File: mrb

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mrb 0.3
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#!/usr/bin/make -f
#
# mrb make/rsync backup system
#
# Copyright 2006 - 2014, Ron Lee.
# This file is distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL version 2.
#
# WARNING: Misconfigured and/or buggy backup systems can easily
#                      DESTROY YOUR PRECIOUS DATA
#          No warranty is, or can be, made against this happening
#          to you.  Your only protection is your own care and
#          vigilance.  This script is very simple, and should be
#          reasonably easy to audit for correctness according to
#          your particular needs.  You are strongly encouraged to
#          carefully test any new configuration, or release of it,
#          before deploying it on your only copy of critical data.
#
#          I may be a nice guy, and you may not even feel the need
#          to lock up your daughters or other valuables, but don't
#          trust me with your data.  Please.  It's too flimsy to
#          leave in the hands of someone whose attention is busy
#          enough worrying about their own.  Your help to make sure
#          nobody will ever have to read this warning 'in anger'
#          will be greatly appreciated.  So, on to the good bits ...
#
# -------------------------------------------------------------------
# Configurable fundamentals.

# A couple of simple axioms to kick things off.
override THIS_MAKEFILE := $(lastword $(MAKEFILE_LIST))

SHELL = /bin/bash

GLOBAL_CONFDIR = /etc
USER_CONFDIR   = ~/.mrb
USER_DEFAULTS  = $(USER_CONFDIR)/defaults

# Permit an expert user to reconfigure MRB_CONFDIR from an external file.
# There probably isn't much else you'd want to tweak there, but read on
# (carefully) if you really feel the need...
-include $(GLOBAL_CONFDIR)/default/mrb
-include $(USER_DEFAULTS)


# The directories to search for module definitions.
# A space separated list if multiple.  They are included in the order
# listed, but new modules will be added to only in the last one provided
# by default.
MRB_CONFDIR ?= $(GLOBAL_CONFDIR)/mrb $(USER_CONFDIR)

-include $(addsuffix /*.mrc,$(MRB_CONFDIR))


# Some basic environment for the operations to come.
USER ?= $(shell id -un)

# No need for --delete if we are linking into a barren dir.
RSYNC         = rsync
RSYNC_OPTIONS = --super -ahivS
DATESTAMP    := $(shell date +%Y%m%d-%H.%M)


# -------------------------------------------------------------------
# The rules.

# Default target explains how to press this button again properly.
default: help


# Convenience target for creating the skeleton of a new module.
new-%: NEW_FILE = $(lastword $(MRB_CONFDIR))/$*.mrc
new-%:

	@if [ -z "$(MRB_CONFDIR)" ]; then				\
	    echo; echo " Error: MRB_CONFDIR unset?  Aborting."; echo;	\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi
	@if [[ "$*" =~ [^[:alnum:]_] ]]; then				\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  Error: Invalid Module name.  Names must consist of";\
	    echo "         only alphanumeric characters or underscore.";\
	    echo;							\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi
	@mkdir -p $(dir $(NEW_FILE))
	@if [ -e $(NEW_FILE) ]; then					\
	    echo; echo "  Module '$*' already exists.  Stopping."; echo;\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi

	@if [ ! -e $(USER_DEFAULTS) ]; then				\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  Creating $(USER_DEFAULTS)";				\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "Edit this file to configure logging of transfers, or";\
	    echo "enable root 'sync' operations to create snapshots of";\
	    echo "other users' modules also.";				\
	    								\
	    echo "# This file configures mrb default settings for '$(USER)'" > $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo "# It was created on $(shell date) by $(THIS_MAKEFILE)" >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);					\
	    echo "# An optional file path to log transfer details to." >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo "MRB_SNAPSHOT_LOG = ~/.mrb/snapshot.log" >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);					\
	    echo "# A space separated list of users to include in a 'sync'." >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo "# This is typically only useful for the root user, as" >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo "# the identity of each user listed here is assumed when" >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo "# performing the sync of their modules." >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);\
	    echo "#MRB_SYNC_USERS = " >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);		\
	    echo >> $(USER_DEFAULTS);					\
	fi

	@echo
	@echo "  Creating skeleton $(NEW_FILE) ..."

	@echo "# This is the configuration file for the mrb snapshot module '$*'." > $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# It was created on $(shell date) for $(USER)" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# by $(THIS_MAKEFILE)" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# A space separated list of the source files and directories to be" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# included in snapshots of this module.  These may be remote urls." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Specifying this is mandatory." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_SRC = " >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# The (local) directory root where the snapshots should be stored." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Specifying this is mandatory." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_DEST = " >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# A pattern list for files under '$*_SRC' to explicitly include" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# in the snapshot.  Specifying this is optional." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# See rsync(1) for syntax details." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_INCLUDE = *.o/ *.d/ core/ *.a/ *.dll/ *.mo/ *.lo/ *.la/ *.so/ \\" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#             *.init.d .*.s[a-w][a-z]/ .s[a-w][a-z]/" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# A pattern list for files under '$*_SRC' to explicitly exclude" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# from the snapshot.  Specifying this is optional." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# See rsync(1) for syntax details." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_EXCLUDE = *.o *.d core *.a *.dll *.gch *.mo *.lo *.la .libs/ \\" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#             *.so *.so.[0-9] *.so.[0-9].[0-9] *.so.[0-9].[0-9].[0-9] \\" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#             .*.s[a-w][a-z] .s[a-w][a-z]" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# An rsync filter rule to apply for the snapshot." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Specifying this is optional.  See rsync(1) for syntax details." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_FILTER = " >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# The file-name for an rsync per-directory filter to use if found." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Specifying this is optional.  See rsync(1) for syntax details" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# of 'dir-merge' filters.  This is the name the file must match." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# The default given here will scan all dirs from $*_SRC down." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Remove the leading '/' to search only the actual directory" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# that is being transferred." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_FILTER_FILE = /.mrb-rsync-filter" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Optional additional rsync options to pass verbatim." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_RSYNC_OPTIONS = --relative --prune-empty-dirs" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# An optional shell command to execute before making the snapshot." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# If the command does not return a successful exit status, then the" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# snapshot creation will be aborted before it begins." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# It may be used to mount $*_DEST on removable media or similar." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_PRECOMMAND = mount /mnt/backup" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# An optional shell command to execute after making the snapshot." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# It will not be called if the snaphot creation failed at an earlier" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# stage.  It's exit status will be passed to the user, but nothing" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# remains to be done with it at this level." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# It may be used, for example, to unmount removable media again." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "#$*_POSTCOMMAND = umount /mnt/backup" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# An optional user name to check before performing a snapshot." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# This can be used to ensure you have the correct permisson to" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# access the files being mirrored before you get too far." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "$*_USER = $(USER)" >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "# Do not remove or edit this entry, it is used internally by mrb." >> $(NEW_FILE)
	@echo "$*_CONFIG = \$$(lastword \$$(MAKEFILE_LIST))" >> $(NEW_FILE)

	@echo
	@echo "Please edit this file now to define the details of the"
	@echo "snapshot which you would like it to create."
	@echo


# Some basic checks shared by multiple operations.
define BASIC_SANITY
	if [ -z "$($*_CONFIG)" ]; then					\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  No module '$*'.  Aborting backup run.";		\
	    echo "  You may create it with: \`$(THIS_MAKEFILE) new-$*\`";\
	    echo;							\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi;								\
	if [ -z "$($*_SRC)" ]; then					\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  Module $*_SRC not defined.  Aborting backup run.";	\
	    echo "  Edit $($*_CONFIG) first, then try again.";		\
	    echo;							\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi;								\
	if [ -z "$($*_DEST)" ]; then					\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  Module $*_DEST not defined.  Aborting backup run.";	\
	    echo "  Edit $($*_CONFIG) first, then try again.";		\
	    echo;							\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi
	if [ -n "$($*_USER)" ] && [ "$($*_USER)" != "$(USER)" ]; then	\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  Module requires user '$($*_USER)'.  Aborting backup run.";\
	    echo "  Edit $($*_CONFIG), or run as the required user.";	\
	    echo;							\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi
endef


# Convenience target for initialising a new module destination dir.
# The snapshot target cowardly refuses to create new destinations
# as a basic sanity trap.
# Note: The pre- and post-commands are not run for this target.
dest-%:

	@$(BASIC_SANITY)
	@echo;
	@echo "  Creating '$($*_DEST)' dir"
	@echo;
	@mkdir -p $($*_DEST)


# Syntax highlighting hack for the quote removal operation.
DOUBLE_QUOTE := "
#"

# Helper target for issuing (more or less) arbitrary post-commands.
do_postcommand-%:

	@[ x"$(subst $(DOUBLE_QUOTE),_,$($*_POSTCOMMAND))" = x ] ||	\
	    echo "Executing post-commands:"
	$($*_POSTCOMMAND)


# The real worker target, creates a snapshot of some module.
do_snap-%: LAST_SNAP = $(notdir $(lastword $(sort $(wildcard $($*_DEST)/$*-*.mrb))))
do_snap-%: THIS_SNAP = $($*_DEST)/$*-$(DATESTAMP).mrb
do_snap-%: RSYNC_OPTIONS += $(addprefix --link-dest=,$(addprefix ../,$(LAST_SNAP)))
do_snap-%: RSYNC_OPTIONS += $(addprefix --include=',$(addsuffix ',$($*_INCLUDE)))
do_snap-%: RSYNC_OPTIONS += $(addprefix --exclude=',$(addsuffix ',$($*_EXCLUDE)))
do_snap-%: RSYNC_OPTIONS += $(addprefix --filter=',$(addsuffix ',$($*_FILTER)))
do_snap-%: RSYNC_OPTIONS += $(addprefix --filter=': ,$(addsuffix ',$($*_FILTER_FILE)))
do_snap-%: RSYNC_OPTIONS += $($*_RSYNC_OPTIONS)
do_snap-%: LOG_OUTPUT = $(addprefix 2>&1 | tee -a ,$(MRB_SNAPSHOT_LOG))
do_snap-%:

#	Begin with a little more sanity checking

	@for s in $($*_SRC); do						\
	    if [ ! -r "$$s" ]; then					\
		if [[ $$s == *:* ]]; then continue; fi;			\
		echo;							\
		echo "  Source '$$s' does not exist or is not readable.";\
	        echo "  Aborting backup run.";				\
		echo;							\
	        $(THIS_MAKEFILE) --no-print-directory do_postcommand-$*;\
		exit 1;							\
	    fi;								\
	done
	@if [ ! -d $($*_DEST) ]; then					\
	    echo;							\
	    echo "  Destination dir '$($*_DEST)' does not exist.";	\
	    echo "  Aborting backup run.";				\
	    echo "  If this destination is correct, but new, you may create it now";\
	    echo "  with the command: \`$(THIS_MAKEFILE) dest-$*\`";	\
	    echo;							\
	    $(THIS_MAKEFILE) --no-print-directory do_postcommand-$*;	\
	    exit 1;							\
	fi

#	Tell 'em what we're going to do.

	@echo
	@echo " Making $*-$(DATESTAMP) snapshot"
	@echo "  from: $($*_SRC)"
	@echo "  to  : $($*_DEST)"
	@[ -z "$($*_INCLUDE)" ] || echo "  include : $($*_INCLUDE)"
	@[ -z "$($*_EXCLUDE)" ] || echo "  exclude : $($*_EXCLUDE)"
	@[ -z "$($*_FILTER)" ]  || echo "  filter  : $($*_FILTER)"
	@if [ -z "$(LAST_SNAP)" ]; then					\
	    echo " Performing full copy.";				\
	else								\
	    echo " Incremental update based on '$(LAST_SNAP)'";		\
	fi
	@echo

#	Do it.

	@mkdir $(THIS_SNAP)
	@(echo; echo "    ==== $(THIS_SNAP) ===="; echo)          >> $(MRB_SNAPSHOT_LOG)
	@echo "==> $(RSYNC) $(RSYNC_OPTIONS) $($*_SRC) $(THIS_SNAP)" $(LOG_OUTPUT)
	@$(RSYNC) $(RSYNC_OPTIONS) $($*_SRC) $(THIS_SNAP)            $(LOG_OUTPUT)
	@echo                                                        $(LOG_OUTPUT)

	@[ x"$(MRB_SNAPSHOT_LOG)" = x ] || echo "Logged transfer to '$(MRB_SNAPSHOT_LOG)'"


# Main user entry-point for creating new snapshots.
# We do any PRECOMMAND's here, before forwarding to the main worker target,
# as they may be needed to prepare the source and/or dest mount points
# before the target specific variables are assigned their final values.
snap-%:

	@$(BASIC_SANITY)

	@[ -z "$(subst $(DOUBLE_QUOTE),_,$($*_PRECOMMAND))" ] || echo "Executing pre-commands:"
	$($*_PRECOMMAND)

	@$(THIS_MAKEFILE) --no-print-directory do_$@
	@$(THIS_MAKEFILE) --no-print-directory do_postcommand-$*

#	Tell 'em its done.

	@echo; echo "All done.  You may resume normal breathing patterns now."


# Helper target for multiple user sync.
user_sync-%:

	@echo; echo "Begin sync for '$*'"
	@su - $* -c '$(THIS_MAKEFILE) --no-print-directory sync'


# Convenience target to create a snapshot of all defined modules.
# If called by an ordinary user, it will find all the modules
# available to that user.  If MRB_SYNC_USERS contains a list of
# users, it will try to sync for them as well.  Typically this is
# only useful for root, as we must assume their identity to
# reliably perform that task.
sync: $(addprefix snap-,$(notdir $(basename $(foreach d,		\
                        $(MRB_CONFDIR),$(wildcard $(d)/*.mrc)))))	\
      $(addprefix user_sync-,$(MRB_SYNC_USERS))

	@echo "Full sync for '$(USER)' done"


# Convenience target to check the required config files are available.
info:

	@echo
	@echo "$(THIS_MAKEFILE) is reading the following configuration files:"
	@for f in $(filter-out $(THIS_MAKEFILE),$(MAKEFILE_LIST)); do	\
	    echo "  $$f";						\
	 done
	@echo "as user '$(USER)'."
	@echo


# If I have to explain this one, then I guess you are just reading this
# 'for the articles' -- but I hope you'll have enjoyed it anyway...
help:

	@echo
	@echo "Usage: $(THIS_MAKEFILE) <command>"
	@echo
	@echo "mrb is a simple, on demand, backup system for taking a snapshot"
	@echo "of a set of directories.  The following commands are recognised"
	@echo "(where 'MODULE' is the name of one of your snapshot definitions):"
	@echo
	@echo " new-MODULE  - Create a skeleton definition for a new snapshot 'MODULE'."
	@echo " dest-MODULE - Create the destination dir for 'MODULE'."
	@echo "               This directory must exist to create a snapshot."
	@echo
	@echo " snap-MODULE - Create a snapshot of 'MODULE'."
	@echo " sync        - Create snapshots of all defined modules."
	@echo "               If run as root this may be configured to include"
	@echo "               the modules of other users too (see MRB_SYNC_USERS"
	@echo "               in ~/.mrb/defaults)."
	@echo
	@echo " info        - Report on the available config and module files."
	@echo " help        - Display this text again."
	@echo


.PHONY: default info help

# TODO:
#       How to link back to the last N snapshots if useful.. ?
#       (note you can presently override the value of LAST_SNAP, or
#       add additional --link-dest commands via module_RSYNC_OPTIONS)
#       Support for per-user precommand and postcommands instead
#       of executing the same ones repeatedly for each snapshot.
#       Report on file additions/removals since the last incremental.