File: UnixConnectionPool.cs

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//
// Mono.Remoting.Channels.Unix.UnixConnectionPool.cs
//
// Author: Lluis Sanchez Gual (lluis@ideary.com)
//
// Copyright (C) 2005 Novell, Inc (http://www.novell.com)
//

//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
// a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
// permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
// the following conditions:
// 
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
// included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
// 
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
// EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
// NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
// LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
// OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
// WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Threading;
using System.IO;
using System.Net.Sockets;
using System.Runtime.Remoting;
using Mono.Unix;

namespace Mono.Remoting.Channels.Unix
{
	// This is a pool of Unix connections. Connections requested
	// by the TCP channel are pooled after their use, and can
	// be reused later. Connections are automaticaly closed
	// if not used after some time, specified in KeepAliveSeconds.
	// The number of allowed open connections can also be specified
	// in MaxOpenConnections. The limit is per host.
	// If a thread requests a connection and the limit has been 
	// reached, the thread is suspended until one is released.

	internal class UnixConnectionPool
	{
		// Table of pools. There is a HostConnectionPool 
		// instance for each host
		static Hashtable _pools = new Hashtable();

		static int _maxOpenConnections = int.MaxValue;
		static int _keepAliveSeconds = 15;

		static Thread _poolThread;

		static UnixConnectionPool()
		{
			// This thread will close unused connections
			_poolThread = new Thread (new ThreadStart (ConnectionCollector));
			_poolThread.Start();
			_poolThread.IsBackground = true;
		}

		public static void Shutdown ()
		{
			if (_poolThread != null)
				_poolThread.Abort();
		}

		public static int MaxOpenConnections
		{
			get { return _maxOpenConnections; }
			set 
			{ 
				if (value < 1) throw new RemotingException ("MaxOpenConnections must be greater than zero");
				_maxOpenConnections = value; 
			}
		}

		public static int KeepAliveSeconds
		{
			get { return _keepAliveSeconds; }
			set { _keepAliveSeconds = value; }
		}

		public static UnixConnection GetConnection (string path)
		{
			HostConnectionPool hostPool;

			lock (_pools)
			{
				hostPool = (HostConnectionPool) _pools[path];
				if (hostPool == null)
				{
					hostPool = new HostConnectionPool(path);
					_pools[path] = hostPool;
				}
			}

			return hostPool.GetConnection();
		}

		private static void ConnectionCollector ()
		{
			while (true)
			{
				Thread.Sleep(3000);
				lock (_pools)
				{
					ICollection values = _pools.Values;
					foreach (HostConnectionPool pool in values)
						pool.PurgeConnections();
				}
			}
		}
	}

	internal class ReusableUnixClient : UnixClient
	{
		public ReusableUnixClient (string path): base (path)
		{
		}
		
		public bool IsAlive
		{
			get
			{
				// This Poll will return true if there is data pending to
				// be read. It prob. means that a client object using this
				// connection got an exception and did not finish to read
				// the data. It can also mean that the connection has been
				// closed in the server. In both cases, the connection cannot
				// be reused.
				return !Client.Poll (0, SelectMode.SelectRead);
			}
		}
	}

	internal class UnixConnection
	{
		DateTime _controlTime;
		Stream _stream;
		ReusableUnixClient _client;
		HostConnectionPool _pool;
		byte[] _buffer;

		public UnixConnection (HostConnectionPool pool, ReusableUnixClient client)
		{
			_pool = pool;
			_client = client;
			_stream = new BufferedStream (client.GetStream());
			_controlTime = DateTime.Now;
			_buffer = new byte[UnixMessageIO.DefaultStreamBufferSize];
		}

		public Stream Stream
		{
			get { return _stream; }
		}

		public DateTime ControlTime
		{
			get { return _controlTime; }
			set { _controlTime = value; }
		}

		public bool IsAlive
		{
			get { return _client.IsAlive; }
		}

		// This is a "thread safe" buffer that can be used by 
		// UnixClientTransportSink to read or send data to the stream.
		// The buffer is "thread safe" since only one thread can
		// use a connection at a given time.
		public byte[] Buffer
		{
			get { return _buffer; }
		}

		// Returns the connection to the pool
		public void Release()
		{
			_pool.ReleaseConnection (this);
		}

		public void Close()
		{
			_client.Close();
		}
	}

	internal class HostConnectionPool
	{
		ArrayList _pool = new ArrayList();
		int _activeConnections = 0;

		string _path;

		public HostConnectionPool (string path)
		{
			_path = path;
		}

		public UnixConnection GetConnection ()
		{
			UnixConnection connection = null;
			lock (_pool)
			{
				do
				{
					if (_pool.Count > 0) 
					{
						// There are available connections

						connection = (UnixConnection)_pool[_pool.Count - 1];
						_pool.RemoveAt(_pool.Count - 1);
						if (!connection.IsAlive) {
							CancelConnection (connection);
							connection = null;
							continue;
						}
					}

					if (connection == null && _activeConnections < UnixConnectionPool.MaxOpenConnections)
					{
						// No connections available, but the max connections
						// has not been reached yet, so a new one can be created
						// Create the connection outside the lock
						break;
					}

					// No available connections in the pool
					// Wait for somewone to release one.

					if (connection == null)
					{
						Monitor.Wait(_pool);
					}
				} 
				while (connection == null);
			}

			if (connection == null)
				return CreateConnection ();
			else
				return connection;
		}

		private UnixConnection CreateConnection()
		{
			try
			{
				ReusableUnixClient client = new ReusableUnixClient (_path);
				UnixConnection entry = new UnixConnection(this, client);
				_activeConnections++;
				return entry;
			}
			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				throw new RemotingException (ex.Message);
			}
		}

		public void ReleaseConnection (UnixConnection entry)
		{
			lock (_pool)
			{
				entry.ControlTime = DateTime.Now;	// Initialize timeout
				_pool.Add (entry);
				Monitor.Pulse (_pool);
			}
		}

		private void CancelConnection(UnixConnection entry)
		{
			try
			{
				entry.Stream.Close();
				_activeConnections--;
			}
			catch
			{
			}
		}

		public void PurgeConnections()
		{
			lock (_pool)
			{
				for (int n=0; n < _pool.Count; n++)
				{
					UnixConnection entry = (UnixConnection)_pool[n];
					if ( (DateTime.Now - entry.ControlTime).TotalSeconds > UnixConnectionPool.KeepAliveSeconds)
					{
						CancelConnection (entry);
						_pool.RemoveAt(n);
						n--;
					}
				}
			}
		}

	}


}