File: INSTALL-SOURCE

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mysql-5.1 5.1.73-1%2Bdeb6u1
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file content (9609 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 441,327 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
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Chapter 2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL

   This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL. A summary
   of the procedure follows and later sections provide the details.
   If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer
   version rather than install MySQL for the first time, see Section
   2.13.1, "Upgrading MySQL," for information about upgrade
   procedures and about issues that you should consider before
   upgrading.

   If you are interested in migrating to MySQL from another database
   system, you may wish to read Section B.8, "MySQL 5.1 FAQ:
   Migration," which contains answers to some common questions
   concerning migration issues.

   If you are migrating from MySQL Enterprise Edition to MySQL
   Community Server, see Section 2.13.2.2, "Downgrading from MySQL
   Enterprise Edition to MySQL Community Server."

   Installation of MySQL generally follows the steps outlined here:

    1. Determine whether MySQL runs and is supported on your
       platform.
       Please note that not all platforms are equally suitable for
       running MySQL, and that not all platforms on which MySQL is
       known to run are officially supported by Oracle Corporation:

    2. Choose which distribution to install.
       Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are
       available in several distribution formats. You can choose from
       pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled)
       programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary
       distribution. We also provide public access to our current
       source tree for those who want to see our most recent
       developments and help us test new code. To determine which
       version and type of distribution you should use, see Section
       2.1.2, "Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install."

    3. Download the distribution that you want to install.
       For instructions, see Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL." To
       verify the integrity of the distribution, use the instructions
       in Section 2.1.4, "Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5
       Checksums or GnuPG."

    4. Install the distribution.
       To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the
       instructions in Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux
       Using Generic Binaries."
       To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the
       current development source tree, use the instructions in
       Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source."

    5. Perform any necessary postinstallation setup.
       After installing MySQL, see Section 2.12, "Postinstallation
       Setup and Testing" for information about making sure the MySQL
       server is working properly. Also refer to the information
       provided in Section 2.12.2, "Securing the Initial MySQL
       Accounts." This section describes how to secure the initial
       MySQL user accounts, which have no passwords until you assign
       passwords. The section applies whether you install MySQL using
       a binary or source distribution.

    6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support
       for MySQL must be available. See Section 2.15, "Perl
       Installation Notes."

   Instructions for installing MySQL on different platforms and
   environments is available on a platform by platform basis:

     * Unix, Linux, FreeBSD
       For instructions on installing MySQL on most Linux and Unix
       platforms using a generic binary (for example, a .tar.gz
       package), see Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux
       Using Generic Binaries."
       For information on building MySQL entirely from the source
       code distributions or the source code repositories, see
       Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source"
       For specific platform help on installation, configuration, and
       building from source see the corresponding platform section:

          + Linux, including notes on distribution specific methods,
            see Section 2.5, "Installing MySQL on Linux."

          + Solaris and OpenSolaris, including PKG and IPS formats,
            see Section 2.6, "Installing MySQL on Solaris and
            OpenSolaris."

          + IBM AIX, see Section 2.6, "Installing MySQL on Solaris
            and OpenSolaris."

          + Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, including the DEPOT package
            format, see Section 2.8, "Installing MySQL on HP-UX."

          + FreeBSD, see Section 2.9, "Installing MySQL on FreeBSD."

     * Microsoft Windows
       For instructions on installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows,
       using either a Zipped binary or an MSI package, see Section
       2.3, "Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows."
       For information on using the MySQL Server Instance Config
       Wizard, see Section 2.3.5, "Using the MySQL Server Instance
       Config Wizard."
       For details and instructions on building MySQL from source
       code using Microsoft Visual Studio, see Section 2.11.7,
       "Installing MySQL from Source on Windows."

     * Mac OS X
       For installation on Mac OS X, including using both the binary
       package and native PKG formats, see Section 2.4, "Installing
       MySQL on Mac OS X."
       For information on making use of the MySQL Startup Item to
       automatically start and stop MySQL, see Section 2.4.3,
       "Installing the MySQL Startup Item."
       For information on the MySQL Preference Pane, see Section
       2.4.4, "Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane."

     * IBM i5/OS
       For instructions on installing, starting, and stopping MySQL
       on i5/OS, see Section 2.10, "Installing MySQL on i5/OS."

2.1. General Installation Guidance

   The immediately following sections contain the information
   necessary to choose, download, and verify your distribution. The
   instructions in later sections of the chapter describe how to
   install the distribution that you choose. For binary
   distributions, see the instructions at Section 2.2, "Installing
   MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries" or the corresponding
   section for your platform if available. To build MySQL from
   source, use the instructions in Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL
   from Source."

2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server

   This section lists the operating systems on which MySQL Community
   Server is known to run.
   Important

   Oracle Corporation does not necessarily provide official support
   for all the platforms listed in this section. For information
   about those platforms that are officially supported, see
   http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on
   the MySQL Web site.

   We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern
   systems that have a C++ compiler and a working implementation of
   POSIX threads. (Thread support is needed for the server. To
   compile only the client code, the only requirement is a C++
   compiler.)

   MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following
   systems:

     * AIX 4.x, 5.x. See Section 2.7, "Installing MySQL on IBM AIX."
       AIX 5.3 should be upgraded to technology level 7 (5300-07).

     * FreeBSD 5.x and up. See Section 2.9, "Installing MySQL on
       FreeBSD."

     * HP-UX 11.x. See Section 2.8, "Installing MySQL on HP-UX."

     * Linux. Builds on all recent Linux distributions based on the
       2.6 kernel. See Section 2.5, "Installing MySQL on Linux."

     * Mac OS X. See Section 2.4, "Installing MySQL on Mac OS X."

     * Solaris 2.8 on SPARC and x86. See Section 2.6, "Installing
       MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris."

     * Microsoft Windows. See Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on
       Microsoft Windows."

   MySQL has also been known to run on other systems in the past. See
   Section 2.1, "General Installation Guidance." Some porting effort
   might be required for current versions of MySQL on these systems.

   Not all platforms are equally well-suited for running MySQL. How
   well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission-critical
   MySQL server is determined by the following factors:

     * General stability of the thread library. A platform may have
       an excellent reputation otherwise, but MySQL is only as stable
       as the thread library it calls, even if everything else is
       perfect.

     * The capability of the kernel and the thread library to take
       advantage of symmetric multi-processor (SMP) systems. In other
       words, when a process creates a thread, it should be possible
       for that thread to run on a CPU different from the original
       process.

     * The capability of the kernel and the thread library to run
       many threads that acquire and release a mutex over a short
       critical region frequently without excessive context switches.
       If the implementation of pthread_mutex_lock() is too anxious
       to yield CPU time, this hurts MySQL tremendously. If this
       issue is not taken care of, adding extra CPUs actually makes
       MySQL slower.

     * General file system stability and performance.

     * Table size. If your tables are large, performance is affected
       by the ability of the file system to deal with large files and
       dealing with them efficiently.

     * Our level of expertise here at Oracle Corporation with the
       platform. If we know a platform well, we enable
       platform-specific optimizations and fixes at compile time. We
       can also provide advice on configuring your system optimally
       for MySQL.

     * The amount of testing we have done internally for similar
       configurations.

     * The number of users that have run MySQL successfully on the
       platform in similar configurations. If this number is high,
       the likelihood of encountering platform-specific surprises is
       much smaller.

2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install

   When preparing to install MySQL, you should decide which version
   to use. MySQL development occurs in several release series, and
   you can pick the one that best fits your needs. After deciding
   which version to install, you can choose a distribution format.
   Releases are available in binary or source format.

2.1.2.1. Choosing Which Version of MySQL to Install

   The first decision to make is whether you want to use a production
   (stable) release or a development release. In the MySQL
   development process, multiple release series co-exist, each at a
   different stage of maturity.

Production Releases


     * MySQL 5.6: Latest General Availability (Production) release

     * MySQL 5.5: Previous General Availability (Production) release

     * MySQL 5.1: Older General Availability (Production) release

     * MySQL 5.0: Older Production release nearing the end of the
       product lifecycle

   MySQL 4.1, 4.0, and 3.23 are old releases that are no longer
   supported.

   See http://www.mysql.com/about/legal/lifecycle/ for information
   about support policies and schedules.

   Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or
   trying to port it to some system for which there is no binary
   distribution, use the most recent General Availability series
   listed in the preceding descriptions. All MySQL releases, even
   those from development series, are checked with the MySQL
   benchmarks and an extensive test suite before being issued.

   If you are running an older system and want to upgrade, but do not
   want to take the chance of having a nonseamless upgrade, you
   should upgrade to the latest version in the same release series
   you are using (where only the last part of the version number is
   newer than yours). We have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make
   only small, relatively "safe" changes to that version.

   If you want to use new features not present in the production
   release series, you can use a version from a development series.
   Be aware that development releases are not as stable as production
   releases.

   We do not use a complete code freeze because this prevents us from
   making bugfixes and other fixes that must be done. We may add
   small things that should not affect anything that currently works
   in a production release. Naturally, relevant bugfixes from an
   earlier series propagate to later series.

   If you want to use the very latest sources containing all current
   patches and bugfixes, you can use one of our source code
   repositories (see Section 2.11.3, "Installing MySQL Using a
   Development Source Tree"). These are not "releases" as such, but
   are available as previews of the code on which future releases are
   to be based.

   The naming scheme in MySQL 5.1 uses release names that consist of
   three numbers and a suffix; for example, mysql-5.1.29-rc. The
   numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:

     * The first number (5) is the major version and describes the
       file format. All MySQL 5 releases have the same file format.

     * The second number (1) is the release level. Taken together,
       the major version and release level constitute the release
       series number.

     * The third number (29) is the version number within the release
       series. This is incremented for each new release. Usually you
       want the latest version for the series you have chosen.

   For each minor update, the last number in the version string is
   incremented. When there are major new features or minor
   incompatibilities with previous versions, the second number in the
   version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the
   first number is increased.

   Release names also include a suffix to indicates the stability
   level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a
   set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The
   possible suffixes are:

     * alpha indicates that the release is for preview purposes only.
       Known bugs should be documented in the Release Notes
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/relnotes/mysql/5.1/en/). Most alpha
       releases implement new commands and extensions. Active
       development that may involve major code changes can occur in
       an alpha release. However, we do conduct testing before
       issuing a release.

     * beta indicates that the release is appropriate for use with
       new development. Within beta releases, the features and
       compatibility should remain consistent. However, beta releases
       may contain numerous and major unaddressed bugs.
       All APIs, externally visible structures, and columns for SQL
       statements will not change during future beta, release
       candidate, or production releases.

     * rc indicates a Release Candidate. Release candidates are
       believed to be stable, having passed all of MySQL's internal
       testing, and with all known fatal runtime bugs fixed. However,
       the release has not been in widespread use long enough to know
       for sure that all bugs have been identified. Only minor fixes
       are added. (A release candidate is what formerly was known as
       a gamma release.)

     * If there is no suffix, it indicates that the release is a
       General Availability (GA) or Production release. GA releases
       are stable, having successfully passed through all earlier
       release stages and are believed to be reliable, free of
       serious bugs, and suitable for use in production systems. Only
       critical bugfixes are applied to the release.

   All releases of MySQL are run through our standard tests and
   benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Because
   the standard tests are extended over time to check for all
   previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.

   All releases have been tested at least with these tools:

     * An internal test suite.  The mysql-test directory contains an
       extensive set of test cases. We run these tests for every
       server binary. See Section 22.1.2, "The MySQL Test Suite," for
       more information about this test suite.

     * The MySQL benchmark suite.  This suite runs a range of common
       queries. It is also a test to determine whether the latest
       batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See
       Section 8.1.3, "The MySQL Benchmark Suite."

   We also perform additional integration and nonfunctional testing
   of the latest MySQL version in our internal production
   environment. Integration testing is done with different
   connectors, storage engines, replication modes, backup,
   partitioning, stored programs, and so forth in various
   combinations. Additional nonfunctional testing is done in areas of
   performance, concurrency, stress, high volume, upgrade and
   downgrade.

2.1.2.2. Choosing a Distribution Format

   After choosing which version of MySQL to install, you should
   decide whether to use a binary distribution or a source
   distribution. In most cases, you should probably use a binary
   distribution, if one exists for your platform. Binary
   distributions are available in native format for many platforms,
   such as RPM packages for Linux, DMG packages for Mac OS X, and PKG
   packages for Solaris. Distributions are also available in more
   generic formats such as Zip archives or compressed tar files.

   Reasons to choose a binary distribution include the following:

     * Binary distributions generally are easier to install than
       source distributions.

     * To satisfy different user requirements, we provide several
       servers in binary distributions. mysqld is an optimized server
       that is a smaller, faster binary. mysqld-debug is compiled
       with debugging support.
       Each of these servers is compiled from the same source
       distribution, though with different configuration options. All
       native MySQL clients can connect to servers from either MySQL
       version.

   Under some circumstances, you may be better off installing MySQL
   from a source distribution:

     * You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The
       standard binary distributions are ready to run at any
       installation location, but you might require even more
       flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.

     * You want to configure mysqld to ensure that features are
       available that might not be included in the standard binary
       distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options
       that you may want to use to ensure feature availability:

          + --with-libwrap

          + --with-named-z-libs (this is done for some of the
            binaries)

          + --with-debug[=full]
       For additional information, see Section 2.11.4, "MySQL
       Source-Configuration Options."

     * You want to configure mysqld without some features that are
       included in the standard binary distributions. For example,
       distributions normally are compiled with support for all
       character sets. If you want a smaller MySQL server, you can
       recompile it with support for only the character sets you
       need.

     * You want to use the latest sources from one of the Bazaar
       repositories to have access to all current bugfixes. For
       example, if you have found a bug and reported it to the MySQL
       development team, the bugfix is committed to the source
       repository and you can access it there. The bugfix does not
       appear in a release until a release actually is issued.

     * You want to read (or modify) the C and C++ code that makes up
       MySQL. For this purpose, you should get a source distribution,
       because the source code is always the ultimate manual.

     * Source distributions contain more tests and examples than
       binary distributions.

2.1.2.3. How and When Updates Are Released

   MySQL is evolving quite rapidly and we want to share new
   developments with other MySQL users. We try to produce a new
   release whenever we have new and useful features that others also
   seem to have a need for.

   We also try to help users who request features that are easy to
   implement. We take note of what our licensed users want, and we
   especially take note of what our support customers want and try to
   help them in this regard.

   No one is required to download a new release. The Release Notes
   (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/relnotes/mysql/5.1/en/) help you
   determine whether the new release has something you really want.

   We use the following policy when updating MySQL:

     * Enterprise Server releases are meant to appear every 18
       months, supplemented by quarterly service packs and monthly
       rapid updates. Community Server releases are meant to appear 2
       to 3 times per year.

     * Releases are issued within each series. For each release, the
       last number in the version is one more than the previous
       release within the same series.

     * Binary distributions for some platforms are made by us for
       major releases. Other people may make binary distributions for
       other systems, but probably less frequently.

     * We make fixes available as soon as we have identified and
       corrected small or noncritical but annoying bugs. The fixes
       are available in source form immediately from our public
       Bazaar repositories, and are included in the next release.

     * If by any chance a security vulnerability or critical bug is
       found in a release, our policy is to fix it in a new release
       as soon as possible. (We would like other companies to do
       this, too!)

2.1.3. How to Get MySQL

   Check our downloads page at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for
   information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading
   instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download
   mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. You
   can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site
   and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

   To obtain the latest development source, see Section 2.11.3,
   "Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree."

2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

   After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs
   and before you attempt to install it, you should make sure that it
   is intact and has not been tampered with. There are three means of
   integrity checking:

     * MD5 checksums

     * Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard

     * For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification
       mechanism

   The following sections describe how to use these methods.

   If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not
   match, first try to download the respective package one more time,
   perhaps from another mirror site.

2.1.4.1. Verifying the MD5 Checksum

   After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure
   that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL
   download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you
   can verify against the package that you downloaded. The correct
   MD5 checksum is listed on the downloads page for each MySQL
   product, and you will compare it against the MD5 checksum of the
   file (product) that you download.

   Each operating system and setup offers its own version of tools
   for checking the MD5 checksum. Typically the command is named
   md5sum, or it may be named md5, and some operating systems do not
   ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities
   package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can
   also download the source code from
   http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/. If you have OpenSSL
   installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name
   instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility
   is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/. winMd5Sum is a
   graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from
   http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum. Our Microsoft
   Windows examples will assume the name md5.exe.

   Linux and Microsoft Windows examples:
shell> md5sum mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.ta
r.gz
shell> md5.exe mysql-installer-community-5.1.74.msi
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-installer-community-5.1.74.ms
i

   You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of
   hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page
   immediately below the respective package.
   Note

   Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example,
   the .zip, .tar.gz, or .msi file) and not of the files that are
   contained inside of the archive. In other words, verify the file
   before extracting its contents.

2.1.4.2. Signature Checking Using GnuPG

   Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a
   package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable
   than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

   We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy
   Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known
   Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See
   http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to
   obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions
   ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about
   GnuPG, see http://www.openpgp.org/.

   To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to
   obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can download
   from http://pgp.mit.edu/. The key that you want to obtain is named
   mysql-build@oss.oracle.com. Alternatively, you can cut and paste
   the key directly from the following text:
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: PGP Universal 2.9.1 (Build 347)
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=Eto8
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

   To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring, use
   gpg --import. For example, if you have saved the key in a file
   named mysql_pubkey.asc, the import command looks like this:
shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
gpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering
<mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found

   You can also download the key from the public keyserver using the
   public key id, 5072E1F5:
shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5
gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle
.com>"
1 new user ID
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle
.com>"
53 new signatures
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:           new user IDs: 1
gpg:         new signatures: 53

   If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to
   validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the
   key directly:
shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

   If you experience problems or require RPM specific information,
   see Section 2.1.4.4, "Signature Checking Using RPM."

   After you have downloaded and imported the public build key,
   download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding
   signature, which also is available from the download page. The
   signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an
   .asc extension, as shown by the examples in the following table.

   Table 2.1. MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files
       File Type                      File Name
   Distribution file mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz
   Signature file    mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

   Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and
   then run the following command to verify the signature for the
   distribution file:
shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

   If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good
   signature" similar to:
shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID
5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.
oracle.com>"

   The Good signature message indicates that the file signature is
   valid, when compared to the signature listed on our site. But you
   might also see warnings, like so:
shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID
5072E1F5
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.
oracle.com>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to th
e owner.
Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 507
2 E1F5

   That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration.
   Here are explanations for these warnings:

     * gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found: This means that the
       specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of
       trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file
       signatures.

     * WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
       There is no indication that the signature belongs to the
       owner.: This refers to your level of trust in your belief that
       you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision.
       Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person,
       but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download
       tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you.
       Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.

   See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with
   public keys.

2.1.4.3. Signature Checking Using Gpg4win for Windows

   The Section 2.1.4.2, "Signature Checking Using GnuPG" section
   describes how to verify MySQL downloads using GPG. That guide also
   applies to Microsoft Windows, but another option is to use a GUI
   tool like Gpg4win (http://www.gpg4win.org/). You may use a
   different tool but our examples are based on Gpg4win, and utilize
   its bundled Kleopatra GUI.

   Download and install Gpg4win, and then load Kleopatra. The dialog
   should look similar to:

   Figure 2.1. Initial screen after loading Kleopatra
   Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

   Next, add the MySQL Release Engineering certificate. Do this by
   clicking File, Lookup Certificates on Server. Type "Mysql Release
   Engineering" into the search box and press Search.

   Figure 2.2. Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate
   Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

   Select the "MySQL Release Engineering" certificate. The
   Fingerprint and Key-ID must be "5072E1F5", or choose Details... to
   confirm the certificate is valid. Now, import it by clicking
   Import. An import dialog will be displayed, choose Okay, and this
   certificate will now be listed under the Imported Certificates
   tab.

   Next, configure the trust level for our certificate. Select our
   certificate, then from the main menu select Certificates, Change
   Owner Trust.... We suggest choosing I believe checks are very
   accurate for our certificate, as otherwise you might not be able
   to verify our signature. Select I believe checks are very accurate
   and then press OK.

   Figure 2.3. Changing the Trust level
   Changing the Trust level

   Next, verify the downloaded MySQL package file. This requires
   files for both the packaged file, and the signature. The signature
   file must have the same name as the packaged file but with an
   appended .asc extension, as shown by the example in the following
   table. The signature is linked to on the downloads page for each
   MySQL product. You must create the .asc file with this signature.

   Table 2.2. MySQL Package and Signature Files for MySQL Installer
   for Microsoft Windows
       File Type                    File Name
   Distribution file mysql-installer-community-5.1.74.msi
   Signature file    mysql-installer-community-5.1.74.msi.asc

   Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and
   then run the following command to verify the signature for the
   distribution file. Either drag and drop the signature (.asc) file
   into Kleopatra, or load the dialog from File, Decrypt/Verify
   Files..., and then choose either the .msi or .asc file.

   Figure 2.4. The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog
   The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

   Click Decrypt/Verify to check the file. The two most common
   results will look like the following, and although the yellow
   warning looks problematic, the following means that the file check
   passed with success. You may now run this installer.

   Figure 2.5. The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good
   The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

   Seeing a red "The signature is bad" error means the file is
   invalid. Do not execute the MSI file if you see this error.

   Figure 2.6. The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad
   The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

   The Section 2.1.4.2, "Signature Checking Using GnuPG" section
   explains why you probably don't see a green Good signature result.

2.1.4.4. Signature Checking Using RPM

   For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages
   have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a
   package by running the following command:
shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

   Example:
shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-5.1.74-0.glibc23.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-5.1.74-0.glibc23.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK

   Note

   If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK
   (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the
   MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to
   import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses
   your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, RPM maintains a
   separate keyring because it is a system-wide application and a
   user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the
   MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key, then
   use rpm --import to import the key. For example:
shell> gpg --export -a 5072e1f5 > 5072e1f5.asc
shell> rpm --import 5072e1f5.asc

   Alternatively, rpm also supports loading the key directly from a
   URL, and you can use this manual page:
shell> rpm --import http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/checking-g
pg-signature.html

   If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see Section 2.1.4.2,
   "Signature Checking Using GnuPG."

2.1.5. Installation Layouts

   The installation layout differs for different installation types
   (for example, native packages, binary tarballs, and source
   tarballs), which can lead to confusion when managing different
   systems or using different installation sources. The individual
   layouts are given in the corresponding installation type or
   platform chapter, as described following. Note that the layout of
   installations from vendors other than Oracle may differ from these
   layouts.

     * Section 2.3.1, "MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft
       Windows"

     * Section 2.11.1, "MySQL Layout for Source Installation"

     * Section 2.2, "MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux
       Binary Package"

     * Section 2.5.1, "MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM
       Packages"

     * Section 2.4.2, "MySQL Installation Layout on Mac OS X"

2.1.6. Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics

   In some cases, the compiler used to build MySQL affects the
   features available for use. The notes in this section apply for
   binary distributions provided by Oracle Corporation or that you
   compile yourself from source.

   icc (Intel C++ Compiler) Builds

   A server built with icc has these characteristics:

     * SSL support is not included.

     * InnoDB Plugin is not included.

2.2. Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries

   Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These
   include binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files
   (files with a .tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, as
   well as binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected
   platforms.

   This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed
   tar file binary distribution. For other platform-specific package
   formats, see the other platform-specific sections. For example,
   for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on
   Microsoft Windows."

   To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL."

   MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the
   form mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz, where VERSION is a number (for
   example, 5.1.74), and OS indicates the type of operating system
   for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686
   or winx64).

   To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution,
   your system must have GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution
   and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports
   the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

   GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some
   operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the
   MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if
   available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is
   available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software
   directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is
   available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.
   Warning

   If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system
   native package management system, such as yum or apt-get, you may
   experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure
   your previous MySQL previous installation has been removed
   entirely (using your package management system), and that any
   additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have
   also been removed. You should also check the existence of
   configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql
   directory have been deleted.

   If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use
   the instructions in Section 1.7, "How to Report Bugs or Problems."

   On Unix, to install a compressed tar file binary distribution,
   unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically
   /usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the
   following table.

   Table 2.3. MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary
   Package
   Directory Contents of Directory
   bin Client programs and the mysqld server
   data Log files, databases
   docs Manual in Info format
   man Unix manual pages
   include Include (header) files
   lib Libraries
   scripts mysql_install_db
   share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages,
   sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
   sql-bench Benchmarks

   Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug.
   To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source
   distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable
   debugging support. For more information on compiling from source,
   see Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source."

   To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the basic command
   sequence looks like this:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

   A more detailed version of the preceding description for
   installing a binary distribution follows.
   Note

   This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access
   to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using
   the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (OpenSolaris) command.

   The procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts.
   After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.12.2,
   "Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts."

Create a mysql User and Group

   If your system does not already have a user and group for mysqld
   to run as, you may need to create one. The following commands add
   the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the
   user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute
   the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for
   useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of
   Unix, or they may have different names such as adduser and
   addgroup.
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql

   Note

   Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not
   login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r option to create a
   user that does not have login permissions to your server host.
   Omit this option to permit logins for the user (or if your useradd
   does not support the option).

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

   Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution
   and change location into it. The example here unpacks the
   distribution under /usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume
   that you have permission to create files and directories in
   /usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the
   installation as root.
shell> cd /usr/local

   Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section
   2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL." For a given release, binary
   distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL
   source distribution.

   Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory.
   Then create a symbolic link to that directory. tar can uncompress
   and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

   The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS. The ln
   command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This enables you
   to refer more easily to the installation directory as
   /usr/local/mysql.

   If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack
   the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar
   command with the following alternative command to uncompress and
   extract the distribution:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -

Perform Postinstallation Setup

   The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the
   configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the
   MySQL server. For next steps, see Section 2.12, "Postinstallation
   Setup and Testing."
   Note

   The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially
   have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up
   passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.12.2,
   "Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts."

2.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows

   MySQL for Microsoft Windows is available in a number of different
   forms. A Microsoft Windows operating system such as Windows 2000,
   Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2003, or
   Windows Server 2008. Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions are
   supported. For supported platform information, see
   http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

   In addition to running MySQL as a standard application, you can
   also run the MySQL server as a Windows service. By using a service
   you can monitor and control the operation of the server through
   the standard Windows service management tools. For more
   information, see Section 2.3.6.7, "Starting MySQL Server as a
   Microsoft Windows Service."

   Generally, you should install MySQL on Windows using an account
   that has administrator rights. Otherwise, you may encounter
   problems with certain operations such as editing the PATH
   environment variable or accessing the Service Control Manager.
   Once installed, MySQL does not need to be executed using a user
   with Administrator privileges.

   For a list of limitations within the Windows version of MySQL, see
   Section E.7.6, "Windows Platform Limitations."

   In addition to the MySQL Server package, you may need or want
   additional components to use MySQL with your application or
   development environment. These include, but are not limited to:

     * If you plan to connect to the MySQL server using ODBC, you
       need a Connector/ODBC driver. For more information, including
       installation and configuration instructions, see Section 21.1,
       "MySQL Connector/ODBC."

     * If you plan to use MySQL server with .NET applications, you
       need the Connector/Net driver. For more information, including
       installation and configuration instructions, see Section 21.2,
       "MySQL Connector/Net."

   MySQL distributions for Windows can be downloaded from
   http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See Section 2.1.3, "How to Get
   MySQL."

   MySQL for Windows is available in several distribution formats,
   detailed below. Generally speaking, you should use a binary
   distribution that includes an installer. It is simpler to use than
   the others, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and
   running. The installer for the Windows version of MySQL, combined
   with a GUI Config Wizard, automatically installs MySQL, creates an
   option file, starts the server, and secures the default user
   accounts.

     * Binary installer distribution. The installable distribution
       comes packaged as a Microsoft Windows Installer (MSI) package
       that you can install manually or automatically on your
       systems. Two formats are available, an essentials package that
       contains all the files you need to install and configure
       MySQL, but no additional components, and a complete package
       that includes MySQL, configuration tools, benchmarks and other
       components. For more information on the specific differences,
       see Section 2.3.2, "Choosing the Installation Package for
       Microsoft Windows"
       For instructions on installing MySQL using one of the MSI
       installation packages, see Section 2.3.3, "Installing MySQL on
       Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package."

     * Standard binary distribution format packaged as a Zip file
       containing all of the necessary files that you unpack into
       your chosen location. This package contains all of the files
       in the full Windows MSI Installer package, but does not
       include an installation program.
       For instructions on installing MySQL using the Zip file, see
       Section 2.3.6, "Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a
       noinstall Zip Archive."

     * The source distribution contains all the code and support
       files for building the executables using the Visual Studio
       compiler system.
       For instructions on building MySQL from source on Windows, see
       Section 2.11.7, "Installing MySQL from Source on Windows."

   MySQL on Windows considerations:

     * Large Table Support
       If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL
       on an NTFS or newer file system. Do not forget to use MAX_ROWS
       and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See Section
       13.1.17, "CREATE TABLE Syntax."

     * MySQL and Virus Checking Software
       Using virus scanning software such as Norton/Symantec
       Anti-Virus on directories containing MySQL data and temporary
       tables can cause issues, both in terms of the performance of
       MySQL and the virus-scanning software mis-identifying the
       contents of the files as containing spam. This is because of
       the fingerprinting mechanism used by the virus scanning
       software, and the way in which MySQL rapidly updates different
       files, which may be identified as a potential security risk.
       After installing MySQL Server, it is recommended that you
       disable virus scanning on the main directory (datadir) being
       used to store your MySQL table data. There is usually a system
       built into the virus scanning software to permit certain
       directories to be specifically ignored during virus scanning.
       In addition, by default, MySQL creates temporary files in the
       standard Windows temporary directory. To prevent the temporary
       files also being scanned, you should configure a separate
       temporary directory for MySQL temporary files and add this to
       the virus scanning exclusion list. To do this, add a
       configuration option for the tmpdir parameter to your my.ini
       configuration file. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.2,
       "Creating an Option File."

2.3.1. MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows

   For MySQL 5.1 on Windows, the default installation directory is
   C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1. Some Windows users prefer
   to install in C:\mysql, the directory that formerly was used as
   the default. However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the
   same.

   For MySQL 5.1.23 and earlier, all of the files are located within
   the parent directory, using the structure shown in the following
   table.

   Table 2.4. Installation Layout for Windows Using MySQL 5.1.23 and
   Earlier
   Directory Contents of Directory
   bin Client programs and the mysqld server
   data Log files, databases
   examples Example programs and scripts
   include Include (header) files
   lib Libraries
   scripts Utility scripts
   share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages,
   character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database
   installation

   For MySQL 5.1.24 and later, the default location of data directory
   was changed. The remainder of the directory structure remains the
   same.

   Table 2.5. Installation Layout for Microsoft Windows using MySQL
   5.1.24 and later
   Directory Contents of Directory Notes
   bin Client programs and the mysqld server
   %ALLUSERSPROFILE%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\ Log files, databases
   (Windows XP, Windows Server 2003) The Windows system variable
   %ALLUSERSPROFILE% defaults to C:\Documents and Settings\All
   Users\Application Data
   %PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\ Log files, databases (Vista,
   Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and newer) The Windows system
   variable %PROGRAMDATA% defaults to C:\ProgramData
   examples Example programs and scripts
   include Include (header) files
   lib Libraries
   scripts Utility scripts
   share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages,
   character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database
   installation

2.3.2. Choosing the Installation Package for Microsoft Windows

   For MySQL 5.1, there are three installation package formats to
   choose from when installing MySQL on Windows:
   Note

   Using MySQL Installer is the recommended installation method for
   Microsoft Windows users. The MySQL Server 5.1 release does not
   include its own MySQL Installer release, but a MySQL Installer
   version 5.5 and above can optionally install MySQL Server 5.1.
   Follow the standard Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using
   MySQL Installer
   (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/mysql-installer.html)
   documentation but choose Custom Install after executing it. A
   MySQL Server 5.1 option will be available, and choosing it will
   cause MySQL Installer to download it for you.

   Table 2.6. Microsoft Windows MySQL Installation package comparison
     Packaging
   Feature Essentials Complete Zip (No-install)
   Installer Yes Yes No
   Directory-only
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Yes Yes No
   Test Suite No Yes Yes
   MySQL Server Yes Yes Yes
   MySQL Client Programs Yes Yes Yes
   C Headers/Libraries Yes Yes Yes
   Embedded Server No Optional Yes
   Scripts and Examples No Optional Yes

   In the above table:

     * Yes indicates that the component is installed by default.

     * No indicates that the component is not installed or included.

     * Optional indicates that the component is included with the
       package, but not installed unless explicitly requested using
       the Custom installation mode.

   The workflow for installing using the MSI installer is shown
   below:

   Figure 2.7. Installation Workflow for Windows Using MSI
   Installation Workflow for Windows using MSI

   The workflow for installing using the MSI installer is shown
   below:

   Figure 2.8. Installation Workflow for Windows Using Zip
   Installation Workflow for Windows using Zip
   Note

   For the Essentials and Complete packages in the MSI installer, you
   can select individual components to be installed by using the
   Custom mode, including disable the components confiurated for
   installation by default.

   Full details on the components are suggested uses are provided
   below for reference:

     * Windows Essentials: This package has a file name similar to
       mysql-essential-5.1.74-win32.msi and is supplied as a
       Microsoft Installer (MSI) package. The package includes the
       minimum set of files needed to install MySQL on Windows,
       including the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard. This
       package does not include optional components such as the
       embedded server, developer headers and libraries or benchmark
       suite.
       To install using this package, see Section 2.3.3, "Installing
       MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package."

     * Windows MSI Installer (Complete): This package has a file name
       similar to mysql-5.1.74-win32.msi and contains all files
       needed for a complete Windows installation, including the
       MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard. This package includes
       optional components such as the embedded server and benchmark
       suite.
       To install using this package, see Section 2.3.3, "Installing
       MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package."

     * Without installer: This package has a file name similar to
       mysql-noinstall-5.1.74-win32.zip and contains all the files
       found in the Complete install package, with the exception of
       the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard. This package does not
       include an automated installer, and must be manually installed
       and configured.

   The Essentials package is recommended for most users. Both the
   Essentials and Complete distributions are available as an .msi
   file for use with the Windows Installer. The Noinstall
   distribution is packaged as a Zip archive. To use a Zip archive,
   you must have a tool that can unpack .zip files.

   When using the MSI installers you can automate the installation
   process. For more information, see Section 2.3.3.2, "Automating
   MySQL Installation on Microsoft Windows Using the MSI Package." To
   automate the creation of a MySQL instance, see Section 2.3.5.13,
   "MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Creating an Instance from
   the Command Line."

   Your choice of install package affects the installation process
   you must follow. If you choose to install either an Essentials or
   Complete install package, see Section 2.3.3, "Installing MySQL on
   Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package." If you choose to install
   a Noinstall archive, see Section 2.3.6, "Installing MySQL on
   Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive."

2.3.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package

   The MSI package is designed to install and configure MySQL in such
   a way that you can immediately get started using MySQL.

   The MySQL Installation Wizard and MySQL Configuration Wizard are
   available in the Essentials and Complete install packages. They
   are recommended for most standard MySQL installations. Exceptions
   include users who need to install multiple instances of MySQL on a
   single server host and advanced users who want complete control of
   server configuration.

     * For information on installing using the GUI MSI installer
       process, see Section 2.3.3.1, "Using the MySQL Installation
       Wizard for Microsoft Windows."

     * For information on installing using the command line using the
       MSI package, see Section 2.3.3.2, "Automating MySQL
       Installation on Microsoft Windows Using the MSI Package."

     * If you have previously installed MySQL using the MSI package
       and want to remove MySQL, see Section 2.3.3.3, "Removing MySQL
       When Installed from the MSI Package."

   The workflow sequence for using the installer is shown in the
   figure below:

   Figure 2.9. Installation Workflow for Windows Using MSI Installer
   Installation Workflow for Windows using MSI Installer
   Note

   Microsoft Windows XP and later include a firewall which
   specifically blocks ports. If you plan on using MySQL through a
   network port then you should open and create an exception for this
   port before performing the installation. To check and if necessary
   add an exception to the firewall settings:

    1. First ensure that you are logged in as an Administrator or a
       user with Administrator privileges.

    2. Go to the Control Panel, and double click the Windows Firewall
       icon.

    3. Choose the Allow a program through Windows Firewall option and
       click the Add port button.

    4. Enter MySQL into the Name text box and 3306 (or the port of
       your choice) into the Port number text box.

    5. Also ensure that the TCP protocol radio button is selected.

    6. If you wish, you can also limit access to the MySQL server by
       choosing the Change scope button.

    7. Confirm your choices by clicking the OK button.

   Additionally, when running the MySQL Installation Wizard on
   Windows Vista or newer, ensure that you are logged in as a user
   with administrative rights.
   Note

   When using Windows Vista or newer, you may want to disable User
   Account Control (UAC) before performing the installation. If you
   do not do so, then MySQL may be identified as a security risk,
   which will mean that you need to enable MySQL. You can disable the
   security checking by following these instructions:

    1. Open Control Panel.

    2. Under the User Accounts and Family Safety, select Add or
       remove user accounts.

    3. Click the Got to the main User Accounts page link.

    4. Click on Turn User Account Control on or off. You may be
       prompted to provide permission to change this setting. Click
       Continue.

    5. Deselect or uncheck the check box next to Use User Account
       Control (UAC) to help protect your computer. Click OK to save
       the setting.

   You will need to restart to complete the process. Click Restart
   Now to reboot the machine and apply the changes. You can then
   follow the instructions below for installing Windows.

2.3.3.1. Using the MySQL Installation Wizard for Microsoft Windows

   MySQL Installation Wizard is an installer for the MySQL server
   that uses the latest installer technologies for Microsoft Windows.
   The MySQL Installation Wizard, in combination with the MySQL
   Config Wizard, enables a user to install and configure a MySQL
   server that is ready for use immediately after installation.

   The MySQL Installation Wizard uses the standard Microsoft
   Installer Engine (MSI) system is the standard installer for all
   MySQL server distributions. See Section 2.3.3.1.6, "MySQL
   Installation Wizard: Upgrading MySQL," for more information on
   upgrading from a previous version.

   If you are upgrading an installation from MySQL 5.1.31 or earlier
   to MySQL 5.1.32 or later, read the notes provided in Section
   2.3.3.1.6, "MySQL Installation Wizard: Upgrading MySQL."

   The Microsoft Windows Installer Engine was updated with the
   release of Windows XP; those using a previous version of Windows
   can reference this Microsoft Knowledge Base article
   (http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;292539)
   for information on upgrading to the latest version of the Windows
   Installer Engine.

   In addition, Microsoft has introduced the WiX (Windows Installer
   XML) toolkit. This is the first highly acknowledged Open Source
   project from Microsoft. We have switched to WiX because it is an
   Open Source project and it enables us to handle the complete
   Windows installation process in a flexible manner using scripts.

   Improving the MySQL Installation Wizard depends on the support and
   feedback of users like you. If you find that the MySQL
   Installation Wizard is lacking some feature important to you, or
   if you discover a bug, please report it in our bugs database using
   the instructions given in Section 1.7, "How to Report Bugs or
   Problems."

2.3.3.1.1. MySQL Installation Wizard: Downloading and Starting

   The MySQL installation packages can be downloaded from
   http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. If the package you download is
   contained within a Zip archive, you need to extract the archive
   first.

   The process for starting the wizard depends on the contents of the
   installation package you download. If there is a setup.exe file
   present, double-click it to start the installation process. If
   there is an .msi file present, double-click it to start the
   installation process.

2.3.3.1.2. MySQL Installation Wizard: Choosing an Install Type

   There are three installation types available: Typical, Complete,
   and Custom.

   The Typical installation type installs the MySQL server, the mysql
   command-line client, and the command-line utilities. The
   command-line clients and utilities include mysqldump, myisamchk,
   and several other tools to help you manage the MySQL server.

   The Complete installation type installs all components included in
   the installation package. The full installation package includes
   components such as the embedded server library, the benchmark
   suite, support scripts, and documentation.

   The Custom installation type gives you complete control over which
   packages you wish to install and the installation path that is
   used. See Section 2.3.3.1.3, "MySQL Installation Wizard: The
   Custom Install Dialog," for more information on performing a
   custom install.

   If you choose the Typical or Complete installation types and click
   the Next button, you advance to the confirmation screen to verify
   your choices and begin the installation. If you choose the Custom
   installation type and click the Next button, you advance to the
   custom installation dialog, described in Section 2.3.3.1.3, "MySQL
   Installation Wizard: The Custom Install Dialog."

2.3.3.1.3. MySQL Installation Wizard: The Custom Install Dialog

   If you wish to change the installation path or the specific
   components that are installed by the MySQL Installation Wizard,
   choose the Custom installation type.

   A tree view on the left side of the custom install dialog lists
   all available components. Components that are not installed have a
   red X icon; components that are installed have a gray icon. To
   change whether a component is installed, click that component's
   icon and choose a new option from the drop-down list that appears.

   You can change the default installation path by clicking the
   Change... button to the right of the displayed installation path.

   After choosing your installation components and installation path,
   click the Next button to advance to the confirmation dialog.

2.3.3.1.4. MySQL Installation Wizard: The Confirmation Dialog

   Once you choose an installation type and optionally choose your
   installation components, you advance to the confirmation dialog.
   Your installation type and installation path are displayed for you
   to review.

   To install MySQL if you are satisfied with your settings, click
   the Install button. To change your settings, click the Back
   button. To exit the MySQL Installation Wizard without installing
   MySQL, click the Cancel button.

   In MySQL 5.1.47 and earlier, after installation is complete, you
   have the option of registering with the MySQL web site.
   Registration gives you access to post in the MySQL forums at
   forums.mysql.com (http://forums.mysql.com), along with the ability
   to report bugs at bugs.mysql.com (http://bugs.mysql.com) and to
   subscribe to our newsletter.

   The final screen of the installer provides a summary of the
   installation and gives you the option to launch the MySQL Config
   Wizard, which you can use to create a configuration file, install
   the MySQL service, and configure security settings.

2.3.3.1.5. MySQL Installation Wizard: Changes Made

   Once you click the Install button, the MySQL Installation Wizard
   begins the installation process and makes certain changes to your
   system which are described in the sections that follow.

   Changes to the Registry

   The MySQL Installation Wizard creates one Windows registry key in
   a typical install situation, located in
   HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MySQL AB. For 64-bit Windows, the
   registry location is HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Wow6432Node\MYSQL
   AB. A server version specific entry will be created for each major
   version of MySQL that you install.

   The MySQL Installation Wizard creates a key named after the major
   version of the server that is being installed, such as MySQL
   Server 5.1. It contains two string values, Location and Version.
   The Location string contains the path to the installation
   directory. In a default installation it contains C:\Program
   Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\. The Version string contains the
   release number. For example, for an installation of MySQL Server
   5.1.74, the key contains a value of 5.1.74.

   These registry keys are used to help external tools identify the
   installed location of the MySQL server, preventing a complete scan
   of the hard-disk to determine the installation path of the MySQL
   server. The registry keys are not required to run the server, and
   if you install MySQL using the noinstall Zip archive, the registry
   keys are not created.

   Changes to the Start Menu

   The MySQL Installation Wizard creates a new entry in the Windows
   Start menu under a common MySQL menu heading named after the major
   version of MySQL that you have installed. For example, if you
   install MySQL 5.1, the MySQL Installation Wizard creates a MySQL
   Server 5.1 section in the Start menu.

   The following entries are created within the new Start menu
   section:

     * MySQL Command-Line Client: This is a shortcut to the mysql
       command-line client and is configured to connect as the root
       user. The shortcut prompts for a root user password when you
       connect.

     * MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: This is a shortcut to the
       MySQL Config Wizard. Use this shortcut to configure a newly
       installed server, or to reconfigure an existing server.

     * MySQL Documentation: This is a link to the MySQL server
       documentation that is stored locally in the MySQL server
       installation directory. This option is not available when the
       MySQL server is installed using the Essentials installation
       package.

   Changes to the File System

   The MySQL Installation Wizard by default installs the MySQL 5.1
   server to C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1, where Program
   Files is the default location for applications in your system, and
   5.1 is the major version of your MySQL server. This is the
   recommended location for the MySQL server, replacing the former
   default location C:\mysql.

   By default, all MySQL applications are stored in a common
   directory at C:\Program Files\MySQL, where Program Files is the
   default location for applications in your Windows installation. A
   typical MySQL installation on a developer machine might look like
   this:
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Workbench 5.1 OSS

   This approach makes it easier to manage and maintain all MySQL
   applications installed on a particular system.

   In MySQL 5.1.23 and earlier, the default location for the data
   files used by MySQL is located within the corresponding MySQL
   Server installation directory. For MySQL 5.1.24 and later, the
   default location of the data directory is the AppData directory
   configured for the user that installed the MySQL application.

2.3.3.1.6. MySQL Installation Wizard: Upgrading MySQL

   The MySQL Installation Wizard can perform server upgrades
   automatically using the upgrade capabilities of MSI. That means
   you do not need to remove a previous installation manually before
   installing a new release. The installer automatically shuts down
   and removes the previous MySQL service before installing the new
   version.

   Automatic upgrades are available only when upgrading between
   installations that have the same major and minor version numbers.
   For example, you can upgrade automatically from MySQL 5.1.5 to
   MySQL 5.1.6, but not from MySQL 5.0 to MySQL 5.1.

   In MySQL 5.1.32 and later, the EXE version of the MSI installer
   packages were removed. When upgrading an existing MySQL
   installation from the old EXE based installer to the MSI based
   installer, please keep the following notes in mind:

     * The MSI installer will not identify an existing installation
       that was installed using the old EXE installer. This means
       that the installer will not stop the existing server, or
       detect that the existing password is required before
       installing the new version. To work around this:

         1. Stop the current server manually using net stop or
            mysqladmin shutdown.

         2. Remove the existing installation manually by using the
            Add/Remove Programs control panel. This will keep the
            existing configuration and data files, as these are not
            removed automatically.

         3. Install the new version of MySQL using the MSI installer.
            When running the installation, skip updating the security
            by deselecting the check box on the security screen.

         4. Complete the installation, and then start the server
            again. You should be able to login with your existing
            user and password credentials.

     * You can only upgrade the version and release using the MSI
       installer. For example, you can upgrade an open source
       installation with an open source installer. You cannot upgrade
       an open source installation using the enterprise installer.

   See Section 2.3.8, "Upgrading MySQL Server on Microsoft Windows."

2.3.3.2. Automating MySQL Installation on Microsoft Windows Using the
MSI Package

   The Microsoft Installer (MSI) supports a both a quiet and a
   passive mode that can be used to install MySQL automatically
   without requiring intervention. You can use this either in scripts
   to automatically install MySQL or through a terminal connection
   such as Telnet where you do not have access to the standard
   Windows user interface. The MSI packages can also be used in
   combination with Microsoft's Group Policy system (part of Windows
   Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008) to install MySQL across
   multiple machines.

   To install MySQL from one of the MSI packages automatically from
   the command line (or within a script), you need to use the
   msiexec.exe tool. For example, to perform a quiet installation
   (which shows no dialog boxes or progress):
shell> msiexec /i mysql-5.1.74.msi /quiet

   The /i indicates that you want to perform an installation. The
   /quiet option indicates that you want no interactive elements.

   To provide a dialog box showing the progress during installation,
   and the dialog boxes providing information on the installation and
   registration of MySQL, use /passive mode instead of /quiet:
shell> msiexec /i mysql-5.1.74.msi /passive

   Regardless of the mode of the installation, installing the package
   in this manner performs a 'Typical' installation, and installs the
   default components into the standard location.

   You can also use this method to uninstall MySQL by using the
   /uninstall or /x options:
shell> msiexec /x mysql-5.1.74.msi /uninstall

   To install MySQL and configure a MySQL instance from the command
   line, see Section 2.3.5.13, "MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard:
   Creating an Instance from the Command Line."

   For information on using MSI packages to install software
   automatically using Group Policy, see How to use Group Policy to
   remotely install software in Windows Server 2003
   (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/816102).

2.3.3.3. Removing MySQL When Installed from the MSI Package

   To uninstall a MySQL where you have used the MSI packages, you
   must use the Add/Remove Programs tool within Control Panel. To do
   this:

    1. Right-click the start menu and choose Control Panel.

    2. If the Control Panel is set to category mode (you will see
       Pick a category at the top of the Control Panel window),
       double-click Add or Remove Programs. If the Control is set to
       classic mode, double-click the Add or Remove Programs icon.

    3. Find MySQL in the list of installed software. MySQL Server is
       installed against major version numbers (MySQL 5.0, MySQL 5.1,
       etc.). Select the version that you want to remove and click
       Remove.

    4. You will be prompted to confirm the removal. Click Yes to
       remove MySQL.

   When MySQL is removed using this method, only the installed
   components are removed. Any database information (including the
   tables and data), import or export files, log files, and binary
   logs produced during execution are kept in their configured
   location.

   If you try to install MySQL again the information will be retained
   and you will be prompted to enter the password configured with the
   original installation.

   If you want to delete MySQL completely:

     * Delete the associated data directory. On Windows XP and
       Windows Server 2003, before MySQL 5.1.24, the default data
       directory would be located within the MySQL installation
       directory. On MySQL 5.1.24 and later, the default data
       directory is the configured AppData directory, which is
       C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\MySQL by
       default.

     * On Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008, the default data
       directory location is C:\ProgramData\Mysql.
       Note
       The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You must
       change your folder options to view the hidden file. Choose
       Organize, Folder and search options, Show hidden folders.

2.3.4. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows

   The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows is a tool that enables
   you to monitor and adjust the status of your local and remote
   MySQL Server instances through an indicator that resides in the
   system tray. The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows also gives
   quick access to several MySQL GUI tools (such as MySQL Workbench)
   through its context menu.

   The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows is installed by MySQL
   Installer, and (by default) will start-up when Microsoft Windows
   is started.
   Note

   To install, download and execute the MySQL Installer
   (http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/), be sure the MySQL
   Notifier for Microsoft Windows product is selected, then proceed
   with the installation. See the MySQL Installer manual
   (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/mysql-installer.html) for
   additional details.

   For release notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL
   Notifier for Microsoft Windows, see the MySQL Notifier Release
   Notes (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/relnotes/mysql-notifier/en/).

   Visit the MySQL Notifier forum
   (http://forums.mysql.com/list.php?173) for additional MySQL
   Notifier for Microsoft Windows help and support.

   Features include:

     * Start, Stop, and Restart instances of the MySQL Server.

     * Automatically detects (and adds) new MySQL Server services.
       These are listed under Manage Monitored Items, and may also be
       configured.

     * The Tray icon changes, depending on the status. It's green if
       all monitored MySQL Server instances are running, or red if at
       least one service is stopped. The Update MySQL Notifier tray
       icon based on service status option, which dictates this
       behavior, is enabled by default for each service.

     * Links to other applications like MySQL Workbench, MySQL
       Installer, and the MySQL Utilities. For example, choosing
       Configure Instance will load the MySQL Workbench Server
       Administration window for that particular instance.

     * If MySQL Workbench is also installed, then the Configure
       Instance and SQL Editor options are available for local (but
       not remote) MySQL instances.

     * Monitoring of both local and remote MySQL instances.

   Note

   Remote monitoring is available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft
   Windows 1.1.0.

   The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows resides in the system
   tray and provides visual status information for your MySQL Server
   instances. A green icon is displayed at the top left corner of the
   tray icon if the current MySQL Server is running, or a red icon if
   the service is stopped.

   The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows automatically adds
   discovered MySQL Services on the local machine, and each service
   is saved and configurable. By default, the Automatically add new
   services whose name contains option is enabled and set to mysql.
   Related Notifications Options include being notified when new
   services are either discovered or experience status changes, and
   are also enabled by default. And uninstalling a service will also
   remove the service from the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows.
   Note

   The Automatically add new services whose name contains option
   default changed from ".*mysqld.*" to "mysql" in Notifier 1.1.0.

   Clicking the system tray icon will reveal several options, as seen
   in the screenshots below:

   The Service Instance menu is the main MySQL Notifier for Microsoft
   Windows window, and enables you to Stop, Start, and Restart the
   MySQL Server.

   Figure 2.10. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Service Instance
   menu
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Service Instance menu

   The Actions menu includes several links to external applications
   (if they are installed), and a a Refresh Status option to manually
   refresh the status of all monitored services (in both local and
   remote computers) and MySQL instances.
   Note

   The main menu will not show the Actions menu when there are no
   services being monitored by MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows.
   Note

   The Refresh Status feature is available since MySQL Notifier for
   Microsoft Windows 1.1.0.

   Figure 2.11. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Actions menu
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Actions menu

   The Actions, Options menu configures MySQL Notifier for Microsoft
   Windows and includes options to:

     * Use colorful status icons: Enables a colorful style of icons
       for the tray of the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows.

     * Run at Windows Startup: Allows the application to be loaded
       when Microsoft Windows starts.

     * Automatically Check For Updates Every # Weeks: Checks for a
       new version of MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows, and runs
       this check every # weeks.

     * Automatically add new services whose name contains: The text
       used to filter services and add them automatically to the
       monitored list of the local computer running MySQL Notifier,
       and on remote computers already monitoring Windows services.
       monitored services, and also filters the list of the Microsoft
       Windows services for the Add New Service dialog.
       Prior to version 1.1.0, this option was named "Automatically
       add new services that match this pattern."

     * Notify me when a service is automatically added: Will display
       a balloon notification from the taskbar when a newly
       discovered service is added to the monitored services list.

     * Notify me when a service changes status: Will display a
       balloon notification from the taskbar when a monitored service
       changes its status.

   Figure 2.12. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Options menu
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Options menu

   The Actions, Manage Monitored Items menu enables you to configure
   the monitored services and MySQL instances. First, with the
   Services tab open:

   Figure 2.13. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Services
   menu
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Services menu

   The Instances tab is similar:

   Figure 2.14. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Instances
   menu
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Instances menu

   Adding a service or instance (after clicking Add in the Manage
   Monitored Items window) enables you to select a running Microsoft
   Windows service or instance connection, and configure MySQL
   Notifier for Microsoft Windows to monitor it. Add a new service or
   instance by clicking service name from the list, then OK to
   accept. Multiple services and instances may be selected.

   Figure 2.15. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new
   services
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new services

   And instances:

   Figure 2.16. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new
   instances
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new instances
   Note

   The Instances tab available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft
   Windows 1.1.0.

2.3.4.1. Remote monitoring set up and installation instructions

   The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows uses Windows Management
   Instrumentation (WMI) to manage and monitor services in remote
   computers running Windows XP or later. This guide explains how it
   works, and how to set up your system to monitor remote MySQL
   instances.
   Note

   Remote monitoring is available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft
   Windows 1.1.0.

   In order to configure WMI, it is important to understand that the
   underlying Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) architecture
   is doing the WMI work. Specifically, MySQL Notifier for Microsoft
   Windows is using asynchronous notification queries on remote
   Microsoft Windows hosts as .NET events. These events send an
   asynchronous callback to the computer running the MySQL Notifier
   for Microsoft Windows so it knows when a service status has
   changed on the remote computer. Asynchronous notifications offer
   the best performance compared to semi-synchronous notifications or
   synchronous notifications that use timers.

   Asynchronous notifications requires the remote computer to send a
   callback to the client computer (thus opening a reverse
   connection), so the Windows Firewall and DCOM settings must be
   properly configured for the communication to function properly.

   Figure 2.17. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Distributed
   Component Object Model (DCOM)
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Distributed Component Object
   Model (DCOM)

   Most of the common errors thrown by asynchronous WMI notifications
   are related to Windows Firewall blocking the communication, or to
   DCOM / WMI settings not being set up properly. For a list of
   common errors with solutions, see Section 2.3.4.1, "."

   The following steps are required to make WMI function. These steps
   are divided between two machines. A single host computer that runs
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows (Computer A), and multiple
   remote machines that are being monitored (Computer B).

Computer running MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows (Computer A)


    1. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group
       Policy Editor, or using NETSH:
       Using the Group Policy Editor:
         a. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click
            OK.
         b. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click
            Computer Configuration.
         c. Double-click Administrative Templates, then Network,
            Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.
         d. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click
            Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.
         e. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote
            administration exception.
         f. On the Action menu either select Edit, or double-click
            the selection from the previous step.
         g. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK.
       Using the NETSH command:
         a. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights
            (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click
            Run as Administrator).
         b. Execute the following command:
NETSH firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable

    2. Open the DCOM port TCP 135:
         a. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights
            (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click
            Run as Administrator) .
         b. Execute the following command:
NETSH firewall add portopening protocol=tcp port=135 name=DCOM_TCP135

    3. Add the client application which contains the sink for the
       callback (MySqlNotifier.exe) to the Windows Firewall
       Exceptions List (use either the Windows Firewall configuration
       or NETSH):
       Using the Windows Firewall configuration:
         a. In the Control Panel, double-click Windows Firewall.
         b. In the Windows Firewall window's left panel, click Allow
            a program or feature through Windows Firewall.
         c. In the Allowed Programs window, click Change Settings.
         d. If MySqlNotifier.exe is in the Allowed programs and
            features list, make sure it is checked for the type of
            networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or
            both).
         e. If MySqlNotifier.exe is not in the list, click Allow
            another program....
         f. In the Add a Program window, select the MySqlNotifier.exe
            if it exists in the Programs list, otherwise click
            Browse... and go to the directory where MySqlNotifier.exe
            was installed to select it, then click Add.
         g. Make sure MySqlNotifier.exe is checked for the type of
            networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or
            both).
       Using the NETSH command:
         a. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights
            (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click
            Run as Administrator).
         b. Execute the following command, where you change
            "[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]":
NETSH firewall add allowedprogram program=[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]\My
SqlNotifier.exe name=MySqlNotifier

    4. If Computer B is either a member of WORKGROUP or is in a
       different domain that is untrusted by Computer A, then the
       callback connection (Connection 2) is created as an Anonymous
       connection. To grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access
       permissions:
         a. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.
         b. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component
            Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My
            Computer and click Properties.
         c. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM
            Security tab.
         d. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.
         e. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS
            LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow
            column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access,
            and then click OK.

Monitored Remote Computer (Computer B)

   If the user account that is logged into the computer running the
   MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows (Computer A) is a local
   administrator on the remote computer (Computer B), such that the
   same account is an administrator on Computer B, you can skip to
   the "Allow for remote administration" step.

   Setting DCOM security to allow a non-administrator user to access
   a computer remotely:

    1. Grant "DCOM remote launch" and activation permissions for a
       user or group:
         a. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.
         b. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component
            Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My
            Computer and click Properties.
         c. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM
            Security tab.
         d. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.
         e. In the Launch Permission dialog box, follow these steps
            if your name or your group does not appear in the Groups
            or user names list:
              i. In the Launch Permission dialog box, click Add.
             ii. In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog
                 box, add your name and the group in the "Enter the
                 object names to select" box, and then click OK.
         f. In the Launch Permission dialog box, select your user and
            group in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column
            under Permissions for User, select Remote Launch, select
            Remote Activation, and then click OK.
       Grant DCOM remote access permissions:
         a. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.
         b. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component
            Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My
            Computer and click Properties.
         c. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM
            Security tab.
         d. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.
         e. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS
            LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow
            column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access,
            and then click OK.

    2. Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI
       namespace:
         a. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.
         b. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer
            Management.
         c. In the Computer Management window, expand the Services
            and Applications tree and double-click the WMI Control.
         d. Right-click the WMI Control icon and select Properties.
         e. In the WMI Control Properties window, click the Security
            tab.
         f. In the Security tab, select the namespace and click
            Security.
         g. Locate the appropriate account and check Remote Enable in
            the Permissions list.

    3. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group
       Policy Editor or using NETSH:
       Using the Group Policy Editor:
         a. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click
            OK.
         b. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click
            Computer Configuration.
         c. Double-click Administrative Templates, then Network,
            Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.
         d. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click
            Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.
         e. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote
            administration exception.
         f. On the Action menu either select Edit, or double-click
            the selection from the previous step.
         g. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK.
       Using the NETSH command:
         a. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights
            (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click
            Run as Administrator).
         b. Execute the following command:
NETSH firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable

    4. Now, be sure the user you are logging in with uses the Name
       value and not the Full Name value:
         a. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.
         b. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer
            Management.
         c. In the Computer Management window, expand the System
            Tools then Local Users and Groups.
         d. Click the Users node, and on the right side panel locate
            your user and make sure it uses the Name value to
            connect, and not the Full Name value.

    5. If the remote computer is running on Windows XP Professional,
       make sure that remote logins are not being forcefully changed
       to the guest account user (also known as ForceGuest), which is
       enabled by default on computers that are not attached to a
       domain.
         a. Click Start, click Run, type SECPOL.MSC, and then click
            OK.
         b. Under the Local Policies node, double-click Security
            Options.
         c. Select Network Access: Sharing and security model for
            local accounts and save.

Common Errors


     * 0x80070005

          + DCOM Security was not configured properly (see Computer
            B, the Setting DCOM security... step).

          + The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP
            or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client
            computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant
            Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions
            step).

     * 0x8007000E

          + The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP
            or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client
            computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant
            Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions
            step).

     * 0x80041003

          + Access to the remote WMI namespace was not configured
            properly (see Computer B, the Allowing non-administrator
            users access to a specific WMI namespace step).

     * 0x800706BA

          + The DCOM port is not open on the client computers
            (Computer A) firewall. See the Open the DCOM port TCP 135
            step for Computer A.

          + The remote computer (Computer B) is inaccessible because
            its network location is set to Public. Make sure you can
            access it through the Windows Explorer.

2.3.5. Using the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard

   The MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard helps automate the process
   of configuring your server. It creates a custom MySQL
   configuration file (my.ini or my.cnf) by asking you a series of
   questions and then applying your responses to a template to
   generate the configuration file that is tuned to your
   installation.

   The complete and essential MSI installation packages include the
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard in the MySQL 5.1 server. The
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard is only available for Windows.

   The workflow sequence for using the MySQL Server Instance Config
   Wizard is shown in the figure below:

   Figure 2.18. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Workflow
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Workflow

2.3.5.1. Starting the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard

   The MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard is normally started as
   part of the installation process. You should only need to run the
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard again when you need to change
   the configuration parameters of your server.

   If you chose not to open a port prior to installing MySQL on
   Windows Vista or newer, you can choose to use the MySQL Server
   Instance Config Wizard after installation. However, you must open
   a port in the Windows Firewall. To do this see the instructions
   given in Section 2.3.3.1.1, "MySQL Installation Wizard:
   Downloading and Starting." Rather than opening a port, you also
   have the option of adding MySQL as a program that bypasses the
   Windows Firewall. One or the other option is sufficient---you need
   not do both. Additionally, when running the MySQL Server Config
   Wizard on Windows Vista or newer, ensure that you are logged in as
   a user with administrative rights.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard

   You can launch the MySQL Config Wizard by clicking the MySQL
   Server Instance Config Wizard entry in the MySQL section of the
   Windows Start menu.

   Alternatively, you can navigate to the bin directory of your MySQL
   installation and launch the MySQLInstanceConfig.exe file directly.

   The MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard places the my.ini file in
   the installation directory for the MySQL server. This helps
   associate configuration files with particular server instances.

   To ensure that the MySQL server knows where to look for the my.ini
   file, an argument similar to this is passed to the MySQL server as
   part of the service installation:
--defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\my.ini"

   Here, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1 is replaced with the
   installation path to the MySQL Server. The --defaults-file option
   instructs the MySQL server to read the specified file for
   configuration options when it starts.

   Apart from making changes to the my.ini file by running the MySQL
   Server Instance Config Wizard again, you can modify it by opening
   it with a text editor and making any necessary changes. You can
   also modify the server configuration with the
   http://www.mysql.com/products/administrator/ utility. For more
   information about server configuration, see Section 5.1.3, "Server
   Command Options."

   MySQL clients and utilities such as the mysql and mysqldump
   command-line clients are not able to locate the my.ini file
   located in the server installation directory. To configure the
   client and utility applications, create a new my.ini file in the
   Windows installation directory (for example, C:\WINDOWS).

   Under Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2000, Windows XP, and
   Windows Vista, MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard will configure
   MySQL to work as a Windows service. To start and stop MySQL you
   use the Services application that is supplied as part of the
   Windows Administrator Tools.

2.3.5.2. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Choosing a Maintenance
Option

   If the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard detects an existing
   configuration file, you have the option of either reconfiguring
   your existing server, or removing the server instance by deleting
   the configuration file and stopping and removing the MySQL
   service.

   To reconfigure an existing server, choose the Re-configure
   Instance option and click the Next button. Any existing
   configuration file is not overwritten, but renamed (within the
   same directory) using a timestamp (Windows) or sequential number
   (Linux). To remove the existing server instance, choose the Remove
   Instance option and click the Next button.

   If you choose the Remove Instance option, you advance to a
   confirmation window. Click the Execute button. The MySQL Server
   Config Wizard stops and removes the MySQL service, and then
   deletes the configuration file. The server installation and its
   data folder are not removed.

   If you choose the Re-configure Instance option, you advance to the
   Configuration Type dialog where you can choose the type of
   installation that you wish to configure.

2.3.5.3. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Choosing a
Configuration Type

   When you start the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard for a new
   MySQL installation, or choose the Re-configure Instance option for
   an existing installation, you advance to the Configuration Type
   dialog.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Configuration Type

   There are two configuration types available: Detailed
   Configuration and Standard Configuration. The Standard
   Configuration option is intended for new users who want to get
   started with MySQL quickly without having to make many decisions
   about server configuration. The Detailed Configuration option is
   intended for advanced users who want more fine-grained control
   over server configuration.

   If you are new to MySQL and need a server configured as a
   single-user developer machine, the Standard Configuration should
   suit your needs. Choosing the Standard Configuration option causes
   the MySQL Config Wizard to set all configuration options
   automatically with the exception of Service Options and Security
   Options.

   The Standard Configuration sets options that may be incompatible
   with systems where there are existing MySQL installations. If you
   have an existing MySQL installation on your system in addition to
   the installation you wish to configure, the Detailed Configuration
   option is recommended.

   To complete the Standard Configuration, please refer to the
   sections on Service Options and Security Options in Section
   2.3.5.10, "MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Service
   Options Dialog," and Section 2.3.5.11, "MySQL Server Instance
   Config Wizard: The Security Options Dialog," respectively.

2.3.5.4. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Server Type Dialog

   There are three different server types available to choose from.
   The server type that you choose affects the decisions that the
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard makes with regard to memory,
   disk, and processor usage.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Server Type

     * Developer Machine: Choose this option for a typical desktop
       workstation where MySQL is intended only for personal use. It
       is assumed that many other desktop applications are running.
       The MySQL server is configured to use minimal system
       resources.

     * Server Machine: Choose this option for a server machine where
       the MySQL server is running alongside other server
       applications such as FTP, email, and Web servers. The MySQL
       server is configured to use a moderate portion of the system
       resources.

     * Dedicated MySQL Server Machine: Choose this option for a
       server machine that is intended to run only the MySQL server.
       It is assumed that no other applications are running. The
       MySQL server is configured to use all available system
       resources.

   Note

   By selecting one of the preconfigured configurations, the values
   and settings of various options in your my.cnf or my.ini will be
   altered accordingly. The default values and options as described
   in the reference manual may therefore be different to the options
   and values that were created during the execution of the Config
   Wizard.

2.3.5.5. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Database Usage
Dialog

   The Database Usage dialog enables you to indicate the storage
   engines that you expect to use when creating MySQL tables. The
   option you choose determines whether the InnoDB storage engine is
   available and what percentage of the server resources are
   available to InnoDB.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Usage Dialog

     * Multifunctional Database: This option enables both the InnoDB
       and MyISAM storage engines and divides resources evenly
       between the two. This option is recommended for users who use
       both storage engines on a regular basis.

     * Transactional Database Only: This option enables both the
       InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines, but dedicates most server
       resources to the InnoDB storage engine. This option is
       recommended for users who use InnoDB almost exclusively and
       make only minimal use of MyISAM.

     * Non-Transactional Database Only: This option disables the
       InnoDB storage engine completely and dedicates all server
       resources to the MyISAM storage engine. This option is
       recommended for users who do not use InnoDB.

   The Config Wizard uses a template to generate the server
   configuration file. The Database Usage dialog sets one of the
   following option strings:
Multifunctional Database:        MIXED
Transactional Database Only:     INNODB
Non-Transactional Database Only: MYISAM

   When these options are processed through the default template
   (my-template.ini) the result is:
Multifunctional Database:
default-storage-engine=InnoDB
_myisam_pct=50

Transactional Database Only:
default-storage-engine=InnoDB
_myisam_pct=5

Non-Transactional Database Only:
default-storage-engine=MyISAM
_myisam_pct=100
skip-innodb

   The _myisam_pct value is used to calculate the percentage of
   resources dedicated to MyISAM. The remaining resources are
   allocated to InnoDB.

2.3.5.6. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The InnoDB Tablespace
Dialog

   Some users may want to locate the InnoDB tablespace files in a
   different location than the MySQL server data directory. Placing
   the tablespace files in a separate location can be desirable if
   your system has a higher capacity or higher performance storage
   device available, such as a RAID storage system.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: InnoDB Data Tablespace

   To change the default location for the InnoDB tablespace files,
   choose a new drive from the drop-down list of drive letters and
   choose a new path from the drop-down list of paths. To create a
   custom path, click the ... button.

   If you are modifying the configuration of an existing server, you
   must click the Modify button before you change the path. In this
   situation you must move the existing tablespace files to the new
   location manually before starting the server.

2.3.5.7. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Concurrent
Connections Dialog

   To prevent the server from running out of resources, it is
   important to limit the number of concurrent connections to the
   MySQL server that can be established. The Concurrent Connections
   dialog enables you to choose the expected usage of your server,
   and sets the limit for concurrent connections accordingly. It is
   also possible to set the concurrent connection limit manually.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Connections

     * Decision Support (DSS)/OLAP: Choose this option if your server
       does not require a large number of concurrent connections. The
       maximum number of connections is set at 100, with an average
       of 20 concurrent connections assumed.

     * Online Transaction Processing (OLTP): Choose this option if
       your server requires a large number of concurrent connections.
       The maximum number of connections is set at 500.

     * Manual Setting: Choose this option to set the maximum number
       of concurrent connections to the server manually. Choose the
       number of concurrent connections from the drop-down box
       provided, or enter the maximum number of connections into the
       drop-down box if the number you desire is not listed.

2.3.5.8. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Networking and
Strict Mode Options Dialog

   Use the Networking Options dialog to enable or disable TCP/IP
   networking and to configure the port number that is used to
   connect to the MySQL server.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Network Configuration

   TCP/IP networking is enabled by default. To disable TCP/IP
   networking, uncheck the box next to the Enable TCP/IP Networking
   option.

   Port 3306 is used by default. To change the port used to access
   MySQL, choose a new port number from the drop-down box or type a
   new port number directly into the drop-down box. If the port
   number you choose is in use, you are prompted to confirm your
   choice of port number.

   Set the Server SQL Mode to either enable or disable strict mode.
   Enabling strict mode (default) makes MySQL behave more like other
   database management systems. If you run applications that rely on
   MySQL's old "forgiving" behavior, make sure to either adapt those
   applications or to disable strict mode. For more information about
   strict mode, see Section 5.1.7, "Server SQL Modes."

2.3.5.9. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Character Set
Dialog

   The MySQL server supports multiple character sets and it is
   possible to set a default server character set that is applied to
   all tables, columns, and databases unless overridden. Use the
   Character Set dialog to change the default character set of the
   MySQL server.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Character Set

     * Standard Character Set: Choose this option if you want to use
       latin1 as the default server character set. latin1 is used for
       English and many Western European languages.

     * Best Support For Multilingualism: Choose this option if you
       want to use utf8 as the default server character set. This is
       a Unicode character set that can store characters from many
       different languages.

     * Manual Selected Default Character Set / Collation: Choose this
       option if you want to pick the server's default character set
       manually. Choose the desired character set from the provided
       drop-down list.

2.3.5.10. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Service Options
Dialog

   On Windows platforms, the MySQL server can be installed as a
   Windows service. When installed this way, the MySQL server can be
   started automatically during system startup, and even restarted
   automatically by Windows in the event of a service failure.

   The MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard installs the MySQL server
   as a service by default, using the service name MySQL. If you do
   not wish to install the service, uncheck the box next to the
   Install As Windows Service option. You can change the service name
   by picking a new service name from the drop-down box provided or
   by entering a new service name into the drop-down box.
   Note

   Service names can include any legal character except forward (/)
   or backward (\) slashes, and must be less than 256 characters
   long.
   Warning

   If you are installing multiple versions of MySQL onto the same
   machine, you must choose a different service name for each version
   that you install. If you do not choose a different service for
   each installed version then the service manager information will
   be inconsistent and this will cause problems when you try to
   uninstall a previous version.

   If you have already installed multiple versions using the same
   service name, you must manually edit the contents of the
   HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services parameters
   within the Windows registry to update the association of the
   service name with the correct server version.

   Typically, when installing multiple versions you create a service
   name based on the version information. For example, you might
   install MySQL 5.x as mysql5, or specific versions such as MySQL
   5.1.30 as mysql50130.

   To install the MySQL server as a service but not have it started
   automatically at startup, uncheck the box next to the Launch the
   MySQL Server Automatically option.

2.3.5.11. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Security Options
Dialog

   The content of the security options portion of the MySQL Server
   Instance Configuration Wizard will depend on whether this is a new
   installation, or modifying an existing installation.

     * Setting the root password for a new installation
       It is strongly recommended that you set a root password for
       your MySQL server, and the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard
       requires by default that you do so. If you do not wish to set
       a root password, uncheck the box next to the Modify Security
       Settings option.
       Note
       If you have previously installed MySQL, but not deleted the
       data directory associated with the previous installation, you
       may be prompted to provide the current root password. The
       password will be the one configured with your old data
       directory. If you do not want to use this data, or do not know
       the root password, you should cancel the installation, delete
       the previous installation data, and then restart the
       installation process. For more information on deleting MySQL
       data on Microsoft Windows, see Section 2.3.3.3, "Removing
       MySQL When Installed from the MSI Package."
       MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Security

     * To set the root password, enter the desired password into both
       the New root password and Confirm boxes.
       Setting the root password for an existing installation
       If you are modifying the configuration of an existing
       configuration, or you are installing an upgrade and the MySQL
       Server Instance Configuration Wizard has detected an existing
       MySQL system, then you must enter the existing password for
       root before changing the configuration information.
       MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Security (Existing
       Installation)
       If you want to change the current root password, enter the
       desired new password into both the New root password and
       Confirm boxes.

   To permit root logins from across the network, check the box next
   to the Enable root access from remote machines option. This
   decreases the security of your root account.

   To create an anonymous user account, check the box next to the
   Create An Anonymous Account option. Creating an anonymous account
   can decrease server security and cause login and permission
   difficulties. For this reason, it is not recommended.

2.3.5.12. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The Confirmation
Dialog

   The final dialog in the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard is the
   Confirmation Dialog. To start the configuration process, click the
   Execute button. To return to a previous dialog, click the Back
   button. To exit the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard without
   configuring the server, click the Cancel button.
   MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Confirmation

   After you click the Execute button, the MySQL Server Instance
   Config Wizard performs a series of tasks and displays the progress
   onscreen as the tasks are performed.

   The MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard first determines
   configuration file options based on your choices using a template
   prepared by MySQL developers and engineers. This template is named
   my-template.ini and is located in your server installation
   directory.

   The MySQL Config Wizard then writes these options to the
   corresponding configuration file.

   If you chose to create a service for the MySQL server, the MySQL
   Server Instance Config Wizard creates and starts the service. If
   you are reconfiguring an existing service, the MySQL Server
   Instance Config Wizard restarts the service to apply your
   configuration changes.

   If you chose to set a root password, the MySQL Config Wizard
   connects to the server, sets your new root password, and applies
   any other security settings you may have selected.

   After the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard has completed its
   tasks, it displays a summary. Click the Finish button to exit the
   MySQL Server Config Wizard.

2.3.5.13. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Creating an Instance
from the Command Line

   In addition to using the GUI interface to the MySQL Server
   Instance Config Wizard, you can also create instances
   automatically from the command line.

   To use the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard on the command
   line, you need to use the MySQLInstanceConfig.exe command that is
   installed with MySQL in the bin directory within the installation
   directory. MySQLInstanceConfig.exe takes a number of command-line
   arguments the set the properties that would normally be selected
   through the GUI interface, and then creates a new configuration
   file (my.ini) by combining these selections with a template
   configuration file to produce the working configuration file.

   The main command line options are provided in the table below.
   Some of the options are required, while some options are optional.

   Table 2.7. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Command Line
   Options
   Option Description
   Required Parameters
   -nPRODUCTNAME The name of the instance when installed
   -pPATH Path of the base directory for installation. This is
   equivalent to the directory when using the basedir configuration
   parameter
   -vVERSION The version tag to use for this installation
   Action to Perform
   -i Install an instance
   -r Remove an instance
   -s Stop an existing instance
   -q Perform the operation quietly
   -lFILENAME Sae the installation progress in a logfile
   Config File to Use
   -tFILENAME Path to the template config file that will be used to
   generate the installed configuration file
   -cFILENAME Path to a config file to be generated

   The -t and -c options work together to set the configuration
   parameters for a new instance. The -t option specifies the
   template configuration file to use as the basic configuration,
   which are then merged with the configuration parameters generated
   by the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard into the configuration
   file specified by the -c option.

   A sample template file, my-template.ini is provided in the
   toplevel MySQL installation directory. The file contains elements
   are replaced automatically by the MySQL Server Instance Config
   Wizard during configuration.

   If you specify a configuration file that already exists, the
   existing configuration file will be saved in the file with the
   original, with the date and time added. For example, the mysql.ini
   will be copied to mysql 2009-10-27 1646.ini.bak.

   The parameters that you can specify on the command line are listed
   in the table below.

   Table 2.8. MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Parameters
   Parameter Description
   ServiceName=$ Specify the name of the service to be created
   AddBinToPath={yes | no} Specifies whether to add the binary
   directory of MySQL to the standard PATH environment variable
   ServerType={DEVELOPMENT | SERVER | DEDICATED} Specify the server
   type. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.4, "MySQL Server
   Instance Config Wizard: The Server Type Dialog"
   DatabaseType={MIXED | INNODB | MYISAM} Specify the default
   database type. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.5, "MySQL
   Server Instance Config Wizard: The Database Usage Dialog"
   ConnectionUsage={DSS | OLTP} Specify the type of connection
   support, this automates the setting for the number of concurrent
   connections (see the ConnectionCount parameter). For more
   information, see Section 2.3.5.7, "MySQL Server Instance Config
   Wizard: The Concurrent Connections Dialog"
   ConnectionCount=# Specify the number of concurrent connections to
   support. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.4, "MySQL Server
   Instance Config Wizard: The Server Type Dialog"
   SkipNetworking={yes | no} Specify whether network support should
   be supported. Specifying yes disables network access altogether
   Port=# Specify the network port number to use for network
   connections. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.8, "MySQL
   Server Instance Config Wizard: The Networking and Strict Mode
   Options Dialog"
   StrictMode={yes | no} Specify whether to use the strict SQL mode.
   For more information, see Section 2.3.5.8, "MySQL Server Instance
   Config Wizard: The Networking and Strict Mode Options Dialog"
   Charset=$ Specify the default character set. For more information,
   see Section 2.3.5.9, "MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: The
   Character Set Dialog"
   RootPassword=$ Specify the root password
   RootCurrentPassword=$ Specify the current root password then
   stopping or reconfiguring an existing service
   Note

   When specifying options on the command line, you can enclose the
   entire command-line option and the value you are specifying using
   double quotation marks. This enables you to use spaces in the
   options. For example, "-cC:\mysql.ini".

   The following command installs a MySQL Server 5.1 instance from
   the directory C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1 using the
   service name MySQL51 and setting the root password to 1234.
shell> MySQLInstanceConfig.exe -i -q "-lC:\mysql_install_log.txt" »
   "-nMySQL Server 5.1" "-pC:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1" -
v5.1.74 »
   "-tmy-template.ini" "-cC:\mytest.ini" ServerType=DEVELOPMENT Datab
aseType=MIXED »
   ConnectionUsage=DSS Port=3311 ServiceName=MySQL51 RootPassword=123
4

   In the above example, a log file will be generated in
   mysql_install_log.txt containing the information about the
   instance creation process. The log file generated by the above
   example is shown below:
Welcome to the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard 1.0.16.0
Date: 2009-10-27 17:07:21

Installing service ...

Product Name:         MySQL Server 5.1
Version:              5.1.74
Installation Path:    C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\

Creating configuration file C:\mytest.ini using template my-template.
ini.
Options:
DEVELOPMENT
MIXED
DSS
STRICTMODE

Variables:
port: 3311
default-character-set: latin1
basedir: "C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 5.1/"
datadir: "C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 5.1/Data/"


Creating Windows service entry.
Service name: "MySQL51"
Parameters:   "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld" --
defaults-file="C:\mytest.ini" MySQL51.
Windows service MySQL51 installed.

   When using the command line, the return values in the following
   table indicate an error performing the specified option.

   Table 2.9. Return Value from MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard
   Value                   Description
   2     Configuration template file cannot be found
   3     The Windows service entry cannot be created
   4     Could not connect to the Service Control Manager
   5     The MySQL service cannot be started
   6     The MySQL service cannot be stopped
   7     The security settings cannot be applied
   8     The configuration file cannot be written
   9     The Windows service entry cannot be removed

   You can perform an installation of MySQL automatically using the
   MSI package. For more information, see Section 2.3.3.2,
   "Automating MySQL Installation on Microsoft Windows Using the MSI
   Package."

2.3.6. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip
Archive

   Users who are installing from the noinstall package can use the
   instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. The
   process for installing MySQL from a Zip archive is as follows:

    1. Extract the archive to the desired install directory

    2. Create an option file

    3. Choose a MySQL server type

    4. Start the MySQL server

    5. Secure the default user accounts

   This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.6.1. Extracting the Install Archive

   To install MySQL manually, do the following:

    1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to
       Section 2.3.8, "Upgrading MySQL Server on Microsoft Windows,"
       before beginning the upgrade process.

    2. Make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator
       privileges.

    3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally, the MySQL
       server is installed in C:\mysql. The MySQL Installation Wizard
       installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL. If you do not
       install MySQL at C:\mysql, you must specify the path to the
       install directory during startup or in an option file. See
       Section 2.3.6.2, "Creating an Option File."

    4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation
       location using your preferred Zip archive tool. Some tools may
       extract the archive to a folder within your chosen
       installation location. If this occurs, you can move the
       contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation
       location.

2.3.6.2. Creating an Option File

   If you need to specify startup options when you run the server,
   you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an
   option file. For options that are used every time the server
   starts, you may find it most convenient to use an option file to
   specify your MySQL configuration. This is particularly true under
   the following circumstances:

     * The installation or data directory locations are different
       from the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL
       Server 5.1 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\data).

     * You need to tune the server settings, such as memory, cache,
       or InnoDB configuration information.

   When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for option files
   in several locations, such as the Windows directory, C:\, and the
   MySQL installation directory (for the full list of locations, see
   Section 4.2.3.3, "Using Option Files"). The Windows directory
   typically is named something like C:\WINDOWS. You can determine
   its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment
   variable using the following command:
C:\> echo %WINDIR%

   MySQL looks for options in each location first in the my.ini file,
   and then in the my.cnf file. However, to avoid confusion, it is
   best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where
   C: is not the boot drive, your only option is to use the my.ini
   file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

   You can also make use of the example option files included with
   your MySQL distribution; see Section 5.1.2, "Server Configuration
   Defaults."

   An option file can be created and modified with any text editor,
   such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql
   and the data directory is in E:\mydata\data, you can create an
   option file containing a [mysqld] section to specify values for
   the basedir and datadir options:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data

   Note that Windows path names are specified in option files using
   (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use
   backslashes, double them:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data

   The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in
   Section 4.2.3.3, "Using Option Files."

   In MySQL 5.1.23 and earlier, the MySQL installer places the data
   directory directly under the directory where you install MySQL. On
   MySQL 5.1.24 and later, the data directory is located within the
   AppData directory for the user running MySQL.

   If you would like to use a data directory in a different location,
   you should copy the entire contents of the data directory to the
   new location. For example, if you want to use E:\mydata as the
   data directory instead, you must do two things:

    1. Move the entire data directory and all of its contents from
       the default location (for example C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL
       Server 5.1\data) to E:\mydata.

    2. Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory
       location each time you start the server.

2.3.6.3. Selecting a MySQL Server Type

   The following table shows the available servers for Windows in
   MySQL 5.1.20 and earlier.

   Table 2.10. mysqld binary types for Microsoft Windows up to MySQL
   5.1.20
   Binary Description
   mysqld-nt Optimized binary with named-pipe support
   mysqld Optimized binary without named-pipe support
   mysqld-debug Like mysqld-nt, but compiled with full debugging and
   automatic memory allocation checking

   The following table shows the available servers for Windows in
   MySQL 5.1.21 and later.

   Table 2.11. mysqld binary types for Microsoft Windows MySQL 5.1.21
   and later
   Binary Description
   mysqld Optimized binary with named-pipe support
   mysqld-debug Like mysqld, but compiled with full debugging and
   automatic memory allocation checking

   All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel
   processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher
   processor.

   Each of the servers in a distribution support the same set of
   storage engines. The SHOW ENGINES statement displays which engines
   a given server supports.

   All Windows MySQL 5.1 servers have support for symbolic linking of
   database directories.

   MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. MySQL servers on
   Windows support named pipes as indicated in the following list.
   However, the default is to use TCP/IP regardless of platform.
   (Named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows
   configurations.)

   Use of named pipes is subject to these conditions:

     * Named pipes are enabled only if you start the server with the
       --enable-named-pipe option. It is necessary to use this option
       explicitly because some users have experienced problems with
       shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes were used.

     * For MySQL 5.1.20 and earlier, named-pipe connections are
       permitted only by the mysqld-nt and mysqld-debug servers. For
       MySQL 5.1.21 and later, the mysqld and mysqld-debug servers
       both contain support for named-pipe connections.

   Note

   Most of the examples in this manual use mysqld as the server name.
   If you choose to use a different server, such as mysqld-nt or
   mysqld-debug, make the appropriate substitutions in the commands
   that are shown in the examples.

2.3.6.4. Starting MySQL Server on Microsoft Windows for the First
Time

   This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL
   server. The following sections provide more specific information
   for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a
   Windows service.

   The information here applies primarily if you installed MySQL
   using the Noinstall version, or if you wish to configure and test
   MySQL manually rather than with the GUI tools.

   The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed
   under the default location of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server
   5.1. Adjust the path names shown in the examples if you have MySQL
   installed in a different location.

   Clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a
   named pipe if the server supports named-pipe connections.

   MySQL for Windows also supports shared-memory connections if the
   server is started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can
   connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=MEMORY
   option.

   For information about which server binary to run, see Section
   2.3.6.3, "Selecting a MySQL Server Type."

   Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (or
   "DOS window"). In this way you can have the server display status
   messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is
   wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for
   you to identify and fix any problems.

   To start the server, enter this command:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld" --console

   For a server that includes InnoDB support, you should see the
   messages similar to those following as it starts (the path names
   and sizes may differ):
InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be creat
ed
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be creat
ed
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be creat
ed
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

   When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see
   something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to
   service client connections:
mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '5.1.74'  socket: ''  port: 3306

   The server continues to write to the console any further
   diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window
   in which to run client programs.

   If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic
   output to the error log in the data directory (C:\Program
   Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\data by default). The error log is
   the file with the .err extension.
   Note

   The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially
   have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up
   passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.12.2,
   "Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts."

2.3.6.5. Starting MySQL Server from the Windows Command Line

   The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line.
   This can be done on any version of Windows.

   To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start
   a console window (or "DOS window") and enter this command:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld"

   The path to mysqld may vary depending on the install location of
   MySQL on your system.

   You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqladmin" -u root
 shutdown

   Note

   If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke
   mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when
   prompted.

   This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin
   to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command
   connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default
   administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users
   in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login
   users under Windows.

   If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the
   server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the
   problem. The error log is located in the C:\Program
   Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\data directory. It is the file with a
   suffix of .err. You can also try to start the server as mysqld
   --console; in this case, you may get some useful information on
   the screen that may help solve the problem.

   The last option is to start mysqld with the --standalone and
   --debug options. In this case, mysqld writes a log file
   C:\mysqld.trace that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't
   start. See Section 22.4.3, "The DBUG Package."

   Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld
   supports.

2.3.6.6. Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools

   To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path
   name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH
   environment variable:

     * On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and
       select Properties.

     * Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu
       that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

     * Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit
       button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

     * Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the
       space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that
       your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this
       space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin
       directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server
       5.1\bin)
       Note
       There must be a semicolon separating this path from any values
       present in this field.
       Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking
       OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been
       dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL
       executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from
       any directory on the system, without having to supply the
       path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all
       MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.
       You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows
       PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same
       machine.

   Warning

   You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by
   hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the
   existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even
   unusable system.

2.3.6.7. Starting MySQL Server as a Microsoft Windows Service

   On Windows, the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a
   Windows service, so that MySQL starts and stops automatically when
   Windows starts and stops, and can be managed using the service
   manager framework. A MySQL server installed as a service can also
   be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with
   the graphical Services utility. Generally, to install MySQL as a
   Windows service you should be logged in using an account that has
   administrator rights.

   The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be
   found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on
   Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and Server 2003). To avoid conflicts, it
   is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server
   installation or removal operations from the command line.

Installing the service

   Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first
   stop the current server if it is running by using the following
   command:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqladmin"
          -u root shutdown

   Note

   If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke
   mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when
   prompted.

   This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin
   to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command
   connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default
   administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users
   in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login
   users under Windows.

   Install the server as a service using this command:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld" --install

   Note

   The service-installation command does not start the server.

   The following additional arguments can be used when installing the
   service:

     * You can specify a service name immediately following the
       --install option. The default service name is MySQL.

     * If a service name is given, it can be followed by a single
       option. By convention, this should be
       --defaults-file=file_name to specify the name of an option
       file from which the server should read options when it starts.
       The use of a single option other than --defaults-file is
       possible but discouraged. --defaults-file is more flexible
       because it enables you to specify multiple startup options for
       the server by placing them in the named option file.

     * You can also specify a --local-service option following the
       service name. This causes the server to run using the
       LocalService Windows account that has limited system
       privileges. This account is available only for Windows XP or
       newer. If both --defaults-file and --local-service are given
       following the service name, they can be in any order.

   For a MySQL server that is installed as a Windows service, the
   following rules determine the service name and option files that
   the server uses:

     * If the service-installation command specifies no service name
       or the default service name (MySQL) following the --install
       option, the server uses the a service name of MySQL and reads
       options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.

     * If the service-installation command specifies a service name
       other than MySQL following the --install option, the server
       uses that service name. It reads options from the [mysqld]
       group and the group that has the same name as the service in
       the standard option files. This enables you to use the
       [mysqld] group for options that should be used by all MySQL
       services, and an option group with the service name for use by
       the server installed with that service name.

     * If the service-installation command specifies a
       --defaults-file option after the service name, the server
       reads options the same way as described in the previous item,
       except that it reads options only from the the named file and
       ignores the standard option files.

   As a more complex example, consider the following command:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld"
          --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

   Here, the default service name (MySQL) is given after the
   --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given,
   this command would have the effect of causing the server to read
   the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However,
   because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads
   options from the [mysqld] option group, and only from the named
   file.
   Note

   On Windows, if the server is started with the --defaults-file and
   --install options, --install must be first. Otherwise, mysqld.exe
   will attempt to start the MySQL server.

   You can also specify options as Start parameters in the Windows
   Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Starting the service

   Once a MySQL server has been installed as a service, Windows
   starts the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The
   service also can be started immediately from the Services utility,
   or by using a NET START MySQL command. The NET command is not case
   sensitive.

   When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window,
   so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld does not start, check
   the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there
   to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in
   the MySQL data directory (for example, C:\Program
   Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\data). It is the file with a suffix
   of .err.

   When a MySQL server has been installed as a service, and the
   service is running, Windows stops the service automatically when
   Windows shuts down. The server also can be stopped manually by
   using the Services utility, the NET STOP MySQL command, or the
   mysqladmin shutdown command.

   You also have the choice of installing the server as a manual
   service if you do not wish for the service to be started
   automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the
   --install-manual option rather than the --install option:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld" --install-m
anual

Removing the service

   To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it
   if it is running by executing NET STOP MySQL. Then use the
   --remove option to remove it:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqld" --remove

   If mysqld is not running as a service, you can start it from the
   command line. For instructions, see Section 2.3.6.5, "Starting
   MySQL Server from the Windows Command Line."

   Please see Section 2.3.7, "Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows
   MySQL Server Installation," if you encounter difficulties during
   installation.

2.3.6.8. Testing The MySQL Server Installation on Microsoft Windows

   You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any
   of the following commands:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqlshow"
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqlshow" -u root
mysql
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqladmin" version
 status proc
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysql" test

   Note

   By default, mysqlshow will try to connect using the ODBC user.
   This user is not created by default. You should specify a valid
   user, or root with the right password to check the operation of
   the server.

   If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client
   programs, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case,
   start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only
   localhost and IP addresses in the Host column of the MySQL grant
   tables.

   You can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection rather
   than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or
   by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option
   to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the
   default pipe name.

   Note that if you have set a password for the root account, deleted
   the anonymous account, or created a new user account, then you
   must use the appropriate -u and -p options with the commands shown
   above to connect with the MySQL Server. See Section 4.2.2,
   "Connecting to the MySQL Server."

   For more information about mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.6,
   "mysqlshow --- Display Database, Table, and Column Information."

2.3.7. Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation

   When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may
   encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from
   starting. The purpose of this section is to help you diagnose and
   correct some of these errors.

   Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the
   error log
   (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/glossary.html#glos_error_l
   og). The MySQL server uses the error log to record information
   relevant to the error that prevents the server from starting. The
   error log is located in the data directory
   (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/glossary.html#glos_data_di
   rectory) specified in your my.ini file. The default data directory
   location is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\data, or
   C:\ProgramData\Mysql on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008. The
   C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You need to change
   your folder options to see the directory and contents. For more
   information on the error log and understanding the content, see
   Section 5.2.2, "The Error Log."

   Another source of information regarding possible errors is the
   console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use
   the NET START MySQL command from the command line after installing
   mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the
   starting of the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.3.6.7,
   "Starting MySQL Server as a Microsoft Windows Service."

   The following examples show other common error messages you may
   encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the
   first time:

     * If the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database
       or other critical files, you may see these messages:
System error 1067 has occurred.
Fatal error: Can't open privilege tables: Table 'mysql.host' doesn't
exist
       These messages often occur when the MySQL base or data
       directories are installed in different locations than the
       default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1 and
       C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\data, respectively).
       This situation may occur when MySQL is upgraded and installed
       to a new location, but the configuration file is not updated
       to reflect the new location. In addition, there may be old and
       new configuration files that conflict. Be sure to delete or
       rename any old configuration files when upgrading MySQL.
       If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than
       C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1, you need to ensure
       that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a
       configuration (my.ini) file. The my.ini file needs to be
       located in your Windows directory, typically C:\WINDOWS. You
       can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR
       environment variable by issuing the following command from the
       command prompt:
C:\> echo %WINDIR%
       An option file can be created and modified with any text
       editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in
       E:\mysql and the data directory is D:\MySQLdata, you can
       create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to
       specify values for the basedir and datadir options:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:/MySQLdata
       Note that Windows path names are specified in option files
       using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use
       backslashes, double them:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.1
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:\\MySQLdata
       The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given
       in Section 4.2.3.3, "Using Option Files."
       If you change the datadir value in your MySQL configuration
       file, you must move the contents of the existing MySQL data
       directory before restarting the MySQL server.
       See Section 2.3.6.2, "Creating an Option File."

     * If you reinstall or upgrade MySQL without first stopping and
       removing the existing MySQL service and install MySQL using
       the MySQL Config Wizard, you may see this error:
Error: Cannot create Windows service for MySql. Error: 0
       This occurs when the Config Wizard tries to install the
       service and finds an existing service with the same name.
       One solution to this problem is to choose a service name other
       than mysql when using the configuration wizard. This enables
       the new service to be installed correctly, but leaves the
       outdated service in place. Although this is harmless, it is
       best to remove old services that are no longer in use.
       To permanently remove the old mysql service, execute the
       following command as a user with administrative privileges, on
       the command-line:
C:\> sc delete mysql
[SC] DeleteService SUCCESS
       If the sc utility is not available for your version of
       Windows, download the delsrv utility from
       http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/reskit/tools/exi
       sting/delsrv-o.asp and use the delsrv mysql syntax.

2.3.8. Upgrading MySQL Server on Microsoft Windows

   This section lists some of the steps you should take when
   upgrading MySQL on Windows.

    1. Review Section 2.13.1, "Upgrading MySQL," for additional
       information on upgrading MySQL that is not specific to
       Windows.

    2. You should always back up your current MySQL installation
       before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database
       Backup Methods."

    3. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL from
       http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.

    4. Before upgrading MySQL, you must stop the server. If the
       server is installed as a service, stop the service with the
       following command from the command prompt:
C:\> NET STOP MySQL
       If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, use
       mysqladmin to stop it. For example, before upgrading from
       MySQL 5.0 to 5.1, use mysqladmin from MySQL 5.0 as follows:
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0\bin\mysqladmin" -u root
 shutdown
       Note
       If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to
       invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password
       when prompted.

    5. Before upgrading to MySQL 5.1 from a version previous to
       4.1.5, or from a version of MySQL installed from a Zip archive
       to a version of MySQL installed with the MySQL Installation
       Wizard, you must first manually remove the previous
       installation and MySQL service (if the server is installed as
       a service).
       To remove the MySQL service, use the following command:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove
       Important
       If you do not remove the existing service, the MySQL
       Installation Wizard may fail to properly install the new MySQL
       service.

    6. When upgrading from MySQL 5.1.23 to MySQL 5.1.24, the change
       in the default location of the data directory from a directory
       within the MySQL installation to the AppData folder means that
       you must manually copy the data files from your old
       installation to the new location.

    7. If you are using the MySQL Installation Wizard, start the
       wizard as described in Section 2.3.3.1, "Using the MySQL
       Installation Wizard for Microsoft Windows."

    8. If you are installing MySQL from a Zip archive, extract the
       archive. You may either overwrite your existing MySQL
       installation (usually located at C:\mysql), or install it into
       a different directory, such as C:\mysql5. Overwriting the
       existing installation is recommended.

    9. If you were running MySQL as a Windows service and you had to
       remove the service earlier in this procedure, reinstall the
       service. (See Section 2.3.6.7, "Starting MySQL Server as a
       Microsoft Windows Service.")
   10. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you
       run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.
   11. As Administrator, run mysql_upgrade to check your tables,
       attempt to repair them if necessary, and update your grant
       tables if they have changed so that you can take advantage of
       any new capabilities. See Section 4.4.8, "mysql_upgrade ---
       Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables."
   12. If you encounter errors, see Section 2.3.7, "Troubleshooting a
       Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation."

2.3.9. MySQL Server on Microsoft Windows Postinstallation Procedures

   On Windows, you need not create the data directory and the grant
   tables. MySQL Windows distributions include the grant tables with
   a set of preinitialized accounts in the mysql database under the
   data directory. Regarding passwords, if you installed MySQL using
   the Windows Installation Wizard, you may have already assigned
   passwords to the accounts. (See Section 2.3.3.1, "Using the MySQL
   Installation Wizard for Microsoft Windows.") Otherwise, use the
   password-assignment procedure given in Section 2.12.2, "Securing
   the Initial MySQL Accounts."

   Before setting up passwords, you might want to try running some
   client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server
   and that it is operating properly. Make sure that the server is
   running (see Section 2.3.6.4, "Starting MySQL Server on Microsoft
   Windows for the First Time"), and then issue the following
   commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the
   server. You may need to specify directory different from
   C:\mysql\bin on the command line. If you used the Windows
   Installation Wizard, the default directory is C:\Program
   Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1, and the mysql and mysqlshow client
   programs are in C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin. See
   Section 2.3.3.1, "Using the MySQL Installation Wizard for
   Microsoft Windows," for more information.

   Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+--------------------+

   The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include
   the minimum of mysql and information_schema. In most cases, the
   test database will also be installed automatically.

   The preceding command (and commands for other MySQL programs such
   as mysql) may not work if the correct MySQL account does not
   exist. For example, the program may fail with an error, or you may
   not be able to view all databases. If you installed using the MSI
   packages and used the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard, then
   the root user will have been created automatically with the
   password you supplied. In this case, you should use the -u root
   and -p options. (You will also need to use the -u root and -p
   options if you have already secured the initial MySQL accounts.)
   With -p, you will be prompted for the root password. For example:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+--------------------+

   If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the
   tables within the database:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| host                      |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| servers                   |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

   Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the
   mysql database:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM mysql.db"
+------+--------+------+
| host | db     | user |
+------+--------+------+
| %    | test   |      |
| %    | test_% |      |
+------+--------+------+

   For more information about mysqlshow and mysql, see Section 4.5.6,
   "mysqlshow --- Display Database, Table, and Column Information,"
   and Section 4.5.1, "mysql --- The MySQL Command-Line Tool."

   If you are running a version of Windows that supports services,
   you can set up the MySQL server to run automatically when Windows
   starts. See Section 2.3.6.7, "Starting MySQL Server as a Microsoft
   Windows Service."

2.4. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

   MySQL for Mac OS X is available in a number of different forms:

     * Native Package Installer format, which uses the native Mac OS
       X installer to walk you through the installation of MySQL. For
       more information, see Section 2.4.2, "Installing MySQL on Mac
       OS X Using Native Packages." You can use the package installer
       with Mac OS X 10.3 and later, and the package is available for
       both PowerPC and Intel architectures, and 32-bit and 64-bit
       architectures. There is no Universal Binary available using
       the package installation method. The user you use to perform
       the installation must have administrator privileges.

     * Tar package format, which uses a file packaged using the Unix
       tar and gzip commands. To use this method, you will need to
       open a Terminal window. You do not need administrator
       privileges using this method, as you can install the MySQL
       server anywhere using this method. For more information on
       using this method, you can use the generic instructions for
       using a tarball, Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux
       Using Generic Binaries."You can use the package installer with
       Mac OS X 10.3 and later, and available for both PowerPC and
       Intel architectures, and both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures.
       A Universal Binary, incorporating both Power PC and Intel
       architectures and 32-bit and 64-bit binaries is available.
       In addition to the core installation, the Package Installer
       also includes Section 2.4.3, "Installing the MySQL Startup
       Item" and Section 2.4.4, "Installing and Using the MySQL
       Preference Pane," both of which simplify the management of
       your installation.

     * Mac OS X server includes a version of MySQL as standard. If
       you want to use a more recent version than that supplied with
       the Mac OS X server release, you can make use of the package
       or tar formats. For more information on using the MySQL
       bundled with Mac OS X, see Section 2.4.5, "Using the Bundled
       MySQL on Mac OS X Server."

   For additional information on using MySQL on Mac OS X, see Section
   2.4.1, "General Notes on Installing MySQL on Mac OS X."

2.4.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

   You should keep the following issues and notes in mind:

     * The default location for the MySQL Unix socket is different on
       Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server depending on the installation
       type you chose. The following table shows the default
       locations by installation type.
       Table 2.12. MySQL Unix Socket Locations on Mac OS X by
       Installation Type

               Installation Type             Socket Location
       Package Installer from MySQL       /tmp/mysql.sock
       Tarball from MySQL                 /tmp/mysql.sock
       MySQL Bundled with Mac OS X Server /var/mysql/mysql.sock
       To prevent issues, you should either change the configuration
       of the socket used within your application (for example,
       changing php.ini), or you should configure the socket location
       using a MySQL configuration file and the socket option. For
       more information, see Section 5.1.3, "Server Command Options."

     * You may need (or want) to create a specific mysql user to own
       the MySQL directory and data. On Mac OS X 10.4 and lower you
       can do this by using the Netinfo Manager application, located
       within the Utilities folder within the Applications folder. On
       Mac OS X 10.5 and later you can do this through the Directory
       Utility. From Mac OS X 10.5 and later (including Mac OS X
       Server 10.5) the mysql should already exist. For use in single
       user mode, an entry for _mysql (note the underscore prefix)
       should already exist within the system /etc/passwd file.

     * Due to a bug in the Mac OS X package installer, you may see
       this error message in the destination disk selection dialog:
You cannot install this software on this disk. (null)
       If this error occurs, click the Go Back button once to return
       to the previous screen. Then click Continue to advance to the
       destination disk selection again, and you should be able to
       choose the destination disk correctly. We have reported this
       bug to Apple and it is investigating this problem.

     * If you get an "insecure startup item disabled" error when
       MySQL launches, use the following procedure. Adjust the
       pathnames appropriately for your system.

         1. Modify the mysql.script using this command (enter it on a
            single line):
shell> sudo /Applications/TextEdit.app/Contents/MacOS/TextEdit
  /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server

         2. Locate the option file that defines the basedir value and
            modify it to contain these lines:
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
            In the /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/ directory, make
            the following group ID changes from staff to wheel:
shell> sudo chgrp wheel MySQLCOM StartupParameters.plist

         3. Start the server from System Preferences or Terminal.app.

     * Because the MySQL package installer installs the MySQL
       contents into a version and platform specific directory, you
       can use this to upgrade and migrate your database between
       versions. You will need to either copy the data directory from
       the old version to the new version, or alternatively specify
       an alternative datadir value to set location of the data
       directory.

     * You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to
       make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql
       and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for bash is:
alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
       For tcsh, use:
alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
       Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment
       variable. You can do this by modifying the appropriate startup
       file for your shell. For more information, see Section 4.2.1,
       "Invoking MySQL Programs."

     * After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the
       previous installation and have successfully started the new
       server, you should consider removing the old installation
       files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove
       older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in
       /Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg.

2.4.2. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X Using Native Packages

   You can install MySQL on Mac OS X 10.3.x ("Panther") or newer
   using a Mac OS X binary package in DMG format instead of the
   binary tarball distribution. Please note that older versions of
   Mac OS X (for example, 10.1.x or 10.2.x) are not supported by this
   package.

   The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you
   first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It
   should then mount the image and display its contents.
   Note

   Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to stop all
   running MySQL server instances by using either the MySQL Manager
   Application (on Mac OS X Server) or mysqladmin shutdown on the
   command line.

   When installing from the package version, you should also install
   the MySQL Preference Pane, which will enable you to control the
   startup and execution of your MySQL server from System
   Preferences. For more information, see Section 2.4.4, "Installing
   and Using the MySQL Preference Pane."

   When installing using the package installer, the files are
   installed into a directory within /usr/local matching the name of
   the installation version and platform. For example, the installer
   file mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86_64.pkg installs MySQL into
   /usr/local/mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86_64 . The following table shows
   the layout of the installation directory.

   Table 2.13. MySQL Installation Layout on Mac OS X
   Directory Contents of Directory
   bin Client programs and the mysqld server
   data Log files, databases
   docs Manual in Info format
   include Include (header) files
   lib Libraries
   man Unix manual pages
   mysql-test MySQL test suite
   scripts mysql_install_db
   share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages,
   sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
   sql-bench Benchmarks
   support-files Scripts and sample configuration files
   /tmp/mysql.sock Location of the MySQL Unix socket

   During the package installer process, a symbolic link from
   /usr/local/mysql to the version/platform specific directory
   created during installation will be created automatically.

    1. Download and open the MySQL package installer, which is
       provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL
       installation package, the MySQLStartupItem.pkg installation
       package, and the MySQL.prefPane. Double-click the disk image
       to open it.

    2. Double-click the MySQL installer package. It will be named
       according to the version of MySQL you have downloaded. For
       example, if you have downloaded MySQL 5.1.39, double-click
       mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86.pkg.

    3. You will be presented with the opening installer dialog. Click
       Continue to begin installation.
       MySQL Package Installer: Step 1

    4. A copy of the installation instructions and other important
       information relevant to this installation are displayed. Click
       Continue .

    5. If you have downloaded the community version of MySQL, you
       will be shown a copy of the relevant GNU General Public
       License. Click Continue .

    6. Select the drive you want to use to install the MySQL Startup
       Item. The drive must have a valid, bootable, Mac OS X
       operating system installed. Click Continue.
       MySQL Package Installer: Step 4

    7. You will be asked to confirm the details of the installation,
       including the space required for the installation. To change
       the drive on which the startup item is installed, click either
       Go Back or Change Install Location.... To install the startup
       item, click Install.

    8. Once the installation has been completed successfully, you
       will be shown an Install Succeeded message.

   For convenience, you may also want to install the startup item and
   preference pane. See Section 2.4.3, "Installing the MySQL Startup
   Item," and Section 2.4.4, "Installing and Using the MySQL
   Preference Pane."

2.4.3. Installing the MySQL Startup Item

   The MySQL Installation Package includes a startup item that can be
   used to automatically start and stop MySQL.

   To install the MySQL Startup Item:

    1. Download and open the MySQL package installer, which is
       provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL
       installation package, the MySQLStartupItem.pkg installation
       package, and the MySQL.prefPane. Double-click the disk image
       to open it.

    2. Double-click the MySQLStartItem.pkg file to start the
       installation process.

    3. You will be presented with the Install MySQL Startup Item
       dialog.
       MySQL Startup Item Installer: Step 1
       Click Continue to continue the installation process.

    4. A copy of the installation instructions and other important
       information relevant to this installation are displayed. Click
       Continue .

    5. Select the drive you want to use to install the MySQL Startup
       Item. The drive must have a valid, bootable, Mac OS X
       operating system installed. Click Continue.
       MySQL Startup Item Installer: Step 3

    6. You will be asked to confirm the details of the installation.
       To change the drive on which the startup item is installed,
       click either Go Back or Change Install Location.... To install
       the startup item, click Install.

    7. Once the installation has been completed successfully, you
       will be shown an Install Succeeded message.
       MySQL Startup Item Installer: Step 5

   The Startup Item for MySQL is installed into
   /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM. The Startup Item installation adds
   a variable MYSQLCOM=-YES- to the system configuration file
   /etc/hostconfig. If you want to disable the automatic startup of
   MySQL, change this variable to MYSQLCOM=-NO-.

   After the installation, you can start and stop MySQL by running
   the following commands in a terminal window. You must have
   administrator privileges to perform these tasks, and you may be
   prompted for your password.

   If you have installed the Startup Item, use this command to start
   the server:
shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM start

   If you have installed the Startup Item, use this command to stop
   the server:
shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM stop

2.4.4. Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane

   The MySQL Package installer disk image also includes a custom
   MySQL Preference Pane that enables you to start, stop, and control
   automated startup during boot of your MySQL installation.

   To install the MySQL Preference Pane:

    1. Download and open the MySQL package installer package, which
       is provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main
       MySQL installation package, the MySQLStartupItem.pkg
       installation package, and the MySQL.prefPane. Double-click the
       disk image to open it.

    2. Double-click the MySQL.prefPane. The MySQL System Preferences
       will open.

    3. If this is the first time you have installed the preference
       pane, you will be asked to confirm installation and whether
       you want to install the preference pane for all users, or only
       the current user. To install the preference pane for all users
       you will need administrator privileges. If necessary, you will
       be prompted for the username and password for a user with
       administrator privileges.

    4. If you already have the MySQL Preference Pane installed, you
       will be asked to confirm whether you want to overwrite the
       existing MySQL Preference Pane.

   Note

   The MySQL Preference Pane only starts and stops MySQL installation
   installed from the MySQL package installation that have been
   installed in the default location.

   Once the MySQL Preference Pane has been installed, you can control
   your MySQL server instance using the preference pane. To use the
   preference pane, open the System Preferences... from the Apple
   menu. Select the MySQL preference pane by clicking the MySQL logo
   within the Other section of the preference panes list.
   MySQL Preference Pane

   The MySQL Preference Pane shows the current status of the MySQL
   server, showing stopped (in red) if the server is not running and
   running (in green) if the server has already been started. The
   preference pane also shows the current setting for whether the
   MySQL server has been set to start automatically.

     * To start MySQL using the preference pane: 
       Click Start MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username
       and password of a user with administrator privileges to start
       the MySQL server.

     * To stop MySQL using the preference pane: 
       Click Stop MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username
       and password of a user with administrator privileges to stop
       the MySQL server.

     * To automatically start the MySQL server when the system boots:
       Check the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server
       on Startup.

     * To disable automatic MySQL server startup when the system
       boots:
       Uncheck the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server
       on Startup.

   You can close the System Preferences... window once you have
   completed your settings.

2.4.5. Using the Bundled MySQL on Mac OS X Server

   If you are running Mac OS X Server, a version of MySQL should
   already be installed. The following table shows the versions of
   MySQL that ship with Mac OS X Server versions.

   Table 2.14. MySQL Versions Preinstalled with Mac OS X Server
   Mac OS X Server Version MySQL Version
   10.2-10.2.2             3.23.51
   10.2.3-10.2.6           3.23.53
   10.3                    4.0.14
   10.3.2                  4.0.16
   10.4.0                  4.1.10a
   10.5.0                  5.0.45
   10.6.0                  5.0.82

   The following table shows the installation layout of MySQL on Mac
   OS X Server.

   Table 2.15. MySQL Directory Layout for Preinstalled MySQL
   Installations on Mac OS X Server
   Directory Contents of Directory
   /usr/bin Client programs
   /var/mysql Log files, databases
   /usr/libexec The mysqld server
   /usr/share/man Unix manual pages
   /usr/share/mysql/mysql-test MySQL test suite
   /usr/share/mysql Miscellaneous support files, including error
   messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for
   database installation
   /var/mysql/mysql.sock Location of the MySQL Unix socket

Additional Resources


     * For more information on managing the bundled MySQL instance in
       Mac OS X Server 10.5, see Mac OS X Server: Web Technologies
       Administration For Version 10.5 Leopard
       (http://images.apple.com/server/macosx/docs/Web_Technologies_A
       dmin_v10.5.pdf).

     * For more information on managing the bundled MySQL instance in
       Mac OS X Server 10.6, see Mac OS X Server: Web Technologies
       Administration Version 10.6 Snow Leopard
       (http://manuals.info.apple.com/en_US/WebTech_v10.6.pdf).

     * The MySQL server bundled with Mac OS X Server does not include
       the MySQL client libraries and header files required to access
       and use MySQL from a third-party driver, such as Perl DBI or
       PHP. For more information on obtaining and installing MySQL
       libraries, see Mac OS X Server version 10.5: MySQL libraries
       available for download (http://support.apple.com/kb/TA25017).
       Alternatively, you can ignore the bundled MySQL server and
       install MySQL from the package or tarball installation.

2.5. Installing MySQL on Linux

   Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing
   MySQL. The recommended method is to use one of the distributions
   from Oracle. If you choose this method, there are several options
   available:

     * Installing from a generic binary package in .tar.gz format.
       See Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic
       Binaries" for more information.

     * Extracting and compiling MySQL from a source distribution. For
       detailed instructions, see Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL
       from Source."

     * Installing using a precompiled RPM package. For more
       information, see Section 2.5.1, "Installing MySQL on Linux
       Using RPM Packages."

   As an alternative, you can use the native package manager within
   your Linux distribution to automatically download and install
   MySQL for you. Native package installations can take care of the
   download and dependencies required to run MySQL, but the MySQL
   version will often be some versions behind the currently available
   release. You will also normally be unable to install development
   releases, as these are not usually made available in the native
   repository. For more information on using the native package
   installers, see Section 2.5.2, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using
   Native Package Managers."
   Note

   For many Linux installations, you will want to set up MySQL to be
   started automatically when your machine starts. Many of the native
   package installations perform this operation for you, but for
   source, binary and RPM solutions you may need to set this up
   separately. The required script, mysql.server, can be found in the
   support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or
   in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as /etc/init.d/mysql
   for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 2.12.1.2,
   "Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically."

2.5.1. Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages

   The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux
   distributions is by using the RPM packages. The RPMs that we
   provide to the community should work on all versions of Linux that
   support RPM packages and use glibc 2.3. To obtain RPM packages,
   see Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL."

   For non-RPM Linux distributions, you can install MySQL using a
   .tar.gz package. See Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux
   Using Generic Binaries."

   Installations created from our Linux RPM distributions result in
   files under the system directories shown in the following table.

   Table 2.16. MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM Packages
   Directory Contents of Directory
   /usr/bin Client programs and scripts
   /usr/sbin The mysqld server
   /var/lib/mysql Log files, databases
   /usr/share/info Manual in Info format
   /usr/share/man Unix manual pages
   /usr/include/mysql Include (header) files
   /usr/lib/mysql Libraries
   /usr/share/mysql Miscellaneous support files, including error
   messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for
   database installation
   /usr/share/sql-bench Benchmarks
   Note

   RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be
   aware that they may differ from those built by us in features,
   capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and
   that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to
   installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted
   instead. Because of these differences, RPM packages built by us
   check whether such RPMs built by other vendors are installed. If
   so, the RPM does not install and produces a message explaining
   this.

   In most cases, you need to install only the MySQL-server and
   MySQL-client packages to get a functional MySQL installation. The
   other packages are not required for a standard installation.

   RPMs for MySQL Cluster.  Beginning with MySQL 5.1.24, standard
   MySQL server RPMs built by MySQL no longer provide support for the
   NDBCLUSTER storage engine. MySQL Cluster users should check the
   MySQL Cluster Downloads page at
   http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/cluster/ for RPMs that should work
   with most Linux distributions for both of these release series.
   Important

   When upgrading a MySQL Cluster RPM installation, you must upgrade
   all installed RPMs, including the Server and Client RPMs.

   For more information about installing MySQL Cluster from RPMs, see
   Section 17.2.1.2, "Installing MySQL Cluster from RPM."

   For upgrades, if your installation was originally produced by
   installing multiple RPM packages, it is best to upgrade all the
   packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed
   the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

   The RPM packages shown in the following list are available. The
   names shown here use a suffix of .glibc23.i386.rpm, but particular
   packages can have different suffixes, described later.

     * MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       The MySQL server. You need this unless you only want to
       connect to a MySQL server running on another machine.

     * MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want
       to install this package.

     * MySQL-devel-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       The libraries and include files that are needed if to compile
       other MySQL clients, such as the Perl modules. Install this
       RPM if you intend to compile C API applications.

     * MySQL-debuginfo-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       This package contains debugging information. It is specific to
       Red Hat Enterprise Linux. debuginfo RPMs are never needed to
       use MySQL software; this is true both for the server and for
       client programs. However, they contain additional information
       that might be needed by a debugger to analyze a crash.

     * MySQL-shared-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       This package contains the shared libraries
       (libmysqlclient.so*) that certain languages and applications
       need to dynamically load and use MySQL. It contains
       single-threaded and thread-safe libraries. Install this RPM if
       you intend to compile or run C API applications that depend on
       the shared client library. If you install this package, do not
       install the MySQL-shared-compat package.

     * MySQL-shared-compat-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       This package includes the shared libraries for older releases,
       up to the current release. It contains single-threaded and
       thread-safe libraries. Install this package instead of
       MySQL-shared if you have applications installed that are
       dynamically linked against older versions of MySQL but you
       want to upgrade to the current version without breaking the
       library dependencies.

     * MySQL-shared-compat-advanced-gpl-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm,
       MySQL-shared-compat-advanced-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       These are like the MySQL-shared-compat package, but are for
       the "MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition" products.
       Install these packages rather than the normal
       MySQL-shared-compat package if you want to included shared
       client libraries for older MySQL versions.

     * MySQL-embedded-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       The embedded MySQL server library.

     * MySQL-ndb-management-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm,
       MySQL-ndb-storage-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm,
       MySQL-ndb-tools-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm,
       MySQL-ndb-extra-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       Packages that contain additional files for MySQL Cluster
       installations.
       Note
       The MySQL-ndb-tools RPM requires a working installation of
       perl. Prior to MySQL 5.1.18, the DBI and HTML::Template
       packages were also required. See Section 2.15, "Perl
       Installation Notes," and Section 17.4.23, "ndb_size.pl ---
       NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator," for more information.

     * MySQL-test-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
       This package includes the MySQL test suite.

     * MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm
       This contains the source code for all of the previous
       packages. It can also be used to rebuild the RPMs on other
       architectures (for example, Alpha or SPARC).

   The suffix of RPM package names (following the VERSION value) has
   the following syntax:
.PLATFORM.CPU.rpm

   The PLATFORM and CPU values indicate the type of system for which
   the package is built. PLATFORM indicates the platform and CPU
   indicates the processor type or family.

   All packages are dynamically linked against glibc 2.3. The
   PLATFORM value indicates whether the package is platform
   independent or intended for a specific platform, as shown in the
   following table.

   Table 2.17. MySQL Linux Installation Packages
   PLATFORM Value Intended Use
   glibc23 Platform independent, should run on any Linux distribution
   that supports glibc 2.3
   rhel4, rhel5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 or 5
   sles10, sles11 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 or 11

   In MySQL 5.1, only glibc23 packages are available currently.

   The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the
   package is built.

   Table 2.18. MySQL Installation Packages for Linux CPU Identifiers
      CPU Value      Intended Processor Type or Family
   i386, i586, i686 Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
   x86_64           64-bit x86 processor
   ia64             Itanium (IA-64) processor

   To see all files in an RPM package (for example, a MySQL-server
   RPM), run a command like this:
shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

   To perform a standard minimal installation, install the server and
   client RPMs:
shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

   To install only the client programs, install just the client RPM:
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

   RPM provides a feature to verify the integrity and authenticity of
   packages before installing them. To learn more about this feature,
   see Section 2.1.4, "Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5
   Checksums or GnuPG."

   The server RPM places data under the /var/lib/mysql directory. The
   RPM also creates a login account for a user named mysql (if one
   does not exist) to use for running the MySQL server, and creates
   the appropriate entries in /etc/init.d/ to start the server
   automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed
   a previous installation and have made changes to its startup
   script, you may want to make a copy of the script so that you do
   not lose it when you install a newer RPM.) See Section 2.12.1.2,
   "Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically," for more information
   on how MySQL can be started automatically on system startup.

   In MySQL 5.1.49 and later, during an upgrade installation using
   the RPM packages, if the MySQL server is running when the upgrade
   occurs, the MySQL server is stopped, the upgrade occurs, and the
   MySQL server is restarted. If the MySQL server is not already
   running when the RPM upgrade occurs, the MySQL server is not
   started at the end of the installation.

   If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the
   binary installation section. See Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on
   Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."
   Note

   The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially
   have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up
   passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.12,
   "Postinstallation Setup and Testing."

   During RPM installation, a user named mysql and a group named
   mysql are created on the system. This is done using the useradd,
   groupadd, and usermod commands. Those commands require appropriate
   administrative privileges, which is required for locally managed
   users and groups (as listed in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group
   files) by the RPM installation process being run by root.

   If you log in as the mysql user, you may find that MySQL displays
   "Invalid (old?) table or database name" errors that mention
   .mysqlgui, lost+found, .mysqlgui, .bash_history, .fonts.cache-1,
   .lesshst, .mysql_history, .profile, .viminfo, and similar files
   created by MySQL or operating system utilities. You can safely
   ignore these error messages or remove the files or directories
   that cause them if you do not need them.

   For nonlocal user management (LDAP, NIS, and so forth), the
   administrative tools may require additional authentication (such
   as a password), and will fail if the installing user does not
   provide this authentication. Even if they fail, the RPM
   installation will not abort but succeed, and this is intentional.
   If they failed, some of the intended transfer of ownership may be
   missing, and it is recommended that the system administrator then
   manually ensures some appropriate user and group exists and
   manually transfers ownership following the actions in the RPM spec
   file.

2.5.2. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers

   Many Linux distributions include a version of the MySQL server,
   client tools, and development components into the standard package
   management system built into distributions such as Fedora, Debian,
   Ubuntu, and Gentoo. This section provides basic instructions for
   installing MySQL using these systems.
   Important

   Native package installations can take care of the download and
   dependencies required to run MySQL, but the MySQL version will
   often be some way behind the currently available release. You will
   also normally be unable to install development releases, as these
   are not usually made available in the native repository.

   Distribution specific instructions are shown below:

     * Red Hat Linux, Fedora, CentOS
       For Red Hat and similar distributions, the MySQL distribution
       is divided into a number of separate packages, mysql for the
       client tools, mysql-server for the server and associated
       tools, and mysql-libs for the libraries. The libraries are
       required if you want to provide connectivity from different
       languages and environments such as Perl, Python and others.
       To install, use the yum command to specify the packages that
       you want to install. For example:
root-shell> yum install mysql mysql-server mysql-libs mysql-server
Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5
.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=====================================================================
===========
 Package               Arch          Version               Repository
      Size
=====================================================================
===========
Installing:
 mysql                 x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates
     889 k
 mysql-libs            x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates
     1.2 M
 mysql-server          x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates
     8.1 M
Installing for dependencies:
 perl-DBD-MySQL        x86_64        4.017-1.fc13          updates
     136 k

Transaction Summary
=====================================================================
===========
Install       4 Package(s)
Upgrade       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 10 M
Installed size: 30 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
Processing delta metadata
Package(s) data still to download: 10 M
(1/4): mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm                    | 889 kB
 00:04
(2/4): mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm               | 1.2 MB
 00:06
(3/4): mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm             | 8.1 MB
 00:40
(4/4): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64.rpm            | 136 kB
 00:00
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------
Total                                           201 kB/s |  10 MB
 00:52
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing     : mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
       1/4
  Installing     : mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
       2/4
  Installing     : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64
       3/4
  Installing     : mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
       4/4

Installed:
  mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13            mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-
2.fc13
  mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13

Dependency Installed:
  perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13


Complete!
       MySQL and the MySQL server should now be installed. A sample
       configuration file is installed into /etc/my.cnf. An init
       script, to start and stop the server, will have been installed
       into /etc/init.d/mysqld. To start the MySQL server use
       service:
root-shell> service mysqld start
       To enable the server to be started and stopped automatically
       during boot, use chkconfig:
root-shell> chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
       Which enables the MySQL server to be started (and stopped)
       automatically at the specified the run levels.
       The database tables will have been automatically created for
       you, if they do not already exist. You should, however, run
       mysql_secure_installation to set the root passwords on your
       server.

     * Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu
       On Debian and related distributions, there are two packages,
       mysql-client and mysql-server, for the client and server
       components respectively. You should specify an explicit
       version, for example mysql-client-5.1, to ensure that you
       install the version of MySQL that you want.
       To download and install, including any dependencies, use the
       apt-get command, specifying the packages that you want to
       install.
       Note
       Before installing, make sure that you update your apt-get
       index files to ensure you are downloading the latest available
       version.
       A sample installation of the MySQL packages might look like
       this (some sections trimmed for clarity):
root-shell> apt-get install mysql-client-5.1 mysql-server-5.1
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer
 required:
  linux-headers-2.6.28-11 linux-headers-2.6.28-11-generic
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
The following extra packages will be installed:
  bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
  libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-pe
rl mailx
  mysql-common postfix
Suggested packages:
  dbishell libipc-sharedcache-perl tinyca procmail postfix-mysql post
fix-pgsql
  postfix-ldap postfix-pcre sasl2-bin resolvconf postfix-cdb
The following NEW packages will be installed
  bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
  libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-pe
rl mailx
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Preconfiguring packages ...
Selecting previously deselected package mysql-common.
(Reading database ... 121260 files and directories currently installe
d.)
...
Processing 1 added doc-base file(s)...
Registering documents with scrollkeeper...
Setting up libnet-daemon-perl (0.43-1) ...
Setting up libplrpc-perl (0.2020-1) ...
Setting up libdbi-perl (1.607-1) ...
Setting up libmysqlclient15off (5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5) ...

Setting up libdbd-mysql-perl (4.008-1) ...
Setting up libmysqlclient16 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...

Setting up mysql-client-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...

Setting up mysql-server-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...

 * Stopping MySQL database server mysqld
   ...done.
100825 11:46:15  InnoDB: Started; log sequence number 0 46409
100825 11:46:15  InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
100825 11:46:17  InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 0 46
409
100825 11:46:17 [Warning] Forcing shutdown of 1 plugins

 * Starting MySQL database server mysqld
   ...done.

 * Checking for corrupt, not cleanly closed and upgrade needing table
s.
...
Processing triggers for libc6 ...
ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
       Note
       The apt-get command will install a number of packages,
       including the MySQL server, in order to provide the typical
       tools and application environment. This can mean that you
       install a large number of packages in addition to the main
       MySQL package.
       During installation, the initial database will be created, and
       you will be prompted for the MySQL root password (and
       confirmation). A configuration file will have been created in
       /etc/mysql/my.cnf. An init script will have been created in
       /etc/init.d/mysql.
       The server will already be started. You can manually start and
       stop the server using:
root-shell> service mysql [start|stop]
       The service will automatically be added to the 2, 3 and 4 run
       levels, with stop scripts in the single, shutdown and restart
       levels.

     * Gentoo Linux
       As a source-based distribution, installing MySQL on Gentoo
       involves downloading the source, patching the Gentoo
       specifics, and then compiling the MySQL server and installing
       it. This process is handled automatically by the emerge
       command. Depending on the version of MySQL that you want to
       install, you may need to unmask the specific version that you
       want for your chosen platform.
       The MySQL server and client tools are provided within a single
       package, dev-db/mysql. You can obtain a list of the versions
       available to install by looking at the portage directory for
       the package:
root-shell> ls /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.1*
mysql-5.1.39-r1.ebuild
mysql-5.1.44-r1.ebuild
mysql-5.1.44-r2.ebuild
mysql-5.1.44-r3.ebuild
mysql-5.1.44.ebuild
mysql-5.1.45-r1.ebuild
mysql-5.1.45.ebuild
mysql-5.1.46.ebuild
       To install a specific MySQL version, you must specify the
       entire atom. For example:
root-shell> emerge =dev-db/mysql-5.1.46
       A simpler alternative is to use the virtual/mysql-5.1 package,
       which will install the latest version:
root-shell> emerge =virtual/mysql-5.1
       If the package is masked (because it is not tested or
       certified for the current platform), use the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS
       environment variable. For example:
root-shell> ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge =virtual/mysql-5.1
       After installation, you should create a new database using
       mysql_install_db, and set the password for the root user on
       MySQL. You can use the configuration interface to set the
       password and create the initial database:
root-shell> emerge --config =dev-db/mysql-5.1.46
       A sample configuration file will have been created for you in
       /etc/mysql/my.cnf, and an init script will have been created
       in /etc/init.d/mysql.
       To enable MySQL to start automatically at the normal (default)
       run levels, you can use:
root-shell> rc-update add mysql default

2.6. Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris

   MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris is available in a number of
   different formats.

     * For information on installing using the native Solaris PKG
       format, see Section 2.6.1, "Installing MySQL on Solaris Using
       a Solaris PKG."

     * On OpenSolaris, the standard package repositories include
       MySQL packages specially built for OpenSolaris that include
       entries for the Service Management Framework (SMF) to enable
       control of the installation using the SMF administration
       commands. For more information, see Section 2.6.2, "Installing
       MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS."

     * To use a standard tar binary installation, use the notes
       provided in Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using
       Generic Binaries." Check the notes and hints at the end of
       this section for Solaris specific notes that you may need
       before or after installation.

     * For information on installing MySQL on Solaris or OpenSolaris
       using a source distribution, first check the Solaris advice,
       Section 2.11.8, "Notes on Installing MySQL on Solaris from
       Source." For detailed instructions on installing from source,
       see Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source."

   To obtain a binary MySQL distribution for Solaris in tarball or
   PKG format, http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.1.html.

   Additional notes to be aware of when installing and using MySQL on
   Solaris:

     * If you want to use MySQL with the mysql user and group, use
       the groupadd and useradd commands:
groupadd mysql
useradd -g mysql mysql

     * If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on
       Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the
       MySQL distribution unpacked, as the Solaris tar cannot handle
       long file names. This means that you may see errors when you
       try to unpack MySQL.
       If this occurs, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the
       distribution. In Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris gtar is normally
       located in /usr/sfw/bin/gtar, but may not be included in the
       default path definition.

     * When using Solaris 10 for x86_64, you should mount any file
       systems on which you intend to store InnoDB files with the
       forcedirectio option. (By default mounting is done without
       this option.) Failing to do so will cause a significant drop
       in performance when using the InnoDB storage engine on this
       platform.

     * If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy
       support-files/mysql.server to /etc/init.d and create a
       symbolic link to it named /etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server.

     * If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld,
       you should see this error in the MySQL log:
Error in accept: Protocol error
       You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50
       option as a workaround for this.

     * To configure the generation of core files on Solaris you
       should use the coreadm command. Because of the security
       implications of generating a core on a setuid() application,
       by default, Solaris does not support core files on setuid()
       programs. However, you can modify this behavior using coreadm.
       If you enable setuid() core files for the current user, they
       will be generated using the mode 600 and owned by the
       superuser.

2.6.1. Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG

   You can install MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris using a binary
   package using the native Solaris PKG format instead of the binary
   tarball distribution.

   To use this package, download the corresponding
   mysql-VERSION-solaris10-PLATFORM.pkg.gz file, then uncompress it.
   For example:
shell> gunzip mysql-5.1.74-solaris10-x86_64.pkg.gz

   To install a new package, use pkgadd and follow the onscreen
   prompts. You must have root privileges to perform this operation:
shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.1.74-solaris10-x86_64.pkg

The following packages are available:
  1  mysql     MySQL Community Server (GPL)
               (i86pc) 5.1.74

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

   The PKG installer installs all of the files and tools needed, and
   then initializes your database if one does not exist. To complete
   the installation, you should set the root password for MySQL as
   provided in the instructions at the end of the installation.
   Alternatively, you can run the mysql_secure_installation script
   that comes with the installation.

   By default, the PKG package installs MySQL under the root path
   /opt/mysql. You can change only the installation root path when
   using pkgadd, which can be used to install MySQL in a different
   Solaris zone. If you need to install in a specific directory, use
   a binary tar file distribution.

   The pkg installer copies a suitable startup script for MySQL into
   /etc/init.d/mysql. To enable MySQL to startup and shutdown
   automatically, you should create a link between this file and the
   init script directories. For example, to ensure safe startup and
   shutdown of MySQL you could use the following commands to add the
   right links:
shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc3.d/S91mysql
shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc0.d/K02mysql

   To remove MySQL, the installed package name is mysql. You can use
   this in combination with the pkgrm command to remove the
   installation.

   To upgrade when using the Solaris package file format, you must
   remove the existing installation before installing the updated
   package. Removal of the package does not delete the existing
   database information, only the server, binaries and support files.
   The typical upgrade sequence is therefore:
shell> mysqladmin shutdown
shell> pkgrm mysql
shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.1.74-solaris10-x86_64.pkg
shell> mysqld_safe &
shell> mysql_upgrade

   You should check the notes in Section 2.13, "Upgrading or
   Downgrading MySQL" before performing any upgrade.

2.6.2. Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS

   OpenSolaris includes standard packages for MySQL in the core
   repository. The MySQL packages are based on a specific release of
   MySQL and updated periodically. For the latest release you must
   use either the native Solaris PKG, tar, or source installations.
   The native OpenSolaris packages include SMF files so that you can
   easily control your MySQL installation, including automatic
   startup and recovery, using the native service management tools.

   To install MySQL on OpenSolaris, use the pkg command. You will
   need to be logged in as root, or use the pfexec tool, as shown in
   the example below:
shell> pfexec pkg install SUNWmysql51

   The package set installs three individual packages,
   SUNWmysql51lib, which contains the MySQL client libraries;
   SUNWmysql51r which contains the root components, including SMF and
   configuration files; and SUNWmysql51u which contains the scripts,
   binary tools and other files. You can install these packages
   individually if you only need the corresponding components.

   The MySQL files are installed into /usr/mysql which symbolic links
   for the sub directories (bin, lib, etc.) to a version specific
   directory. For MySQL 5.1, the full installation is located in
   /usr/mysql/5.1. The default data directory is /var/mysql/5.1/data.
   The configuration file is installed in /etc/mysql/5.1/my.cnf. This
   layout permits multiple versions of MySQL to be installed, without
   overwriting the data and binaries from other versions.

   Once installed, you must run mysql_install_db to initialize the
   database, and use the mysql_secure_installation to secure your
   installation.

Using SMF to manage your MySQL installation

   Once installed, you can start and stop your MySQL server using the
   installed SMF configuration. The service name is mysql, or if you
   have multiple versions installed, you should use the full version
   name, for example mysql:version_51. To start and enable MySQL to
   be started at boot time:
shell> svcadm enable mysql

   To disable MySQL from starting during boot time, and shut the
   MySQL server down if it is running, use:
shell> svcadm disable mysql

   To restart MySQL, for example after a configuration file changes,
   use the restart option:
shell> svcadm restart mysql

   You can also use SMF to configure the data directory and enable
   full 64-bit mode. For example, to set the data directory used by
   MySQL:
shell> svccfg 
svc:> select mysql:version_51 
svc:/application/database/mysql:version_51> setprop mysql/data=/data0
/mysql


   By default, the 32-bit binaries are used. To enable the 64-bit
   server on 64-bit platforms, set the enable_64bit parameter. For
   example:
svc:/application/database/mysql:version_51> setprop mysql/enable_64bi
t=1

   You need to refresh the SMF after settings these options:
shell> svcadm refresh mysql

2.7. Installing MySQL on IBM AIX

   MySQL for IBM AIX is available in a number of different forms:

     * Using a binary tarball distribution provided at
       http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. Please read the general notes
       on AIX installation before continuing. For more information on
       binary installations, see Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on
       Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

     * Using a source tarball and compiling MySQL. Please read the
       general notes on AIX installation before continuing. You
       should also check the instructions on building on AIX from
       source. For general information on building from source, see
       Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source."

2.7.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on AIX

   General notes on using MySQL on IBM AIX:

     * If you have problems with threads on AIX 5.3, you should
       upgrade AIX 5.3 to technology level 7 (5300-07).

2.8. Installing MySQL on HP-UX

   MySQL for HP-UX is available in a number of different forms:

     * Using a DEPOT distribution provided at
       http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. Please read the general notes
       on HP-UX installation before continuing. For more information
       on DEPOT installations, see Section 2.8.2, "Installing MySQL
       on HP-UX Using DEPOT Packages."

     * Using a binary tarball distribution provided at
       http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. Please read the general notes
       on HP-UX installation before continuing. For more information
       on binary installations, see Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on
       Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

     * Using a source tarball and compiling MySQL. Please read the
       general notes on HP-UX installation before continuing. You
       should also check the instructions on building on HP-UX from
       source. For general information on building from source, see
       Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source."

2.8.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on HP-UX

   Some additional notes on installing and using MySQL on HP-UX:

     * If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on
       HP-UX, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL
       distribution unpacked, as the HP-UX tar cannot handle long
       file names. This means that you may see errors when you try to
       unpack MySQL.
       If this occurs, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the
       distribution.

     * Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries,
       you should install the following patches before trying to run
       MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:
PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative
       This solves the problem of getting EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and
       EBADF from accept() in threaded applications.

2.8.2. Installing MySQL on HP-UX Using DEPOT Packages

   The HP-UX DEPOT format packages can be installed using the
   swinstall command. You should install the ncurses and zlib
   libraries before installing the MySQL DEPOT package. You can use
   the free software depothelper tool to install these packages and
   any dependencies for you automatically.

   To install using the MySQL DEPOT packages, follow this guide:

    1. Download the MySQL DEPOT package from
       http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. You must uncompress the
       package before installation:
root-shell> gunzip mysql-5.1.48-hpux11.31-ia64-64bit.depot.gz

    2. Install the DEPOT package using swinstall:
root-shell> swinstall -s mysql-5.1.49-hpux11.31-ia64-64bit.depot
       MySQL will be installed into a directory matching the depot
       package name, within /usr/local. For convenience, you may want
       to create a symbolic link to the installed directory, for
       example:
root-shell> ln -s mysql-5.1.49-hpux11.31-ia64-64bit mysql

    3. Your package is now installed. You should complete the
       configuration of MySQL by creating a user and group:
root-shell> /usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
root-shell> /usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql -d /var/lib/mysql/ -s /bin/fal
se mysql

    4. Create the standard database using the new user/group you have
       created, and set the permissions:
root-shell> cd /usr/local/
root-shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
root-shell> chown -R root .
root-shell> chown -R mysql data

    5. Finally, secure your new installation by setting the root
       passwords, and then start your MySQL server using the mysql
       user:
root-shell> mysql_secure_installation
root-shell> mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

2.9. Installing MySQL on FreeBSD

   This section provides information about installing MySQL on
   variants of FreeBSD Unix.

   You can install MySQL on FreeBSD by using the binary distribution
   provided by Oracle. For more information, see Section 2.2,
   "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

   The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the
   mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at
   http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following
   benefits:

     * A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known
       to work on your version of FreeBSD.

     * Automatic configuration and build.

     * Startup scripts installed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d.

     * The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are
       installed.

     * The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer
       want it on your machine.

   The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU
   make is not available, you must install it first before compiling
   MySQL.

   To install using the ports system:
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server
# make
...
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-client
# make
...

   The standard port installation places the server into
   /usr/local/libexec/mysqld, with the startup script for the MySQL
   server placed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.

   Some additional notes on the BSD implementation:

     * To remove MySQL after installation using the ports system:
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server
# make deinstall
...
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-client
# make deinstall
...

     * If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting
       the TZ variable should help. See Section 2.14, "Environment
       Variables."

2.10. Installing MySQL on i5/OS

   The i5/OS POWER MySQL package was created in cooperation with IBM.
   MySQL works within the Portable Application Solution Environment
   (PASE) on the System i series of hardware and will also provide
   database services for the Zend Core for i5/OS.

   MySQL for i5/OS is provided both as a tar file and as a save file
   (.savf) package that can be downloaded and installed directly
   without any additional installation steps required. To install
   MySQL using the tar file, see Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on
   Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

   MySQL is only supported on i5/OS V5R4 or later releases. The i5/OS
   PASE must be installed for MySQL to operate. You must be able to
   login as a user in *SECOFR class.

   You should the installation notes and tips for i5/OS before
   starting installation. See i5/OS Installation Notes.

   Before Installation:
   Note

   The installation package will use an existing configuration if you
   have previously installed MySQL (which is identified by looking
   for the file /etc/my.cnf). The values for the data directory
   (DATADIR) and owner of the MySQL files (USRPRF) specified during
   the installation will be ignored, and the values determined from
   the /etc/my.cnf will be used instead.

   If you want to change these parameters during a new install, you
   should temporarily rename /etc/my.cnf, install MySQL using the new
   parameters you want to use, and then merge your previous
   /etc/my.cnf configuration settings with the new /etc/my.cnf file
   that is created during installation.

     * You must have a user profile with PASE with suitable
       privileges. The user should be within the *SECOFR class, such
       as the QSECOFR user ID. You can use the WRKUSRPRF command to
       check your user profile.

     * For network connections to MySQL, you must have TCP/IP
       enabled. You should also check the following:

          + Ensure that a name has defined for the system. Run the
            Configure TCP/IP (CFGTCP) command and select option 12
            (Change TCP/IP domain information) to display this
            setting. Make sure that a value is listed in the Host
            name field.

          + Make sure that the system has a loopback entry which
            represents the localhost or 127.0.0.1.

          + Ensure that the IP address of the IBM i machine is mapped
            correctly to the host name.

   To install MySQL on i5/OS, follow these steps:

    1. On the System i machine, create a save file that will be used
       to receive the downloaded installation save file. The file
       should be located within the General Purpose Library (QGPL):
CRTSAVF FILE(QGPL/MYSQLINST) TESXT('MySQL Save file')

    2. Download the MySQL installation save file in 32-bit
       (mysql-5.1.74-i5os-power-32bit.savf) or 64-bit
       (mysql-5.1.74-i5os-power-64bit.savf) from MySQL Downloads
       (http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/).

    3. You need to FTP the downloaded .savf file directly into the
       QGPL/MYSQLINST file on the System i server. You can do this
       through FTP using the following steps after logging in to the
       System i machine:
ftp> bin
ftp> cd qgpl
ftp> put mysql-5.1.74-i5os-power.savf mysqlinst

    4. Log into the System i server using a user in the *SECOFR
       class, such as the QSECOFR user ID.

    5. You need to restore the installation library stored in the
       .savf save file:
RSTLIB MYSQLINST DEV(*SAVF) SAVF(QGPL/MYSQLINST) MBROPT(*ALL) ALWOBJD
IF(*ALL)
       Note
       You can ignore the security changes-type message at the bottom
       of the installation panel.

    6. Once you have finished restoring the MYSQLINST library, check
       that all the necessary objects for installation are on the
       system by using the Display Library (DSPLIB) command:
DSPLIB LIB(MYSQLINST)

    7. You need to execute the installation command,
       MYSQLINST/INSMYSQL. You can specify three parameter settings
       during installation:

          + DIR('/QOpenSys/usr/local/mysql') sets the installation
            location for the MySQL files. The directory will be
            created if it does not already exist.

          + DATADIR('/QOpenSys/usr/local/mysql/data') sets the
            location of the directory that will be used to store the
            database files and binary logs. The default setting is
            /QOpenSys/usr/local/mysql/data. Note that if the
            installer detects an existing installation (due to the
            existence of /etc/my.cnf), then the existing setting will
            be used instead of the default.

          + USRPRF(MYSQL) sets the user profile that will own the
            files that are installed. The profile will be created if
            it does not already exist.
            Note
            You should choose an appropriate user for using the MySQL
            server installation. The user will be used whenever you
            need to do any administration on the MySQL server.
       Once you have set the appropriate parameters, you can begin
       the installation.
       The installation copies all the necessary files into a
       directory matching the DIR configuration value; sets the
       ownership on those files, sets up the MySQL environment and
       creates the MySQL configuration file (in /etc/my.cnf)
       completing all the steps in a typical binary installation
       process automatically. If this is a new installation of MySQL,
       or if the installer detects that this is a new version
       (because the /etc/my.cnf file does not exist), then the
       initial core MySQL databases will also be created during
       installation.
       Once the installation has been completed, you will get a
       notice advising you to set the password for the root user. For
       more information, Section 2.12, "Postinstallation Setup and
       Testing."

    8. Once the installation has completed, you can delete the
       installation file:
DLTLIB LIB(MYSQLINST)

   Upgrading an existing MySQL instance

   You need to execute the upgrade command, MYSQLINST/UPGMYSQL.
   Note

   You cannot use MYSQLINST/UPGMYSQL to upgrade between major
   versions of MySQL (for example from 5.0 to 5.1). For information
   and advice on migrating between major versions you can use the
   advice provided in Section 2.13.1.1, "Upgrading from MySQL 5.0 to
   5.1."

   You must specify 6 parameters to perform an upgrade:

     * DIR('/QOpenSys/usr/local/'): Sets the installation location
       for the MySQL files. The directory will be created if it does
       not already exist. This is the directory that the MySQL server
       will be installed into, inside a directory with a name
       matching the version and release. For example, if installing
       MySQL 5.1.74 with the DIR set to /QOpenSys/usr/local/ would
       result in /QOpenSys/usr/local/mysql-5.1.74-i5os-power64 and a
       symbolic link to this directory will be created in
       /QOpenSys/usr/local/mysql.

     * DATADIR('/QOpenSys/mysql/data'): Sets the location of the
       directory that will be upgraded.

     * USRPRF('MYSQL'): Sets the user profile that will own the files
       that are installed. The profile will be created if it does not
       already exist; if it is created as part of the upgrade
       process, it will be disabled initially. You may wish to enable
       this user profile so that it can be used to start the MySQL
       server later. It is best practice to use the one previously
       created during the first installation.

     * MYSQLUSR('root user'): Any user account in the current MySQL
       server with SUPER privileges.

     * PASSWORD('root user password'): The password for the above
       account. This is necessary as the upgrade starts the MySQL
       server to upgrade the tables and the password is need to be
       able to shutdown the MySQL server.

     * CURINST('path to previous install'): The full path to the
       installation that is being upgraded. For example an
       installation in /QOpenSys/usr/local/ will be
       /QOpenSys/usr/local/mysql-5.1.74-i5os-power64. Failure to
       specify this option may result in corruption of your existing
       data files.

   For example:
MYSQLINST/UPGMYSQL DIR('/QOpenSys/usr/local/') DATADIR('/QOpenSys/mys
ql/data') »
     USERPRF(MYSQL) MYSQLUSR('root') PASSWORD('root') CURINST('/QOpen
Sys/usr/local/mysql-5.1.74-i5os-power64')

   You should receive a Program Message indicating UPGRADE
   SUCCESSFUL! upon completion or an error message if there is a
   problem.You can view the upgrade programs progression and the
   error in the text file upgrade.log in the installation directory.

   To start MySQL:

    1. Log into the System i server using the user profile create or
       specified during installation. By default, this is MYSQL.
       Note
       You should start mysqld_safe using a user that in the PASE
       environment has the id=0 (the equivalent of the standard Unix
       root user). If you do not use a user with this ID then the
       system will be unable to change the user when executing mysqld
       as set using --user option. If this happens, mysqld may be
       unable to read the files located within the MySQL data
       directory and the execution will fail.

    2. Enter the PASE environment using call qp2term.

    3. Start the MySQL server by changing to the installation
       directory and running mysqld_safe, specifying the user name
       used to install the server. The installer conveniently
       installs a symbolic link to the installation directory
       (mysql-5.0.42-i5os-power-32bit) as /opt/mysql/mysql:
> cd /opt/mysql/mysql
> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
       You should see a message similar to the following:
Starting mysqld daemon with databases »
     from /opt/mysql/mysql-enterprise-5.0.42-i5os-power-32bit/data

   If you are having problems starting MySQL server, see Section
   2.12.1.3, "Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server."

   To stop MySQL:

    1. Log into the System i server using the user profile create or
       specified during installation. By default, this is MYSQL.

    2. Enter the PASE environment using call qp2term.

    3. Stop the MySQL server by changing into the installation
       directory and running mysqladmin, specifying the user name
       used to install the server:
> cd /opt/mysql/mysql
> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
       If the session that you started and stopped MySQL are the
       same, you may get the log output from mysqld:
   STOPPING server from pid file »
     /opt/mysql/mysql-enterprise-5.0.42-i5os-power-32bit/data/I5DBX.R
CHLAND.IBM.COM.pid
   070718 10:34:20  mysqld ended
       If the sessions used to start and stop MySQL are different,
       you will not receive any confirmation of the shutdown.

   Note and tips

     * A problem has been identified with the installation process on
       DBCS systems. If you are having problems install MySQL on a
       DBCS system, you need to change your job's coded character set
       identifier (CSSID) to 37 (EBCDIC) before executing the install
       command, INSMYSQL. To do this, determine your existing CSSID
       (using DSPJOB and selecting option 2), execute CHGJOB
       CSSID(37), run INSMYSQL to install MySQL and then execute
       CHGJOB again with your original CSSID.

     * If you want to use the Perl scripts that are included with
       MySQL, you need to download the iSeries Tools for Developers
       (5799-PTL). See
       http://www-03.ibm.com/servers/enable/site/porting/tools/.

2.11. Installing MySQL from Source

   Building MySQL from the source code enables you to customize build
   parameters, compiler optimizations, and installation location. For
   a list of systems on which MySQL is known to run, see Section
   2.1.1, "Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server."

   Before you proceed with an installation from source, check whether
   we produce a precompiled binary distribution for your platform and
   whether it works for you. We put a great deal of effort into
   ensuring that our binaries are built with the best possible
   options for optimal performance. Instructions for installing
   binary distributions are available in Section 2.2, "Installing
   MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

   To obtain a source distribution for MySQL, see Section 2.1.3, "How
   to Get MySQL." MySQL source distributions are available as
   compressed tar files, Zip archives, or RPM packages. Distribution
   files have names of the form mysql-VERSION.tar.gz,
   mysql-VERSION.zip, or mysql-VERSION.rpm, where VERSION is a number
   like 5.1.74.

   To perform a MySQL installation using the source code:

     * To build MySQL from source on Unix-like systems, including
       Linux, commercial Unix, BSD, Mac OS X and others using a
       .tar.gz or RPM-based source code distribution, see Section
       2.11.2, "Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source
       Distribution."

     * To build MySQL from source on Windows (Windows XP or newer
       required), see Section 2.11.7, "Installing MySQL from Source
       on Windows."

     * For information on building from one of our development trees,
       see Section 2.11.3, "Installing MySQL Using a Development
       Source Tree."

     * For information on using the configure command to specify the
       source build parameters, including links to platform specific
       parameters that you might need, see Section 2.11.4, "MySQL
       Source-Configuration Options."

   To install MySQL from source, your system must have the following
   tools:

     * GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar
       to unpack it (if you use a .tar.gz distribution), or WinZip or
       another tool that can read .zip files (if you use a .zip
       distribution).
       GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some
       operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in
       the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU
       tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar.
       Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a
       GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or
       /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

     * A working ANSI C++ compiler. GCC 3.4.6 or later, Sun Studio 10
       or later, Visual Studio 2005 or later, and many current
       vendor-supplied compilers are known to work.

     * A good make program. Although some platforms come with their
       own make implementations, it is highly recommended that you
       use GNU make 3.75 or newer. It may already be available on
       your system as gmake. GNU make is available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/make/.

     * libtool 1.5, available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/. 1.5.24 or later is
       recommended.

   If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use
   the instructions in Section 1.7, "How to Report Bugs or Problems."

2.11.1. MySQL Layout for Source Installation

   By default, when you install MySQL after compiling it from a
   source distribution, the installation step installs files under
   /usr/local. Components are installed in the directories shown in
   the following table. To configure particular installation
   locations, use the options described at Section 2.11.4, "MySQL
   Source-Configuration Options."

   Table 2.19. MySQL Layout for Installation from Source
   Directory Contents of Directory
   bin Client programs and scripts
   include/mysql Include (header) files
   Docs Manual in Info format
   man Unix manual pages
   lib/mysql Libraries
   libexec The mysqld server
   share/mysql Miscellaneous support files, including error messages,
   sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
   sql-bench Benchmarks
   var Log files, databases

   Within its installation directory, the layout of a source
   installation differs from that of a binary installation in the
   following ways:

     * The mysqld server is installed in the libexec directory rather
       than in the bin directory.

     * The data directory is var rather than data.

     * mysql_install_db is installed in the bin directory rather than
       in the scripts directory.

     * The header file and library directories are include/mysql and
       lib/mysql rather than include and lib.

2.11.2. Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution

   To install MySQL from source, first configure, build, and install
   from a source package. Then follow the same postinstallation setup
   sequence as for a binary installation.

   If you start from a source RPM, use the following command to make
   a binary RPM that you can install. If you do not have rpmbuild,
   use rpm instead.
shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

   The result is one or more binary RPM packages that you install as
   indicated in Section 2.5.1, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM
   Packages."

   The sequence for installation from a compressed tar file source
   distribution is similar to the process for installing from a
   generic binary distribution that is detailed in Section 2.2,
   "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries." For a
   MySQL .tar.gz source distribution, the basic installation command
   sequence looks like this:
# Preconfiguration setup
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
# Beginning of source-build specific instructions
shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
shell> make install
# End of source-build specific instructions
# Postinstallation setup
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql var
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

   A more detailed version of the source-build specific instructions
   is shown following. Perform the following steps as the mysql user,
   except as noted.
   Note

   The procedure shown here does not set up any passwords for MySQL
   accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.12,
   "Postinstallation Setup and Testing," for postinstallation setup
   and testing.

    1. Set up the mysql user and group that will be used to run and
       execute the MySQL server and own the database directory. For
       details, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in
       Section 2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic
       Binaries."

    2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the
       distribution and change location into it.

    3. Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section
       2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL."

    4. Unpack the distribution into the current directory. tar can
       uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option
       support:
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
       This command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION.
       If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to
       unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -

    5. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked
       distribution:
shell> cd mysql-VERSION

    6. Configure the source directory:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
       When you run configure, you might want to specify other
       options. For example, if you need to debug mysqld or a MySQL
       client, run configure with the --with-debug option, and then
       recompile and link your clients with the new client library.
       See Section 22.4, "Debugging and Porting MySQL."
       Run ./configure --help for a list of options. Section 2.11.4,
       "MySQL Source-Configuration Options," discusses some of the
       more useful options.
       If configure fails and you are going to send mail to a MySQL
       mailing list to ask for assistance, please include any lines
       from config.log that you think can help solve the problem.
       Also include the last couple of lines of output from
       configure. To file a bug report, please use the instructions
       in Section 1.7, "How to Report Bugs or Problems."

    7. Compile the source distribution:
shell> make
       Use gmake instead on systems where you are using GNU make and
       it has been installed as gmake.
       If the compile fails, see Section 2.11.5, "Dealing with
       Problems Compiling MySQL," for help.

    8. Install the distribution:
shell> make install
       You might need to run this command as root.

   The remainder of the installation process, including setting up
   the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting
   the MySQL server, are identical to the remainder of the process as
   shown in Generic Binary Install.

   After everything has been installed, test the distribution. To
   start the MySQL server, use the following command:
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

   If you run the command as root, you should use the --user option
   as shown. The option value is the name of the login account that
   you created in the first step to use for running the server. If
   you run the mysqld_safe command while logged in as that user, you
   can omit the --user option.

   If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, look for
   information in the error log (which by default is the
   host_name.err file in the data directory).

   For more information about mysqld_safe, see Section 4.3.2,
   "mysqld_safe --- MySQL Server Startup Script."

   To make it more convenient to invoke programs installed in
   /usr/local/mysql/bin, you can add that directory to your PATH
   environment variable setting. That enables you to run a program by
   typing only its name, not its entire path name. See Section 4.2.4,
   "Setting Environment Variables."
   Note

   The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially
   have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up
   passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.12,
   "Postinstallation Setup and Testing."

2.11.3. Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree

   This section discusses how to install MySQL from the latest
   development source code. Development trees have not necessarily
   received the same level of testing as standard release
   distributions, so this installation method is usually required
   only if you need the most recent code changes. Do not use a
   development tree for production systems. If your goal is simply to
   get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a standard
   release distribution (either a binary or source distribution). See
   Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL."

   To obtain the source tree, you must have Bazaar installed. The
   Bazaar VCS Web site (http://bazaar-vcs.org) has instructions for
   downloading and installing Bazaar on different platforms. Bazaar
   is supported on any platform that supports Python, and is
   therefore compatible with any Linux, Unix, Windows, or Mac OS X
   host.

   MySQL development projects are hosted on Launchpad
   (http://launchpad.net/). MySQL projects, including MySQL Server,
   MySQL Workbench, and others are available from the Oracle/MySQL
   Engineering (http://launchpad.net/~mysql) page. For the
   repositories related only to MySQL Server, see the MySQL Server
   (http://launchpad.net/mysql-server) page.

   To build under Unix/Linux, you must have the following tools
   installed:

     * A good make program. Although some platforms come with their
       own make implementations, it is highly recommended that you
       use GNU make 3.75 or newer. It may already be available on
       your system as gmake. GNU make is available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/make/.

     * autoconf 2.58 (or newer), available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/.

     * automake 1.8.1, available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/.

     * libtool 1.5, available from
       http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/. 1.5.24 or later is
       recommended.

     * m4, available from http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/.

     * bison, available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. You
       should use the latest version of bison where possible.
       Versions 1.75 and 2.1 are known to work. There have been
       reported problems with bison 1.875. If you experience
       problems, upgrade to a later, rather than earlier, version.

   To build under Windows you must have Microsoft Visual C++ 2005
   Express Edition, Visual Studio .Net 2003 (7.1), or Visual Studio
   2005 (8.0) compiler system.

   Once the necessary tools are installed, create a local branch of
   the MySQL development tree on your machine using this procedure:

    1. To obtain a copy of the MySQL source code, you must create a
       new Bazaar branch. If you do not already have a Bazaar
       repository directory set up, you must initialize a new
       directory:
shell> mkdir mysql-server
shell> bzr init-repo --trees mysql-server
       This is a one-time operation.

    2. Assuming that you have an initialized repository directory,
       you can branch from the public MySQL server repositories to
       create a local source tree. To create a branch of a specific
       version:
shell> cd mysql-server
shell> bzr branch lp:mysql-server/5.1 mysql-5.1
       This is a one-time operation per source tree. You can branch
       the source trees for several versions of MySQL under the
       mysql-server directory.

    3. The initial download will take some time to complete,
       depending on the speed of your connection. Please be patient.
       Once you have downloaded the first tree, additional trees
       should take significantly less time to download.

    4. When building from the Bazaar branch, you may want to create a
       copy of your active branch so that you can make configuration
       and other changes without affecting the original branch
       contents. You can achieve this by branching from the original
       branch:
shell> bzr branch mysql-5.1 mysql-5.1-build

    5. To obtain changes made after you have set up the branch
       initially, update it using the pull option periodically. Use
       this command in the top-level directory of the local copy:
shell> bzr pull
       To examine the changeset comments for the tree, use the log
       option to bzr:
shell> bzr log
       You can also browse changesets, comments, and source code
       online at the Launchpad MySQL Server
       (http://launchpad.net/mysql-server) page.
       If you see diffs (changes) or code that you have a question
       about, do not hesitate to send email to the MySQL internals
       mailing list. See Section 1.6.1, "MySQL Mailing Lists." If you
       think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an
       email message to the list with a patch.

   After you have the local branch, you can build MySQL server from
   the source code. On Windows, the build process is different from
   Unix/Linux: see Section 2.11.7, "Installing MySQL from Source on
   Windows."

   On Unix/Linux, use the autoconf system to create the configure
   script so that you can configure the build environment before
   building. The following example shows the typical commands
   required to build MySQL from a source tree.

    1. Change location to the top-level directory of the source tree;
       replace mysql-5.1 with the appropriate directory name.
shell> cd mysql-5.1

    2. Prepare the source tree for configuration.
       Prior to MySQL 5.1.12, you must separately configure the
       InnoDB storage engine. Run the following command from the main
       source directory:
shell> (cd storage/innobase; autoreconf --force --install)
       You can omit the previous command for MySQL 5.1.12 and later,
       or if you do not require InnoDB support.
       Prepare the remainder of the source tree:
shell> autoreconf --force --install
       As an alternative to the preceding autoreconf command, you can
       use BUILD/autorun.sh, which acts as a shortcut for the
       following sequence of commands:
shell> aclocal; autoheader
shell> libtoolize --automake --force
shell> automake --force --add-missing; autoconf
       If you get some strange errors during this stage, verify that
       you have the correct version of libtool installed.

    3. Configure the source tree and compile MySQL:
shell> ./configure  # Add your favorite options here
shell> make
       For a description of some configure options, see Section
       2.11.4, "MySQL Source-Configuration Options."
       A collection of configuration scripts is located in the BUILD/
       subdirectory. For example, you may find it more convenient to
       use the BUILD/compile-pentium-debug script than the preceding
       set of shell commands. To compile on a different architecture,
       modify the script by removing flags that are Pentium-specific,
       or use another script that may be more appropriate. These
       scripts are provided on an "as-is" basis. They are not
       supported and their contents may change from release to
       release.

    4. When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this
       on a production machine; the installation command may
       overwrite your live release installation. If you already have
       MySQL installed and do not want to overwrite it, run
       ./configure with values for the --prefix, --with-tcp-port, and
       --with-unix-socket-path options different from those used by
       your production server. For additional information about
       preventing multiple servers from interfering with each other,
       see Section 5.3, "Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One
       Machine."

    5. Play hard with your new installation. For example, try to make
       new features crash. Start by running make test. See Section
       22.1.2, "The MySQL Test Suite."

    6. If you have gotten to the make stage, but the distribution
       does not compile, please enter the problem into our bugs
       database using the instructions given in Section 1.7, "How to
       Report Bugs or Problems." If you have installed the latest
       versions of the required tools, and they crash trying to
       process our configuration files, please report that also.
       However, if you get a command not found error or a similar
       problem for required tools, do not report it. Instead, make
       sure that all the required tools are installed and that your
       PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find
       them.

2.11.4. MySQL Source-Configuration Options

   The configure script provides a great deal of control over how you
   configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically, you do this
   using options on the configure command line. For a full list of
   options supported by configure, run this command:
shell> ./configure --help

   You can also affect configure using certain environment variables.
   See Section 2.14, "Environment Variables."

   The following table shows the available configure options.

   Table 2.20. MySQL Source-Configuration Option Reference
   (configure)
   Formats Description Default Introduced Removed
   --bindir=DIR User executables EPREFIX/bin
   --build=BUILD Configure for building on BUILD guessed
   --cache-file=FILE Cache test results in FILE disabled
   -C Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'
   --config-cache
   --datadir=DIR Read-only architecture-independent data PREFIX/share

   --disable-FEATURE Do not include FEATURE
   --disable-community-features Disable additional features provided
   by the community 5.1.28
   --disable-dependency-tracking Disable dependency tracking
   --disable-grant-options Disable GRANT options
   --disable-largefile Omit support for large files
   --disable-libtool-lock Disable libtool lock
   --disable-thread-safe-client Compile the client without threads
   5.1.7
   --enable-FEATURE Enable FEATURE
   --enable-assembler Use assembler versions of some string functions
   if available
   --enable-debug-sync Compile in Debug Sync facility 5.1.41
   --enable-dependency-tracking Do not reject slow dependency
   extractors
   --enable-fast-install Optimize for fast installation yes
   --enable-local-infile Enable LOCAL for LOAD DATA INFILE disabled

   --enable-profiling Build a version with query profiling code
   5.1.24
   --enable-shared Build shared libraries yes
   --enable-static Build static libraries yes
   --enable-thread-safe-client Compile the client with threads
   5.1.6
   --exec-prefix=EPREFIX Install architecture-dependent files in
   EPREFIX
   -h Display this help and exit
   --help
   --help=short Display options specific to this package
   --help=recursive Display the short help of all the included
   packages
   --host=HOST Cross-compile to build programs to run on HOST
   --includedir=DIR C header files PREFIX/include
   --infodir=DIR Info documentation PREFIX/info
   --libdir=DIR Object code libraries EPREFIX/lib
   --libexecdir=DIR Program executables EPREFIX/libexec
   --localstatedir=DIR Modifiable single-machine data PREFIX/var
   --mandir=DIR man documentation PREFIX/man
   -n Do not create output files
   --no-create
   --oldincludedir=DIR C header files for non-gcc /usr/include
   --prefix=PREFIX Install architecture-independent files in PREFIX

   --program-prefix=PREFIX Prepend PREFIX to installed program names

   --program-suffix=SUFFIX Append SUFFIX to installed program names

   --program-transform-name=PROGRAM run sed PROGRAM on installed
   program names
   -q Do not print `checking...' messages
   --quiet
   --sbindir=DIR System administrative executables EPREFIX/sbin
   --sharedstatedir=DIR Modifiable architecture-independent data
   PREFIX/com
   --srcdir=DIR Find the sources in DIR configure directory or ..
   --sysconfdir=DIR Read-only single-machine data PREFIX/etc
   --target=TARGET Configure for building compilers for TARGET
   -V Display version information and exit
   --version
   --with-PACKAGE Use PACKAGE
   --with-archive-storage-engine Enable the Archive Storage Engine no
     5.1.9
   --with-atomic-ops Implement atomic operations using pthread
   rwlocks or atomic CPU instructions for multi-processor 5.1.12
   --with-berkeley-db Use BerkeleyDB located in DIR no   5.1.11
   --with-berkeley-db-includes Find Berkeley DB headers in DIR
   5.1.11
   --with-berkeley-db-libs Find Berkeley DB libraries in DIR   5.1.11
   --with-big-tables Support tables with more than 4 G rows even on
   32 bit platforms
   --with-blackhole-storage-engine Enable the Blackhole Storage
   Engine no   5.1.9
   --with-charset Default character set
   --with-client-ldflags Extra linking arguments for clients
   --with-collation Default collation
   --with-comment Comment about compilation environment
   --with-csv-storage-engine Enable the CSV Storage Engine yes
   5.1.9
   --with-darwin-mwcc Use Metrowerks CodeWarrior wrappers on OS
   X/Darwin
   --with-debug Add debug code 5.1.7
   --with-debug=full Add debug code (adds memory checker, very slow)

   --with-embedded-privilege-control Build parts to check user's
   privileges (only affects embedded library)
   --with-embedded-server Build the embedded server
   --with-error-inject Enable error injection in MySQL Server 5.1.11

   --with-example-storage-engine Enable the Example Storage Engine no
     5.1.9
   --with-extra-charsets Use charsets in addition to default
   --with-fast-mutexes Compile with fast mutexes enabled 5.1.5
   --with-federated-storage-engine Enable federated storage engine no
   5.1.3 5.1.9
   --with-gnu-ld Assume the C compiler uses GNU ld no
   --with-innodb Enable innobase storage engine no 5.1.3 5.1.9
   --with-lib-ccflags Extra CC options for libraries
   --with-libwrap=DIR Compile in libwrap (tcp_wrappers) support
   --with-low-memory Try to use less memory to compile to avoid
   memory limitations
   --with-machine-type Set the machine type, like "powerpc"
   --with-max-indexes=N Sets the maximum number of indexes per table
   64
   --with-mysqld-ldflags Extra linking arguments for mysqld
   --with-mysqld-libs Extra libraries to link with for mysqld
   --with-mysqld-user What user the mysqld daemon shall be run as
   --with-mysqlmanager Build the mysqlmanager binary Build if server
   is built
   --with-named-curses-libs Use specified curses libraries
   --with-named-thread-libs Use specified thread libraries
   --with-ndb-ccflags Extra CC options for ndb compile
   --with-ndb-docs Include the NDB Cluster ndbapi and mgmapi
   documentation
   --with-ndb-port Port for NDB Cluster management server
   --with-ndb-port-base Port for NDB Cluster management server
   --with-ndb-sci=DIR Provide MySQL with a custom location of sci
   library
   --with-ndb-test Include the NDB Cluster ndbapi test programs
   --with-ndbcluster Include the NDB Cluster table handler no   5.1.9
   --with-openssl=DIR Include the OpenSSL support   5.1.9
   --with-openssl-includes Find OpenSSL headers in DIR   5.1.9
   --with-openssl-libs Find OpenSSL libraries in DIR   5.1.9
   --with-other-libc=DIR Link against libc and other standard
   libraries installed in the specified nonstandard location
   --with-pic Try to use only PIC/non-PIC objects Use both
   --with-plugin-PLUGIN Forces the named plugin to be linked into
   mysqld statically 5.1.11
   --with-plugins Plugins to include in mysqld none 5.1.11
   --with-pstack Use the pstack backtrace library   5.1.54
   --with-pthread Force use of pthread library
   --with-row-based-replication Include row-based replication 5.1.5
   5.1.6
   --with-server-suffix Append value to the version string
   --with-ssl=DIR Include SSL support 5.1.11
   --with-system-type Set the system type, like "sun-solaris10"
   --with-tags Include additional configurations automatic
   --with-tcp-port Which port to use for MySQL services 3306
   --with-unix-socket-path Where to put the unix-domain socket
   --with-yassl Include the yaSSL support   5.1.9
   --with-zlib-dir=no|bundled|DIR Provide MySQL with a custom
   location of compression library
   --without-PACKAGE Do not use PACKAGE
   --without-bench Skip building of the benchmark suite   5.1.11
   --without-debug Build a production version without debugging code
     5.1.6
   --without-docs Skip building of the documentation
   --without-extra-tools Skip building utilities in the tools
   directory   5.1.9
   --without-geometry Do not build geometry-related parts
   --without-libedit Use system libedit instead of bundled copy
   --without-man Skip building of the man pages
   --without-ndb-binlog Disable ndb binlog 5.1.6
   --without-ndb-debug Disable special ndb debug features
   --without-plugin-PLUGIN Exclude PLUGIN 5.1.11
   --without-query-cache Do not build query cache
   --without-readline Use system readline instead of bundled copy
   --without-row-based-replication Don't include row-based
   replication 5.1.7 5.1.14
   --without-server Only build the client
   --without-uca Skip building of the national Unicode collations

   If you are using a version of gcc recent enough to understand the
   -fno-exceptions option, it is very important that you use this
   option. Otherwise, you may compile a binary that crashes randomly.
   Also use -felide-constructors and -fno-rtti along with
   -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:
CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors \
       -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
       --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
       --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

   On most systems, this gives you a fast and stable binary.

   When compiling from source, you should also be aware of any
   platform specific considerations that may influence and impact the
   build process. Knowing and applying this information will help to
   ensure you get the best performance and most stable binary for
   your chosen platform. For more information, use the following
   sections:

     * Section 2.11.9, "Notes on Installing MySQL on AIX from Source"

     * Section 2.11.10, "Notes on Installing MySQL on HP-UX from
       Source"

     * Section 2.11.8, "Notes on Installing MySQL on Solaris from
       Source"

   Some of the configure options available are described here. For
   options that may be of use if you have difficulties building
   MySQL, see Section 2.11.5, "Dealing with Problems Compiling
   MySQL."

   Many options configure compile-time defaults that can be
   overridden at server startup. For example, the --prefix,
   --with-tcp-port, and with-unix-socket-path options that configure
   the default installation base directory location, TCP/IP port
   number, and Unix socket file can be changed at server startup with
   the --basedir, --port, and --socket options for mysqld.

     * To compile just the MySQL client libraries and client programs
       and not the server, use the --without-server option:
shell> ./configure --without-server
       If you have no C++ compiler, some client programs such as
       mysql cannot be compiled because they require C++. In this
       case, you can remove the code in configure that tests for the
       C++ compiler and then run ./configure with the
       --without-server option. The compile step should still try to
       build all clients, but you can ignore any warnings about files
       such as mysql.cc. (If make stops, try make -k to tell it to
       continue with the rest of the build even if errors occur.)

     * To build the embedded MySQL library (libmysqld.a), use the
       --with-embedded-server option.

     * To place your log files and database directories elsewhere
       than under /usr/local/var, use a configure command something
       like one of these:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
           --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
       The first command changes the installation prefix so that
       everything is installed under /usr/local/mysql rather than the
       default of /usr/local. The second command preserves the
       default installation prefix, but overrides the default
       location for database directories (normally /usr/local/var)
       and changes it to /usr/local/mysql/data.
       You can also specify the installation directory and data
       directory locations at server startup time by using the
       --basedir and --datadir options. These can be given on the
       command line or in an MySQL option file, although it is more
       common to use an option file. See Section 4.2.3.3, "Using
       Option Files."

     * The --with-tcp-port option specifies the port number on which
       the server listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is port
       3306. To listen on a different port, use a configure command
       like this:
shell> ./configure --with-tcp-port=3307

     * On Unix, if you want the MySQL socket file location to be
       somewhere other than the default location (normally in the
       directory /tmp or /var/run), use a configure command like
       this:
shell> ./configure \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
       The socket file name must be an absolute path name. You can
       also change the location of mysql.sock at server startup by
       using a MySQL option file. See Section C.5.4.5, "How to
       Protect or Change the MySQL Unix Socket File."

     * To compile statically linked programs (for example, to make a
       binary distribution, to get better performance, or to work
       around problems with some Red Hat Linux distributions), run
       configure like this:
shell> ./configure --with-client-ldflags=-all-static \
           --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

     * If you are using gcc and do not have libg++ or libstdc++
       installed, you can tell configure to use gcc as your C++
       compiler:
shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure
       When you use gcc as your C++ compiler, it does not attempt to
       link in libg++ or libstdc++. This may be a good thing to do
       even if you have those libraries installed. Some versions of
       them have caused strange problems for MySQL users in the past.
       In most cases, you can get a reasonably optimized MySQL binary
       by using the following options on the configure line:
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
       The full configure line would, in other words, be something
       like the following for all recent gcc versions:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro \
-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
       The binaries we provide on the MySQL Web site at
       http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ are all compiled with full
       optimization and should work well for most users. See Section
       2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

     * If the build fails and produces errors about your compiler or
       linker not being able to create the shared library
       libmysqlclient.so.N (where N is a version number), you can
       work around this problem by giving the --disable-shared option
       to configure. In this case, configure does not build a shared
       libmysqlclient.so.N library.

     * By default, MySQL uses the latin1 (cp1252 West European)
       character set. To change the default set, use the
       --with-charset option:
shell> ./configure --with-charset=CHARSET
       CHARSET may be one of binary, armscii8, ascii, big5, cp1250,
       cp1251, cp1256, cp1257, cp850, cp852, cp866, cp932, dec8,
       eucjpms, euckr, gb2312, gbk, geostd8, greek, hebrew, hp8,
       keybcs2, koi8r, koi8u, latin1, latin2, latin5, latin7, macce,
       macroman, sjis, swe7, tis620, ucs2, ujis, utf8. (Additional
       character sets might be available. Check the output from
       ./configure --help for the current list.)
       The default collation may also be specified. MySQL uses the
       latin1_swedish_ci collation by default. To change this, use
       the --with-collation option:
shell> ./configure --with-collation=COLLATION
       To change both the character set and the collation, use both
       the --with-charset and --with-collation options. The collation
       must be a legal collation for the character set. (Use the SHOW
       COLLATION statement to determine which collations are
       available for each character set.)
       With the configure option --with-extra-charsets=LIST, you can
       define which additional character sets should be compiled into
       the server. LIST is one of the following:

          + A list of character set names separated by spaces

          + complex to include all character sets that can't be
            dynamically loaded

          + all to include all character sets into the binaries
       Clients that want to convert characters between the server and
       the client should use the SET NAMES statement. See Section
       10.1.4, "Connection Character Sets and Collations."

     * To configure MySQL with debugging code, use the --with-debug
       option:
shell> ./configure --with-debug
       This causes a safe memory allocator to be included that can
       find some errors and that provides output about what is
       happening. See Section 22.4, "Debugging and Porting MySQL."
       As of MySQL 5.1.12, using --with-debug to configure MySQL with
       debugging support enables you to use the
       --debug="d,parser_debug" option when you start the server.
       This causes the Bison parser that is used to process SQL
       statements to dump a parser trace to the server's standard
       error output. Typically, this output is written to the error
       log.

     * To cause the Debug Sync facility to be compiled into the
       server, use the --enable-debug-sync option. This facility is
       used for testing and debugging. When compiled in, Debug Sync
       is disabled by default at runtime. To enable it, start mysqld
       with the --debug-sync-timeout=N option, where N is a timeout
       value greater than 0. (The default value is 0, which disables
       Debug Sync.) N becomes the default timeout for individual
       synchronization points.
       Debug Sync is also compiled in if you configure with the
       --with-debug option (which implies --enable-debug-sync),
       unless you also use the --disable-debug-sync option.
       For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use
       synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test
       Synchronization
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/test-synchronization.ht
       ml).
       The --enable-debug-sync and --disable-debug-sync options were
       added in MySQL 5.1.41.

     * If your client programs are using threads, you must compile a
       thread-safe version of the MySQL client library with the
       --enable-thread-safe-client configure option. This creates a
       libmysqlclient_r library with which you should link your
       threaded applications. See Section 21.8.4.2, "Writing C API
       Threaded Client Programs."

     * Some features require that the server be built with
       compression library support, such as the COMPRESS() and
       UNCOMPRESS() functions, and compression of the client/server
       protocol. The --with-zlib-dir=no|bundled|DIR option provides
       control over compression library support. The value no
       explicitly disables compression support. bundled causes the
       zlib library bundled in the MySQL sources to be used. A DIR
       path name specifies the directory in which to find the
       compression library sources.

     * It is possible to build MySQL with large table support using
       the --with-big-tables option.
       This option causes the variables that store table row counts
       to be declared as unsigned long long rather than unsigned
       long. This enables tables to hold up to approximately
       1.844E+19 ((2^32)^2) rows rather than 2^32 (~4.295E+09) rows.
       Previously it was necessary to pass -DBIG_TABLES to the
       compiler manually in order to enable this feature.

     * Run configure with the --disable-grant-options option to cause
       the --bootstrap, --skip-grant-tables, and --init-file options
       for mysqld to be disabled. For Windows, the configure.js
       script recognizes the DISABLE_GRANT_OPTIONS flag, which has
       the same effect. The capability is available as of MySQL
       5.1.15.

     * This option allows MySQL Community Server features to be
       enabled. Additional options may be required for individual
       features, such as --enable-profiling to enable statement
       profiling. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.24. It is
       enabled by default as of MySQL 5.1.28; to disable it, use
       --disable-community-features.

     * When given with --enable-community-features, the
       --enable-profiling option enables the statement profiling
       capability exposed by the SHOW PROFILE and SHOW PROFILES
       statements. (See Section 13.7.5.33, "SHOW PROFILES Syntax.")
       This option was added in MySQL 5.1.24. It is enabled by
       default as of MySQL 5.1.28; to disable it, use
       --disable-profiling.

     * See Section 2.1, "General Installation Guidance," for options
       that pertain to particular operating systems.

     * See Section 6.3.6.2, "Configuring MySQL for SSL," for options
       that pertain to configuring MySQL to support secure
       (encrypted) connections.

     * Several configure options apply to plugin selection and
       building:
--with-plugins=PLUGIN[,PLUGIN]...
--with-plugins=GROUP
--with-plugin-PLUGIN
--without-plugin-PLUGIN
       PLUGIN is an individual plugin name such as csv or archive.
       As shorthand, GROUP is a configuration group name such as none
       (select no plugins) or all (select all plugins).
       You can build a plugin as static (compiled into the server) or
       dynamic (built as a dynamic library that must be installed
       using the INSTALL PLUGIN statement or the --plugin-load option
       before it can be used). Some plugins might not support static
       or dynamic build.
       configure --help shows the following information pertaining to
       plugins:

          + The plugin-related options

          + The names of all available plugins

          + For each plugin, a description of its purpose, which
            build types it supports (static or dynamic), and which
            plugin groups it is a part of.
       --with-plugins can take a list of one or more plugin names
       separated by commas, or a plugin group name. The named plugins
       are configured to be built as static plugins.
       --with-plugin-PLUGIN configures the given plugin to be built
       as a static plugin.
       --without-plugin-PLUGIN disables the given plugin from being
       built.
       If a plugin is named both with a --with and --without option,
       the result is undefined.
       For any plugin that is not explicitly selected or disabled, it
       is selected to be built dynamically if it supports dynamic
       build, and not built if it does not support dynamic build.
       (Thus, in the case that no plugin options are given, all
       plugins that support dynamic build are selected to be built as
       dynamic plugins. Plugins that do not support dynamic build are
       not built.)

2.11.5. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL

   All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on
   Solaris or Linux using gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur
   due to differences in system include files. For other problems,
   check the following list.

   The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do
   need to reconfigure, take note of the following:

     * If configure is run after it has previously been run, it may
       use information that was gathered during its previous
       invocation. This information is stored in config.cache. When
       configure starts up, it looks for that file and reads its
       contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information
       is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you
       reconfigure.

     * Each time you run configure, you must run make again to
       recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files
       from previous builds first because they were compiled using
       different configuration options.

   To prevent old configuration information or object files from
   being used, run these commands before re-running configure:
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

   Alternatively, you can run make distclean.

   The following list describes some of the problems that have been
   found to occur most often when compiling MySQL:

     * If you get errors such as the ones shown here when compiling
       sql_yacc.cc, you probably have run out of memory or swap
       space:
Internal compiler error: program cc1plus got fatal signal 11
Out of virtual memory
Virtual memory exhausted
       The problem is that gcc requires a huge amount of memory to
       compile sql_yacc.cc with inline functions. Try running
       configure with the --with-low-memory option:
shell> ./configure --with-low-memory
       This option causes -fno-inline to be added to the compile line
       if you are using gcc and -O0 if you are using something else.
       You should try the --with-low-memory option even if you have
       so much memory and swap space that you think you can't
       possibly have run out. This problem has been observed to occur
       even on systems with generous hardware configurations, and the
       --with-low-memory option usually fixes it.

     * By default, configure picks c++ as the compiler name and GNU
       c++ links with -lg++. If you are using gcc, that behavior can
       cause problems during configuration such as this:
configure: error: installation or configuration problem:
C++ compiler cannot create executables.
       You might also observe problems during compilation related to
       g++, libg++, or libstdc++.
       One cause of these problems is that you may not have g++, or
       you may have g++ but not libg++, or libstdc++. Take a look at
       the config.log file. It should contain the exact reason why
       your C++ compiler did not work. To work around these problems,
       you can use gcc as your C++ compiler. Try setting the
       environment variable CXX to "gcc -O3". For example:
shell> CXX="gcc -O3" ./configure
       This works because gcc compiles C++ source files as well as
       g++ does, but does not link in libg++ or libstdc++ by default.
       Another way to fix these problems is to install g++, libg++,
       and libstdc++. However, do not use libg++ or libstdc++ with
       MySQL because this only increases the binary size of mysqld
       without providing any benefits. Some versions of these
       libraries have also caused strange problems for MySQL users in
       the past.

     * To define flags to be used by your C or C++ compilers, specify
       them using the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. You
       can also specify the compiler names this way using CC and CXX.
       For example:
shell> CC=gcc
shell> CFLAGS=-O3
shell> CXX=gcc
shell> CXXFLAGS=-O3
shell> export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
       To see what flags you might need to specify, invoke
       mysql_config with the --cflags option.

     * If you get errors such as those shown here when compiling
       mysqld, configure did not correctly detect the type of the
       last argument to accept(), getsockname(), or getpeername():
cxx: Error: mysqld.cc, line 645: In this statement, the referenced
     type of the pointer value ''length'' is ''unsigned long'',
     which is not compatible with ''int''.
new_sock = accept(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&cAddr, &length);
       To fix this, edit the config.h file (which is generated by
       configure). Look for these lines:
/* Define as the base type of the last arg to accept */
#define SOCKET_SIZE_TYPE XXX
       Change XXX to size_t or int, depending on your operating
       system. (You must do this each time you run configure because
       configure regenerates config.h.)

     * If your compile fails with errors such as any of the
       following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:
make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
Badly formed macro assignment
       Or:
make: file `Makefile' line 18: Must be a separator (:
       Or:
pthread.h: No such file or directory
       Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make
       programs.
       GNU make 3.75 is known to work.

     * The sql_yacc.cc file is generated from sql_yacc.yy. Normally,
       the build process does not need to create sql_yacc.cc because
       MySQL comes with a pregenerated copy. However, if you do need
       to re-create it, you might encounter this error:
"sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
       This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You
       probably need to install bison (the GNU version of yacc) and
       use that instead.
       Versions of bison older than 1.75 may report this error:
sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
       The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is
       caused by bugs in older versions of bison.

     * On Debian Linux 3.0, you need to install gawk instead of the
       default mawk.

     * If you get a compilation error on Linux (for example, SuSE
       Linux 8.1 or Red Hat Linux 7.3) similar to the following one,
       you probably do not have g++ installed:
libmysql.c:1329: warning: passing arg 5 of `gethostbyname_r' from
incompatible pointer type
libmysql.c:1329: too few arguments to function `gethostbyname_r'
libmysql.c:1329: warning: assignment makes pointer from integer
without a cast
make[2]: *** [libmysql.lo] Error 1
       By default, the configure script attempts to determine the
       correct number of arguments by using g++ (the GNU C++
       compiler). This test yields incorrect results if g++ is not
       installed. There are two ways to work around this problem:

          + Make sure that the GNU C++ g++ is installed. On some
            Linux distributions, the required package is called gpp;
            on others, it is named gcc-c++.

          + Use gcc as your C++ compiler by setting the CXX
            environment variable to gcc:
export CXX="gcc"
       You must run configure again after making either of those
       changes.

   For information about acquiring or updating tools, see the system
   requirements in Section 2.11, "Installing MySQL from Source."

2.11.6. Compiling and Linking an Optimized mysqld Server

   Most of the following tests were performed on Linux with the MySQL
   benchmarks, but they should give some indication for other
   operating systems and workloads.

   You obtain the fastest executables when you link with -static.

   By using better compiler and compilation options, you can obtain a
   10% to 30% speed increase in applications. This is particularly
   important if you compile the MySQL server yourself.

   When we tested both the Cygnus CodeFusion and Fujitsu compilers,
   neither was sufficiently bug-free to enable MySQL to be compiled
   with optimizations enabled.

   The standard MySQL binary distributions are compiled with support
   for all character sets. When you compile MySQL yourself, include
   support only for the character sets that you are going to use.
   This is controlled by the --with-charset option to configure.

   Here is a list of some measurements that we have made:

     * If you link dynamically (without -static), the result is 13%
       slower on Linux. Note that you still can use a dynamically
       linked MySQL library for your client applications. It is the
       server that is most critical for performance.

     * For a connection from a client to a server running on the same
       host, if you connect using TCP/IP rather than a Unix socket
       file, performance is 7.5% slower. (On Unix, if you connect to
       the host name localhost, MySQL uses a socket file by default.)

     * For TCP/IP connections from a client to a server, connecting
       to a remote server on another host is 8% to 11% slower than
       connecting to a server on the same host, even for connections
       faster than 100Mb/s Ethernet.

     * When running our benchmark tests using secure connections (all
       data encrypted with internal SSL support) performance was 55%
       slower than with unencrypted connections.

     * On a Sun UltraSPARC-IIe, a server compiled with Forte 5.0 is
       4% faster than one compiled with gcc 3.2.

     * On a Sun UltraSPARC-IIe, a server compiled with Forte 5.0 is
       4% faster in 32-bit mode than in 64-bit mode.

     * Compiling on Linux-x86 using gcc without frame pointers
       (-fomit-frame-pointer or -fomit-frame-pointer -ffixed-ebp)
       makes mysqld 1% to 4% faster.

2.11.7. Installing MySQL from Source on Windows

   These instructions describe how to build binaries from source for
   MySQL 5.1 on Windows. Instructions are provided for building
   binaries from a standard source distribution or from the Bazaar
   tree that contains the latest development source.
   Note

   The instructions here are strictly for users who want to test
   MySQL on Microsoft Windows from the latest source distribution or
   from the Bazaar tree. For production use, we do not advise using a
   MySQL server built by yourself from source. Normally, it is best
   to use precompiled binary distributions of MySQL that are built
   specifically for optimal performance on Windows by Oracle
   Corporation. Instructions for installing binary distributions are
   available in Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows."

   To build MySQL on Windows from source, you must satisfy the
   following system, compiler, and resource requirements:

     * Windows 2000, Windows XP, or newer version.
       Windows Vista is supported when using Visual Studio 2005
       provided you have installed the following updates:

          + Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Professional Edition - ENU
            Service Pack 1 (KB926601)
            (http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=926601)

          + Security Update for Microsoft Visual Studio 2005
            Professional Edition - ENU (KB937061)
            (http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=937061)

          + Update for Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Professional
            Edition - ENU (KB932232)
            (http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=932232)

     * CMake, which can be downloaded from http://www.cmake.org.
       After installing, modify your PATH environment variable to
       include the directory where cmake is located.

     * Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition, Visual Studio .Net
       2003 (7.1), or Visual Studio 2005 (8.0) compiler system.

     * If you are using Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition, you must
       also install an appropriate Platform SDK. More information and
       links to downloads for various Windows platforms is available
       from
       http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=0baf2
       b35-c656-4969-ace8-e4c0c0716adb.

     * If you are compiling from a Bazaar tree or making changes to
       the parser, you need bison for Windows, which can be
       downloaded from
       http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/bison.htm. Download
       the package labeled "Complete package, excluding sources".
       After installing the package, modify your PATH environment
       variable to include the directory where bison is located.
       Note
       On Windows, the default location for bison is the C:\Program
       Files\GnuWin32 directory. Some utilities, including m4, may
       fail to find bison because of the space in the directory name.
       You can resolve this by installing into a directory that does
       not contain a space; for example C:\GnuWin32.

     * Cygwin might be necessary if you want to run the test script
       or package the compiled binaries and support files into a Zip
       archive. (Cygwin is needed only to test or package the
       distribution, not to build it.) Cygwin is available from
       http://cygwin.com.

     * 3GB to 5GB of disk space.

   You also need a MySQL source distribution for Windows, which can
   be obtained two ways:

     * Obtain a source distribution packaged by Oracle Corporation.
       These are available from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.

     * Package a source distribution yourself from the latest Bazaar
       developer source tree. For instructions on pulling the latest
       source files, see Section 2.11.3, "Installing MySQL Using a
       Development Source Tree."

   If you find something not working as expected, or you have
   suggestions about ways to improve the current build process on
   Windows, please send a message to the win32 mailing list. See
   Section 1.6.1, "MySQL Mailing Lists."
   Note

   To compile from the source code on Windows you must use the
   standard source distribution (for example, mysql-5.1.74.zip) or
   mysql-5.1.74.tar.gz). You build from the same distribution as used
   to build MySQL on Unix, Linux and other platforms. Do not use the
   Windows Source distributions as they do not contain the necessary
   configuration script and other files.

   Follow this procedure to build MySQL:

    1. If you are installing from a packaged source distribution,
       create a work directory (for example, C:\workdir), and unpack
       the source distribution there using WinZip or another Windows
       tool that can read .zip files. This directory is the work
       directory in the following instructions.
       Note
       Commands that are located in the win directory should be
       executed from the top-level source directory. Do not change
       location into the win directory, as the commands will not
       execute correctly.

    2. Start a command shell. If you have not configured the PATH and
       other environment variables for all command shells, you may be
       able to start a command shell from the Start Menu within the
       Windows Visual Studio menu that contains the necessary
       environment changes.

    3. Within the command shell, navigate to the work directory and
       run the following command:
C:\workdir>win\configure.js options
       If you have associated the .js file extension with an
       application such as a text editor, then you may need to use
       the following command to force configure.js to be executed as
       a script:
C:\workdir>cscript win\configure.js options
       These options are available for configure.js:

          + WITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable the InnoDB storage
            engine.

          + WITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable user-defined
            partitioning.

          + WITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable the ARCHIVE storage
            engine.

          + WITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable the BLACKHOLE
            storage engine.

          + WITH_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable the EXAMPLE storage
            engine.

          + WITH_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable the FEDERATED
            storage engine.

          + WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE: Enable the NDBCLUSTER
            storage engine in the MySQL server; cause binaries for
            the MySQL Cluster management and data node, management
            client, and other programs to be built.
            This option is supported only in MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0
            and later (NDBCLUSTER storage engine versions 6.4.0 and
            later) using the MySQL Cluster sources. It cannot be used
            to enable clustering support in other MySQL source trees
            or distributions.

          + MYSQL_SERVER_SUFFIX=suffix: Server suffix, default none.

          + COMPILATION_COMMENT=comment: Server comment, default
            "Source distribution".

          + MYSQL_TCP_PORT=port: Server port, default 3306.

          + DISABLE_GRANT_OPTIONS: Disables the --bootstrap,
            --skip-grant-tables, and --init-file options for mysqld.
            This option is available as of MySQL 5.1.15.
       For example (type the command on one line):
C:\workdir>win\configure.js WITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE
             WITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE MYSQL_SERVER_SUFFIX=-pro

    4. From the work directory, execute the win\build-vs9.bat
       (Windows Visual Studio 2008), win\build-vs8.bat (Windows
       Visual Studio 2005), or win\build-vs71.bat (Windows Visual
       Studio 2003) script, depending on the version of Visual Studio
       you have installed. The script invokes CMake, which generates
       the mysql.sln solution file.
       You can also use the corresponding 64-bit file (for example
       win\build-vs8_x64.bat or win\build-vs9_x64.bat) to build the
       64-bit version of MySQL. However, you cannot build the 64-bit
       version with Visual Studio Express Edition. You must use
       Visual Studio 2005 (8.0) or higher.

    5. From the work directory, open the generated mysql.sln file
       with Visual Studio and select the proper configuration using
       the Configuration menu. The menu provides Debug, Release,
       RelwithDebInfo, MinRelInfo options. Then select Solution >
       Build to build the solution.
       Remember the configuration that you use in this step. It is
       important later when you run the test script because that
       script needs to know which configuration you used.

    6. Test the server. The server built using the preceding
       instructions expects that the MySQL base directory and data
       directory are C:\mysql and C:\mysql\data by default. If you
       want to test your server using the source tree root directory
       and its data directory as the base directory and data
       directory, you need to tell the server their path names. You
       can either do this on the command line with the --basedir and
       --datadir options, or by placing appropriate options in an
       option file. (See Section 4.2.3.3, "Using Option Files.") If
       you have an existing data directory elsewhere that you want to
       use, you can specify its path name instead.
       When the server is running in standalone fashion or as a
       service based on your configuration, try to connect to it from
       the mysql interactive command-line utility.
       You can also run the standard test script, mysql-test-run.pl.
       This script is written in Perl, so you'll need either Cygwin
       or ActiveState Perl to run it. You may also need to install
       the modules required by the script. To run the test script,
       change location into the mysql-test directory under the work
       directory, set the MTR_VS_CONFIG environment variable to the
       configuration you selected earlier (or use the --vs-config
       option), and invoke mysql-test-run.pl. For example (using
       Cygwin and the bash shell):
shell> cd mysql-test
shell> export MTR_VS_CONFIG=debug
shell> ./mysql-test-run.pl --force --timer
shell> ./mysql-test-run.pl --force --timer --ps-protocol

   When you are satisfied that the programs you have built are
   working correctly, stop the server. Now you can install the
   distribution. One way to do this is to use the make_win_bin_dist
   script in the scripts directory of the MySQL source distribution
   (see Section 4.4.2, "make_win_bin_dist --- Package MySQL
   Distribution as Zip Archive"). This is a shell script, so you must
   have Cygwin installed if you want to use it. It creates a Zip
   archive of the built executables and support files that you can
   unpack in the location at which you want to install MySQL.

   It is also possible to install MySQL by copying directories and
   files directly:

    1. Create the directories where you want to install MySQL. For
       example, to install into C:\mysql, use these commands:
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\bin
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\data
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\share
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\scripts
       If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL,
       you should also create several additional directories:
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\include
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib\opt
       If you want to benchmark MySQL, create this directory:
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\sql-bench
       Benchmarking requires Perl support for MySQL. See Section
       2.15, "Perl Installation Notes."

    2. From the work directory, copy into the C:\mysql directory the
       following files and directories:
C:\> cd \workdir
C:\workdir> mkdir C:\mysql
C:\workdir> mkdir C:\mysql\bin
C:\workdir> copy client\Release\*.exe C:\mysql\bin
C:\workdir> copy sql\Release\mysqld.exe C:\mysql\bin\mysqld.exe
C:\workdir> xcopy scripts\*.* C:\mysql\scripts /E
C:\workdir> xcopy share\*.* C:\mysql\share /E
       If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL,
       you should also copy several libraries and header files:
C:\workdir> copy lib\Release\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\workdir> copy lib\Release\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\workdir> copy lib\Release\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\workdir> copy lib\Release\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\opt
C:\workdir> copy lib\Release\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
C:\workdir> copy lib\Release\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
C:\workdir> copy include\*.h C:\mysql\include
C:\workdir> copy libmysql\libmysql.def C:\mysql\include
       Note
       If you have compiled a Debug solution, rather than a Release
       solution, install it by replacing Release with Debug in the
       source file names just shown.
       If you want to benchmark MySQL, you should also do this:
C:\workdir> xcopy sql-bench\*.* C:\mysql\bench /E

   After installation, set up and start the server in the same way as
   for binary Windows distributions. This includes creating the
   system tables by running mysql_install_db. For more information,
   see Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows."

2.11.8. Notes on Installing MySQL on Solaris from Source

   When building MySQL on Solaris you can use either the Sun Studio
   or GNU cc compilers. For more information on specific notes and
   environments, use the following hints.

     * When building you should ensure that your PATH variable
       includes the necessary tools, including ar for building
       libraries. Some tools are located in /usr/ccs/bin.

     * When running configure, you should specify the C and C++
       compiler explicitly to ensure that the right C compiler
       combination is used:
CC=gcc CXX=g++ ./configure

     * For detailed information on performance tuning your MySQL
       installation for Solaris, you can use the information from
       Krish Shankar
       (http://blogs.sun.com/krishs/entry/sun_studio_compiler_options
       _for) and the Sun Solaris MySQL Performance Tuning
       (http://developers.sun.com/solaris/articles/mysql_perf_tune.ht
       ml) pages.

     * If you have an UltraSPARC system, you can get 4% better
       performance by adding -mcpu=v8 -Wa,-xarch=v8plusa to the
       CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables.

     * If you have Sun's Forte 5.00 (or newer) or Sun Studio
       compiler, you can run configure like this:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

     * To create a 64-bit SPARC binary with Sun's Forte or Sun Studio
       compiler, use the following configuration options:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt -xarch=v9" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -xarch=v9" ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
       To create a 64-bit Solaris binary using gcc, add -m64 to
       CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and remove --enable-assembler from the
       configure line.
       In the MySQL benchmarks, we obtained a 4% speed increase on
       UltraSPARC when using Forte 5.0 in 32-bit mode, as compared to
       using gcc 3.2 with the -mcpu flag.
       If you create a 64-bit mysqld binary, it is 4% slower than the
       32-bit binary, but can handle more threads and memory.

     * If you get a problem with fdatasync or sched_yield, you can
       fix this by adding LIBS=-lrt to the configure line

     * Solaris does not provide static versions of all system
       libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so you cannot compile MySQL
       with --static. If you try to do so, you get one of the
       following errors:
ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found
undefined reference to `dlopen'
cannot find -lrt

     * If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the
       following error at runtime:
ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory
       To avoid this problem, use one of the following methods:

          + Use the crle tool to add the directory containing the
            libmysqlclient library file to the list of standard
            library directories. You need administrator privileges to
            do this. Make sure you update the library information,
            rather than replace it with the new path. For example,
            the following command adds the directory to the list of
            standard directories searched for libraries.
crle -u -l /usr/local/mysql/lib
            For 64-bit libraries, add the -64 option:
crle -64 -u -l /usr/local/mysql/lib

          + Link clients with the
            -Wl,r/full/path/to/libmysqlclient.so flag rather than
            with -Lpath).

          + Copy libmysqlclient.so to /usr/lib.

          + Add the path name of the directory where
            libmysqlclient.so is located to the LD_RUN_PATH
            environment variable before running your client.

     * If you have problems with configure trying to link with -lz
       when you do not have zlib installed, you have two options:

          + If you want to be able to use the compressed
            communication protocol, obtain and install zlib from
            ftp.gnu.org.

          + To build without zlib, run configure with the
            --with-named-z-libs=no option when building MySQL.

     * If you are using gcc and have problems with loading
       user-defined functions (UDFs) into MySQL, try adding -lgcc to
       the link line for the UDF.

2.11.9. Notes on Installing MySQL on AIX from Source

   General notes on building MySQL from source on IBM AIX:

     * Automatic xlC detection is missing from Autoconf, so a number
       of variables need to be set before running configure. The
       following example uses the IBM compiler:
export CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192 "
export CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192"
export CFLAGS="-I /usr/local/include"
export LDFLAGS="-L /usr/local/lib"
export CPPFLAGS=$CFLAGS
export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS

./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
                --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
                --sbindir='/usr/local/bin' \
                --libexecdir='/usr/local/bin' \
                --enable-thread-safe-client \
                --enable-large-files
       The preceding options are used to compile the MySQL
       distribution that can be found at http://www-frec.bull.com/.

     * If you change the -O3 to -O2 in the preceding configure line,
       you must also remove the -qstrict option. This is a limitation
       in the IBM C compiler.

     * If you compile MySQL with gcc, you must use the
       -fno-exceptions flag because the exception handling in gcc is
       not thread-safe. There are also some known problems with IBM's
       assembler that may cause it to generate bad code when used
       with gcc.

     * If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly
       under high load), you may have found an OS bug with threads
       and signals. In this case, you can tell MySQL not to use
       signals by configuring as follows:
CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti \
-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug \
    --with-low-memory
       This does not affect the performance of MySQL, but has the
       side effect that you cannot kill clients that are "sleeping"
       on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown.
       Instead, the client dies when it issues its next command.

     * On some versions of AIX, linking with libbind.a makes
       getservbyname() dump core. This is an AIX bug and should be
       reported to IBM.

2.11.10. Notes on Installing MySQL on HP-UX from Source

   General notes on compiling MySQL on HP-UX.

     * If you are using HP-UX compiler, you can use the following
       command (which has been tested with cc B.11.11.04):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure \
    --with-extra-character-set=complex
       You can ignore any errors of the following type:
aCC: warning 901: unknown option: `-3': use +help for online
documentation

     * If you get the following error from configure, verify that you
       do not have the path to the K&R compiler before the path to
       the HP-UX C and C++ compiler:
checking for cc option to accept ANSI C... no
configure: error: MySQL requires an ANSI C compiler (and a C++ compil
er).
Try gcc. See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

     * Another reason for compile failure is that you did not define
       the +DD64 flags as just described.

2.12. Postinstallation Setup and Testing

   This section discusses post-installation items for Unix systems.
   If you are using Windows, see Section 2.3.9, "MySQL Server on
   Microsoft Windows Postinstallation Procedures."

   After installing MySQL, there are some items that you should
   address. For example:

     * You should initialize the data directory and create the MySQL
       grant tables, as describe in Section 2.12.1, "Unix
       Postinstallation Procedures."

     * An important security concern is that the initial accounts in
       the grant tables have no passwords. You should assign
       passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the MySQL server.
       For instructions, see Section 2.12.2, "Securing the Initial
       MySQL Accounts."

     * Optionally, you can create time zone tables to enable
       recognition of named time zones. For instructions, see Section
       4.4.7, "mysql_tzinfo_to_sql --- Load the Time Zone Tables."

     * If you have trouble getting the server to start, see Section
       2.12.1.3, "Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server."

     * When you are ready to create additional user accounts, you can
       find information on the MySQL access control system and
       account management in Section 6.2, "The MySQL Access Privilege
       System," and Section 6.3, "MySQL User Account Management."

2.12.1. Unix Postinstallation Procedures

   After installing MySQL on Unix, you must initialize the grant
   tables, start the server, and make sure that the server works
   satisfactorily. You may also wish to arrange for the server to be
   started and stopped automatically when your system starts and
   stops. You should also assign passwords to the accounts in the
   grant tables.

   On Unix, the grant tables are set up by the mysql_install_db
   program. For some installation methods, this program is run for
   you automatically if an existing database cannot be found.

     * If you install MySQL on Linux using RPM distributions, the
       server RPM runs mysql_install_db.

     * Using the native packaging system on many platforms, including
       Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Gentoo Linux and others, the
       mysql_install_db command is run for you.

     * If you install MySQL on Mac OS X using a DMG distribution, the
       installer runs mysql_install_db.

   For other platforms and installation types, including generic
   binary and source installs, you will need to run mysql_install_db
   yourself.

   The following procedure describes how to initialize the grant
   tables (if that has not previously been done) and start the
   server. It also suggests some commands that you can use to test
   whether the server is accessible and working properly. For
   information about starting and stopping the server automatically,
   see Section 2.12.1.2, "Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically."

   After you complete the procedure and have the server running, you
   should assign passwords to the accounts created by
   mysql_install_db and perhaps restrict access to test databases.
   For instructions, see Section 2.12.2, "Securing the Initial MySQL
   Accounts."

   In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of
   the mysql login account. This assumes that such an account exists.
   Either create the account if it does not exist, or substitute the
   name of a different existing login account that you plan to use
   for running the server. For information about creating the
   account, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section
   2.2, "Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries."

    1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL
       installation, represented here by BASEDIR:
shell> cd BASEDIR
       BASEDIR is the installation directory for your MySQL instance.
       It is likely to be something like /usr/local/mysql or
       /usr/local. The following steps assume that you have changed
       location to this directory.
       You will find several files and subdirectories in the BASEDIR
       directory. The most important for installation purposes are
       the bin and scripts subdirectories:

          + The bin directory contains client programs and the
            server. You should add the full path name of this
            directory to your PATH environment variable so that your
            shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See Section
            2.14, "Environment Variables."
            For some distribution types, mysqld is installed in the
            libexec directory.

          + The scripts directory contains the mysql_install_db
            script used to initialize the mysql database containing
            the grant tables that store the server access
            permissions.
            For some distribution types, mysql_install_db is
            installed in the bin directory.

    2. If necessary, ensure that the distribution contents are
       accessible to mysql. If you installed the distribution as
       mysql, no further action is required. If you installed the
       distribution as root, its contents will be owned by root.
       Change its ownership to mysql by executing the following
       commands as root in the installation directory. The first
       command changes the owner attribute of the files to the mysql
       user. The second changes the group attribute to the mysql
       group.
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .

    3. If necessary, run the mysql_install_db program to set up the
       initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that
       determine how users are permitted to connect to the server.
       You will need to do this if you used a distribution type for
       which the installation procedure does not run the program for
       you.
       Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first
       time you install MySQL, so you can skip this step if you are
       upgrading an existing installation, However, mysql_install_db
       does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should
       be safe to run in any circumstances.
       The exact location of mysql_install_db depends on the layout
       for your given installation. To initialize the grant tables,
       use one of the following commands, depending on whether
       mysql_install_db is located in the bin or scripts directory:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
       It might be necessary to specify other options such as
       --basedir or --datadir if mysql_install_db does not identify
       the correct locations for the installation directory or data
       directory. For example:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql \
         --basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql \
         --datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data
       The mysql_install_db script creates the server's data
       directory with mysql as the owner. Under the data directory,
       it creates directories for the mysql database that holds the
       grant tables and the test database that you can use to test
       MySQL. The script also creates privilege table entries for
       root and anonymous-user accounts. The accounts have no
       passwords initially. Section 2.12.2, "Securing the Initial
       MySQL Accounts," describes the initial privileges. Briefly,
       these privileges permit the MySQL root user to do anything,
       and permit anybody to create or use databases with a name of
       test or starting with test_. See Section 6.2, "The MySQL
       Access Privilege System," for a complete listing and
       description of the grant tables.
       It is important to make sure that the database directories and
       files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server
       has read and write access to them when you run it later. To
       ensure this if you run mysql_install_db as root, include the
       --user option as shown. Otherwise, you should execute the
       script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit
       the --user option from the command.
       If you do not want to have the test database, you can remove
       it after starting the server, using the instructions in
       Section 2.12.2, "Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts."
       If you have trouble with mysql_install_db at this point, see
       Section 2.12.1.1, "Problems Running mysql_install_db."

    4. Most of the MySQL installation can be owned by root if you
       like. The exception is that the data directory must be owned
       by mysql. To accomplish this, run the following commands as
       root in the installation directory. For some distribution
       types, the data directory might be named var rather than data;
       adjust the second command accordingly.
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data

    5. If the plugin directory (the directory named by the plugin_dir
       system variable) is writable by the server, it may be possible
       for a user to write executable code to a file in the directory
       using SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE. This can be prevented by
       making plugin_dir read only to the server or by setting
       --secure-file-priv to a directory where SELECT writes can be
       made safely.

    6. If you installed MySQL using a source distribution, you may
       want to optionally copy one of the provided configuration
       files from the support-files directory into your /etc
       directory. There are different sample configuration files for
       different use cases, server types, and CPU and RAM
       configurations. If you want to use one of these standard
       files, you should copy it to /etc/my.cnf, or /etc/mysql/my.cnf
       and edit and check the configuration before starting your
       MySQL server for the first time.
       If you do not copy one of the standard configuration files,
       the MySQL server will be started with the default settings.
       If you want MySQL to start automatically when you boot your
       machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the
       location where your system has its startup files. More
       information can be found in the mysql.server script itself,
       and in Section 2.12.1.2, "Starting and Stopping MySQL
       Automatically."

    7. Start the MySQL server:
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
       It is important that the MySQL server be run using an
       unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this if you
       run mysqld_safe as root, include the --user option as shown.
       Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as
       mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the
       command.
       For further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged
       user, see Section 6.1.5, "How to Run MySQL as a Normal User."
       If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, look
       for information in the error log (which by default is the
       host_name.err file in the data directory).
       If you neglected to create the grant tables by running
       mysql_install_db before proceeding to this step, the following
       message appears in the error log file when you start the
       server:
mysqld: Can't find file: 'host.frm'
       This error also occurs if you run mysql_install_db as root
       without the --user option. Remove the data directory and run
       mysql_install_db with the --user option as described
       previously.
       If you have other problems starting the server, see Section
       2.12.1.3, "Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server." For
       more information about mysqld_safe, see Section 4.3.2,
       "mysqld_safe --- MySQL Server Startup Script."

    8. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The
       following commands provide simple tests to check whether the
       server is up and responding to connections:
shell> bin/mysqladmin version
shell> bin/mysqladmin variables
       The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending
       on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar
       to that shown here:
shell> bin/mysqladmin version
mysqladmin  Ver 14.12 Distrib 5.1.74, for pc-linux-gnu on i686
...

Server version          5.1.74
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Uptime:                 14 days 5 hours 5 min 21 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 366  Slow queries: 0
Opens: 0  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 19
Queries per second avg: 0.000
       To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with
       the --help option.

    9. Verify that you can shut down the server:
shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
   10. Verify that you can start the server again. Do this by using
       mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
       If mysqld_safe fails, see Section 2.12.1.3, "Starting and
       Troubleshooting the MySQL Server."
   11. Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve
       information from the server. The output should be similar to
       what is shown here:
shell> bin/mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+--------------------+

shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| host                      |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| servers                   |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
+------+--------+------+
| host | db     | user |
+------+--------+------+
| %    | test   |      |
| %    | test_% |      |
+------+--------+------+
   12. There is a benchmark suite in the sql-bench directory (under
       the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare
       how MySQL performs on different platforms. The benchmark suite
       is written in Perl. It requires the Perl DBI module that
       provides a database-independent interface to the various
       databases, and some other additional Perl modules:
DBI
DBD::mysql
Data::Dumper
Data::ShowTable
       These modules can be obtained from CPAN
       (http://www.cpan.org/). See also Section 2.15.1, "Installing
       Perl on Unix."
       The sql-bench/Results directory contains the results from many
       runs against different databases and platforms. To run all
       tests, execute these commands:
shell> cd sql-bench
shell> perl run-all-tests
       If you do not have the sql-bench directory, you probably
       installed MySQL using RPM files other than the source RPM.
       (The source RPM includes the sql-bench benchmark directory.)
       In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite
       before you can use it. There are separate benchmark RPM files
       named mysql-bench-VERSION.i386.rpm that contain benchmark code
       and data.
       If you have a source distribution, there are also tests in its
       tests subdirectory that you can run. For example, to run
       auto_increment.tst, execute this command from the top-level
       directory of your source distribution:
shell> mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
       The expected result of the test can be found in the
       ./tests/auto_increment.res file.
   13. At this point, you should have the server running. However,
       none of the initial MySQL accounts have a password, and the
       server permits permissive access to test databases. To tighten
       security, follow the instructions in Section 2.12.2, "Securing
       the Initial MySQL Accounts."

   The MySQL 5.1 installation procedure creates time zone tables in
   the mysql database but does not populate them. To do so, use the
   instructions in Section 10.6, "MySQL Server Time Zone Support."