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# Monado - XR Runtime (XRT)

<!--
Copyright 2018-2020, Collabora, Ltd.
SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-4.0

This must stay in sync with the last section!
-->

> * Main homepage and documentation: <https://monado.freedesktop.org/>
> * Promotional homepage: <https://monado.dev>
> * Maintained at <https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/monado/monado>
> * Latest API documentation: <https://monado.pages.freedesktop.org/monado>
> * Continuously-updated changelog of the default branch:
>   <https://monado.pages.freedesktop.org/monado/md__c_h_a_n_g_e_l_o_g.html>

Monado is an open source XR runtime delivering immersive experiences such as VR
and AR on mobile, PC/desktop, and any other device
(because gosh darn people
come up with a lot of weird hardware).
Monado aims to be a complete and conforming implementation
of the OpenXR API made by Khronos.
The project currently is being developed for GNU/Linux
and aims to support other operating systems in the near future.
"Monado" has no specific meaning and is just a name.

## Monado source tree

* `src/xrt/include` - headers that define the internal interfaces of Monado.
* `src/xrt/compositor` - code for doing distortion and driving the display hardware of a device.
* `src/xrt/auxiliary` - utilities and other larger components.
* `src/xrt/drivers` - hardware drivers.
* `src/xrt/state_trackers/oxr` - OpenXR API implementation.
* `src/xrt/targets` - glue code and build logic to produce final binaries.
* `src/external` - a small collection of external code and headers.

## Getting Started

Dependencies include:

* [CMake][] 3.13 or newer (Note Ubuntu 18.04 only has 3.10) or meson >= 0.49
* Vulkan headers and loader - Fedora package `vulkan-loader-devel`
* OpenGL headers
* Eigen3
* glslangValidator - Debian/Ubuntu package `glslang-tools`, Fedora package `glslang`.
* libusb
* libudev - Fedora package `systemd-devel`
* Video 4 Linux - Debian/Ubuntu package `libv4l-dev`.

Optional (but recommended) dependencies:

* libxcb and xcb-xrandr development packages
* [OpenHMD][] 0.3.0 or newer (found using pkg-config)

Truly optional dependencies, useful for some drivers, app support, etc.:

* Doxygen
* Wayland development packages
* Xlib development packages
* libhidapi
* OpenCV
* libuvc
* ffmpeg
* libjpeg

Experimental Windows support requires the Vulkan SDK and also needs or works
best with the following vcpkg packages installed:

* pthreads eigen3 libusb hidapi zlib doxygen

Tested distributions that are fully compatible,
on Intel (Vulkan only) and AMD graphics (Vulkan and OpenGL):

* Ubuntu 18.10 (18.04 does not work)
* Debian 10 `buster`
  * Up-to-date package lists can be found in our CI config file,
    `.gitlab-ci.yml`
* Archlinux

These distributions include recent-enough versions of all the
software to use direct mode,
without using any external, third-party, or backported
package sources.

See also [Status of DRM Leases][drm-lease]
for more details on specific packages, versions, and commits.

Due to the lack of a OpenGL extension: GL_EXT_memory_object_fd on Intel's
OpenGL driver, only the AMD
radeonsi driver and the proprietary NVIDIA driver will work for OpenGL OpenXR
clients. This is due to a requirement of the Compositor. Support status of the
extension can be found on the [mesamatrix website][mesamatrix-ext].

### CMake

Build process is similar to other CMake builds,
so something like the following will build it.

Go into the source directory, create a build directory,
and change into it.

```bash
mkdir build
cd build
```

Then, invoke [CMake to generate a project][cmake-generate].
Feel free to change the build type or generator ("Ninja" is fast and parallel) as you see fit.

```bash
cmake .. -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug -G "Unix Makefiles"
```

If you plan to install the runtime,
append something like `-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=~/.local`
to specify the root of the install directory.
(The default install prefix is `/usr/local`.)

To build, [the generic CMake build commands][cmake-build] below will work on all systems,
though you can manually invoke your build tool (`make`, `ninja`, etc.) if you prefer.
The first command builds the runtime and docs,
and the second, which is optional, installs the runtime under `${CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX}`.

```bash
cmake --build .
cmake --build . --target install
```

Alternately, if using Make, the following will build the runtime and docs, then install.
Replace `make` with `ninja` if you used the Ninja generator.

```bash
make
make install
```

Documentation can be browsed by opening `doc/html/index.html` in the build directory in a web browser.

### Meson

The build process is similar to other Meson builds.
For a system wide installation requiring root privileges:

```bash
meson --prefix=/usr build
ninja -C build install
```

For a local installation in ~/.local:

```bash
meson --prefix=~/.local -Dinstall-active-runtime=false build
ninja -C build install
```

Note that the installation of the `active_runtime.json` file should be disabled for installations without
root privileges because this file is always installed in meson's syconfdir (usually /etc).

## Getting started using OpenXR with Monado

This implements the [OpenXR][] API,
so to do anything with it, you'll need an application
that uses OpenXR, along with the OpenXR loader.
The OpenXR loader is a glue library that connects OpenXR applications to OpenXR runtimes such as Monado
It determines which runtime to use by looking for the config file `active_runtime.json` (either a symlink to
or a copy of a runtime manifest) in the usual XDG config paths
and processes environment variables such as `XR_RUNTIME_JSON=/usr/share/openxr/0/openxr_monado.json`.
It can also insert OpenXR API Layers without the application or the runtime having to do it.

You can use the `hello_xr` sample provided with the OpenXR SDK.

The OpenXR loader can be pointed to a runtime json file in a nonstandard location with the environment variable `XR_RUNTIME_JSON`. Example:

```bash
XR_RUNTIME_JSON=~/monado/build/openxr_monado-dev.json ./openxr-example
```

For ease of development Monado creates a runtime manifest file in its build directory using an absolute path to the
Monado runtime in the build directory called `openxr_monado-dev.json`. Pointing `XR_RUNTIME_JSON` to this
file allows using Monado after building, without installing.

Note that the loader can always find and load the runtime
if the path to the runtime library given in the json manifest is an absolute path,
but if a relative path like `libopenxr_monado.so.0` is given,
then `LD_LIBRARY_PATH` must include the directory that contains `libopenxr_monado.so.0`.
The absolute path in `openxr_monado-dev.json` takes care of this for you.

Distribution packages for monado may provide the  "active runtime" file `/etc/xdg/openxr/1/active_runtime.json`.
In this case the loader will automatically use Monado when starting an OpenXR application. This global configuration
can be overridden on a per user basis by creating `~/.config/openxr/1/active_runtime.json`.

## Direct mode

On AMD and Intel GPUs our direct mode code requires a connected HMD to have
the `non-desktop` xrandr property set to 1.
Only the most common HMDs have the needed quirks added to the linux kernel.

If you know that your HMD lacks the quirk you can run this command **before** or
after connecting the HMD and it will have it. Where `HDMI-A-0` is the xrandr
output name where you plug the HMD in.

```bash
xrandr --output HDMI-A-0 --prop --set non-desktop 1
```

You can verify that it stuck with the command.

```bash
xrandr --prop
```

## Running Vulkan Validation

To run Monado with Vulkan validation the loader's layer functionality can be used.
```
VK_INSTANCE_LAYERS=VK_LAYER_KHRONOS_validation ./build/src/xrt/targets/service/monado-service
```
The same can be done when launching a Vulkan client.

If you want a backtrace to be produced at validation errors, create a `vk_layer_settings.txt`
file with the following content:
```
khronos_validation.debug_action = VK_DBG_LAYER_ACTION_LOG_MSG,VK_DBG_LAYER_ACTION_BREAK
khronos_validation.report_flags = error,warn
khronos_validation.log_filename = stdout
```

## Coding style and formatting

[clang-format][] is used,
and a `.clang-format` config file is present in the repo
to allow your editor to use them.

To manually apply clang-format to every non-external source file in the tree,
run this command in the source dir with a `sh`-compatible shell
(Git for Windows git-bash should be OK):

```bash
scripts/format-project.sh
```

You can optionally put something like `CLANG_FORMAT=clang-format-7` before that command
if your clang-format binary isn't named `clang-format`.
Note that you'll typically prefer to use something like `git clang-format`
to just re-format your changes, in case version differences in tools result in overall format changes.

[OpenHMD]: http://openhmd.net
[drm-lease]: https://haagch.frickel.club/#!drmlease%2Emd
[OpenXR]: https://khronos.org/openxr
[clang-format]: https://releases.llvm.org/7.0.0/tools/clang/docs/ClangFormat.html
[cmake-build]: https://cmake.org/cmake/help/v3.12/manual/cmake.1.html#build-tool-mode
[cmake-generate]: https://cmake.org/cmake/help/v3.12/manual/cmake.1.html
[CMake]: https://cmake.org
[mesamatrix-ext]: https://mesamatrix.net/#Version_ExtensionsthatarenotpartofanyOpenGLorOpenGLESversion

## Contributing, Code of Conduct

See `CONTRIBUTING.md` for details of contribution guidelines. GitLab Issues and
Merge Requests are the preferred wait to discuss problems, suggest enhancements,
or submit changes for review. **In case of a security issue**, you should choose
the "confidential" option when using the GitLab issues page. For highest
security, you can send encrypted email (using GPG/OpenPGP) to Ryan Pavlik, with
the address below and the associated key on <https://keys.openpgp.org>.

Please note that this project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct.
By participating in this project you agree to abide by its terms.

We follow the standard freedesktop.org code of conduct,
available at <https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeOfConduct/>,
which is based on the [Contributor Covenant](https://www.contributor-covenant.org).

Instances of abusive, harassing, or otherwise unacceptable behavior may be
reported by contacting:

* First-line project contacts:
  * Jakob Bornecrantz <jakob@collabora.com>
  * Ryan Pavlik <ryan.pavlik@collabora.com>
* freedesktop.org contacts: see most recent list at <https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeOfConduct/>

## Copyright and License for this README.md file

For this file only:

> Copyright 2018-2020, Collabora, Ltd.
> Code of Conduct section: excerpt adapted from the [Contributor Covenant](https://www.contributor-covenant.org), version 1.4.1,
> available at <https://www.contributor-covenant.org/version/1/4/code-of-conduct.html>,
> and from the freedesktop.org-specific version of that code,
> available at <https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeOfConduct/>
>
>
> SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-4.0

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