Sx \&Fo ,
.Sx \&Eo
.Pc
and/or tail
.Pq Sx \&Ec .
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBparm...\(rB\(rB \(lBhead...\(rB
\(lBbody...\(rB
\&.Yc \(lBtail...\(rB

\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBparm...\(rB\(rB \(lBhead...\(rB \
\(lBbody...\(rB \&Yc \(lBtail...\(rB
.Ed
.Bl -column "MacroX" "CallableX" "ParsedX" "closed by XXXX" -offset indent
.It Em Macro Ta Em Callable Ta Em Parsed Ta Em Scope
.It Sx \&Ac  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Ao
.It Sx \&Ao  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Ac
.It Sx \&Bc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Bo
.It Sx \&Bo  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Bc
.It Sx \&Brc Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Bro
.It Sx \&Bro Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Brc
.It Sx \&Dc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Do
.It Sx \&Do  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Dc
.It Sx \&Ec  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Eo
.It Sx \&Eo  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Ec
.It Sx \&Fc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Fo
.It Sx \&Fo  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    closed by Sx \&Fc
.It Sx \&Oc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Oo
.It Sx \&Oo  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Oc
.It Sx \&Pc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Po
.It Sx \&Po  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Pc
.It Sx \&Qc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Oo
.It Sx \&Qo  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Oc
.It Sx \&Re  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    opened by Sx \&Rs
.It Sx \&Rs  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    closed by Sx \&Re
.It Sx \&Sc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&So
.It Sx \&So  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Sc
.It Sx \&Xc  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    opened by Sx \&Xo
.It Sx \&Xo  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    closed by Sx \&Xc
.El
.Ss Block partial-implicit
Like block full-implicit, but with single-line scope closed by the
end of the line.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBval...\(rB\(rB \(lBbody...\(rB \(lBres...\(rB
.Ed
.Bl -column "MacroX" "CallableX" "ParsedX" -offset indent
.It Em Macro Ta Em Callable Ta Em Parsed
.It Sx \&Aq  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Bq  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Brq Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&D1  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&Yes
.It Sx \&Dl  Ta    \&No     Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Dq  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&En  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Op  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Pq  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Ql  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Qq  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Sq  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.It Sx \&Vt  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes
.El
.Pp
Note that the
.Sx \&Vt
macro is a
.Sx Block partial-implicit
only when invoked as the first macro
in a
.Em SYNOPSIS
section line, else it is
.Sx In-line .
.Ss Special block macro
The
.Sx \&Ta
macro can only be used below
.Sx \&It
in
.Sx \&Bl Fl column
lists.
It delimits blocks representing table cells;
these blocks have bodies, but no heads.
.Bl -column "MacroX" "CallableX" "ParsedX" "closed by XXXX" -offset indent
.It Em Macro Ta Em Callable Ta Em Parsed Ta Em Scope
.It Sx \&Ta  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes    Ta closed by Sx \&Ta , Sx \&It
.El
.Ss In-line
Closed by the end of the line, fixed argument lengths,
and/or subsequent macros.
In-line macros have only text children.
If a number (or inequality) of arguments is
.Pq n ,
then the macro accepts an arbitrary number of arguments.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBval...\(rB\(rB \(lBargs...\(rB \(lBres...\(rB

\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBval...\(rB\(rB \(lBargs...\(rB Yc...

\&.Yo \(lB\-arg \(lBval...\(rB\(rB arg0 arg1 argN
.Ed
.Bl -column "MacroX" "CallableX" "ParsedX" "Arguments" -offset indent
.It Em Macro Ta Em Callable Ta Em Parsed Ta Em Arguments
.It Sx \&%A  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%B  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%C  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%D  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%I  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%J  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%N  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%O  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%P  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%Q  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%R  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%T  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%U  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&%V  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Ad  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&An  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Ap  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    0
.It Sx \&Ar  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&At  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    1
.It Sx \&Bsx Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Bt  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    0
.It Sx \&Bx  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Cd  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Cm  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Db  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    1
.It Sx \&Dd  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    n
.It Sx \&Dt  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    n
.It Sx \&Dv  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Dx  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Em  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Er  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Es  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    2
.It Sx \&Ev  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Ex  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    n
.It Sx \&Fa  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Fd  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Fl  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Fn  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Fr  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Ft  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Fx  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Hf  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    n
.It Sx \&Ic  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&In  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    1
.It Sx \&Lb  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    1
.It Sx \&Li  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Lk  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Lp  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    0
.It Sx \&Ms  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Mt  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Nm  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&No  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    0
.It Sx \&Ns  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    0
.It Sx \&Nx  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Os  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    n
.It Sx \&Ot  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Ox  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Pa  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Pf  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    1
.It Sx \&Pp  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    0
.It Sx \&Rv  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    n
.It Sx \&Sm  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    <2
.It Sx \&St  Ta    \&No     Ta    Yes      Ta    1
.It Sx \&Sx  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Sy  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Tn  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Ud  Ta    \&No     Ta    \&No     Ta    0
.It Sx \&Ux  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Va  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    n
.It Sx \&Vt  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    >0
.It Sx \&Xr  Ta    Yes      Ta    Yes      Ta    2
.El
.Ss Delimiters
When a macro argument consists of one single input character
considered as a delimiter, the argument gets special handling.
This does not apply when delimiters appear in arguments containing
more than one character.
Consequently, to prevent special handling and just handle it
like any other argument, a delimiter can be escaped by prepending
a zero-width space
.Pq Sq \e& .
In text lines, delimiters never need escaping, but may be used
as normal punctuation.
.Pp
For many macros, when the leading arguments are opening delimiters,
these delimiters are put before the macro scope,
and when the trailing arguments are closing delimiters,
these delimiters are put after the macro scope.
Spacing is suppressed after opening delimiters
and before closing delimiters.
For example,
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. \&Aq "( [ word ] ) ."
.Pp
renders as:
.Pp
.D1 Aq ( [ word ] ) .
.Pp
Opening delimiters are:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width Ds -offset indent -compact
.It \&(
left parenthesis
.It \&[
left bracket
.El
.Pp
Closing delimiters are:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width Ds -offset indent -compact
.It \&.
period
.It \&,
comma
.It \&:
colon
.It \&;
semicolon
.It \&)
right parenthesis
.It \&]
right bracket
.It \&?
question mark
.It \&!
exclamation mark
.El
.Pp
Note that even a period preceded by a backslash
.Pq Sq \e.\&
gets this special handling; use
.Sq \e&.
to prevent that.
.Pp
Many in-line macros interrupt their scope when they encounter
delimiters, and resume their scope when more arguments follow that
are not delimiters.
For example,
.Pp
.D1 Pf \. \&Fl "a ( b | c \e*(Ba d ) e"
.Pp
renders as:
.Pp
.D1 Fl a ( b | c \*(Ba d ) e
.Pp
This applies to both opening and closing delimiters,
and also to the middle delimiter, which does not suppress spacing:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width Ds -offset indent -compact
.It \&|
vertical bar
.El
.Pp
As a special case, the predefined string \e*(Ba is handled and rendered
in the same way as a plain
.Sq \&|
character.
Using this predefined string is not recommended in new manuals.
.Ss Font handling
In
.Nm
documents, usage of semantic markup is recommended in order to have
proper fonts automatically selected; only when no fitting semantic markup
is available, consider falling back to
.Sx Physical markup
macros.
Whenever any
.Nm
macro switches the
.Xr roff 7
font mode, it will automatically restore the previous font when exiting
its scope.
Manually switching the font using the
.Xr roff 7
.Ql \ef
font escape sequences is never required.
.Sh COMPATIBILITY
This section provides an incomplete list of compatibility issues
between mandoc and GNU troff
.Pq Qq groff .
.Pp
The following problematic behaviour is found in groff:
.Pp
.Bl -dash -compact
.It
.Sx \&Dd
with non-standard arguments behaves very strangely.
When there are three arguments, they are printed verbatim.
Any other number of arguments is replaced by the current date,
but without any arguments the string
.Dq Epoch
is printed.
.It
.Sx \&Lk
only accepts a single link-name argument; the remainder is misformatted.
.It
.Sx \&Pa
does not format its arguments when used in the FILES section under
certain list types.
.It
.Sx \&Ta
can only be called by other macros, but not at the beginning of a line.
.It
.Sx \&%C
is not implemented (up to and including groff-1.22.2).
.It
.Sq \ef
.Pq font face
and
.Sq \eF
.Pq font family face
.Sx Text Decoration
escapes behave irregularly when specified within line-macro scopes.
.It
Negative scaling units return to prior lines.
Instead, mandoc truncates them to zero.
.El
.Pp
The following features are unimplemented in mandoc:
.Pp
.Bl -dash -compact
.It
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl file Ar file
is unsupported for security reasons.
.It
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl filled
does not adjust the right margin, but is an alias for
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl ragged .
.It
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl literal
does not use a literal font, but is an alias for
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl unfilled .
.It
.Sx \&Bd
.Fl offset Cm center
and
.Fl offset Cm right
don't work.
Groff does not implement centered and flush-right rendering either,
but produces large indentations.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr man 1 ,
.Xr mandoc 1 ,
.Xr eqn 7 ,
.Xr man 7 ,
.Xr mandoc_char 7 ,
.Xr roff 7 ,
.Xr tbl 7
.Pp
The web page
.Lk http://mandoc.bsd.lv/mdoc/ "extended documentation for the mdoc language"
provides a few tutorial-style pages for beginners, an extensive style
guide for advanced authors, and an alphabetic index helping to choose
the best macros for various kinds of content.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
language first appeared as a troff macro package in
.Bx 4.4 .
It was later significantly updated by Werner Lemberg and Ruslan Ermilov
in groff-1.17.
The standalone implementation that is part of the
.Xr mandoc 1
utility written by Kristaps Dzonsons appeared in
.Ox 4.6 .
.Sh AUTHORS
The
.Nm
reference was written by
.An Kristaps Dzonsons Aq Mt kristaps@bsd.lv .