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monotone 0.48-3
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<html lang="en">
<head><link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="texinfo.css" />
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<h1 class="settitle">monotone documentation</h1>
<a name="Top"></a>

<h2 class="unnumbered">Overview</h2>

<p>Monotone is a distributed version control tool. It can help automate
many tedious and error-prone tasks in group software development.
     <ul>
<li>Store multiple versions of files you are working on efficiently. 
<li>Transmit changes to files between you and your colleagues. 
<li>Merge changes you make with those your colleagues make. 
<li>Make notes about your opinion of the quality of versions of files. 
<li>Make decisions about using or ignoring versions, depending on the notes
you receive from others. 
</ul>

<p>Please be aware that monotone is a slightly unorthodox version control
tool, and many of its concepts are similar &mdash; but subtly or
significantly different &mdash; from concepts with similar names in other
version control tools.

<p>Complete table of contents

<div class="contents">
<h2>Table of Contents</h2>
<ul>
<li><a name="toc_Top" href="#Top">Overview</a>
<li><a name="toc_Concepts" href="#Concepts">1 Concepts</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Versions-of-files">1.1 Versions of files</a>
<li><a href="#Versions-of-trees">1.2 Versions of trees</a>
<li><a href="#Historical-records">1.3 Historical records</a>
<li><a href="#Certificates">1.4 Certificates</a>
<li><a href="#Storage-and-workflow">1.5 Storage and workflow</a>
<li><a href="#Forks-and-merges">1.6 Forks and merges</a>
<li><a href="#Branches">1.7 Branches</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Branches">1.7.1 Branch Names</a>
</li></ul>
</li></ul>
<li><a name="toc_Tutorial" href="#Tutorial">2 Tutorial</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Tutorial">2.1 Issues</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Tutorial">2.1.1 Standard Options</a>
<li><a href="#Tutorial">2.1.2 Revision Selectors</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a href="#Tutorial">2.2 The Fictional Project</a>
<li><a href="#Creating-a-Database">2.3 Creating a Database</a>
<li><a href="#Generating-Keys">2.4 Generating Keys</a>
<li><a href="#Starting-a-New-Project">2.5 Starting a New Project</a>
<li><a href="#Adding-Files">2.6 Adding Files</a>
<li><a href="#Committing-Work">2.7 Committing Work</a>
<li><a href="#Basic-Network-Service">2.8 Basic Network Service</a>
<li><a href="#Synchronising-Databases">2.9 Synchronising Databases</a>
<li><a href="#Making-Changes">2.10 Making Changes</a>
<li><a href="#Dealing-with-a-Fork">2.11 Dealing with a Fork</a>
<li><a href="#Branching-and-Merging">2.12 Branching and Merging</a>
<li><a href="#Network-Service-Revisited">2.13 Network Service Revisited</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a name="toc_Advanced-Uses" href="#Advanced-Uses">3 Advanced Uses</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Other-Transports">3.1 Other Transports</a>
<li><a href="#Selectors">3.2 Selectors</a>
<li><a href="#Restrictions">3.3 Restrictions</a>
<li><a href="#Scripting">3.4 Scripting</a>
<li><a href="#Inodeprints">3.5 Inodeprints</a>
<li><a href="#Merge-Conflicts">3.6 Merge Conflicts</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Merge-Conflicts">3.6.1 Conflict Types</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a href="#Workspace-Collisions">3.7 Workspace Collisions</a>
<li><a href="#Quality-Assurance">3.8 Quality Assurance</a>
<li><a href="#Vars">3.9 Vars</a>
<li><a href="#Reserved-Files">3.10 Reserved Files</a>
<li><a href="#Reserved-Certs">3.11 Reserved Certs</a>
<li><a href="#Naming-Conventions">3.12 Naming Conventions</a>
<li><a href="#File-Attributes">3.13 File Attributes</a>
<li><a href="#Merging">3.14 Merging</a>
<li><a href="#Migrating-and-Dumping">3.15 Migrating and Dumping</a>
<li><a href="#Importing-from-CVS">3.16 Importing from CVS</a>
<li><a href="#Exporting-to-GIT">3.17 Exporting to GIT</a>
<li><a href="#Using-packets">3.18 Using packets</a>
<li><a href="#Bisecting">3.19 Bisecting</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a name="toc_CVS-Phrasebook" href="#CVS-Phrasebook">4 CVS Phrasebook</a>
<li><a name="toc_Command-Reference" href="#Command-Reference">5 Command Reference</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Tree">5.1 Tree</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Conflicts">5.1.1 Conflicts</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a href="#Workspace">5.2 Workspace</a>
<li><a href="#Network">5.3 Network</a>
<li><a href="#Informative">5.4 Informative</a>
<li><a href="#Key-and-Cert-Trust">5.5 Key and Cert Trust</a>
<li><a href="#Certificate">5.6 Certificate</a>
<li><a href="#Packet-I_002fO">5.7 Packet I/O</a>
<li><a href="#Database">5.8 Database</a>
<li><a href="#Automation">5.9 Automation</a>
<li><a href="#RCS">5.10 RCS</a>
<li><a href="#GIT">5.11 GIT</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a name="toc_Lua-Reference" href="#Lua-Reference">6 Lua Reference</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1 Hooks</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.1 Common Data Types</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.2 Event Notifications and Triggers</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.3 User Defaults</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.4 Netsync Permission Hooks</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.5 Netsync Transport Hooks</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.6 Trust Evaluation Hooks</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.7 External Diff Tools</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.8 External Merge Tools</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.9 Selector Expansion</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.10 Attribute Handling</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.11 GIT Export Hooks</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.12 Validation Hooks</a>
<li><a href="#Hooks">6.1.13 Meta Hooks</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a href="#Additional-Lua-Functions">6.2 Additional Lua Functions</a>
<li><a href="#Implementation-Differences">6.3 Implementation Differences</a>
</li></ul>
<li><a name="toc_Special-Topics" href="#Special-Topics">7 Special Topics</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Internationalization">7.1 Internationalization</a>
<li><a href="#Hash-Integrity">7.2 Hash Integrity</a>
<li><a href="#Rebuilding-ancestry">7.3 Rebuilding ancestry</a>
<li><a href="#Mark_002dMerge">7.4 Mark-Merge</a>
<li><a href="#Regexps">7.5 Regular Expression Syntax</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#Regexp-Summary">7.5.1 Regexp Syntax Summary</a>
<li><a href="#Regexp-Details">7.5.2 Regexp Details</a>
</li></ul>
</li></ul>
<li><a name="toc_Default-hooks" href="#Default-hooks">Anhang A Default hooks</a>
<li><a name="toc_General-Index" href="#General-Index">General Index</a>
</li></ul>
</div>

<p><a name="Concepts"></a>

<h2 class="chapter">1 Concepts</h2>

<p>This chapter should familiarize you with the concepts, terminology,
and behavior described in the remainder of the user manual.  Please
take a moment to read it, as later sections will assume familiarity
with these terms.

<p><a name="Versions-of-files"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.1 Versions of files</h3>

<p>Suppose you wish to modify a file <samp><span class="file">file.txt</span></samp> on your
computer. You begin with one <i>version</i> of the file, load it into
an editor, make some changes, and save the file again. Doing so
produces a new <i>version</i> of the file. We will say that the older
version of the file was a <dfn>parent</dfn>, and the new version is a
<dfn>child</dfn>, and that you have performed an <dfn>edit</dfn> between the
parent and the child. We may draw the relationship between parent and
child using a graph, where the arrow in the graph indicates the
direction of the edit, from parent to child.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/parent-child.png" alt="figures/parent-child.png"></div>

<p>We may want to identify the parent and the child precisely, for sake
of reference. To do so, we will compute a <i>cryptographic hash
function</i>, called <span class="sc">sha1</span>, of each version. The details of this
function are beyond the scope of this document; in summary, the <span class="sc">sha1</span>
function takes a version of a file and produces a short string of 20
bytes, which we will use to uniquely identify the version<a rel="footnote" href="#fn-1" name="fnd-1"><sup>1</sup></a>.  Now our
graph does not refer to some &ldquo;abstract&rdquo; parent and child, but rather
to the exact edit we performed between a specific parent and a
specific child.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/parent-child-names-hashes.png" alt="figures/parent-child-names-hashes.png"></div>

<p>When dealing with versions of files, we will dispense with writing out
&ldquo;file names&rdquo;, and identify versions <i>purely</i> by their <span class="sc">sha1</span>
value, which we will also refer to as their <dfn>file ID</dfn>. Using IDs
alone will often help us accommodate the fact that people often wish
to call files by different names. So now our graph of parent and child
is just a relationship between two versions, only identified by ID.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/parent-child-hashes.png" alt="figures/parent-child-hashes.png"></div>

<p>Version control systems, such as monotone, are principally concerned
with the storage and management of <i>multiple</i> versions of some files. 
One way to store multiple versions of a file is, literally, to save a
separate <i>complete</i> copy of the file, every time you make a
change. When necessary, monotone will save complete copies of your
files, compressed with the <code>zlib</code> compression format.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/three-versions.png" alt="figures/three-versions.png"></div>

<p>Often we find that successive versions of a file are very similar to
one another, so storing multiple complete copies is a waste of
space. In these cases, rather than store <i>complete</i> copies of each
version of a file, we store a compact description of only the
<i>changes</i> which are made between versions. Such a description of
changes is called a <dfn>delta</dfn>.

<p>Storing deltas between files is, practically speaking, as good as
storing complete versions of files. It lets you undo changes from a
new version, by applying the delta backwards, and lets your friends
change their old version of the file into the new version, by applying
the delta forwards. Deltas are usually smaller than full files, so
when possible monotone stores deltas, using a modified <code>xdelta</code>
format. The details of this format are beyond the scope of this
document.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/difference-between-versions.png" alt="figures/difference-between-versions.png"></div>

<p><a name="Versions-of-trees"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.2 Versions of trees</h3>

<p>After you have made many different files, you may wish to capture a
&ldquo;snapshot&rdquo; of the versions of all the files in a particular collection. 
Since files are typically collected into <i>trees</i> in a file system,
we say that you want to capture a <i>version of your tree</i>. Doing
so will permit you to undo changes to multiple files at once, or send
your friend a <i>set</i> of changes to many files at once.

<p>To make a snapshot of a tree, we begin by writing a special file called
a <dfn>manifest</dfn>. In fact, monotone will write this file for us, but we
could write it ourselves too. It is just a plain text file, in a
structured but human-readable format used by several parts of monotone. 
Each file entry of a manifest binds a specific name, as a full path from
the root of the workspace, to a specific file ID, as the hash of its
content.  In this way, the manifest collects together the snapshot of
the file names and contents you have at this point in time; other
snapshots with other manifests can use different names for the same
file, or different contents for the same name.

<p>Other entries in the manifest format name directories or store file
attributes, which we will cover later.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/manifest.png" alt="figures/manifest.png"></div>

<p>Now we note that a manifest is itself a file. Therefore a manifest can
serve as input to the <span class="sc">sha1</span> function, and thus every manifest has
an ID of its own. By calculating the <span class="sc">sha1</span> value of a manifest, we
capture the <i>state of our tree</i> in a single <dfn>manifest ID</dfn>. In
other words, the ID of the manifest essentially captures all the IDs
and file names of every file in our tree, combined. So we may treat
manifests and their IDs as <i>snapshots</i> of a tree of files, though
lacking the actual contents of the files themselves.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/file-id-manifest-id.png" alt="figures/file-id-manifest-id.png"></div>

<p>As with versions of files, we may decide to store manifests in their
entirety, or else we may store only a compact description of changes
which occur between different versions of manifests. As with files,
when possible monotone stores compact descriptions of changes between
manifests; when necessary it stores complete versions of manifests.

<p><a name="Historical-records"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.3 Historical records</h3>

<p>Suppose you sit down to edit some files. Before you start working, you
may record a manifest of the files, for reference sake. When you
finish working, you may record another manifest. These &ldquo;before and
after&rdquo; snapshots of the tree of files you worked on can serve as
historical records of the set of changes, or <dfn>changeset</dfn>, that you
made. In order to capture a &ldquo;complete&rdquo; view of history &ndash; both the
changes made and the state of your file tree on either side of those
changes &ndash; monotone builds a special composite file called a
<dfn>revision</dfn> each time you make changes. Like manifests, revisions
are ordinary text files which can be passed through the <span class="sc">sha1</span>
function and thus assigned a <dfn>revision ID</dfn>.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/revision.png" alt="figures/revision.png"></div>

<p>The content of a revision includes one or more changesets.  These
changesets make reference to file IDs, to describe how the tree changed. 
The revision also contains manifest IDs, as another way of describing
the tree &ldquo;before and after&rdquo; the changeset &mdash; storing this information
in two forms allows monotone to detect any bugs or corrupted data before
they can enter your history.  Finally and crucially, revisions also make
reference to <i>other revision IDs</i>. This fact &ndash; that revisions include
the IDs of other revisions &ndash; causes the set of revisions to join
together into a historical <i>chain of events</i>, somewhat like a &ldquo;linked
list&rdquo;.  Each revision in the chain has a unique ID, which includes
<i>by reference</i> all the revisions preceding it. Even if you undo a
changeset, and return to a previously-visited manifest ID during the
course of your edits, each revision will incorporate the ID of its
predecessor, thus forming a new unique ID for each point in history.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/revision-chaining.png" alt="figures/revision-chaining.png"></div>

<p><a name="Certificates"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.4 Certificates</h3>

<p>Often, you will wish to make a <i>statement</i> about a revision, such as
stating the reason that you made some changes, or stating the time at
which you made the changes, or stating that the revision passes a test
suite. Statements such as these can be thought of, generally, as a
bundle of information with three parts:

     <ul>
<li>an <i>ID</i>, indicating which revision you are making a statement about
<li>a <i>name</i> indicating the type of statement you are making, such as
&ldquo;changelog&rdquo;, &ldquo;date&rdquo; or &ldquo;testresult&rdquo;
<li>a <i>value</i> indicating the remaining detail of the statement, such as
&ldquo;fixed a bug&rdquo;, &ldquo;March 9th&rdquo; or &ldquo;1&rdquo;
</ul>

<p>For example, if you want to say that a particular revision was
composed on April 4, 2003, you might make a statement like this:

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/statement.png" alt="figures/statement.png"></div>

<p>In an ideal world, these are all the parts of a statement we would
need in order to go about our work. In the real world, however, there
are sometimes malicious people who would make false or misleading
statements; so we need a way to verify that a particular person made a
particular statement about a revision. We therefore will add two more
pieces of information to our bundle:

     <ul>
<li>a <i>key</i> which identifies the person making a statement
<li>a <i>signature</i> &mdash; just a large number with particular properties &mdash;
certifying the fact that the person made the statement
</ul>

<p>When these 2 items accompany a statement, we call the total bundle of
5 items a <dfn>certificate</dfn>, or <i>cert</i>. A cert makes a statement in
a secure fashion. The security of the signature in a cert is derived
from the <span class="sc">rsa</span> cryptography system, the details of which are beyond
the scope of this document.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/cert.png" alt="figures/cert.png"></div>

<p>Monotone uses certs extensively. Any &ldquo;extra&rdquo; information which needs
to be stored, transmitted or retrieved &mdash; above and beyond files,
manifests, and revisions &mdash; is kept in the form of certs. This
includes change logs, time and date records, branch membership,
authorship, test results, and more. When monotone makes a decision
about storing, transmitting, or extracting files, manifests, or
revisions, the decision is often based on certs it has seen, and the
trustworthiness you assign to those certs.

<p>The <span class="sc">rsa</span> cryptography system &mdash; and therefore monotone itself &mdash;
requires that you exchange special &ldquo;public&rdquo; numbers with your
friends, before they will trust certificates signed by you. These
numbers are called <dfn>public keys</dfn>. Giving someone your public key
does not give them the power to <i>impersonate</i> you, only to verify
signatures made by you. Exchanging public keys should be done over a
trusted medium, in person, or via a trusted third party. Advanced
secure key exchange techniques are beyond the scope of this document.

<p><a name="Storage-and-workflow"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.5 Storage and workflow</h3>

<p>Monotone moves information in and out of four different types of
storage:

     <ul>
<li>a <i>keystore</i> in your home directory
<li>a <i>workspace</i> in the local file system
<li>a <i>local database</i> in the local file system
<li>a <i>remote database</i> elsewhere on the internet
</ul>

<p>The <dfn>keystore</dfn> is a directory <samp><span class="file">.monotone/keys</span></samp> in your home directory
which contains copies of all your private keys. Each key is stored in a file
whose name is the key identifier with some characters converted to underscores. 
When you use a key to sign a cert, the public half of that key is copied into
your local database along with the cert.

<p>All information passes <em>through</em> your local database, en route to
some other destination. For example, when changes are made in a
workspace, you may save those changes to your database, and later
you may synchronize your database with someone else's. Monotone will
not move information directly between a workspace and a remote
database, or between workspaces. Your local database is always
the &ldquo;switching point&rdquo; for communication.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/general-workflow.png" alt="figures/general-workflow.png"></div>

<p>A <dfn>workspace</dfn> is a tree of files in your file system, arranged
according to the list of file paths and IDs in a particular
manifest. A special directory called <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> exists in the root of
any workspace. Monotone keeps some special files in the <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp>
directory, in order to track changes you make to your workspace.  If
you ever want to know if a directory is a monotone workspace, just
look for this <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory.

<p>Aside from the special <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory, a workspace is just a
normal tree of files. You can directly edit the files in a workspace
using a plain text editor or other program; monotone will
automatically notice when you make any changes. If you wish to add
files, remove files, or move files within your workspace, you must
tell monotone explicitly what you are doing, as these actions cannot
be deduced.

<p>If you do not yet have a workspace, you can <dfn>check out</dfn> a
workspace from a database, or construct one from scratch and
<dfn>add</dfn> it into a database. As you work, you will occasionally
<dfn>commit</dfn> changes you have made in a workspace to a database,
and <dfn>update</dfn> a workspace to receive changes that have arrived
in a database. Committing and updating take place purely between a
database and a workspace; the network is not involved.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/local-workflow.png" alt="figures/local-workflow.png"></div>

<p>A <dfn>database</dfn> is a single, regular file. You can copy or back it up
using standard methods. Typically you keep a database in your home
directory. Databases are portable between different machine types. You
can have multiple databases and divide your work between them, or keep
everything in a single database if you prefer. You can dump portions of
your database out as text, and read them back into other databases, or
send them to your friends.  Underneath, databases are accessed using a
standard, robust data manager, which makes using even very large
databases efficient.  In dire emergencies, you can directly examine and
manipulate a database using a simple SQL interface.

<p>A database contains many files, manifests, revisions, and
certificates, some of which are not immediately of interest, some of
which may be unwanted or even false. It is a collection of information
received from network servers, workspaces, and other
databases. You can inspect and modify your databases without affecting
your workspaces, and vice-versa.

<p>Monotone knows how to exchange information in your database with other
remote databases, using an interactive protocol called <dfn>netsync</dfn>. 
It supports three modes of exchange: pushing, pulling, and
synchronizing. A <dfn>pull</dfn> operation copies data from a remote
database to your local database. A <dfn>push</dfn> operation copies data
from your local database to a remote database. A <dfn>sync</dfn> operation
copies data both directions. In each case, only the data missing from
the destination is copied. The netsync protocol calculates the data to
send &ldquo;on the fly&rdquo; by exchanging partial hash values of each
database.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/network-workflow.png" alt="figures/network-workflow.png"></div>

<p>In general, work flow with monotone involves 3 distinct stages:

     <ul>
<li>When you <i>commit</i> changes from your workspace to your database,
your database stores the changes but does not communicate with the
network. Your commits happen immediately, without consulting any other
party, and do not require network connectivity.

     <li>When you are ready to <i>exchange</i> work with someone else, you can
push, pull, or sync with other databases on the network. When you talk
to other servers on the network, your database may change, but your
workspace will not. In fact, you do not need a workspace at all
when exchanging work.

     <li>When you <i>update</i> your workspace, some (but not all) of the
changes which your database received from the network are applied to
your workspace. The network is not consulted during updates. 
</ul>

<p>The last stage of workflow is worth clarifying: monotone does
<em>not</em> blindly apply all changes it receives from a remote
database to your workspace.  Doing so would be very dangerous,
because remote databases are not always trustworthy systems. Rather,
monotone evaluates the certificates it has received along with the
changes, and decides which particular changes are safe and desirable
to apply to your workspace.

<p>You can always adjust the criteria monotone uses to judge the
trustworthiness and desirability of changes in your database. But keep
in mind that it always uses <em>some</em> criteria; receiving changes
from a remote server is a <em>different</em> activity than applying
changes to a workspace. Sometimes you may receive changes which
monotone judges to be untrusted or bad; such changes may stay in your
database but will <em>not</em> be applied to your workspace.

<p>Remote databases, in other words, are just untrusted &ldquo;buckets&rdquo; of
data, which you can trade with promiscuously. There is no trust
implied in communication.

<p><a name="Forks-and-merges"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.6 Forks and merges</h3>

<p>So far we have been talking about revisions as though each logically
follows exactly one revision before it, in a simple sequence of
revisions.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/linear-history.png" alt="figures/linear-history.png"></div>

<p>This is a rosy picture, but sometimes it does not work out this
way. Sometimes when you make new revisions, other people are
<i>simultaneously</i> making new revisions as well, and their revisions
might be derived from the same parent as yours, or contain different
changesets. Without loss of generality, we will assume simultaneous
edits only happen two-at-a-time; in fact many more edits may happen at
once but our reasoning will be the same.

<p>We call this situation of simultaneous edits a <dfn>fork</dfn>, and will
refer to the two children of a fork as the <i>left child</i> and <i>right
child</i>. In a large collection of revisions with many people editing
files, especially on many different computers spread all around the
world, forks are a common occurrence.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/fork.png" alt="figures/fork.png"></div>

<p>If we analyze the changes in each child revision, we will often find
that the changeset between the parent and the left child are unrelated
to the changeset between the parent and the right child. When this
happens, we can usually <dfn>merge</dfn> the fork, producing a common
grandchild revision which contains both changesets.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/merge.png" alt="figures/merge.png"></div>

<p><a name="Branches"></a>

<h3 class="section">1.7 Branches</h3>

<p>Sometimes, people intentionally produce forks which are <em>not
supposed to be merged</em>; perhaps they have agreed to work independently
for a time, or wish to change their files in ways which are not
logically compatible with each other. When someone produces a fork
which is supposed to last for a while (or perhaps permanently) we say
that the fork has produced a new <dfn>branch</dfn>. Branches tell monotone
which revisions you would like to merge, and which you would like to
keep separate.

<p>You can see all the available branches using <samp><span class="command">mtn list branches</span></samp>.

<p>Branches are indicated with certs.  The cert name <code>branch</code> is
reserved for use by monotone, for the purpose of identifying the
revisions which are members of a branch. A <code>branch</code> cert has a
symbolic &ldquo;branch name&rdquo; as its value. When we refer to &ldquo;a branch&rdquo;,
we mean all revisions with a common branch name in their <code>branch</code>
certs.

<p>For example, suppose you are working on a program called &ldquo;wobbler&rdquo;. 
You might develop many revisions of wobbler and then decide to split
your revisions into a &ldquo;stable branch&rdquo; and an &ldquo;unstable branch&rdquo;, to
help organize your work. In this case, you might call the new branches
&ldquo;wobbler-stable&rdquo; and &ldquo;wobbler-unstable&rdquo;. From then on, all
revisions in the stable branch would get a cert with name <code>branch</code>
and value <code>wobbler-stable</code>; all revisions in the unstable branch
would get a cert with name <code>branch</code> and value
<code>wobbler-unstable</code>. When a <code>wobbler-stable</code> revision forks,
the children of the fork will be merged. When a
<code>wobbler-unstable</code> revision forks, the children of the fork will
be merged. However, the <code>wobbler-stable</code> and
<code>wobbler-unstable</code> branches will not be merged together, despite
having a common ancestor.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/two-branches.png" alt="figures/two-branches.png"></div>

<p>For each branch, the set of revisions with <em>no children</em> is
called the <dfn>heads</dfn> of the branch. Monotone can automatically
locate, and attempt to merge, the heads of a branch. If it fails to
automatically merge the heads, it may ask you for assistance or else
fail cleanly, leaving the branch alone.

<p>For example, if a fork's left child has a child of its own (a &ldquo;left
grandchild&rdquo;), monotone will merge the fork's right child with the
left grandchild, since those revisions are the heads of the branch. It
will not merge the left child with the right child, because the left
child is not a member of the heads.

<div class="block-image"><img src="figures/branch-heads.png" alt="figures/branch-heads.png"></div>

<p>When there is only one revision in the heads of a branch, we say that
<i>the heads are merged</i>, or more generally that <i>the branch is
merged</i>, since the heads is the logical set of candidates for any
merging activity. If there are two or more revisions in the heads of a
branch, and you ask to merge the branch, monotone will merge them
two-at-a-time until there is only one.

<h4 class="subsection">1.7.1 Branch Names</h4>

<p>The branch names used in the above section are fine for an example, but
they would be bad to use in a real project.  The reason is, monotone
branch names must be <em>globally</em> unique, over all branches in the
world.  Otherwise, bad things can happen.  Fortunately, we have a handy
source of globally unique names &mdash; the DNS system.

<p>When naming a branch, always prepend the reversed, fully qualified, domain name of a host that
you control or are otherwise authorized to use.  For example, monotone
development happens on the branch <code>net.venge.monotone</code>, because
<code>venge.net</code> belongs to monotone's primary author.  The idea is that
this way, you can coordinate with other people using a host to make sure
there are no conflicts &mdash; in the example, monotone's primary author can
be certain that no-one else using <code>venge.net</code> will start up a
different program named <code>monotone</code>.  If you work for Yoyodyne,
Inc. (owners of yoyodyne.com), then all your branch names should look
like <code>com.yoyodyne.</code><em>something</em>.

<p>What the <em>something</em> part looks like is up to you, but
usually the first part is the project name (the <code>monotone</code> in
<code>net.venge.monotone</code>), and then possibly more stuff after that to
describe a particular branch.  For example, monotone's win32 support
was initially developed on the branch <code>net.venge.monotone.win32</code>.

<p>(For more information, see <a href="#Naming-Conventions">Naming Conventions</a>.)

<p><a name="Tutorial"></a>

<h2 class="chapter">2 Tutorial</h2>

<p>This chapter illustrates the basic uses of monotone by means of an
example, fictional software project.

<h3 class="section">2.1 Issues</h3>

<p>Before we walk through the tutorial, there are two minor issues to
address: standard options and revision selectors.

<h4 class="subsection">2.1.1 Standard Options</h4>

<p>Before operating monotone, two important command-line options should
be explained.

     <ul>
<li>Most commands operate on a <i>database</i>, which is selected with
the <samp><span class="option">--db</span></samp> option. 
<li>Many commands operate on a subset of the database, called a
<i>branch</i>, which is selected with the <samp><span class="option">--branch</span></samp> option. 
</ul>

<p>Monotone will cache the settings for these options in your workspace, so
ordinarily once you have checked out a project, you will not need to
specify them again.  We will therefore only mention these arguments in
the first example.

<h4 class="subsection">2.1.2 Revision Selectors</h4>

<p>Many commands require you to supply 40-character <span class="sc">sha1</span> values as
arguments, which identify revisions. These &ldquo;revision IDs&rdquo; are
tedious to type, so monotone permits you to supply &ldquo;revision
selectors&rdquo; rather than complete revision IDs. Selectors are a more
&ldquo;human friendly&rdquo; way of specifying revisions by combining certificate
values into unique identifiers. This &ldquo;selector&rdquo; mechanism can be
used anywhere a revision ID would normally be used. For details on
selector syntax, see <a href="#Selectors">Selectors</a>.

<p>We are now ready to explore our fictional project.

<h3 class="section">2.2 The Fictional Project</h3>

<p>Our fictional project involves 3 programmers cooperating to write
firmware for a robot, the JuiceBot 7, which dispenses fruit juice. The
programmers are named Jim, Abe and Beth.

     <ul>
<li>Jim lives in Japan, and owns JuiceBot Inc. You will know when we're talking
about Jim, because everything he does involves the letter &ldquo;j&rdquo;. 
<li>Abe lives in Australia and writes code related to apple juice. You will
know when we're talking about Abe, because everything he does involves
the letter &ldquo;a&rdquo;. 
<li>Beth lives in Brazil and writes code related to banana juice. You will
know when we're talking about Beth, because everything she does involves
the letter &ldquo;b&rdquo;. 
</ul>

<p>In our example the programmers work privately on laptops, and are
usually <em>disconnected</em> from the network. They share no storage
system. Thus when each programmer enters a command, it affects only
his or her own computer, unless otherwise stated.

<p>In the following, our fictional project team will work through several
version control tasks. Some tasks must be done by each member of our
example team; other tasks involve only one member.

<p><a name="Creating-a-Database"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.3 Creating a Database</h3>

<p>The first step Jim, Abe and Beth each need to perform is to create a
new database. This is done with the <samp><span class="command">mtn db init</span></samp> command,
providing a <samp><span class="option">--db</span></samp> option to specify the location of the new
database. Each programmer creates their own database, which will
reside in their home directory and store all the revisions, files and
manifests they work on.

<p>In real life, most people prefer to keep one database for each project
they work on.  If we followed that convention here in the tutorial,
though, then all the databases would be called <code>juicebot.mtn</code>, and
that would make things more confusing to read.  So instead, we'll have
them each name their database after themselves.

<p>Thus Jim issues the command:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn db init --db=~/jim.mtn
</pre>
<p>and Abe issues the command:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn db init --db=~/abe.mtn
</pre>
<p>Beth decides to use monotone's built-in database management functionality. 
monotone then expects to find managed database files in a couple of predefined
places (like f.e. <samp><span class="file">~/.monotone/databases</span></samp> on Unix and
<samp><span class="file">%APPDATA%\monotone\databases</span></samp> on Windows, this is customizable) and acts
upon those by knowing only their file or basename from anywhere.

<p>To create a new managed database, Beth issues the <samp><span class="command">mtn db init</span></samp> command
like this:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn db init --db=:beth
</pre>
<p>Beth can distinguish a managed database name from an unmanaged one by the
leading colon in its name.  This special alias can now be used interchangeably
in every monotone invocation. 
If Beth wants to see where monotone actually created the database and what
other databases monotone knows of, she uses the <samp><span class="command">mtn list databases</span></samp>
command (or <samp><span class="command">mtn ls dbs</span></samp>) for that.  We'll come back to this in a bit.

<p><a name="Generating-Keys"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.4 Generating Keys</h3>

<p>Now Jim, Abe and Beth must each generate an <span class="sc">rsa</span> key pair for
themselves. This step requires choosing a key identifier. Typical key
identifiers are similar to email addresses, possibly modified with
some prefix or suffix to distinguish multiple keys held by the same
owner. Our example programmers will use their email addresses at the
fictional &ldquo;juicebot.co.jp&rdquo; domain name. When we ask for a key to be
generated, monotone will ask us for a passphrase. This phrase is used
to encrypt the key when storing it on disk, as a security measure.

<p>Jim does the following:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn genkey jim@juicebot.co.jp
enter passphrase for key ID [jim@juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Jim enters his passphrase&gt;</i>
confirm passphrase for key ID [jim@juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Jim confirms his passphrase&gt;</i>
mtn: generating key-pair 'jim@juicebot.co.jp'
mtn: storing key-pair 'jim@juicebot.co.jp' in /home/jim/.monotone/keys
mtn: key 'jim@juicebot.co.jp' has hash '398cb10dcd4fadf4f7849a3734b626a83e0bb2ae'
</pre>
<p>Abe does something similar:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn genkey abe@juicebot.co.jp
enter passphrase for key ID [abe@juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Abe enters his passphrase&gt;</i>
confirm passphrase for key ID [abe@juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Abe confirms his passphrase&gt;</i>
mtn: generating key-pair 'abe@juicebot.co.jp'
mtn: storing key-pair 'abe@juicebot.co.jp' in /home/abe/.monotone/keys
mtn: key 'abe@juicebot.co.jp' has hash '62d8d1798e716868acde75c0fc4c84760003863d'
</pre>
<p>as does Beth:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn genkey beth@juicebot.co.jp
enter passphrase for key ID [beth@juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Beth enters her passphrase&gt;</i>
confirm passphrase for key ID [beth@juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Beth confirms her passphrase&gt;</i>
mtn: generating key-pair 'beth@juicebot.co.jp'
mtn: storing key-pair 'beth@juicebot.co.jp' in /home/beth/.monotone/keys
mtn: key 'beth@juicebot.co.jp' has hash 'c1d47c065a21f1e1c4fbdefaa2f37bd2c15ee4b1'
</pre>
<p>Each programmer has now generated a key pair and placed it in their
keystore. Each can list the keys in their keystore, to ensure
the correct key was generated. For example, Jim might see this:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn list keys

[public keys]
398cb10dcd4fadf4f7849a3734b626a83e0bb2ae jim@juicebot.co.jp   (*)
(*) - only in /home/jim/.monotone/keys/


[private keys]
398cb10dcd4fadf4f7849a3734b626a83e0bb2ae jim@juicebot.co.jp
</pre>
<p>The hexadecimal string printed out before each key name is a
<em>fingerprint</em> of the key, and can be used to verify that the key
you have stored under a given name is the one you intended to
store. Monotone will never permit one keystore to store two keys with
the same fingerprint, however distincts keys with equal names
are possible.

<p>This output shows one private and one public key stored under the name
<code>jim@juicebot.co.jp</code>, so it indicates that Jim's key-pair has been
successfully generated and stored. On subsequent commands, Jim will need
to re-enter his passphrase in order to perform security-sensitive
tasks.

<p>Pretty soon Jim gets annoyed when he has to enter his passphrase every
time he invokes <code>mtn</code> (and, more importantly, it simplifies the
tutorial text to skip the passphrase prompts) so he decides to use
<em>ssh-agent</em> to store his key. He does this by using the
<code>ssh_agent_export</code> command to export his key into a format that
ssh-agent can understand and adding it with <code>ssh-add</code>.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn ssh_agent_export ~/.ssh/id_monotone
enter passphrase for key ID [user@example.com] (1234abcd...):
enter new passphrase for key ID [user@example.com] (1234abcd...):
confirm passphrase for key ID [user@example.com] (1234abcd...):
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_monotone
</pre>
<p>From now on, Jim just needs to add his key to ssh-agent when he logs in
and he will not need to enter his passphrase every time he uses monotone.

<pre class="smallexample">$ ssh-agent /bin/bash
$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_monotone
Enter passphrase for /home/user/.ssh/id_monotone:
Identity added: /home/user/.ssh/id_monotone (/home/user/.ssh/id_monotone)
$ mtn ci -m"Changed foo to bar"
$ mtn push
</pre>
<p>The following procedure is deprecated and not suggested for general use
as it is very insecure.

<p>Jim isn't very worried about security so he
decides to store his passphrase in his <samp><span class="file">monotonerc</span></samp> file.  He does
this by writing a <em>hook function</em> which returns the passphrase:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mkdir ~/.monotone
$ cat &gt;&gt;~/.monotone/monotonerc
function get_passphrase(key_identity)
  return "jimsekret"
end
^D
</pre>
<p>Now whenever monotone needs his passphrase, it will call this function
instead of prompting him to type it.  Note that we are appending the new
hook to the (possibly existing) file.  We do this to avoid losing other
changes by mistake; therefore, be sure to check that no other
<code>get_passphrase</code> function appears in the configuration file.

<p>Abe and Beth do the same, with their secret passphrases.

<p><a name="Starting-a-New-Project"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.5 Starting a New Project</h3>

<p>Before he can begin work on the project, Jim needs to create a
<i>workspace</i> &mdash; a directory whose contents monotone will keep track
of.  Often, one works on projects that someone else has started, and
creates workspaces with the <samp><span class="command">checkout</span></samp> command, which you'll
learn about later.  Jim is starting a new project, though, so he does
something a little bit different.  He uses the <samp><span class="command">mtn setup</span></samp>
command to create a new workspace.

<p>This command creates the named directory (if it doesn't already exist),
and creates the <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory within it.  The <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory
is how monotone recognizes that a directory is a workspace, and
monotone stores some bookkeeping files within it.  For instance, command
line values for the <samp><span class="option">--db</span></samp>, <samp><span class="option">--branch</span></samp> or <samp><span class="option">--key</span></samp>
options to the <samp><span class="command">setup</span></samp> command will be cached in a file called
<samp><span class="file">_MTN/options</span></samp>, so you don't have to keep passing them to monotone
all the time.

<p>He chooses <code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7</code> as a branch name. (See
<a href="#Naming-Conventions">Naming Conventions</a> for more information about appropriate branch
names.)  Jim then creates his workspace:

<pre class="smallexample">/home/jim$ mtn --db=jim.mtn --branch=jp.co.juicebot.jb7 setup juice
/home/jim$ cd juice
/home/jim/juice$
</pre>
<p>Notice that Jim has changed his current directory to his newly created
workspace. For the rest of this example we will assume that everyone
issues all further monotone commands from their workspace
directories.

<p><a name="Adding-Files"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.6 Adding Files</h3>

<p>Next Jim decides to add some files to the project. He writes up
a file containing the prototypes for the JuiceBot 7:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mkdir include
$ cat &gt;include/jb.h
/* Standard JuiceBot hw interface */

#define FLOW_JUICE 0x1
#define POLL_JUICE 0x2
int spoutctl(int port, int cmd, void *x);

/* JuiceBot 7 API */

#define APPLE_SPOUT 0x7e
#define BANANA_SPOUT 0x7f
void dispense_apple_juice ();
void dispense_banana_juice ();
^D
</pre>
<p>Then adds a couple skeleton source files which he wants Abe and Beth
to fill in:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mkdir src
$ cat &gt;src/apple.c
#include "jb.h"

void
dispense_apple_juice()
{
  /* Fill this in please, Abe. */
}
^D
$ cat &gt;src/banana.c
#include "jb.h"

void
dispense_banana_juice()
{
  /* Fill this in please, Beth. */
}
^D
</pre>
<p>Now Jim tells monotone to add these files to its record of his
workspace.  He specifies one filename and one directory; monotone
recursively scans the directory and adds all its files.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn add -R include/jb.h src
mtn: adding include/jb.h to workspace manifest
mtn: adding src/apple.c to workspace manifest
mtn: adding src/banana.c to workspace manifest
</pre>
<p>This command produces a record of Jim's intentions in a special file
called <samp><span class="file">_MTN/revision</span></samp>, stored in the workspace. The file is plain
text:

<pre class="smallexample">$ cat _MTN/revision
format_version "1"

new_manifest [0000000000000000000000000000000000000002]

old_revision []

add_dir ""

add_dir "include"

add_dir "src"

add_file "include/jb.h"
 content [f6996ce2dfc5d32bda8b574c3e9ce75db8d55492]

add_file "src/apple.c"
 content [1ce885d2cc59842ff16785834391e864068fbc3c]

add_file "src/banana.c"
 content [ad88bbbb1b7507ddff26be67efd91d95e069afb6]
</pre>
<p>You will never have to look at this file, but it is nice to know that
it is there.

<p>Jim then gets up from his machine to get a coffee. When he returns
he has forgotten what he was doing. He asks monotone:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn status
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Revision: 493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f
Author:   jim@juicebot.co.jp
Date:     2004-10-26T02:53:08
Branch:   jp.co.juicebot.jb7

Changes

  added
  added    include
  added    src
  added    include/jb.h
  added    src/apple.c
  added    src/banana.c
</pre>
<p>The output of this command tells Jim that his edits, so far,
constitute only the addition of some files and directories.

<p>Jim wants to see the actual details of the files he added, however, so
he runs a command which prints out the revision <em>and</em> a GNU
&ldquo;unified diff&rdquo; of the patches involved in the changeset:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn diff
#
# old_revision []
#
# add_dir ""
#
# add_dir "include"
#
# add_dir "src"
#
# add_file "include/jb.h"
#  content [f6996ce2dfc5d32bda8b574c3e9ce75db8d55492]
#
# add_file "src/apple.c"
#  content [1ce885d2cc59842ff16785834391e864068fbc3c]
#
# add_file "src/banana.c"
#  content [ad88bbbb1b7507ddff26be67efd91d95e069afb6]
#
============================================================
--- include/jb.h	f6996ce2dfc5d32bda8b574c3e9ce75db8d55492
+++ include/jb.h	f6996ce2dfc5d32bda8b574c3e9ce75db8d55492
@ -0,0 +1,13 @
+/* Standard JuiceBot hw interface */
+
+#define FLOW_JUICE 0x1
+#define POLL_JUICE 0x2
+#define SET_INTR 0x3
+int spoutctl(int port, int cmd, void *x);
+
+/* JuiceBot 7 API */
+
+#define APPLE_SPOUT 0x7e
+#define BANANA_SPOUT 0x7f
+void dispense_apple_juice ();
+void dispense_banana_juice ();
============================================================
--- src/apple.c	1ce885d2cc59842ff16785834391e864068fbc3c
+++ src/apple.c	1ce885d2cc59842ff16785834391e864068fbc3c
@ -0,0 +1,7 @
+#include "jb.h"
+
+void
+dispense_apple_juice()
+{
+  /* Fill this in please, Abe. */
+}
============================================================
--- src/banana.c	ad88bbbb1b7507ddff26be67efd91d95e069afb6
+++ src/banana.c	ad88bbbb1b7507ddff26be67efd91d95e069afb6
@ -0,0 +1,7 @
+#include "jb.h"
+
+void
+dispense_banana_juice()
+{
+  /* Fill this in please, Beth. */
+}
</pre>
<p><a name="Committing-Work"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.7 Committing Work</h3>

<p>Satisfied with the work he's done, Jim wants to save his changes.  He
then commits his workspace, which causes monotone to process the
<samp><span class="file">_MTN/revision</span></samp> file and record the file contents, manifest, and
revision into the database. Since he provided a branch name when he
ran <samp><span class="command">setup</span></samp>, monotone will use this as the default branch name
when he commits.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit --message="initial checkin of project"
mtn: beginning commit on branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7'
mtn: committed revision 493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f
</pre>
<p>When monotone committed Jim's revision, it updated <samp><span class="file">_MTN/revision</span></samp>
to record the workspace's new base revision ID. Jim can use this
revision ID in the future, as an argument to the <samp><span class="command">checkout</span></samp>
command, if he wishes to return to this revision:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn automate get_base_revision_id
493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f
</pre>
<p>Monotone also generated a number of certificates attached to
the new revision, and made sure that the database contained a copy of Jim's
public key. These certs store metadata about the commit. Jim can
ask monotone for a list of certs on this revision.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn ls certs 493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Key   : jim@juicebot.co.jp (398cb10d...)
Sig   : ok
Name  : branch
Value : jp.co.juicebot.jb7
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Key   : jim@juicebot.co.jp (398cb10d...)
Sig   : ok
Name  : date
Value : 2004-10-26T02:53:08
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Key   : jim@juicebot.co.jp (398cb10d...)
Sig   : ok
Name  : author
Value : jim@juicebot.co.jp
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Key   : jim@juicebot.co.jp (398cb10d...)
Sig   : ok
Name  : changelog
Value : initial checkin of project
</pre>
<p>The output of this command has a block for each cert found. Each block
has 4 significant pieces of information. The first indicates the
signer of the cert, in this case <code>jim@juicebot.co.jp</code>. The
second indicates whether this cert is &ldquo;ok&rdquo;, meaning whether the
<span class="sc">rsa</span> signature provided is correct for the cert data. The third is
the cert name, and the fourth is the cert value. This list shows us
that monotone has confirmed that, according to
<code>jim@juicebot.co.jp</code>, the revision
<code>493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f</code> is a member of the
branch <code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7</code>, written by
<code>jim@juicebot.co.jp</code>, with the given date and changelog.

<p>It is important to keep in mind that revisions are not &ldquo;in&rdquo; or
&ldquo;out&rdquo; of a branch in any global sense, nor are any of these cert
values <i>true</i> or <i>false</i> in any global sense. Each cert indicates
that <i>some person</i> &ndash; in this case Jim &ndash; would like to associate a
revision with some value; it is up to you to decide if you want to
accept that association.

<p>Jim can now check the status of his branch using the &ldquo;heads&rdquo;
command, which lists all the head revisions in the branch:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn heads
branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7' is currently merged:
493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f jim@juicebot.co.jp 2004-10-26T02:53:08
</pre>
<p>The output of this command tells us that there is only one current
&ldquo;head&rdquo; revision in the branch <code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7</code>, and it is
the revision Jim just committed. A head revision is one without any
descendants. Since Jim has not committed any changes to this revision
yet, it has no descendants.

<p><a name="Basic-Network-Service"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.8 Basic Network Service</h3>

<p>Jim now decides he will make his base revision available to his
employees.  To do this, he arranges for Abe and Beth to synchronise
their databases with his, over the network.  There are two
pre-requisites for this: first, he has to get a copy of each of their
public keys; then, he has to tell monotone that the holders of those
keys are permitted to access his database. Finally, with these
pre-requisites in place, he needs to tell monotone to provide network
access to his database.

<p>First, Abe exports his public key:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=~/abe.mtn pubkey abe@juicebot.co.jp &gt;~/abe.pubkey
</pre>
<p>His public key is just a plain block of ASCII text:

<pre class="smallexample">$ cat ~/abe.pubkey
[pubkey abe@juicebot.co.jp]
MIGdMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GLADCBhwKBgQCbaVff9SF78FiB/1nUdmjbU/TtPyQqe/fW
CDg7hSg1yY/hWgClXE9FI0bHtjPMIx1kBOig09AkCT7tBXM9z6iGWxTBhSR7D/qsJQGPorOD
DO7xovIHthMbZZ9FnvyB/BCyiibdWgGT0Gtq94OKdvCRNuT59e5v9L4pBkvajb+IzQIBEQ==
[end]
</pre>
<p>Beth also exports her public key:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=:beth pubkey beth@juicebot.co.jp &gt;~/beth.pubkey
</pre>
<p>Then Abe and Beth both send their keys to Jim.  The keys are not secret,
but the team members must be relatively certain that they are exchanging
keys with the person they intend to trust, and not some malicious person
pretending to be a team member. Key exchange may involve sending keys
over an encrypted medium, or meeting in person to exchange physical
copies, or any number of techniques. All that matters, ultimately, is
that Jim receives both Abe's and Beth's key in a way that he can be sure
of.

<p>So eventually, after key exchange, Jim has the public key files in his
home directory. He tells monotone to read the associated key packets
into his database:

<pre class="smallexample">$ cat ~/abe.pubkey ~/beth.pubkey | mtn --db=~/jim.mtn read
mtn: read 2 packets
</pre>
<p>Now Jim's monotone is able to identify Beth and Abe, and he is ready to
give them permission to access his database.  He does this by editing a
pair of small files in his <samp><span class="file">~/.monotone</span></samp> directory:

<pre class="smallexample">$ cat &gt;&gt;~/.monotone/read-permissions
pattern "*"
allow "abe@juicebot.co.jp"
allow "beth@juicebot.co.jp"
^D

$ cat &gt;&gt;~/.monotone/write-permissions
abe@juicebot.co.jp
beth@juicebot.co.jp
^D
</pre>
<p>These files are read by the default monotone hooks that will decide
whether remote monotone users will be allowed access to Jim's database,
identified by the named keys.

<p>Jim then makes sure that his TCP port 4691 is open to incoming
connections, adjusting his firewall settings as necessary, and runs
the monotone <samp><span class="command">serve</span></samp> command:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=jim.mtn serve
</pre>
<p>This command starts monotone listening on all network interfaces of
his laptop on the default port 4691, serving everything in his database.

<p><a name="Synchronising-Databases"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.9 Synchronising Databases</h3>

<p>With Jim's server preparations done, now Abe is ready to fetch Jim's
code. To do this he issues the monotone <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> command:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=abe.mtn sync jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp "jp.co.juicebot.jb7*"
mtn: setting default server to jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
mtn: setting default branch include pattern to 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7*'
mtn: setting default branch exclude pattern to ''
mtn: connecting to jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
mtn: first time connecting to server jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp:4691
mtn: I'll assume it's really them, but you might want to double-check
mtn: their key's fingerprint: 9e9e9ef1d515ad58bfaa5cf282b4a872d8fda00c
mtn: warning: saving public key for jim@juicebot.co.jp to database
mtn: finding items to synchronize:
mtn: bytes in | bytes out | revs in | revs out | revs written
mtn:     2587 |      1025 |       1 |        0 |            1
mtn: successful exchange with jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
</pre>
<p>Abe now has, in his database, a copy of everything Jim put in the
branch. Therefore Abe can disconnect from the expensive network
connection he's on and work locally for a while. Remember that, in
monotone, work is done between workspaces in the filesystem and
the local database; network connectivity is necessary only when that
work is to be shared with others.

<p>As we follow the juicebot team through the next several steps, we'll see
them run the <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> command again with Jim, and work will flow
both ways. The first time you <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> a new database, monotone
remembers the server and branch patterns you use, and makes them the
default for future operations.

<p>At the end of each exchange, information about all changes in the branch
known to each database have been sent to the other party - including the
work of the third team member that had previously been exchanged. As
well as allowing each team member to learn about the others' work, this
also means that each party's laptop contains a <em>backup</em> of the
others' work too.

<p>Jim, Abe and Beth will continue working like this while they're getting
started, and we'll revisit the issue of network service with them a
little later as the project grows.

<p><a name="Making-Changes"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.10 Making Changes</h3>

<p>Abe decides to do some work on his part of the code. He has a copy of
Jim's database contents, but cannot edit any of that data yet.  He
begins his editing by checking out the head of the
<code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7</code> branch into a workspace, so he can edit
it:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=abe.mtn --branch=jp.co.juicebot.jb7 checkout .
</pre>
<p>Monotone unpacks the set of files in the head revision's manifest
directly into Abe's current directory.  (If he had specified something
other than <samp><span class="file">.</span></samp> at the end, monotone would have created that
directory and unpacked the files into it.)  Abe then opens up one of the
files, <samp><span class="file">src/apple.c</span></samp>, and edits it:

<pre class="smallexample">$ vi src/apple.c
<i>&lt;Abe writes some apple-juice dispensing code&gt;</i>
</pre>
<p>The file <samp><span class="file">src/apple.c</span></samp> has now been <em>changed</em>. Abe gets
up to answer a phone call, and when he returns to his work he has
forgotten what he changed. He can ask monotone for details:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn diff
#
# old_revision [493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f]
#
# patch "src/apple.c"
#  from [1ce885d2cc59842ff16785834391e864068fbc3c]
#    to [e2c64f6bde75a192d48d2256385df3dd7a963349]
#
============================================================
--- src/apple.c	1ce885d2cc59842ff16785834391e864068fbc3c
+++ src/apple.c	e2c64f6bde75a192d48d2256385df3dd7a963349
@ -3,5 +3,8 @ dispense_apple_juice()
 void
 dispense_apple_juice()
 {
-  /* Fill this in please, Abe. */
+  spoutctl(APPLE_SPOUT, FLOW_JUICE, 1);
+  while (spoutctl(APPLE_SPOUT, POLL_JUICE, 1) == 0)
+    usleep (1000);
+  spoutctl(APPLE_SPOUT, FLOW_JUICE, 0);
 }
</pre>
<p>Satisfied with his day's work, Abe decides to commit.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit
</pre>
<p>Abe neglected to provide a <samp><span class="option">--message</span></samp> option specifying the
change log on the command line and the file <samp><span class="file">_MTN/log</span></samp> is empty
because he did not document his changes there.  Monotone therefore
invokes an external &ldquo;log message editor&rdquo; &mdash; typically an editor
like <samp><span class="command">vi</span></samp> &mdash; with an explanation of the changes being
committed and the opportunity to enter a log message.

<pre class="smallexample">Enter a description of this change following the Changelog line below.
The values of Author, Date and Branch may be modified as required.

*** REMOVE THIS LINE TO CANCEL THE COMMIT ***
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Revision: 42eae36587508faa664b111cefc291f0b85ef83a
Parent:   493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f
Author:   abe@juicebot.co.jp
Date:     2004-10-26T02:53:08
Branch:   jp.co.juicebot.jb7

Changelog:

polling implementation of src/apple.c

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Changes against parent 493bda86628fd72c992eb56f73899db9ead3cf6f

  patched  src/apple.c
</pre>
<p>Abe enters a single line below the Changelog: header, saying &ldquo;polling
implementation of src/apple.c&rdquo;. He then saves the file and quits the
editor. Monotone confirms that no other lines have been changed and
extracts the message to be stored in the associated &ldquo;changelog&rdquo;
cert, leaving only Abe's short message. Returning to the shell, Abe's
commit completes:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn: beginning commit on branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7'
mtn: committed revision 42eae36587508faa664b111cefc291f0b85ef83a
</pre>
<p>Abe then sends his new revision back to Jim:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn sync
mtn: connecting to jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
mtn: finding items to synchronize:
mtn:   certs |    keys | revisions
mtn:       8 |       2 |         2
mtn: bytes in | bytes out | revs in | revs out | revs written
mtn:      615 |      2822 |       0 |        1 |            0
mtn: successful exchange with jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
</pre>
<p>Beth does a similar sequence. First she syncs her database with
Jim's:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=:beth sync jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp "jp.co.juicebot.jb7*"
mtn: setting default server to jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
mtn: setting default branch include pattern to 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7*'
mtn: setting default branch exclude pattern to ''
mtn: connecting to jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
mtn: first time connecting to server jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp:4691
mtn: I'll assume it's really them, but you might want to double-check
mtn: their key's fingerprint: 9e9e9ef1d515ad58bfaa5cf282b4a872d8fda00c
mtn: warning: saving public key for jim@juicebot.co.jp to database
mtn: finding items to synchronize:
mtn: bytes in | bytes out | revs in | revs out | revs written
mtn:     4601 |      1239 |       2 |        0 |            1
mtn: verifying new revisions (this may take a while)
mtn: bytes in | bytes out | revs in | revs out | revs written
mtn:     4601 |      1285 |       2 |        0 |            2
mtn: successful exchange with jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
</pre>
<p>She checks out a copy of the tree from her database:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=:beth --branch=jp.co.juicebot.jb7 checkout juicebot
</pre>
<p>and since she is using a managed database, monotone automatically remembers
the connection between the newly created workspace and the database.  She
now looks at the output of <samp><span class="command">mtn list databases</span></samp> and sees the
following:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn list databases
:beth.mtn (in /home/beth/.monotone/databases):
        jp.co.juicebot.jb7 (in /home/beth/juicebot)
</pre>
<p>Beth realizes that, whenever the database of the workspace changes, monotone
will adapt the known paths for the old and the new database for her.

<p>But let us get back to the work, Beth now start to edits the file
<samp><span class="file">src/banana.c</span></samp>:

<pre class="smallexample">$ vi src/banana.c
<i>&lt;Beth writes some banana-juice dispensing code&gt;</i>
</pre>
<p>and logs her changes in <samp><span class="file">_MTN/log</span></samp> right away so she does not
forget what she has done like Abe.

<pre class="smallexample">$ vi _MTN/log
* src/banana.c: Added polling implementation
</pre>
<p>Later, she commits her work.  Monotone again invokes an external editor
for her to edit her log message, but this time it fills in the messages
she's written so far, and she simply checks them over one last time
before finishing her commit:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit
mtn: beginning commit on branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7'
mtn: committed revision 85573a54105cd3220db10aa6a0713643cdf5ce6f
</pre>
<p>And she syncs with Jim again:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn sync
mtn: connecting to jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
mtn: finding items to synchronize:
mtn:   certs |    keys | revisions
mtn:      12 |       3 |         3
mtn: bytes in | bytes out | revs in | revs out | revs written
mtn:      709 |      2879 |       0 |        1 |            0
mtn: successful exchange with jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
</pre>
<p><a name="Dealing-with-a-Fork"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.11 Dealing with a Fork</h3>

<p>Careful readers will note that, in the previous section, the JuiceBot
company's work was perfectly serialized:

     <ol type=1 start=1>
<li>Jim did some work
<li>Abe synced with Jim
<li>Abe did some work
<li>Abe synced with Jim
<li>Beth synced with Jim
<li>Beth did some work
<li>Beth synced with Jim
     </ol>

<p>The result of this ordering is that Jim's work entirely preceded
Abe's work, which entirely preceded Beth's work. Moreover, each
worker was fully informed of the &ldquo;up-stream&rdquo; worker's actions, and
produced purely derivative, &ldquo;down-stream&rdquo; work:

     <ol type=1 start=1>
<li>Jim made revision 493bd... 
<li>Abe changed revision 493bd... into revision 42eae... 
<li>Beth derived revision 42eae... into revision 85573...
     </ol>

<p>This is a simple, but sadly unrealistic, ordering of events. In real
companies or work groups, people often work in parallel,
<em>diverging</em> from commonly known revisions and <em>merging</em>
their work together, sometime after each unit of work is complete.

<p>Monotone supports this diverge/merge style of operation naturally; any
time two revisions diverge from a common parent revision, we say that
the revision graph has a <dfn>fork</dfn> in it. Forks can happen at any
time, and require no coordination between workers. In fact any
interleaving of the previous events would work equally well; with one
exception: if forks were produced, someone would eventually have to
run the <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> command, and possibly resolve any conflicts
in the fork.

<p>To illustrate this, we return to our workers Beth and Abe. Suppose Jim
sends out an email saying that the current polling juice dispensers
use too much CPU time, and must be rewritten to use the JuiceBot's
interrupt system. Beth wakes up first and begins working immediately,
basing her work off the revision 85573... which is currently in her
workspace:

<pre class="smallexample">$ vi src/banana.c
<i>&lt;Beth changes her banana-juice dispenser to use interrupts&gt;</i>
</pre>
<p>Beth finishes and examines her changes:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn diff
#
# old_revision [85573a54105cd3220db10aa6a0713643cdf5ce6f]
#
# patch "src/banana.c"
#  from [d7e28a01cf6fc0f9ac04c6901dcafd77c2d32fb8]
#    to [dd979c3c880e6a7221fcecd7148bd4afcfb3e964]
#
============================================================
--- src/banana.c	d7e28a01cf6fc0f9ac04c6901dcafd77c2d32fb8
+++ src/banana.c	dd979c3c880e6a7221fcecd7148bd4afcfb3e964
@ -1,10 +1,15 @
 #include "jb.h"

+static void
+shut_off_banana()
+{
+  spoutctl(BANANA_SPOUT, SET_INTR, 0);
+  spoutctl(BANANA_SPOUT, FLOW_JUICE, 0);
+}
+
 void
 dispense_banana_juice()
 {
+  spoutctl(BANANA_SPOUT, SET_INTR, &amp;shut_off_banana);
   spoutctl(BANANA_SPOUT, FLOW_JUICE, 1);
-  while (spoutctl(BANANA_SPOUT, POLL_JUICE, 1) == 0)
-    usleep (1000);
-  spoutctl(BANANA_SPOUT, FLOW_JUICE, 0);
 }
</pre>
<p>She commits her work:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit --message="interrupt implementation of src/banana.c"
mtn: beginning commit on branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7'
mtn: committed revision 90abe0f1bc354a73d42d3bff1b02946559682bd9
</pre>
<p>And she syncs with Jim:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn sync
</pre>
<p>Unfortunately, before Beth managed to sync with Jim, Abe had woken up
and implemented a similar interrupt-based apple juice dispenser, but
his workspace is 42eae..., which is still &ldquo;upstream&rdquo; of Beth's.

<pre class="smallexample">$ vi apple.c
<i>&lt;Abe changes his apple-juice dispenser to use interrupts&gt;</i>
</pre>
<p>Thus when Abe commits, he unknowingly creates a fork:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit --message="interrupt implementation of src/apple.c"
</pre>
<p>Abe does not see the fork yet; Abe has not actually seen <em>any</em> of
Beth's work yet, because he has not synchronized with Jim. Since
he has new work to contribute, however, he now syncs:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn sync
</pre>
<p>Now Jim and Abe will be aware of the fork. Jim sees it when he sits
down at his desk and asks monotone for the current set of heads of
the branch:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn heads
mtn: branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7' is currently unmerged:
90abe0f1bc354a73d42d3bff1b02946559682bd9 abe@juicebot.co.jp 2004-10-26T02:53:16
951da88860a4cf7419d66ed9094d8bf24df5fb8b beth@juicebot.co.jp 2004-10-26T02:53:15
</pre>
<p>Clearly there are two heads to the branch: it contains an un-merged
fork. Beth will not yet know about the fork, but in this case it
doesn't matter: anyone can merge the fork, and since there are no
conflicts Jim does so himself:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn merge
mtn: 2 heads on branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7'
mtn: merge 1 / 1:
mtn: calculating best pair of heads to merge next
mtn: [left]  90abe0f1bc354a73d42d3bff1b02946559682bd9
mtn: [right] 951da88860a4cf7419d66ed9094d8bf24df5fb8b
mtn: [merged] 3aca69c7749bde9bd07fe4c92bb868bd69b2e421
mtn: note: your workspaces have not been updated
</pre>
<p>The output of this command shows Jim that two heads were found,
combined via a 3-way merge with their ancestor, and saved to a new
revision. This happened automatically, because the changes between the
common ancestor and heads did not conflict. If there had been a
conflict, monotone would have invoked an external merging tool to help
resolve it, or Jim could have used the <samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> set of
commands to resolve it (see <a href="#Conflicts">Conflicts</a>).

<p>After merging, the branch has a single head again, and Jim updates
his workspace.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn update
mtn: updating along branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7'
mtn: selected update target 3aca69c7749bde9bd07fe4c92bb868bd69b2e421
mtn: [left]  d60c18ec5e0cf1163b276f0bfdd908c1dfd53b4a
mtn: [right] 3aca69c7749bde9bd07fe4c92bb868bd69b2e421
mtn: updating src/apple.c
mtn: updating src/banana.c
mtn: updated to base revision 3aca69c7749bde9bd07fe4c92bb868bd69b2e421
</pre>
<p>The update command selected an update target &mdash; in this case the newly merged
head &mdash; and performed an in-memory merge between Jim's workspace
and the chosen target. The result was then written to Jim's workspace. If
Jim's workspace had any uncommitted changes in it, they would have been
merged with the update in exactly the same manner as the merge of multiple
committed heads.

<p>Monotone makes very little distinction between a &ldquo;pre-commit&rdquo; merge
(an update) and a &ldquo;post-commit&rdquo; merge. Both sorts of merge use the
exact same algorithm. The major difference concerns the recoverability
of the pre-merge state: if you commit your work first, and merge after
committing, then even if the merge somehow fails (due to difficulty in a
manual merge step, for instance), your committed state is still safe. 
If you update, on the other hand, you are requesting that monotone
directly modify your workspace, and while monotone will try hard not
to break anything, this process is inherently more open to error.  It is
therefore recommended that you commit your work <em>first</em>, before
merging.

<p>If you have previously used another version control system, this may at
first seem surprising; there are some systems where you are
<em>required</em> to update, and risk the above problems, before you can
commit.  Monotone, however, was designed with this problem in mind, and
thus <em>always</em> allows you to commit before merging.  A good rule of
thumb is to only use <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> in workspaces with no local
modifications, or when you actually want to work against a different
base revision (perhaps because finishing your change turns out to
require some fixes made in another revision, or because you discover
that you have accidentally started working against a revision that
contains unrelated bugs, and need to back out to a working revision for
testing).

<p><a name="Branching-and-Merging"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.12 Branching and Merging</h3>

<p>So by now you're familiar with making changes, sharing them with other
people, and integrating your changes with their changes.  Sometimes,
though, you may want to make some changes, and <em>not</em> integrate them
with other people's &mdash; or at least not right away.  One way to do this
would be to simply never run <samp><span class="command">mtn merge</span></samp>; but it would
quickly become confusing to try and keep track of which changes were in
which revisions.  This is where <em>branches</em> are useful.

<p>Continuing our example, suppose that Jim is so impressed by Beth's work
on banana juice support that he assigns her to work on the JuiceBot 7's
surprise new feature: muffins.  In the mean time, Abe will continue
working on the JuiceBot's basic juice-related functions.

<p>The changes required to support muffins are somewhat complicated, and
Beth is worried that her work might destabilize the program, and
interfere with Abe's work.  In fact, she isn't even sure her first
attempt will turn out to be the right approach; she might work on it for
a while and then decide it was a bad idea, and should be discarded.  For
all these reasons, she decides that she will work on a branch, and then
once she is satisfied with the new code, she will merge back onto the
mainline.

<p>She decides that since main development is in branch
<code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7</code>, she will use branch
<code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins</code>.  So, she makes the first few edits to
the new muffins code, and commits it on a new branch by simply passing
<samp><span class="option">--branch</span></samp> to commit:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit --branch=jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins --message='autobake framework'
mtn: beginning commit on branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins'
mtn: committed revision d33caefd61823ecbb605c39ffb84705dec449857
</pre>
<p>That's all there is to it &mdash; there is now a
<code>jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins</code> branch, with her initial checkin on
it.  She can make further checkins from the same workspace, and they
will automatically go to the muffins branch; if anyone else wants to
help her work on muffins, they can check out that branch as usual.

<p>Of course, while Beth is working on the new muffins code, Abe is still
making fixes to the main line.  Occasionally, Beth wants to integrate
his latest work into the muffins branch, so that her version doesn't
fall too far behind.  She does this by using the <samp><span class="command">propagate</span></samp>
command:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn propagate jp.co.juicebot.jb7 jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins
mtn: propagating jp.co.juicebot.jb7 -&gt; jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins
mtn: [source] da003f115752ac6e4750b89aaca9dbba178ac80c
mtn: [target] d0e5c93bb61e5fd25a0dadf41426f209b73f40af
mtn: common ancestor 853b8c7ac5689181d4b958504adfb5d07fd959ab jim@juicebot.co.jp 2004-10-26T:12:44:23 found
mtn: trying 3-way merge
mtn: [merged] 89585b3c5e51a5a75f5d1a05dda859c5b7dde52f
</pre>
<p>The <samp><span class="command">propagate</span></samp> merges all of the new changes on one branch onto
another.

<p>When the muffins code is eventually stable and ready to be integrated
into the main line of development, she simply propagates the other way:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn propagate jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins jp.co.juicebot.jb7
mtn: propagating jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins -&gt; jp.co.juicebot.jb7
mtn: [source] 4e48e2c9a3d2ca8a708cb0cc545700544efb5021
mtn: [target] bd29b2bfd07644ab370f50e0d68f26dcfd3bb4af
mtn: common ancestor 652b1035343281a0d2a5de79919f9a31a30c9028 jim@juicebot.co.jp 2004-10-26T:15:25:05 found
mtn: [merged] 03f7495b51cc70b76872ed019d19dee1b73e89b6
</pre>
<p>Monotone always records the full history of all merges, and is designed
to handle an arbitrarily complicated graph of changes.  You can make a
branch, then branch off from that branch, propagate changes between
arbitrary branches, and so on; monotone will track all of it, and do
something sensible for each merge.  Of course, it is still probably a
good idea to come up with some organization of branches and a plan for
which should be merged to which other ones.  Monotone may keep track of
graphs of arbitrary complexity &mdash; but you will have more trouble. 
Whatever arrangement of branches you come up with, though, monotone
should be able to handle it.

<p>If you are unsure of the name of a branch, you can list all branches using
the <samp><span class="command">ls branches</span></samp> command.  This is very useful, but if you create
a lot of branches then the list can become very long and unwieldy.  To help
this monotone has the <samp><span class="command">suspend</span></samp> command which partially hides
revisions/branches you are no longer using.  Further commits on hidden branches
will automatically unhide the branches.

<p>For example, if Beth is now finished with the muffins branch, she can stop
it from cluttering the list of branches by suspending the last revision in
that branch:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn ls branches
jp.co.juicebot.jb7
jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins
$ mtn heads
mtn: branch 'jp.co.juicebot.jb7.muffins' is currently merged:
4e48e2c9a3d2ca8a708cb0cc545700544efb5021 beth@juicebot.co.jp 2007-07-08T02:17:37
$ mtn suspend 4e48e2c9a3d2ca8a708cb0cc545700544efb5021
$ mtn ls branches
jp.co.juicebot.jb7
</pre>
<p><a name="Network-Service-Revisited"></a>

<h3 class="section">2.13 Network Service Revisited</h3>

<p>Up until now, Jim has been using his laptop and database as a sort of
&ldquo;central server&rdquo; for the company; Abe and Beth have been syncing with
Jim, and learning of each other's work via Jim's database.  This has
worked fine while the product has been in early development; Jim has
good network connectivity in Japan, and has been staying home
concentrating on programming.  He has been able to leave his laptop
connected and running all the time, while his employees in different
time-zones work and sync their databases.  This is now starting to
change, and two problems are starting to cause occasional difficulties.

     <ul>
<li>First, Jim is finding that he has to spend more of his time
travelling, demonstrating the new juicebot features to customers; thus
his laptop is spending more time disconnected from the network, or
connected at dynamic addresses where it's not convenient for Abe and
Beth to find him and sync.

     <p>This doesn't prevent them doing any work, but it does have some
uncomfortable consequences: they're more likely to have to manually
merge conflicting changes when they finally sync up and discover they've
both come up with slightly different fixes for the same bug in the
meantime, and they're more exposed to loss of work if one of them
suffers a disk failure before they've had a chance to sync that work
with another database.

     <li>Second, because Jim has been using the one database file both for his
own local work, and for serving to the others in the team, he
occasionally finds that the monotone serve process (busy syncing with
Abe or Beth) has a lock on the database, while he's trying to do local
work like updates or commits.

     <p>The level of project activity is picking up, and there are more and more
changes to be synced in the narrower window of time while Jim is
connected. He finds he sometimes needs to take down the server process
to do this local work, further exacerbating the first problem. 
</ul>

<p>The juicebot team are resourceful, and by now quite used to working
independently.  While Jim has been away travelling, Abe and Beth have
come up with their own solution to the first problem: they'll run
servers from their databases, setting them up just like Jim did
previously.  That way, if Jim's database is offline, either Beth or Abe
can run the <samp><span class="command">serve</span></samp> command and provide access for the other to
<samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> with.  Beth also has the idea to create a second database
for the <samp><span class="command">serve</span></samp> process, and to <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> her development
database with that server locally, avoiding locking contention between
multiple monotone processes on the one database file.

<p>When Jim reappears, the next person to <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> with him will
often pass him information about both employees' work that they've
sync'ed with each other in the meantime, just as he used to do. In fact,
Jim now finds it more convenient to initiate the sync with one of the
other servers when he has a spare moment and dynamic connectivity from a
hotel room or airport.  Changes will flow between servers automatically
as clients access them and trade with one another.

<p>This gets them by for a while, but there are still occasional
inconveniences.  Abe and Beth live in very different time-zones, and
don't always have reliable network connectivity, so sometimes Jim finds
that neither of them is online to sync with when he has the chance.  Jim
now also has several customers interested in beta-testing the new code,
and following changes as the bugs and issues they report are addressed.

<p>Jim decides it's time for a permanent server they can all sync with;
this way, everyone always knows where to go to get the latest changes,
and people can push their changes out without first calling their
friends and making sure that they have their servers running.

<p>Jim has rented some web server space on a service provider's shared
system for the JuiceBot Inc. public website, <code>www.juicebot.co.jp</code>;
he thinks this server will be a good place to host the central monotone
server too. He sets up a new monotone database on the server,
generates a new key specially for the server (so he doesn't have to
expose his own development private key on the shared system), and loads
in the team-members' keys:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=server.mtn db init
$ mtn genkey monotone-server@www.juicebot.co.jp
enter passphrase for key ID [monotone-server@www.juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Jim enters a new passphrase&gt;</i>
confirm passphrase for key ID [monotone-server@www.juicebot.co.jp] (...): <i>&lt;Jim confirms the passphrase&gt;</i>
mtn: generating key-pair 'monotone-server@www.juicebot.co.jp'
mtn: storing key-pair 'monotone-server@www.juicebot.co.jp' in /home/jim/.monotone/keys
mtn: key 'abe@juicebot.co.jp' has hash '78be08f7a2a316a9f7c6b0db544ed20673ea2190'
$ cat abe.pubkey beth.pubkey jim.pubkey | mtn --db=server.mtn read
mtn: read 3 packets
</pre>
<p>For the team members, he sets up the permissions files on the server
much like before &mdash; except that of course he needs to also grant his
<code>jim@juicebot.co.jp</code> key permission to access the new server.  For
the beta-testers, Jim wants to allow them read-only access just to the
main JuiceBot 7 development line, but not to any of the sub-branches
where other experimental development is going on. He adds some lines at
the top of the <samp><span class="file">~/.monotone/read-permissions</span></samp> on the server, above
the broader permissions given to team-members. See the <a href="#Lua-Reference">Lua Reference</a> for <code>get_netsync_read_permitted</code> for more details; the
resulting file looks like this:

<pre class="smallexample">comment "Provide beta-testers with specific read-only access"
pattern "jp.co.juicebot.jb7"
allow "beta1@juicebot.co.jp"
allow "beta2@juicebot.co.jp"
continue "true"

comment "Fall-through, and allow staff access to all branches"
pattern "*"
allow "abe@juicebot.co.jp"
allow "beth@juicebot.co.jp"
allow "jim@juicebot.co.jp"
</pre>
<p>Jim could log in and start the monotone process manually from his shell
account on the server, perhaps under a program like screen to let it
stay running while he's away. This would be one way of giving it the
server-key's passphrase each startup, but he wants to make sure that the
server is up all the time; if the host reboots while he's travelling and
the monotone server is down until he next logs in, things aren't much
better than before.  For the server to start automatically each time,
he'll need to use the <code>get_passphrase</code> hook in the server's
<samp><span class="file">monotonerc</span></samp> file again.

<p>Because he's running on a shared server, Jim needs to be a little more
restrictive about which interfaces and addresses his new server process
will listen on. He should only accept connections at the address used
for his website, because some of the provider's other customers might
also want to publish their own monotone projects on this host.  Jim uses
the <samp><span class="option">--bind=</span><var>address</var><span class="option">:</span><var>port</var></samp> argument like so:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=server.mtn --bind=www.juicebot.co.jp serve
</pre>
<p>This will start monotone listening on the default port (4691), but only
on the IP address associated with <code>www.juicebot.co.jp</code>.  Jim can do
this because his hosting provider has given him a dedicated IP address
for his website.  If the hosting provider offered only a single shared
IP address belonging to the server, each customer could bind a different
port number on that address.

<p>While he's first testing the setup, Jim uses
<samp><span class="option">--bind=localhost:1234</span></samp>. This causes the monotone process to listen
only to port 1234 on the loopback interface 127.0.0.1, which is not
accessible from the network, so Jim doesn't expose an open port to the
rest of the world until he's satisfied with the permissions
configuration.  You can cause monotone to listen on all interfaces on
port 1234 by leaving out the address part like <samp><span class="option">--bind=:1234</span></samp>.

<p>When he's satisfied the server is set up correctly, Jim does an initial
<samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> with the new database, filling it with all the revision
history currently on his laptop. While Jim has been busy setting up the
server, Abe and Beth have kept working; the server will catch up with
their latest changes when they next sync, too.

<p>All of the team members now want to sync with the new monotone server by
default.  Previously, they had been syncing with Jim's laptop by
default, even if they occasionally specified another team-member's
server on the command line when Jim was away, because monotone had
remembered the first server and branch patterns used in database
<a href="#Vars">Vars</a>.  These vars can be seen as follows:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn list vars
database: default-exclude-pattern
database: default-include-pattern jp.co.juicebot.jb7*
database: default-server jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp
known-servers: jim-laptop.juicebot.co.jp 9e9e9ef1d515ad58bfaa5cf282b4a872d8fda00c
known-servers: abe-laptop.juicebot.co.jp a2bb16a183247af4133621f7f5aefb21a9d13855
known-servers: www.juicebot.co.jp 120a99ch93b4f174432c13d3e3e9f2234aa92612
</pre>
<p>The team members can reset their local database vars accordingly:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn set database default-server www.juicebot.co.jp
</pre>
<p>With their new server, the juicebot team have gained the convenience of
a readily available common point of reference for syncs.  However, they
also know that this is there only as a convenience, and doesn't prevent
them working as they did before:
     <ul>
<li>The team members can still sync with each other if needed.

     <p>Hopefully, their new server won't ever be down, but sometimes they might
be working together while away from ready network access &mdash; fixing up
the last few issues and finalising presentation materials while
travelling to a sales conference, for example.  The server will learn of
these changes on the next sync. 
<li>The team members continue to discover multiple heads and changes that
need merging, as before. Each team member can merge the heads, and will
produce the same revision id if they merge to the same result.

     <p>They now develop a new habit out of courtesy, though &mdash; they try not to
leave multiple heads and unmerged changes on the server, at least not
for long. This saves them from repeating work, and also helps prevent
confusion for the beta-testers.  When each team member is ready to
<samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp>, they develop the habit of doing a <samp><span class="command">pull</span></samp> from
the server first.  If new revisions were received from the server, they
first <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> their new revisions with the head(s) from the
server, and finally <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> to publish their merged changes as
one.  If the last <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> happens to pull in new revisions again
from the server, it means someone else has deposited new work at the
same time, and another <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> and <samp><span class="command">sync</span></samp> would probably
be polite. 
<li>Jim knows he doesn't have to keep a special backup of the new server's
contents; if the server should fail, all the contents of its database
can be found amongst the other team members (especially because no
commits are done on the server itself).

     <p>He does, however, take a copy of the server's private key, so he can
restore that if necessary. 
<li>In fact, Jim realises that he can now commit a copy of the web site's
current contents into monotone on a new branch,
<code>jp.co.juicebot.www</code>, and keep a backup of that content too.

     <p>Now he can use monotone to work on the website offline, and let other
team members add and edit the content; he can also preview changes
locally before updating the production content.  He keeps a workspace
checkout of this content in the webroot on the server, and runs a
monotone <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> in there when he wants to bring the public web
site up to date. Later, he'll think about using monotone's <a href="#Quality-Assurance">Quality Assurance</a> mechanisms and Event Notification <a href="#Hooks">Hooks</a>, so that the
web server can update itself automatically when appropriate new
revisions are received. 
<li>Jim also knows that even if someone should break into the shared hosting
server and tamper with the database, they won't be able to inject
malicious code into the project, because all revisions are signed by the
team members, and he has set his <a href="#Trust-Evaluation-Hooks">Trust Evaluation Hooks</a> so he
doesn't trust the server key for signing revisions.

     <p>In monotone, the important trust consideration is on the <em>signed
content</em>, rather than on the <em>replication path</em> by which that
content arrived in your database. 
</ul>

<p><a name="Advanced-Uses"></a>

<h2 class="chapter">3 Advanced Uses</h2>

<p>This chapter covers slightly less common aspects of using
monotone. Some users of monotone will find these helpful, though
possibly not all. We assume that you have read through the taxonomy
and tutorial, and possibly spent some time playing with the program to
familiarize yourself with its operation.

<p><a name="Other-Transports"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.1 Other Transports</h3>

<p>Monotone's database synchronization system is based on a protocol
called netsync. By default, monotone transports this protocol over a
plain TCP connection, but this is not the only transport monotone can
use. It can also transport netsync through SSH, or any program which
can provide a full-duplex connection over <code>stdio</code>.

<p>When a monotone client initiates a push, pull, or sync operation, it
parses the first command-line argument as a URI and calls a Lua hook
to convert that URI into a <dfn>connection command</dfn>. If the Lua hook
returns a connection command, monotone spawns the command locally and
speaks netsync over a pipe connected to the command's standard I/O
handles.

<p>If the Lua hook does not return a connection command, monotone
attempts to parse the command-line argument as a TCP address &ndash; a
hostname with an optional port number &ndash; connects a TCP socket the
host and port, and speaks netsync over the socket.

<p>By default, monotone understands two URI schemes:

     <ol type=1 start=1>
<li>SSH URIs, of the form
  <code>ssh://[</code><var>user</var><code>@]</code><var>hostname</var><code>[:</code><var>port</var><code>]/</code><var>path/to/db.mtn</var>,
  to synchronize between private databases on hosts accessible only
  through SSH.  (These paths are absolute; to refer to a path relative
  to a home directory, use
  <code>ssh://</code><var>host-part</var><code>/~/</code><var>relative/path.mtn</var> or
  <code>ssh://</code><var>host-part</var><code>/~</code><var>user</var><code>/</code><var>relative/path.mtn</var>.) 
<li>File URIs, of the form
  <code>file:</code><var>/path/to/db.mtn</var>, to synchronize between local databases.
     </ol>

<p><code>ssh:</code> and <code>file:</code> are currently not supported on the native
Win32 platform; they are supported on Cygwin and all other platforms.

<p>In the case of SSH URIs, the <samp><span class="command">ssh</span></samp> program must be in your
command execution path, either <var>$PATH</var> on Unix-like systems or
<var>%PATH%</var> on Windows systems. Monotone will execute <samp><span class="command">ssh</span></samp>
as a subprocess, running <samp><span class="command">mtn serve</span></samp> on the other end of the
SSH connection. You will need <samp><span class="command">mtn</span></samp> to be in the command
execution path of the remote shell environment.

<p>In the case of File URIs, <samp><span class="command">mtn</span></samp> is run locally, so must be
in your command execution path.

<p>In both cases, the database specified in the URI needs to exist already,
and will be locked for the duration of the synchronization
operation. Therefore, it must also be writable, even when monotone isn't
going to modify it, as it is the case for <samp><span class="command">pull</span></samp>.  Also note
that monotone's default transport authentication is <em>disabled</em> over
these transports, to reduce the complexity of configuration and
eliminate redundant protocol cost.

<p>Additional URI schemes can be supported by customization of the Lua
hooks <code>get_netsync_connect_command</code> and
<code>use_transport_auth</code>. For details on these hooks, see
<a href="#Netsync-Transport-Hooks">Netsync Transport Hooks</a>.

<p><a name="Selectors"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.2 Selectors</h3>

<p>Revisions can be specified on the monotone command line, precisely, by
entering the entire 40-character hexadecimal <span class="sc">sha1</span> code. This can
be cumbersome, so monotone also allows a more general syntax called
&ldquo;selectors&rdquo; which is less precise but more &ldquo;human friendly&rdquo;. Any
command which expects a precise revision ID can also accept a selector
in its place; in fact a revision ID is just a special type of selector
which is very precise.

<h3 class="heading">Simple examples</h3>

<p>Some selector examples are helpful in clarifying the idea:

     <dl>
<dt><code>a432</code><dd>Revision IDs beginning with the string <code>a432</code>
<br><dt><code>graydon@pobox.com/2004-04</code><dd>Revisions written by <code>graydon@pobox.com</code> in April 2004. 
<br><dt><code>"jrh@example.org/2 weeks ago"</code><dd>Revisions written by <code>jrh@example.org</code> 2 weeks ago. 
<br><dt><code>graydon/net.venge.monotone.win32/yesterday</code><dd>Revisions in the <code>net.venge.monotone.win32</code> branch, written by
<code>graydon</code>, yesterday. 
</dl>

<p>A moment's examination reveals that these specifications are &ldquo;fuzzy&rdquo;
and indeed may return multiple values, or may be ambiguous. When
ambiguity arises, monotone will inform you that more detail is
required, and list various possibilities. The precise specification
of selectors follows.

<h3 class="heading">Selectors in detail</h3>

<p>A selector is a combination of a selector type, which is a single
ASCII character, followed by a <code>:</code> character and a selector
string. All selectors strings except for selector type <code>c</code>
are just values. The value is matched against identifiers or certs,
depending on its type, in an attempt to match a single revision. 
Selectors are matched as prefixes. The current set of selection
types are:

     <dl>
<dt>Generic cert selector<dd>Uses selector type <code>c</code>.  The selector string has the syntax
<var>name</var> or <var>name</var><code>=</code><var>value</var>.  The former syntax will
select any revision that has a cert with that name, regardless of
value; the latter will match any revision that has a cert with that
name and value.  Values to match for can have shell wildcards.  For
example, <code>c:tag</code> matches all revisions that have a tag, and
<code>c:tag=monotone-0.25</code> will match the revision tagged
<code>monotone-0.25</code>.  (See also the <code>t</code> selector below.) 
<br><dt>Author selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>a</code>. For example, <code>a:graydon</code> matches
<code>author</code> certs where the cert value contains <code>graydon</code>. 
<br><dt>Branch selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>b</code>. For example, <code>b:net.venge.monotone</code> matches
<code>branch</code> certs where the cert value is <code>net.venge.monotone</code>. 
Values to match for can have shell wildcards.  If you give a bare <code>b:</code>
monotone will require you to be in a workspace, and will use the branch
value recorded in your _MTN/options file. 
<br><dt>Heads selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>h</code>. For example, <code>h:net.venge.monotone</code> matches
<code>branch</code> certs where the cert value is <code>net.venge.monotone</code> and
the associated revision is a head revision on that branch.  Values to match
for can have shell wildcards like the branch selector.  If you give a bare
<code>h:</code> monotone will require you to be in a workspace, and use the branch
recorded in your _MTN/options file. 
<br><dt>Date selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>d</code>. For example, <code>d:2004-04</code> matches
<code>date</code> certs where the cert value begins with
<code>2004-04</code>. This selector also accepts expanded date syntax (see below). 
<br><dt>Message selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>m</code>. For example <code>m:*foobar*</code> matches
<code>changelog</code> and <code>comment</code> certs where the cert value
contains the glob <code>*foobar*</code>. 
<br><dt>"Earlier or equal than" selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>e</code>. For example, <code>e:2004-04-25</code> matches
<code>date</code> certs where the cert value is less or equal than
<code>2004-04-25T00:00:00</code>. If the time component is unspecified,
monotone will assume 00:00:00. This selector also accepts expanded date
syntax (see below)
<br><dt>"Later than" selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>l</code>. For example, <code>l:2004-04-25</code> matches
<code>date</code> certs where the cert value is strictly greater than
<code>2004-04-25T00:00:00</code>. If the time component is unspecified,
monotone will assume 00:00:00. This selector also accepts expanded date
syntax (see below)
<br><dt>Identifier selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>i</code>. For example, <code>i:0f3a</code> matches
revision IDs which begin with <code>0f3a</code>. 
<br><dt>Parent selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>p</code>. For example, <code>p:0f3a</code> matches the
revision IDs which are the parent of the revision ID which begins with
<code>0f3a</code>. If you give a bare <code>p:</code>, monotone will require you to be in
a workspace, and query the parent of the base workspace revision. 
<br><dt>Update selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>u</code>. This selector must be used from within a
workspace and must not have any associated value. It matches the base
revision ID of the workspace before the last <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> command
was executed. This can be useful for reviewing incoming
revisions. After each update operation, or at least before the next
update operation, run a command similar to the following:
     <pre class="smallexample">     $ mtn log --to u: --diffs
</pre>
     <p>to log all revisions back to the last update. It can also be
used for quickly jumping between two different revisions. For example,
the following command:
     <pre class="smallexample">     $ mtn update -r u:
</pre>
     <p>will update back to the previous update revision. Repeating this
command will swap the current and previous update revision. 
<br><dt>Tag selection<dd>Uses selector type <code>t</code>. For example, <code>t:monotone-0.11</code> matches
<code>tag</code> certs where the cert value begins with <code>monotone-0.11</code>. 
Values to match for can have shell wildcards. 
<br><dt>Workspace base revision<dd>Uses selector type <code>w</code>. This selector must be used from within a
workspace and must not have any associated value. It matches the base
revision ID(s) this workspace is based on. 
</dl>

<p>Further selector types may be added in the future.

<h3 class="heading">Composite selectors</h3>

<p>Selectors may be combined with the <code>/</code> character. The combination
acts as database intersection (or logical <code>and</code>). For example,
the selector <code>a:graydon/d:2004-04</code> can be used to select a
revision which has an <code>author</code> cert beginning with <code>graydon</code>
<em>as well as</em> a <code>date</code> cert beginning with <code>2004-04</code>. The
<code>/</code> character can be escaped using the <code>\</code> character if necessary.

<h3 class="heading">Selector expansion</h3>

<p>Before selectors are passed to the database, they are expanded using a
Lua hook: <code>expand_selector</code>. The default definition of this hook
attempts to guess a number of common forms for selection, allowing you
to omit selector types in many cases. For example, the hook guesses
that the typeless selector <code>jrh@example.org</code> is an author
selector, due to its syntactic form, so modifies it to read
<code>a:jrh@example.org</code>. This hook will generally assign a selector
type to values which &ldquo;look like&rdquo; partial hex strings, email
addresses, branch names, or date specifications. For the complete
source code of the hook, see <a href="#Lua-Reference">Lua Reference</a>.

<h3 class="heading">Expanding dates</h3>

<p>All date-related selectors (<code>d</code>, <code>e</code>, <code>l</code>) support an
English-like syntax similar to CVS.  This syntax is expanded to the
numeric format by a Lua hook: <code>expand_date</code>. 
The allowed date formats are:
     <dl>
<dt><code>now</code><dd>Expands to the current date and time. 
<br><dt><code>today</code><dd>Expands to today's date. <code>e</code> and <code>l</code> selectors assume time 00:00:00
<br><dt><code>yesterday</code><dd>Expands to yesterday's date. <code>e</code> and <code>l</code> selectors assume
time 00:00:00
<br><dt><code>&lt;number&gt; {minute|hour} &lt;ago&gt;</code><dd>Expands to today date and time, minus the specified <code>number</code> of
minutes|hours. 
<br><dt><code>&lt;number&gt; {day|week|month|year} &lt;ago&gt;</code><dd>Expands to today date, minus the specified <code>number</code> of
days|weeks|months|years. <code>e</code> and <code>l</code> selectors assume time
00:00:00
<br><dt><code>&lt;year&gt;-&lt;month&gt;[-day[Thour:minute:second]]</code><dd>Expands to the supplied year/month. The day and time component are
optional. If missing, <code>e</code> and <code>l</code> selectors assume the first
day of month and time 00:00:00. 
The time component, if supplied, must be complete to the second. 
</dl>

<p>For the complete source code of the hook, see <a href="#Lua-Reference">Lua Reference</a>.

<h3 class="heading">Typeless selection</h3>

<p>If, after expansion, a selector still has no type, it is matched as a
special &ldquo;unknown&rdquo; selector type, which will match either a tag, an
author, or a branch. This costs slightly more database access, but
often permits simple selection using an author's login name and a
date. For example, the selector
<code>graydon/net.venge.monotone.win32/yesterday</code> would pass through
the selector <code>graydon</code> as an unknown selector; so long as there
are no branches or tags beginning with the string <code>graydon</code> this
is just as effective as specifying <code>a:graydon</code>.

<p><a name="Restrictions"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.3 Restrictions</h3>

<p>Several monotone commands accept optional <var>pathname...</var> arguments in
order to establish a &ldquo;restriction&rdquo;.  Restrictions are used to limit
the files and directories these commands examine for changes when
comparing the workspace to the revision it is based on. Restricting a
command to a specified set of files or directories simply ignores
changes to files or directories not included by the restriction.

<p>The following commands all support restrictions using optional
<var>pathname...</var> arguments:

     <ul>
<li><samp><span class="command">status</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">diff</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">list known</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">list unknown</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">list ignored</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">list missing</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">list changed</span></samp>
<li><samp><span class="command">log</span></samp>
</ul>

<p>Including either the old or new name of a renamed file or directory will
cause both names to be included in a restriction. If in doubt, the
<samp><span class="command">status</span></samp> command can be used to &ldquo;test&rdquo; a set of pathnames to
ensure that the expected files are included or excluded by a
restriction.

<p>Commands which support restrictions also support the
<samp><span class="option">--depth=</span><var>n</var> </samp> and <samp><span class="option">--exclude=</span><var>path</var></samp>
options. The value <var>n</var> given to <samp><span class="option">--depth</span></samp> specifies the
maximum number of directories to descend. For example, <var>n</var>=0
disables recursion, <var>n</var>=1 means descend at most one directory
below each specified path, and so on.  The <samp><span class="option">--depth</span></samp> value
applies individually to each path specified on the command line. The
value <var>path</var> given to <samp><span class="option">--exclude</span></samp> specifies a path that
should be excluded from the restriction. Multiple <samp><span class="option">--exclude</span></samp>
options may be specified to exclude several files or subdirectories.

<p>The <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> command does not allow for updates to a
restricted set of files, which may be slightly different than other
version control systems. Partial updates don't really make sense in
monotone, as they would leave the workspace based on a revision that
doesn't exist in the database, starting an entirely new line of
development.

<p>In addition to including all of the explicitly specified paths and
excluding all of the paths specified with <samp><span class="option">--exclude</span></samp> options a
restriction also implicitly includes the parent directories of all
included paths. This is done to allow commands operating on newly
added files to succeed. For example, if a new directory <samp><span class="file">a</span></samp> is
added and a file <samp><span class="file">a/b</span></samp> is added to this directory restricting to
exactly <samp><span class="file">a/b</span></samp> will produce a meaningless state that doesn't
include the required parent directory <samp><span class="file">a</span></samp>.

<p>The implicit inclusion of required parent directories is done for all
of the commands listed above with the exception of
<samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp>. This is done to allow reverting the addition of
files in newly added or renamed directories without reverting the
directories themselves. If the parent directories were implicitly
included their addition or name changes would also be reverted.

<h3 class="heading">Subdirectory restrictions</h3>

<p>The restrictions facility also allows commands to operate from within
a subdirectory of the workspace.  By default, the <i>entire workspace</i>
is always examined for changes. However, specifying an explicit
<samp><span class="file">.</span></samp>  pathname to a command will restrict it to the current
subdirectory.  Note that this is quite different from other version
control systems and may seem somewhat surprising.

<p>The expectation is that requiring a single <samp><span class="file">.</span></samp> to restrict to the
current subdirectory should be simple to use. While the alternative,
defaulting to restricting to the current subdirectory, would require a
somewhat complicated <samp><span class="file">../../..</span></samp> sequence to remove the
restriction and operate on the whole tree.

<p>This default was chosen because monotone versions whole project trees
and generally expects to commit all changes in the workspace as a
single atomic unit. Other version control systems often version
individual files or directories and may not support atomic commits at
all.

<p>When working from within a subdirectory of the workspace all
paths specified to monotone commands must be relative to the current
subdirectory.

<h3 class="heading">Finding a workspace</h3>

<p>Monotone only stores a single <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory at the root of a
workspace. Because of this, a search is done to find the <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp>
directory in case a command is executed from within a subdirectory of a
workspace. Before a command is executed, the search for a workspace
directory is done by traversing parent directories until an
<samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory is found or the filesystem root is reached. Upon
finding an <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory, the <samp><span class="file">_MTN/options</span></samp> file is read for
default options. The <samp><span class="option">--root</span></samp> option may be used to stop the
search early, before reaching the root of the physical filesystem. The
<samp><span class="option">--no-workspace</span></samp> option may be used to prevent the search entirely.

<p>Many monotone commands don't require a workspace and will simply
proceed with no default options if no <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory is found. 
However, some monotone commands do require a workspace and will fail
if no <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> directory can be found.

<p>The <samp><span class="command">checkout</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">clone</span></samp> and <samp><span class="command">setup</span></samp> commands
create a <i>new workspace</i> and initialize a new <samp><span class="file">_MTN/options</span></samp>
file based on their current option settings.

<p><a name="Scripting"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.4 Scripting</h3>

<p>People often want to write programs that call monotone &mdash; for example,
to create a graphical interface to monotone's functionality, or to
automate some task.  For most programs, if you want to do this sort of
thing, you just call the command line interface, and do some sort of
parsing of the output.  Monotone's output, however, is designed for
humans: it's localized, it tries to prompt the user with helpful
information depending on their request, if it detects that something
unusual is happening it may give different output in an attempt to make
this clear to the user, and so on.  As a result, it is not particularly
suitable for programs to parse.

<p>Rather than trying to design output to work for both humans and
computers, and serving neither audience well, we elected to create a
separate interface to make programmatically extracting information from
monotone easier.  The command line interface has a command
<samp><span class="command">automate</span></samp>; this command has subcommands that print various sorts
of information on standard output, in simple, consistent, and easily
parseable form.

<p>For details of this interface, see <a href="#Automation">Automation</a>.

<p><a name="Inodeprints"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.5 Inodeprints</h3>

<p>Fairly often, in order to accomplish its job, monotone has to look at
your workspace and figure out what has been changed in it since your
last commit.  Commands that do this include <samp><span class="command">status</span></samp>,
<samp><span class="command">diff</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp>, and others.  There
are two different techniques it can use to do this.  The default, which
is sufficient for most projects, is to simply read every file in the
workspace, compute their <span class="sc">sha1</span> hash, and compare them to the
hashes monotone has stored.  This is very safe and reliable, and turns
out to be fast enough for most projects.  However, on very large
projects, ones whose source trees are many megabytes in size, it can
become unacceptably slow.

<p>The other technique, known as <em>inodeprints</em>, is designed for this
situation.  When running in inodeprints mode, monotone does not read the
whole workspace; rather, it keeps a cache of interesting information
about each file (its size, its last modification time, and so on), and
skips reading any file for which these values have not changed.  This is
inherently somewhat less safe, and, as mentioned above, unnecessary for
most projects, so it is disabled by default.

<p>If you do determine that it is necessary to use inodeprints with your
project, it is simple to enable them.  Simply run <samp><span class="command">mtn
refresh_inodeprints</span></samp>; this will enable inodeprints mode and generate an
initial cache.  If you ever wish to turn them off again, simply delete
the file <samp><span class="file">_MTN/inodeprints</span></samp>.  You can at any time delete or truncate
the <samp><span class="file">_MTN/inodeprints</span></samp> file; monotone uses it only as a cache and
will continue to operate correctly.

<p>Normally, instead of enabling this up on a per-workspace basis, you
will want to simply define the <code>use_inodeprints</code> hook to return
<code>true</code>; this will automatically enable inodeprints mode in any new
workspaces you create.  See <a href="#Lua-Reference">Lua Reference</a> for details.

<p><a name="Merge-Conflicts"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.6 Merge Conflicts</h3>

<p>Several different types of conflicts may be encountered when merging
two revisions using the database merge commands <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp>,
<samp><span class="command">explicit_merge</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">propagate</span></samp> and
<samp><span class="command">merge_into_dir</span></samp> or when using the workspace merge commands
<samp><span class="command">update</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">pluck</span></samp> and <samp><span class="command">merge_into_workspace</span></samp>.

<p>The <samp><span class="command">show_conflicts</span></samp> and <samp><span class="command">automate show_conflicts</span></samp>
commands can be used to list conflicts between database revisions
which would be encountered by the database merge commands. 
Unfortunately, these commands can't yet list conflicts between a
database revision and the current workspace.

<p>In addition, the <samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> set of commands can be used to
specify resolutions for some conflicts. The resolutions are stored in a
file, and given to the <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> command via the
<samp><span class="command">--resolve-conflicts-file=filename</span></samp> or
<samp><span class="command">--resolve-conflicts</span></samp> option; see See <a href="#Conflicts">Conflicts</a>.

<p>The <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> command normally will perform as many merges as
necessary to merge all current heads of a branch. However, when
<samp><span class="command">--resolve-conflicts-file</span></samp> is given, the conflicts and their
resolutions apply only to the first merge, so the subsequent merges
are not done; the <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> command must be repeated, possibly
with new conflicts and resolutions, to merge the remaining heads.

<p>If <samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> supports resolving a particular conflict, that
is the simplest way to resolve it. Otherwise, resolving the different
types of conflicts is accomplished by checking out one of the
conflicting revisions, making changes as described below, committing
these changes as a new revision and then running the merge again using
this new revision as one of the merge parents. This process can be
repeated as necessary to get two revisions into a state where they
will merge cleanly, or with a minimum of file content conflicts.

<p>The possible conflict resolutions are discussed with each conflict in
the following sections.

<h4 class="subsection">3.6.1 Conflict Types</h4>

<p>Monotone versions both files and directories explicitly and it tracks
individual file and directory identity from birth to death so that
name changes throughout the full life-cycle can be tracked exactly. 
Partly because of these qualities, monotone also notices several types
of conflicts that other version control systems may not.

<p>The two most common conflicts are described first, then all other
possible conflicts.

<h4 class="subheading">File Content Conflict</h4>

<p>This type of conflict is generally the one encountered most commonly
and represents conflicting changes made to lines of text within two
versions of a single file.

<p>Monotone does not generally use CVS style conflict markers for content
conflicts. Instead it makes the content of both conflicting files and
the content of their common ancestor available for interactive use
during the merge with your favorite merge tool. See the <code>merge3</code>
hook for more information.

<p>Alternatively, rather than using a merge tool it is possible to make
further changes to one or both of the conflicting file versions so
that they will merge cleanly. This can also be a very helpful strategy
if the merge conflicts are due to sections of text in the file being
moved from one location to another. Rather than struggling to merge
such conflicting changes with a merge tool, similar rearrangements can
be made to one of the conflicting files before redoing the merge.

<p>Finally, you can use your favorite merge tool asychronously with the
merge, and specify the result file in the conflicts file, using the
<samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> command (see <a href="#Conflicts">Conflicts</a>):
<pre class="smallexample">mtn conflicts resolve_first user filename
</pre>
<h4 class="subheading">Duplicate Name Conflict</h4>

<p>A duplicate name conflict occurs when two distinct files or
directories have been given the same name in the two merge parents. 
This can occur when each of the merge parents adds a new file or
directory with the conflicting name, or when one parent adds a new
file or directory with the conflicting name and the other renames an
existing file or directory to the conflicting name, or when both
parents rename an existing file or directory to the conflicting name.

<p>In earlier versions of monotone (before version 0.39) this type of
conflict was referred to as a <em>rename target conflict</em> although
it doesn't necessarily have anything to do with renames.

<p>There are two main situations in which duplicate name conflicts occur:

     <ul>
<li>Two people both realize a new file should be added, and commit it. In
this case, the files have the right name and the right contents, but
monotone reports a conflict because they were added separately.

     <li>Two people each decide to add new files with different content, and
accidently pick the same name. 
</ul>

<p>These conflicts are reported when someone tries to merge the two
revisions containing the new files.

<p>There are similar conflicts for directories; the process for resolving
them is different, because we need to worry about the files in the
directories.

<h5 class="subsubheading">Same file</h5>

<p>For the first case, the conflict is resolved by dropping one file,
using <samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> commands. The contents should be manually
merged, in case they are slightly different. Typically, a user will
have one of the files in their current workspace; the other can be
retrieved via <samp><span class="command">automate get_file_of</span></samp>; the revision id is shown
in the merge error message.

<p>The process for files can be confusing; here's a detailed example.

<p>Suppose Beth and Abe each commit a new file <samp><span class="file">checkout.sh</span></samp>. When
Beth attempts to merge the two heads, she gets a message like:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn: 2 heads on branch 'testbranch'
mtn: [left]  ae94e6677b8e31692c67d98744dccf5fa9ccffe5
mtn: [right] dfdf50b19fb971f502671b0cfa6d15d69a0d04bb
mtn: conflict: duplicate name 'checkout.sh'
mtn: added as a new file on the left
mtn: added as a new file on the right
mtn: error: merge failed due to unresolved conflicts
</pre>
<p>The file labeled <code>right</code> is the file in Beth's workspace. To
start the conflict resolution process, Beth first saves the list of
conflicts:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn conflicts store
</pre>
<p>In order to merge Beth's and Abe's file versions, Beth retrieves a
copy of Abe's file:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn automate get_file_of checkout.sh \
--revision=ae94e6677b8e31692c67d98744dccf5fa9ccffe5 \
&gt; _MTN/resolutions/checkout.sh-abe
</pre>
<p>Now Beth manually merges (using her favorite merge tool)
<samp><span class="file">checkout.sh</span></samp> and <samp><span class="file">_MTN/resolutions/checkout.sh-abe</span></samp>,
leaving the results in <samp><span class="file">_MTN/resolutions/checkout.sh-merge</span></samp>
(<em>not</em> in her copy).

<p>Then Beth specifies the conflict resolution, and finishes the merge:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn conflicts resolve_first_left drop
mtn conflicts resolve_first_right user _MTN/resolutions/checkout.sh-merge
mtn merge --resolve-conflicts-file=_MTN/conflicts
mtn conflicts clean
mtn update
</pre>
<p>When Abe later syncs and updates, he will get the merged version.

<h5 class="subsubheading">Different files</h5>

<p>The second case, where two different files accidently have the same
name, is resolved by renaming one or both of them.

<p>Suppose Beth and Abe each start working on different thermostat models
(say Honeywell and Westinghouse), but they both name the file
<samp><span class="file">thermostat</span></samp>. When Beth attempts to merge, she will get the same
error message as in the first case. When she retrieves Abe's file, she
will see that they should be different files. So she renames her file,
merges, and updates:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn conflicts store
mtn conflicts resolve_first_left rename thermostat-westinghouse
mtn conflicts resolve_first_right rename thermostat-honeywell
mtn merge --resolve-conflicts-file=_MTN/conflicts
mtn conflicts clean
mtn update
</pre>
<p>Now she has her file in <samp><span class="file">thermostat-honeywell</span></samp>, and Abe's in
<samp><span class="file">thermostat-westinghouse</span></samp>.

<h5 class="subsubheading">Directories</h5>

<p>When two directories are given the same name, there are still the two
basic approaches to resolving the conflict; drop or rename. However,
if a directory is dropped, all the files in it must also be dropped. 
Therefore, it is almost always better to first rename one of the
directories to a temporary name as the conflict resolution, and
then deal with the files individually, renaming or merging and
dropping each. Then finally drop the temporary directory.

<h4 class="subheading">Missing Root Conflict</h4>

<p>Monotone's merge strategy is sometimes referred to as
<em>die-die-die</em> merge, with reference to the fact that when a file
or directory is deleted there is no means of resurrecting it. Merging
the deletion of a file or directory will <em>always</em> result in that
file or directory being deleted.

<p>A missing root conflict occurs when some directory has been moved to
the root directory in one of the merge parents and has been deleted in
the other merge parent. Because of die-die-die merge the result will
not contain the directory that has been moved to the root.

<p>Missing root conflicts should be very rare because it is unlikely that
a project's root directory will change. It is even more unlikely that
a project's root directory will be changed to some other directory in
one merge parent and that this directory will also be deleted in the
other merge parent. Even still, a missing root directory conflict can
be easily resolved by moving another directory to the root in the
merge parent where the root directory was previously changed. Because
of die-die-die merge, no change to resolve the conflict can be made to
the merge parent that deleted the directory which was moved to the
root in the other merge parent.

<p>See the <samp><span class="command">pivot_root</span></samp> command for more information on moving
another directory to the project root.

<p><samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> does not yet support resolving this conflict.

<h4 class="subheading">Invalid Name Conflict</h4>

<p>Monotone reserves the name <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> in a workspace root directory
for internal use and treats this name as <em>illegal</em> for a
versioned file or directory in the project root. This name is
<em>legal</em> for a versioned file or directory as long as it is not in
the project root directory.

<p>An invalid name conflict occurs when some directory is moved to the
project root in one of the merge parents and a file or directory that
exists in this new root directory is renamed to <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> or a new
file or directory is added with the name <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> to this directory
in the other merge parent.

<p>Invalid name conflicts should be very rare because it is unlikely that
a project's root directory will change. It is even more unlikely that
a project's root directory will change and the new root directory will
contain a file or directory named <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp>. Even still, an invalid
name conflict can be easily resolved in several different ways. A
different root directory can be chosen, the offending <samp><span class="file">_MTN</span></samp> file
or directory can be renamed or deleted, or it can be moved to some
other subdirectory in the project.

<p>See the <samp><span class="command">pivot_root</span></samp> command for more information on moving
another directory to the project root.

<p><samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> does not yet support resolving this conflict.

<h4 class="subheading">Directory Loop Conflict</h4>

<p>A directory loop conflict occurs when one directory is moved under a
second in one of the merge parents and the second directory is moved
under the first in the other merge parent.

<p>Directory loop conflicts should be rare but can be easily resolved by
moving one of the conflicting directories out from under the other.

<p><samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> does not yet support resolving this conflict.

<h4 class="subheading">Orphaned Node Conflict</h4>

<p>An orphaned node conflict occurs when a directory and all of its
contents are deleted in one of the merge parents and further files or
directories are added to this deleted directory, or renamed into it,
in the other merge parent.

<p>Orphaned node conflicts do happen occasionally but can be easily
resolved by renaming the orphaned files or directories out of the
directory that has been deleted and into another directory that exists
in both merge parents, or that has been added in the revision
containing the orphaned files or directories.

<p><samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> supports resolving this conflict. However, if the
orphaned node is a directory that is not empty, and the desired
resolution is 'drop', the user must drop the directory contents and
commit before invoking the conflicts commands.

<h4 class="subheading">Multiple Name Conflict</h4>

<p>A multiple name conflict occurs when a single file or directory has
been renamed to two different names in the two merge parents. 
Monotone does not allow this and requires that each file and directory
has exactly one unique name.

<p>Multiple name conflicts do happen occasionally but can be easily
resolved by renaming the conflicting file or directory in one or both
of the merge parents so that both agree on the name.

<p><samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> does not yet support resolving this conflict.

<p>In earlier versions of monotone (those before version 0.39) this type
of conflict was referred to as a <em>name conflict</em>.

<h4 class="subheading">Attribute Conflict</h4>

<p>An attribute conflict occurs when a versioned attribute on a file or
directory is set to two different values by the two merge parents or
if one of the merge parents changes the attribute's value and the
other deletes the attribute entirely.

<p>Attribute conflicts may happen occasionally but can be easily resolved
by ensuring that the attribute is set to the same value or is deleted
in both of the merge parents. Attributes are <em>not</em> merged using
the die-die-die rules and may be resurrected by simply setting their
values.

<p><samp><span class="command">conflicts</span></samp> does not yet support resolving this conflict.

<p><a name="Workspace-Collisions"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.7 Workspace Collisions</h3>

<p>Sometimes when you work on a project, several people make similar
changes in parallel.  When these changes occur in an existing file that
is known to both sides, monotone can merge the edits when the two
revisions meet (possibly after getting help to resolve content
conflicts).  Other kinds of changes cannot be merged so readily,
especially ones that involve files in your workspace that are not
tracked by monotone.

<p>Workspace collisions can happen for many reasons; some examples include:
     <ul>
<li>You have a file in your workspace that is unknown to monotone (you
have not <samp><span class="command">add</span></samp>ed it).  Someone else has <samp><span class="command">add</span></samp>ed and
<samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp>ed a different file with the same name.  If you try to
<samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> your workspace to their revision, the added file in the
incoming revision will collide with your file over use of the name. 
<li>There is a directory which contains both versioned and unversioned files
(perhaps versioned sources, and unversioned object files built from the
sources).  Someone else <samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp>s a revision that
<samp><span class="command">drop</span></samp>s the versioned files <em>and</em> the containing
directory.  If you try to <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> to this revision, your
directory will still contain the untracked files, and therefore cannot
be deleted. 
<li>You have an unversioned file in your workspace, and you're trying to
<samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> to a revision that <samp><span class="command">add</span></samp>s a directory with the
same name. 
</ul>

<p>These examples describe collisions on <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp>; the same kinds
of things can happen with other commands that can bring changes into
your workspace, such as <samp><span class="command">checkout</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">pivot_root</span></samp> or
<samp><span class="command">pluck</span></samp> too.

<p>Monotone is careful to avoid hitting such collisions. Before changing
the workspace, it will try and detect the possibility of collisions, and
the command will fail, warning you about the names that collide.  The
file content in the database is safe and can be recovered at any time,
so monotone is conservative and will refuse to destroy the information
in your workspace contents. Furthermore, all workspace-changing commands have
an option <samp><span class="option">--move-conflicting-paths</span></samp>, which moves unversioned, but
conflicting files and directories from the workspace into a new subdirectory
under _MTN/resolutions. This is useful if you want to ensure that an update
always succeeds and you just want to move blocking paths out of the way.

<p>However, monotone cannot detect all kinds of failures and collisions in
your workspace. For example:
     <ul>
<li>On some systems with case-insensitive and/or internationalised
filesystems, names that look distinct to monotone may in fact be
considered the same by the underlying platform. 
<li>If some other program is creating files in the workspace at the same
time as monotone, the colliding file might be created after the
collision check at the start. 
<li>Other kinds of unpredictable system errors, like permissions problems or
disk full conditions, might cause failures when monotone is rearranging
the workspace content. 
</ul>

<p>These are all hopefully very rare occurrences. If such a filesystem
error <em>does</em> cause a failure part-way during a workspace
alteration, monotone will stop immediately rather than risk potentially
doing further damage, and your workspace may be left in an incomplete
state.  If this happens, you will need to resolve the issue and clean up
the workspace manually.  If you need to do so, understanding how
monotone manipulates the workspace is helpful.

<p>When monotone applies renaming changes to the workspace, each file is
first <dfn>detached</dfn> from the workspace under its old name, then
<dfn>attached</dfn> under the new name. This is done by moving it to the
<samp><span class="file">_MTN/detached</span></samp> directory. Newly added files are created here
before being moved into place, too.  While inside <samp><span class="file">_MTN/detached</span></samp>,
the file or directory is named as a simple integer (these numbers come
from monotone's internal identification of the node).  If the detached
node is a directory, the directory is moved with all of its contents
(including unversioned files); this can help identify which directory
has been detached.

<p>If a previous workspace alteration failed part-way, the
<samp><span class="file">_MTN/detached</span></samp> directory will still exist, and monotone will
refuse to attempt another alteration while the workspace is in this
inconsistent state. This also acts as a lock against multiple monotone
processes performing workspace alterations (but not other programs).

<p>The best way to avoid a messy recovery from such a failure is simply to
ensure that you always <samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp> before trying to
<samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> (or <samp><span class="command">pluck</span></samp>, etc) other changes from the
database into your workspace. This ensures that your current workspace
contents are safely stored, and can be retrieved later (such as with
<samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp>).

<p><a name="Quality-Assurance"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.8 Quality Assurance</h3>

<p>Monotone was constructed to serve both as a version control tool and
as a quality assurance tool. The quality assurance features permit
users to ignore, or &ldquo;filter out&rdquo;, versions which do not meet their
criteria for quality. This section describes the way monotone
represents and reasons about quality information.

<p>Monotone often views the collection of revisions as a directed graph,
in which revisions are the nodes and changes between revisions are the
edges. We call this the <dfn>revision graph</dfn>. The revision graph has a
number of important subgraphs, many of which overlap. For example,
each branch is a subgraph of the revision graph, containing only the
nodes carrying a particular <code>branch</code> cert.

<p>Many of monotone's operations involve searching the revision graph for
the ancestors or descendants of a particular revision, or extracting
the &ldquo;heads&rdquo; of a subgraph, which is the subgraph's set of nodes with
no descendants. For example, when you run the <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> command,
monotone searches the subgraph consisting of descendants of the base
revision of the current workspace, trying to locate a unique head to
update the base revision to.

<p>Monotone's quality assurance mechanisms are mostly based on
restricting the subgraph each command operates on. There are two
methods used to restrict the subgraph:

     <ul>
<li>By restricting the set of trusted <code>branch</code> certificates, you
can require that specific code reviewers have approved of each edge in
the subgraph you focus on. 
<li>By restricting the set of trusted <code>testresult</code> certificates, you
can require that the <em>endpoints</em> of an update operation have a
certificate asserting that the revision in question passed a certain
test, or testsuite. 
</ul>

<p>The evaluation of trust is done on a cert-by-cert basis by calling a
set of Lua hooks: <code>get_revision_cert_trust</code>,
<code>get_manifest_cert_trust</code> and <code>get_file_cert_trust</code>. These
hooks are only called when a cert has at least one good signature from
a known key, and are passed <em>all</em> the keys which have signed the
cert, as well as the cert's ID, name and value. The hook can then
evaluate the set of signers, as a group, and decide whether to grant
or deny trust to the assertion made by the cert.

<p>The evaluation of testresults is controlled by the
<code>accept_testresult_change</code> hook. This hook is called when
selecting update candidates, and is passed a pair of tables describing
the <code>testresult</code> certs present on the source and proposed
destination of an update. Only if the change in test results are
deemed &ldquo;acceptable&rdquo; does monotone actually select an update target
to merge into your workspace.

<p>For details on these hooks, see the <a href="#Lua-Reference">Lua Reference</a>.

<p><a name="Vars"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.9 Vars</h3>

<p>Every monotone database has a set of <em>vars</em> associated with it. 
Vars are simple configuration variables that monotone refers to in some
circumstances; they are used for configuration that monotone needs to be
able to modify itself, and that should be per-database (rather than
per-user or per-workspace, both of which are supported by
<samp><span class="file">monotonerc</span></samp> scripts).  Vars are local to a database, and never
transferred by netsync.

<p>A var is a <em>name</em> = <em>value</em> pairing inside a <em>domain</em>. 
Domains define what the vars inside it are used for; for instance, one
domain might contain database-global settings, and particular vars
inside it would define things like that database's default netsync
server.  Another domain might contain key fingerprints for servers that
monotone has interacted with in the past, to detect man-in-the-middle
attacks; the vars inside this domain would map server names to their
fingerprints.

<p>You can set vars with the <samp><span class="command">set</span></samp> command, delete them with the
<samp><span class="command">unset</span></samp> command, and see them with the <samp><span class="command">ls vars</span></samp>
command.  See the documentation for these specific commands for more
details.

<h3 class="heading">Existing vars</h3>

<p>There are several pre-defined domains that monotone knows about:

     <dl>
<dt><code>database</code><dd>Contains database-global configuration information.  Defined names are:
          <dl>
<dt><code>default-exclude-pattern</code><dd>The default branch exclusion glob pattern for netsync operations to
use. Automatically set by first use of netsync, and by any netsync
that uses the <samp><span class="option">--set-default</span></samp> option. 
<br><dt><code>default-include-pattern</code><dd>The default branch glob pattern for netsync operations to use. 
Automatically set by first use of netsync, and by any netsync that
uses the <samp><span class="option">--set-default</span></samp> option. 
<br><dt><code>default-server</code><dd>The default server for netsync operations to use.  Automatically set
by first use of netsync, and by any netsync that uses the
<samp><span class="option">--set-default</span></samp> option. 
<br><dt><code>delta-direction</code><dd>This tells monotone whether to store &lsquo;<samp><span class="samp">reverse</span></samp>&rsquo; deltas (the default),
&lsquo;<samp><span class="samp">forward</span></samp>&rsquo; deltas, or &lsquo;<samp><span class="samp">both</span></samp>&rsquo; kinds of deltas for reconstructing
versions of files. Reverse deltas are faster when inspecting recent files,
while forward deltas are much faster for sending over the network. This
should probably be set to &lsquo;<samp><span class="samp">both</span></samp>&rsquo; for a server database, unless disk
space is severely limited. Note that as <em>receiving</em> deltas involves
reconstructing the file version that the delta was made against, a server
using a database with only forward deltas will be somewhat slower at
receiving new revisions unless your particular history graph is highly
linear.

          <p>Changing this value does not affect deltas that have already been stored. 
</dl>

     <br><dt><code>known-servers</code><dd>Contains key hashes for servers that we have netsynced with in the
past.  Analogous to <samp><span class="command">ssh</span></samp>'s <samp><span class="file">known_hosts</span></samp> file, this is
needed to detect man-in-the-middle attacks.  Automatically set the first
time you netsync with any given server.  If that server's key later
changes, monotone will notice, and refuse to connect until you have run
<samp><span class="command">mtn unset known-servers </span><var>server-name</var></samp>.

</dl>

<p><a name="Reserved-Files"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.10 Reserved Files</h3>

<p>A monotone workspace consists of control files and non-control
files. Each type of file can be versioned or non-versioned. These
classifications lead to four groups of files:

     <ul>
<li>versioned control files
<li>non-versioned control files
<li>versioned non-control files
<li>non-versioned non-control files
</ul>

<p>Control files contain special content formatted for use by
monotone. Versioned files are recorded in a monotone database and have
their state tracked as they are modified.

<p>If a control file is versioned, it is considered <em>part of</em> the
state of the workspace, and will be recorded as a manifest
entry. If a control file is not versioned, it is used to <em>manage</em>
the state of the workspace, but it not considered an intrinsic part
of it.

<p>Most files you manage with monotone will be versioned non-control
files. For example, if you keep source code or documents in a monotone
database, they are versioned non-control files. Non-versioned,
non-control files in your workspace are generally temporary or junk
files, such as backups made by editors or object files made by
compilers. Such files are ignored by monotone.

<h3 class="heading">Identifying control files</h3>

<p>Control files are identified by their names. Non-control files can
have any name <em>except</em> the names reserved for control files. The
names of control files follow a regular pattern:

     <dl>
<dt>Versioned control files<dd>Any file name beginning with <samp><span class="file">.mtn-</span></samp>
<br><dt>Non-versioned control files<dd>Any file in the directory <samp><span class="file">_MTN/</span></samp>
</dl>

<p>The general intention is that versioned control files are things that
you may want to edit directly.  In comparison, you should never have
to edit non-versioned control files directly; monotone should do that
for you whenever it is appropriate.  However, both are documented
here, just in case a situation arises where you need to go &ldquo;under the
hood&rdquo;.

<h3 class="heading">Existing control files and directories</h3>

<p>The following control files are currently used. More control files may be added
in the future, but they will follow the patterns given above.

     <dl>
<dt><samp><span class="file">.mtn-ignore</span></samp><dd>Contains a list of regular expression patterns, one per line. If it exists,
any file with a name matching one of these patterns is
ignored. See <a href="#Regexps">Regexps</a>, for the syntax of these regular expressions. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/wanted-testresults</span></samp><dd>Contains a list of testresult key names, one per line. If it exists, update
will only select revisions that do not have regressions according to the given
testresult keys. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/revision</span></samp><dd>Contains the identity of the &ldquo;base&rdquo; revision of the workspace, and a
list of additions, deletions, and renames which have occurred in the
current workspace, relative to that version.

     <p>Every workspace has a base revision, which is the revision that was
originally checked out to create that workspace.  When the workspace
is committed, the base revision is considered to be the ancestor of
the committed revision. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/options</span></samp><dd>Contains &ldquo;sticky&rdquo; command-line options such as <samp><span class="option">--db</span></samp> or
<samp><span class="option">--branch</span></samp>, such that you do not need to enter them repeatedly
after checking out a particular workspace. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/log</span></samp><dd>Contains log messages to append to the &ldquo;changelog&rdquo; cert upon
commit. The user may add content to this file while they work.  Upon a
successful commit monotone will empty the file making it ready for the
next edit/commit cycle. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/commit</span></samp><dd>If a commit fails, f.e. because a header field could not be parsed
properly, then this file will contain a dump of the complete contents
which have been saved through the editor.  After the information has
been recovered from this file, it has to be removed explicitly, since
a new commit won't be possible as long as this file exists. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/inodeprints</span></samp><dd>If this file exists, monotone considers the directory to be in
<a href="#Inodeprints">Inodeprints</a> mode, and uses this file to cache the inodeprints. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/debug</span></samp><dd>If monotone detects a bug in itself or crashes, then before exiting it
dumps a log of its recent activity to this file, to aid in debugging. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/bisect</span></samp><dd>Contains the current state of an ongoing bisection.  See <a href="#Bisecting">Bisecting</a>
for more information. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/update</span></samp><dd>Remembers the update / previous base revision of the workspace when
the <code>u:</code> selector is used.  See <a href="#Selectors">Selectors</a> for more information. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/conflicts</span></samp><dd>The default file which is used by monotone to read and write merge conflicts
for conflict resolution.  See <a href="#Conflicts">Conflicts</a> for more information. 
<br><dt><samp><span class="file">_MTN/resolutions</span></samp><dd>The directory in which monotone moves unversioned, conflicting files from
a workspace to, in case <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> or other commands are called with
the <samp><span class="option">--move-conflicting-paths</span></samp> option. 
</dl>

<p><a name="Reserved-Certs"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.11 Reserved Certs</h3>

<p>Every certificate has a name. Some names have meaning which is built
in to monotone, others may be used for customization by a particular
user, site, or community. If you wish to define custom certificates,
you should prefix such certificate names with <code>x-</code>. For example,
if you want to make a certificate describing the existence of security
vulnerabilities in a revision, you might wish to create a certificate
called <code>x-vulnerability</code>.  Monotone reserves all names which do
not begin with <code>x-</code> for possible internal use. If an <code>x-</code>
certificate becomes widely used, monotone will likely adopt it as a
reserved cert name and standardize its semantics.

<p>Most reserved certificate names have no meaning yet; some do. Usually
monotone is also responsible for <em>generating</em> many of these certs
as part of normal operation, such as during a <samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp>. Others
will be added explicitly via other commands, like <samp><span class="command">tag</span></samp> or
<samp><span class="command">approve</span></samp>.

<p>As well as carrying other information, certs (and combinations of certs)
are useful for identifying revisions with <a href="#Selectors">Selectors</a>; in
particular, this is the primary purpose of the <code>tag</code> cert.

<p>The pre-defined, reserved certificate names are:

     <dl>
<dt><code>author</code><dd>This cert's value is the name of a person who committed the revision
the cert is attached to. The cert is generated when you commit a
revision. It is displayed by the <samp><span class="command">log</span></samp> command.

     <br><dt><code>branch</code><dd>This cert's value is the name of a branch. A <code>branch</code> cert
associates a revision with a branch. The revision is said to be &ldquo;in
the branch&rdquo; named by the cert. The cert is generated when you commit
a revision, either directly with the <samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp> command or
indirectly with the <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> or <samp><span class="command">propagate</span></samp> commands. The
<code>branch</code> certs are read and directly interpreted by <em>many</em>
monotone commands, and play a fundamental role in organizing work in
any monotone database.

     <br><dt><code>changelog</code><dd>This cert's value is the change log message you provide when you
commit a revision. It is displayed by the <samp><span class="command">log</span></samp> command.

     <br><dt><code>comment</code><dd>This cert's value is an additional comment, usually provided after
committing, about a revision. Certs with the name <code>comment</code> will be
shown together with <code>changelog</code> certs by the <samp><span class="command">log</span></samp> command.

     <br><dt><code>date</code><dd>This cert's value is an ISO date string indicating the time at which a
revision was committed. It is displayed by the <samp><span class="command">log</span></samp> command, and
may be used as an additional heuristic or selection criterion in other
commands in the future.

     <br><dt><code>suspend</code><dd>This cert's value is the name of a branch (see the <code>branch</code> cert). 
This cert is generated by the <samp><span class="command">suspend</span></samp> command.  A suspended
revision is removed from the list of head revisions of a branch in most
cases.  A branch with all its heads suspended will not appear in the
list of branches.  Suspended revisions can still have children, and those
children are in no way affected by the suspend cert on their parent.

     <br><dt><code>tag</code><dd>This cert's value is a symbolic name given to a revision, which may be
used as a way of selecting the revision by name for later commands like
<samp><span class="command">checkout</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">log</span></samp> or <samp><span class="command">diff</span></samp>.

     <br><dt><code>testresult</code><dd>This cert's value is interpreted as a boolean string, either <code>0</code>
or <code>1</code>. It is generated by the <samp><span class="command">testresult</span></samp> command and
represents the results of running a particular test on the underlying
revision. Typically you will make a separate signing key for each test
you intend to run on revisions. This cert influences the
<samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> algorithm.

</dl>

<p><a name="Naming-Conventions"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.12 Naming Conventions</h3>

<p>Some names in monotone are private to your work, such as
filenames. Other names are potentially visible outside your project,
such as <span class="sc">rsa</span> key identifiers or branch names. It is possible that if
you choose such names carelessly, you will choose a name which someone
else in the world is using, and subsequently you may cause confusion
when your work and theirs is received simultaneously by some third
party.

<p>We therefore recommend two naming conventions:

     <ul>
<li>For <span class="sc">rsa</span> keys, use the name of an active email address you
own. This will minimize conflicts, and also serves as a mnemonic to
associate your personal <em>identity</em> with signatures made with your
key. For example, monotone's primary author uses the key identifier
<code>graydon@pobox.com</code>.

     <li>For branch names, select any name you like but prefix it with the
&ldquo;inverted domain name&rdquo; of a DNS domain you control or are otherwise
authorized to use. This behavior mimics the package naming convention
in the java programming language. For example, monotone itself is
developed within the <code>net.venge.monotone</code> branch, because the
author owns the DNS domain <code>venge.net</code>. 
</ul>

<p><a name="File-Attributes"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.13 File Attributes</h3>

<p>Monotone contains a support for storing <dfn>persistent attributes</dfn> on
files and directories, generally known as <dfn>attrs</dfn> for short.  An
attr associates a simple name/value pair with a file or directory, and
is stored in the manifest.  Attrs are first-class versioned data; they
can be changed in a workspace, and those changes will be saved when
the workspace is committed.  The merger knows how to intelligently
merge attrs.

<p>The attribute mechanism was originally motivated by the fact that some
people like to store executable programs in version control systems,
and would like the programs to remain executable when they check out a
workspace.  For example, the <samp><span class="command">configure</span></samp> shell script commonly
shipped with many programs should be executable.  Similarly, some
people would like to store devices, symbolic links, read-only files,
and all manner of extra attributes of a file, not directly related to
a file's data content.

<p>Monotone comes with support for some attrs built-in; for instance, if
an executable file is given to <samp><span class="command">mtn add</span></samp>, then it will
automatically mark the new file with a <code>mtn:execute</code> attr, and
when the file is checked out later, the executable bit will be set
automatically.  (Of course, if it is checked out on Windows, which
does not support the executable bit, then the executable bit will not
be set.  However, monotone will still know that the attr is set, and
Windows users can view and modify the attr like anyone else.)

<p>Attrs in the current workspace can be seen and modified using the
<samp><span class="command">mtn attr</span></samp> command; see <a href="#Workspace">Workspace</a>.  Attrs can also be found
by examining any manifest directly.

<p>You can tell monotone to automatically take actions based on these
attributes by defining hooks; see the <code>attr_functions</code> entry in
<a href="#Lua-Reference">Lua Reference</a>.  Every time your workspace is written to,
monotone will run the corresponding hooks registered for each attr in
your workspace.  This way, you can extend the vocabulary of attrs
understood by monotone simply by writing new hooks.

<p>You can make up your own attrs for anything you find useful; the
mechanism is fully general.  (If you make up some particularly useful
ones, we may even be interested in adding support to monotone proper.) 
We only ask that if you do use custom attrs, you use some prefix for
them besides <code>mtn:</code>; attrs beginning with <code>mtn:</code> are
reserved for monotone's own use.

<p><a name="Merging"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.14 Merging</h3>

<p>Monotone has two merging modes, controlled by the <code>manual_merge</code>
attribute. 
By default all files are merged in automatic mode, unless the
<code>manual_merge</code> attribute for that file is present and
<code>true</code>. 
In automatic mode files are merged without user intervention, using
monotone's internal three-way merging algorithm. 
Only if there are conflicts or an ancestor is not available monotone
switches to manual mode, essentially escalating the merging to the user. 
When working in manual mode, monotone invokes the <code>merge3</code> hook
to start an user defined external merge tool. 
If the tool terminates without writing the merged file, monotone aborts the
merging, reverting any changes made. 
By redefining the aforementioned hooks the user can not only choose a
preferred merge tool, but even select different programs for different
file types.  For example, gimp for .png files, OpenOffice.org for
.doc, and so on. 
Starting with monotone 0.20, the <code>manual_merge</code> attribute is
automatically set at add time for all &ldquo;binary&rdquo; files, i.e. all files
for which the <code>binary_file</code> hook returns true. 
Currently, this means all files with extension gif, jpeg, png, bz2, gz
and zip, plus files containing at least one of the following
bytes:

<pre class="smallexample">0x00 thru 0x06
0x0E thru 0x1a
0x1c thru 0x1f
</pre>
<p>The attribute could also be manually forced or removed using the
appropriate monotone commands. 
Remember that monotone switches to manual merging even if only one of
the files to be merged has the <code>manual_merge</code> attribute set.

<p><a name="Migrating-and-Dumping"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.15 Migrating and Dumping</h3>

<p>While the state of your database is logically captured in terms of a
packet stream, it is sometimes necessary or desirable (especially
while monotone is still in active development) to modify the SQL table
layout or storage parameters of your version database, or to make
backup copies of your database in plain text. These issues are not
properly addressed by generating packet streams: instead, you must use
<dfn>migration</dfn> or <dfn>dumping</dfn> commands.

<p>The <samp><span class="command">mtn db migrate</span></samp> command is used to alter the SQL
schema of a database. The schema of a monotone database is identified
by a special hash of its generating SQL, which is stored in the
database's auxiliary tables. Each version of monotone knows which
schema version it is able to work with, and it will refuse to operate
on databases with different schemas. When you run the
<samp><span class="command">migrate</span></samp> command, monotone looks in an internal list of SQL
logic which can be used to perform in-place upgrades. It applies
entries from this list, in order, attempting to change the database it
<em>has</em> into the database it <em>wants</em>. Each step of this
migration is checked to ensure no errors occurred and the resulting
schema hashes to the intended value. The migration is attempted inside
a transaction, so if it fails &mdash; for example if the result of
migration hashes to an unexpected value &mdash; the migration is aborted.

<p>If more drastic changes to the underlying database are made, such as
changing the page size of SQLite, or if you simply want to keep a
plain text version of your database on hand, the <samp><span class="command">mtn db
dump</span></samp> command can produce a plain ASCII SQL statement which generates
the state of your database. This dump can later be reloaded using the
<samp><span class="command">mtn db load</span></samp> command.

<p>Note that when reloading a dumped database, the schema of the dumped
database is <em>included</em> in the dump, so you should not try to
<samp><span class="command">init</span></samp> your database before a <samp><span class="command">load</span></samp>.

<p><a name="Importing-from-CVS"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.16 Importing from CVS</h3>

<p>Monotone is capable of reading CVS files directly and importing them
into a database. This feature is still somewhat immature, but
moderately large &ldquo;real world&rdquo; CVS trees on the order of 1GB have
successfully been imported.

<p>Note however that the machine requirements for CVS trees of this size
are not trivial: it can take several hours on a modern system to
reconstruct the history of such a tree and calculate the millions of
cryptographic certificates involved. We recommend experimenting with
smaller trees first, to get a feel for the import process.

<p>We will assume certain values for this example which will differ in your case:
     <ul>
<li>Your domain name, <code>example.net</code> in this example. 
<li>Your key name, <code>import@example.net</code> in this example. 
<li>Your project name, <code>wobbler</code> in this example. 
<li>Your database name, <samp><span class="file">test.mtn</span></samp> in this example. 
<li>Your CVS repository path, <samp><span class="file">/usr/local/cvsroot</span></samp> in this example. 
<li>The CVS module name for your project, <code>wobbler</code> in this example. 
</ul>

<p>Accounting for these differences at your site, the following is an
example procedure for importing a CVS repository &ldquo;from scratch&rdquo;, and
checking the resulting head version of the import out into a workspace:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=test.mtn db init
$ mtn --db=test.mtn genkey import@example.net
$ mtn --db=test.mtn --branch=net.example.wobbler cvs_import /usr/local/cvsroot/wobbler
$ mtn --db=test.mtn --branch=net.example.wobbler checkout wobber-checkout
</pre>
<p><a name="Exporting-to-GIT"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.17 Exporting to GIT</h3>

<p>Monotone is capable of exporting the contents of a database to
<code>stdout</code> in a form suitable to be piped to git-fast-import(1):

<pre class="smallexample">$ mkdir test.git
$ cd test.git
$ git init
$ mtn --db test.mtn git_export | git fast import
</pre>
<p>While this feature has been tested and verified to some extent with
various &ldquo;real-world&rdquo; monotone databases it is important to realize
that translating from one version control system to another can be a
lossy process. Git represents things somewhat differently than
monotone does and cannot fully represent some things that monotone
can. In particular git does not treat directories as first class
objects as monotone does and does not use certificates to represent
<code>author</code>, <code>date</code>, <code>branch</code> and <code>tag</code> values so
some differences are to be expected.

<p>Git separates the concept of <code>committer</code> from the concept of
<code>author</code> while monotone allows multiple <code>author</code> certs. In
an attempt to represent these different concepts the git exporter uses
the <em>value</em> of the author cert as the git author and the
<em>key</em> used to sign the author cert as the git committer. When
there are multiple author certs the git exporter arbitrarily choses
one of them. The full list of monotone certs may be exported in the
git commit message using the <samp><span class="option">--log-certs</span></samp> option described in
<a href="#GIT">GIT</a>.

<p>Monotone author names often look like raw email addresses such as
<code>"user@example.com"</code>. These are not considered valid by git
which requires the display name and leading `&lt;' and trailing `&gt;'
characters around email addresses such as <code>"User Name
&lt;user@example.com&gt;"</code>. The git exporter deals with this difference in
several ways:
     <ul>
<li>revisions that don't have any author certs will default to using
<code>Unknown &lt;unknown&gt;</code> for both the author and committer. 
<li>revisions that have one or more author certs will use the value of one
author cert as the author and the key used to sign this cert as
the committer. 
<li>both author and committer will be looked up in the file specified by
the <samp><span class="option">--authors-file</span></samp> option described in <a href="#GIT">GIT</a> and
translated to the specified value if found. 
<li>any author or committer value not found in the authors file will be
processed by the <code>unmapped_git_author</code> hook which may adjust the
value so that it represents a valid value. 
</ul>
All git author and committer values will be validated by the
<code>validate_git_author</code> hook before being written to the output
stream. The export will abort if any author or committer value is
rejected by the validation hook.

<p>Branch names used by monotone are allowed to contain characters that
are not considered valid by git. These may be mapped to other names
using the <samp><span class="option">--branches-file</span></samp> option described in <a href="#GIT">GIT</a>

<p>A monotone revision may have multiple <code>changelog</code> certs and
multiple <code>comment</code> certs. The git exporter deals with these by
first concatenating all of the changelog certs followed by all of the
comment certs into one message to use as the git commit
message. Duplicate changelog or comment cert messages that may exist
due to automated merges are removed.

<p>Exporting a database may be a time consuming and involved process,
depending on the size and nature of the database. A 200MB database
should export in less than an hour but may take several hours or
longer depending on factors such as hardware, revision sizes, roster
sizes and many others. The monotone process exporting such a database
should require less than 200MB of RAM but may require
<em>considerably</em> more in some cases. If the exported file is
written to disk it will likely be <em>substantially</em> larger than the
associated database, perhaps between 400MB to 4GB in size.

<p>Anyone using the git exporter must take full responsibility for
verifying that the exported repository matches their expectations and
requirements.

<p><a name="Using-packets"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.18 Using packets</h3>

<p>Suppose you made changes to your database, and want to send those
changes to someone else but for some reason you cannot use netsync.  Or
maybe you want to extract and inject individual revisions automatically
via an external program. In this case, you can convert the information
into packets. Packets are a convenient way to represent revisions and
other database contents as plain text with wrapped lines &ndash; just what
you need if you want to send them in the body of an email.

<p>This is a tutorial on how to transfer single revisions between
databases by dumping them from one database to a text file and then
reading the dump into a second database.

<p>We will create two databases, A and B, then create a few revisions in
A, and transfer part of them to B.

<p>First we initialize the databases:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn -d A db init
$ mtn -d B db init
</pre>
<p>Now set up a branch in A:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn -d A setup -b test test
</pre>
<p>And let's put some revisions in that branch:

<pre class="smallexample">$ cd test/
$ cat &gt; file
xyz
^D
$ mtn add file
$ mtn ci -m "One"    <i>You may need to select a key and type a passphrase here</i>
$ cat &gt; file2
file 2 getting in
^D
$ cat &gt; file
ERASE
^D
$ mtn add file2
$ mtn ci -m "Two"
$ cat &gt; file
THIRD
^D
$ mtn ci -m "Three"
</pre>
<p>OK, that's enough.  Let's see what we have:

<pre class="smallexample">$ cd ..
$ mtn -d A automate select i: | mtn -d A automate toposort -
a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714
d14e89582ad9030e1eb62f563c8721be02ca0b65
151f1fb125f19ebe11eb8bfe3a5798fcbea4e736
</pre>
<p>Three revisions! Let's transfer the first one to the database B. First we
get the meta-information on that revision:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn -d A automate get_revision a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714
format_version "1"

new_manifest [b6dbdbbe0e7f41e44d9b72f9fe29b1f1a4f47f18]

old_revision []

add_dir ""

add_file "file"
 content [8714e0ef31edb00e33683f575274379955b3526c]
</pre>
<p>OK, one file was added in this revision. We'll transfer it. Now, <em>ORDER MATTERS</em>! 
We should transfer:

     <ol type=1 start=1>
<li>The file data (fdata) and file deltas (fdeltas), if any
<li>The release data (rdata)
<li>The certs
     </ol>

<p>In that order. This is because certs make reference to release data, and release data
makes reference to file data and file deltas.

<pre class="smallexample">mtn -d A automate packet_for_fdata 8714e0ef31edb00e33683f575274379955b3526c &gt; PACKETS
mtn -d A automate packet_for_rdata a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714 &gt;&gt; PACKETS
mtn -d A automate packets_for_certs a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714 &gt;&gt; PACKETS
mtn -d B read &lt; PACKETS
</pre>
<p>This revision (a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714) was already sent to database
B. You may want to check the PACKETS file to see what the packets look like.

<p>Now let's transfer one more revision:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn -d A automate get_revision d14e89582ad9030e1eb62f563c8721be02ca0b65
format_version "1"

new_manifest [48a03530005d46ed9c31c8f83ad96c4fa22b8b28]

old_revision [a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714]

add_file "file2"
 content [d2178687226560032947c1deacb39d16a16ea5c6]

patch "file"
 from [8714e0ef31edb00e33683f575274379955b3526c]
   to [8b52d96d4fab6c1e56d6364b0a2673f4111b228e]
</pre>
<p>From what we see, in this revision we have one new file and one patch, so we do the
same we did before for them:

<pre class="smallexample">mtn -d A automate packet_for_fdata d2178687226560032947c1deacb39d16a16ea5c6 &gt; PACKETS2
mtn -d A automate packet_for_fdelta 8714e0ef31edb00e33683f575274379955b3526c 8b52d96d4fab6c1e56d6364b0a2673f4111b228e &gt;&gt; PACKETS2
mtn -d A automate packet_for_rdata d14e89582ad9030e1eb62f563c8721be02ca0b65 &gt;&gt; PACKETS2
mtn -d A automate packets_for_certs d14e89582ad9030e1eb62f563c8721be02ca0b65 &gt;&gt; PACKETS2
mtn -d B read &lt; PACKETS2
</pre>
<p>Fine. The two revisions should be in the second database now. 
Let's take a look at what's in each database:

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn -d A automate select i: | mtn -d A automate toposort -
a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714
d14e89582ad9030e1eb62f563c8721be02ca0b65
151f1fb125f19ebe11eb8bfe3a5798fcbea4e736

$ mtn -d B automate select i: | mtn -d B automate toposort -
a423db0ad651c74e41ab2529eca6f17513ccf714
d14e89582ad9030e1eb62f563c8721be02ca0b65
</pre>
<p>Good! B has the two first revisions (as expected), and A has all three. However, a checkout
of that branch on B will not work, because the certificate signatures cannot be verified. 
We need to transfer the signatures too (suppose the key used had the ID <code>"johndoe@domain.com"</code>):

<pre class="smallexample">mtn -d A pubkey johndoe@domain.com &gt; KEY_PACKETS
mtn -d B read &lt; KEY_PACKETS
</pre>
<p>Done.

<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn -d B co -b test test-B
$ ls test-B
file2  _MTN  x
$ more test-B/file2
file 2 getting in
</pre>
<p>And that's it! The revisions were successfully transferred.

<p><a name="Bisecting"></a>

<h3 class="section">3.19 Bisecting</h3>

<p>Bisecting is an efficient means of finding the earliest revision that
introduced a bug known to exist in some later revision. Given a set of
&ldquo;good&rdquo; earlier revisions that do not contain the bug and a set of
&ldquo;bad&rdquo; later revisions that do contain the bug <samp><span class="command">bisect</span></samp>
performs a binary search over the set of revisions between these two
sets to identify the specific revision that introduced the bug.

<p>Bisection is started by marking revisions with the <samp><span class="command">bisect
good</span></samp> and <samp><span class="command">bisect bad</span></samp> commands. Once both good and bad
revisions have been specified the set of candidate revisions between
the good and bad revisions is determined. The midpoint of this set is
selected as the next revision to be tested and the workspace is
updated to this selected revision. After the selected revision has
been tested bisection continues when the revision is marked with
<samp><span class="command">bisect good</span></samp> or <samp><span class="command">bisect bad</span></samp>. If the selected
revision is marked as good, it and all of its ancestors are considered
to be good and excluded from the remaining search set. If the selected
revision is marked as bad, all of its descendants are considered to be
bad and excluded from the remaining search set. After each selected
revision is marked as good or bad the size of the remaining search set
is halved.

<p>Revisions that are untestable for some reason (e.g. they don't
compile) may be ignored with the <samp><span class="command">bisect skip</span></samp> command. This
excludes the specified revisions from the candidate set and allows the
bisection operation to continue. Skipping revisions may cause the
search to fail or end on the wrong revision if the revision being
searched for is skipped.

<p>If the workspace is updated to some unrelated revision during a
bisection operation the <samp><span class="command">bisect update</span></samp> command can be used to
update back to the next revision selected for bisection. This command
can also be used if a previous <samp><span class="command">bisect good</span></samp>, <samp><span class="command">bisect
bad</span></samp> or <samp><span class="command">bisect skip</span></samp> command fails to update the workspace
due to the existence of conflicting unversioned paths.

<p>The current status of the bisection operation and the next revision to
be tested is reported by the <samp><span class="command">bisect status</span></samp> command. This
command can be run at any stage of the bisection operation to see how
many revisions remain to be tested and how many revisions have been
ruled out.

<p>Currently <samp><span class="command">bisect</span></samp> updates the workspace but does <em>not</em>
update the workspace <samp><span class="option">branch</span></samp> option. This may leave the
workspace at a revision that is <em>not</em> in the branch specified by
the workspace <samp><span class="option">branch</span></samp> option and cause subsequent commits to
be made to the wrong branch. To help avoid this error the
<samp><span class="command">status</span></samp> command will indicate when the workspace branch does
not match any of the parent revision branches. Take care when
committing new revisions during a bisection operation and be sure to
use the <samp><span class="command">bisect reset</span></samp> command once the bisection is complete
to update the workspace back to the revision from which the bisection
started.

<p>The bisection operation completes successfully when the last remaining
revision is marked as &ldquo;bad&rdquo;.  If the last remaining revision is
marked as &ldquo;good&rdquo; the bisection fails without finding the initial bad
revision.

<p>Once bisection is complete the workspace can be updated back to the
starting revision with the <samp><span class="command">bisect reset</span></samp> command. This
command also removes all stored bisection information in preparation
for future bisect operations.

<p><a name="CVS-Phrasebook"></a>

<h2 class="chapter">4 CVS Phrasebook</h2>

<p>This chapter translates common CVS commands into monotone commands. It
is an easy alternative to reading through the complete command
reference.

<h3 class="heading">Checking Out a Tree</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ CVSROOT=:pserver:cvs.foo.com/wobbler
$ cvs -d $CVSROOT checkout -r 1.2
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn pull www.foo.com com.foo.wobbler*
$ mtn checkout --revision=fe37 wobbler
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>The CVS command contacts a network server, retrieves a revision, and
stores it in your workspace. There are two cosmetic differences
with the monotone command: remote databases are specified by hostnames
and globs, and revisions are denoted by <span class="sc">sha1</span> values (or
selectors).

<p>There is also one deep difference: pulling revisions into your
database is a separate step from checking out a single revision; after
you have pulled from a network server, your database will contain
<em>several</em> revisions, possibly the entire history of a
project. Checking out is a separate step, after communication, which
only copies a particular revision out of your database and into a named
directory.

<h3 class="heading">Committing Changes</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs commit -m "log message"
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn commit --message="log message"
$ mtn push www.foo.com com.foo.wobbler*
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>As with other networking commands, the communication step with
monotone is explicit: committing changes only saves them to the local
database. A separate command, <samp><span class="command">push</span></samp>, sends the changes to a
remote database.

<h3 class="heading">Undoing Changes</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs update -C file
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn revert file
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>Unlike CVS, monotone includes a separate <samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp> command for
undoing local changes and restoring the workspace to the original
contents of the base revision. Because this can be dangerous,
<samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp> insists on an explicit argument to name the files or
directories to be reverted; use the current directory "<samp><span class="file">.</span></samp>" at the
top of the workspace to revert everything.  The <samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp> command
is also used to restore deleted files (with a convenient
<samp><span class="option">--missing</span></samp> option for naming these files).

<p>In CVS, you would need to use <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> to restore missing or
changed files, and you might get back a newer version of the file than
you started with. In monotone, <samp><span class="command">revert</span></samp> always takes you back to
where you started, and the <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> command is only used to move
the workspace to a different (usually newer) base revision.

<h3 class="heading">Incorporating New Changes</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs update -d
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn pull www.foo.com com.foo.wobbler*
$ mtn merge
$ mtn update
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>This command, like other networking commands, involves a separate
communication step with monotone. The extra command, <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp>,
ensures that the branch your are working on has a unique head. You can
omit the <samp><span class="command">merge</span></samp> step if you only want <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> to
examine descendants of your base revision, and ignore other heads on
your branch.

<h3 class="heading">Tagging Revisions</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs tag FOO_TAG .
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn tag h: FOO_TAG
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>With CVS, tags are placed on individual files, and the closest thing to
identifying a consistent repository-wide revision is a set of files with
the same tag.  In monotone, all changes are part of a repository-wide
revision, and some of those revisions may be tagged.  Monotone has no
partial tags that apply only to a subset of files.

<h3 class="heading">Moving Workspace to Another Revision</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs update -r FOO_TAG -d
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn update -r 830ac1a5f033825ab364f911608ec294fe37f7bc
$ mtn update -r t:FOO_TAG
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>With a revision parameter, the <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> command operates
similarly in monotone and CVS. One difference is that a subsequent
<samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp> will be based off the chosen revision in monotone,
while a <samp><span class="command">commit</span></samp> in the CVS case is not possible without going
back to the branch head again.  This version of <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> can
thus be very useful if, for example, you discover that the tree you are
working against is somehow broken &mdash; you can <samp><span class="command">update</span></samp> to an
older non-broken version, and continue to work normally while waiting
for the tree to be fixed.

<h3 class="heading">Viewing Differences</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs diff
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn diff
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs diff -r 1.2 -r 1.4 myfile
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn diff -r 3e7db -r 278df myfile
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>Monotone's <samp><span class="command">diff</span></samp> command is modeled on that of CVS, so the
main features are the same: <samp><span class="command">diff</span></samp> alone prints the
differences between your workspace and its base revision, whereas
<samp><span class="command">diff</span></samp> accompanied by two revision numbers prints the
difference between those two revisions. The major difference between
CVS and monotone here is that monotone's revision numbers are
<em>revision IDs</em>, rather than file IDs.  If one leaves off the file
argument, then diff can print the difference between two entire trees.

<h3 class="heading">Showing Workspace Status</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs status
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn status
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>This command operates similarly in monotone and CVS. The only major
difference is that monotone's <samp><span class="command">status</span></samp> command always gives a
status of the whole tree, and outputs a more compact summary than CVS.

<h3 class="heading">Adding Directories and Files to Workspace</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs add dir
$ cvs add dir/subdir
$ cvs add dir/subdir/file.txt
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn add dir/subdir/file.txt
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>Monotone does not explicitly store directories, so adding a file only
involves adding the file's complete path, including any directories. 
Directories are created as needed, and empty directories are ignored.

<h3 class="heading">Removing Directories and Files from Workspace</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ rm file.txt
$ cvs remove file.txt
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn drop file.txt
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>Monotone does not require that you erase a file from the workspace
before you drop it. Dropping a file both removes its entry in the
manifest of the current revision and removes it from the filesystem.

<h3 class="heading">Viewing History</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs log [file]
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn log [file]
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>Unlike CVS log, monotone log can also be used without a workspace; but
in this case you must pass a <samp><span class="option">--from</span></samp> revision argument to tell
monotone where to start displaying the log from.

<h3 class="heading">Importing a New Project</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs import wobbler vendor start
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn --db=/path/to/database.mtn --branch=com.foo.wobbler setup .
$ mtn add -R .
$ mtn commit
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>The <samp><span class="command">setup</span></samp> command turns an ordinary directory into a
monotone workspace.  After that, you can add your files and commit
them as usual.

<h3 class="heading">Initializing a Repository</h3>

<p><table summary=""><tr align="left"><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ cvs init -d /path/to/repository
</pre>
<p></td><td valign="top" width="40%">
<pre class="smallexample">$ mtn db init --db=/path/to/database.mtn
</pre>
<p><br></td></tr></table>

<p>Monotone's &ldquo;repository&rdquo; is a single-file database, which is created
and initialized by this command. This file is only ever used by you,
and does not need to be in any special location, or readable by other
users.

<p><a name="Command-Reference"></a>

<h2 class="chapter">5 Command Reference</h2>

<p>Monotone has a large number of commands. To help navigate through them
all, commands are grouped into logical categories.

<p><a name="Tree"></a>

<h3 class="section">5.1 Tree</h3>

     <dl>
<dt><samp><span class="command">mtn cat </spa