File: Netatalk-Manual.txt

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Netatalk 2.0 Manual

2.0.3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table of Contents

Legal Notice
1. Introduction to Netatalk
2. Installation
   
    How to obtain Netatalk
       
        Binary packages
        Source packages
       
    Compiling Netatalk
       
        Prerequisites
        Compiling Netatalk
        Compiling a new Berkeley DB for Netatalk
       
3. Setting up Netatalk
   
    Appletalk
       
        To use AppleTalk or not
        No AppleTalk routing
        atalkd acting as an AppleTalk router
       
    File Services
       
        Setting up the AFP file server
        CNID backends
        Charsets/Unicode
        Authentication
       
    Printing
       
        Setting up the PAP print server
        Using AppleTalk printers
       
    Time Services
       
        Using Netatalk as a time server for Macintoshes
       
    Starting and stopping Netatalk
   
4. Upgrading from a previous version of Netatalk
   
    Overview
    Volumes and filenames
       
        How to upgrade a volume to 2.0
        How to use a 1.x CAP encoded volume with 2.0
        How to use a 1.x NLS volume with 2.0
       
    Choosing a CNID storage scheme
       
        How to upgrade if no persistent CNID storage was used
        How to upgrade if a persistent CNID storage scheme was used
        How to upgrade if a persistent CNID storage scheme was used, the brute
            force approach
       
    Setting up a test server on the same machine
       
        Setting up an empty test share
        Duplicating an already existing share
        Configuring and running the test afpd
       
5. Manual Pages
Index

List of Tables

3.1. Netatalk UAM overview

List of Examples

3.1. atalkd.conf containing one entry
3.2. atalkd.conf containing one entry after atalkd started
3.3. atalkd.conf containing several entries with the -dontroute option
3.4. atalkd.conf containing several entries with the -dontroute option after
    atalkd started
3.5. atalkd.conf making netatalk a seed router on two interfaces
3.6. atalkd.conf configured for "zone mapping"
3.7. atalkd.conf for a soft-seed router configuration
3.8. atalkd.conf for a soft-seed router configuration after atalkd started
3.9. atalkd.conf ready for mixed seed/soft-seed mode
3.10. pap printing to a PostScript LaserWriter
3.11. pap printing to a non-PostScript printer
5.1. Three server definitions using 2 different server signatures
5.2. Some ways to change afpd's logging behaviour via -[un]setuplog
5.3. afpd.conf default configuration
5.4. afpd.conf MacCyrillic setup / UTF8 unix locale
5.5. afpd.conf setup for Kerberos V auth
5.6. afpd.conf letting afpd appear as three servers on the net
5.7. Using variable substitution when defining volumes
5.8. use a 1.x style volume
5.9. use a 1.x style volume, created with maccode.iso8859-1
5.10. papd.conf System V printing system examples
5.11. papd.conf examples using pipes
5.12. papd.conf CUPS examples

Legal Notice

This documentation is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL)
version 2. A copy of the license is included in this documentation, as well as
within the Netatalk source distribution. An on-line copy can be found at http:/
/www.fsf.org/licenses/gpl.txt

Chapter 1. Introduction to Netatalk

Netatalk is an OpenSource software package, that can be used to turn an
inexpensive *NIX machine into an extremely performant and reliable file and
print server for Macintosh computers.

Using Netatalk's AFP 3.1 compliant file-server leads to significantly higher
transmission speeds compared with Macs accessing a server via SaMBa/NFS while
providing clients with the best possible user experience (full support for
Macintosh metadata, flawlessly supporting mixed environments of classic MacOS
and MacOS X clients)

Due to Netatalk speaking AppleTalk, the print-server task can provide printing
clients with full AppleTalk support as well as the server itself with printing
capabilities for AppleTalk-only printers. Starting with version 2.0, Netatalk
seamlessly interacts with CUPS on the server.

After all, Netatalk can be used to act as an AppleTalk router, providing both
segmentation and zone names in Macintosh networks.

Chapter 2. Installation

Table of Contents

How to obtain Netatalk
   
    Binary packages
    Source packages
   
Compiling Netatalk
   
    Prerequisites
    Compiling Netatalk
    Compiling a new Berkeley DB for Netatalk
   
Warning

If you have previously used an older version of Netatalk, please read the
chapter about upgrading first !!!

How to obtain Netatalk

Please have a look at the netatalk page on sourceforge for the most recent
informations on this issue.

http://sourceforge.net/projects/netatalk/

Binary packages

Binary packages of Netatalk are included in some Linux and UNIX distributions.
You might want to have a look at the usual locations, too (http://rpmfind.net/,
http://packages.debian.org/, http://www.blastwave.org/ http://www.freebsd.org/
ports/index.html, etc.)

Source packages

Tarballs

Prepacked tarballs in .tar.gz and tar.bz2 format are available on the netatalk
page on sourceforge

Anonymous CVS

Downloading of the CVS source can be done quickly and easily.

 1. Make sure you have cvs installed. which cvs should produce a path to cvs.
   
    $> which cvs
    /usr/bin/cvs
 2. If you don't have one make a source directory. cd to this directory.
   
    $> mkdir /path/to/new/source/dir
    $> cd /path/to/new/source/dir
 3. Authenticate yourself with cvs. Just hit enter for the password for the
    anonymous user.
   
    $> cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/netatalk login
    Logging in to :pserver:anonymous@cvs.sourceforge.net:2401/cvsroot/netatalk
    CVS password: [Enter]
 4. Now get the source:
   
    $> cvs -z3 -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/netatalk
        -r branch-netatalk-2-0 co netatalk
    cvs server: Updating netatalk
    U netatalk/.cvsignore
    U netatalk/CONTRIBUTORS
    U netatalk/COPYING
    ...
   
    This will create a local directory called "netatalk" and downloads a
    complete and fresh copy of the netatalk source from the CVS repository.
   
 5. Now cd to the netatalk directory and run ./autogen.sh. This will create the
    configure script required in the next step.
   
    $> ./autogen.sh

Compiling Netatalk

Prerequisites

System requirements

Your system needs to meet the following requirements:

  * A C compiler, Netatalk compiles fine with gcc > 2.7.95
   
To be able to compile with AFP3 support, your system has to support large files
(>2GB).

Note

On linux systems glibc > 2.2 is required.

Required third party software

Netatalk makes use of sleepycats' Berkeley DB. At the time of writing, the
following versions are supported:

  * 4.1.25
   
  * 4.2.52 (recommended)
   
In case Berkeley DB is not installed on your system, please download it from:

http://www.sleepycat.com/download/db/index.shtml

and follow the installation instructions.

Optional third party software

Netatalk can use the following third party software to enhance it's
functionality.

  * OpenSSL (recommended)
   
    OpenSSL is required for encrypted passwords. Without it, the password will
    be sent over the network in clear text.
   
  * TCP wrappers
   
    Wietse Venema's network logger, also known as TCPD or LOG_TCP.
   
    Security options are: access control per host, domain and/or service;
    detection of host name spoofing or host address spoofing; booby traps to
    implement an early-warning system.
   
    TCP Wrappers can be downloaded from: ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/
   
  * PAM
   
    PAM provides a flexible mechanism for authenticating users. PAM was
    invented by SUN Microsystems. Linux-PAM is a suite of shared libraries that
    enable the local system administrator to choose how applications
    authenticate users.
   
    You can get the Linux PAM documentation and sources from http://
    www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/pam/.
   
  * OpenSLP
   
    SLP (Service Location Protocol) is an IETF standards track protocol that
    provides a framework to allow networking applications to discover the
    existence, location, and configuration of networked services in enterprise
    networks.
   
    Mac OS X uses it to locate AFP servers, even though newer version prefer
    Rendezvous.
   
    You can download OpenSLP from: http://www.openslp.org/.
   
  * iconv
   
    iconv provides conversion routines for many character encodings. Netatalk
    uses it to provide charsets it does not have built in conversions for, like
    ISO-8859-1. On glibc systems, Netatalk can use the glibc provided iconv
    implementation. Otherwise you can use the GNU libiconv implementation.
   
    You can download GNU libiconv from: http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/.
   
Compiling Netatalk

Configuring the build

To build the binaries, first run the program ./configure in the source
directory. This should automatically configure Netatalk for your operating
system. If you have unusual needs, then you may wish to run

$> ./configure --help

to see what special options you can enable.

The most used configure options are:

  * --enable-[redhat/suse/cobalt/netbsd/fhs]
   
    This option helps netatalk to determine where to install the start scripts.
   
  * --with-bdb=/path/to/bdb/installation/
   
    In case you installed Berkeley DB in a non-standard location, you will have
    to give the install location to netatalk, using this switch.
   
Now run configure with any options you need

$> ./configure [arguments] [--with-bdb=/bdb/install/path]

Configure will end up in an overview showing the settings the Netatalk
Makefiles have been created with.

If this step fails please visit the troubleshooting guide.

Note

With recent RedHat releases, Berkeley DB links to libpthread. Netatalk does not
link to libpthread, so detection of Berkeley DB fails when running configure.
It's recommended to (re)compile Berkeley DB with --with-mutex="x86/
gcc-assembly" (on x86 platforms) to disable the use of libpthread.
Alternatively you could use

$> LIBS="-lpthread" ./configure [arguments]

to trick Netatalk into linking to libpthread. However, this is not recommended,
as there have been some trouble reports indicating that linking to libpthread
badly damages performance.

Next, running

$> make

should produce the Netatalk binaries (this step can take several minutes to
complete).

When the process finished you can use

$> make install

to install the binaries and documentation (must be done as "root" when using
default locations).

Compiling a new Berkeley DB for Netatalk

Netatalk 2.0 requires Berkeley DB version 4.1.25 or newer. Even if you already
have a supported version of Berkeley DB installed on your system, there are
several reasons, why you might still want to consider building a new version
for Netatalk.

Many linux distributions provide a precompiled Berkeley DB version. This is
usually nice, but also has one major drawback: If you update your system to a
newer release, the installed version of Berkeley DB may change. This can lead
to a number of problems, starting with strange behaviour of Netatalk,
unreadable CNID Databases. Most likely Netatalk(afpd) won't start anymore, so
you'll have to recompile Netatalk.

For instructions compiling Berkeley DB, you should generally refer to the
documentation provided by Sleepycat. The following information is meant to help
you avoid problems, users experienced in the past.

In case you are building on a recent RedHat release, please use --with-mutex=
"x86/gcc-assembly" on x86 platforms to prevent Berkeley DB from linking against
libpthread.

Using a statically linked Berkeley DB

To link Netatalk statically to Berkeley DB, you have to disable shared
libraries when building Berkeley DB. If shared libraries exist, Netatalk will
always link to them, even if a static version exists in the same location.

root# cd build_unix
root# ../dist/configure --prefix=/install/path --disable-shared
root# make
root# make install

You should now continue with building Netatalk.

Using a dynamically linked Berkeley DB

Building a shared version of Berkeley DB is rather straightforward. However,
especially under Linux, some care needs to be taken. Underlying system
libraries, i.e. libnss_db, might be using Berkeley DB as well. As these
libraries have likely been build with another, i.e. older, version of Berkeley
DB, linking afpd to a newer version can lead to unexpected results.

You need to configure Berkeley DB with the --with-uniquename configure switch
to avoid these kind of problems. This insures your new version will not
interfere with another installation of Berkeley DB on your system.

root# cd build_unix
root# ../dist/configure --prefix=/install/path --with-uniquename
root# make
root# make install

If you select an install path other than /usr/local, you will have to configure
your linker to look for libraries in this directory.

On many operating systems, this is done by adding a new entry to /etc/
ld.so.conf.

root# echo /install/path/lib >/etc/ld.so.conf
root# ldconfig

You should now continue with building Netatalk.

Chapter 3. Setting up Netatalk

Table of Contents

Appletalk
   
    To use AppleTalk or not
    No AppleTalk routing
    atalkd acting as an AppleTalk router
   
File Services
   
    Setting up the AFP file server
    CNID backends
    Charsets/Unicode
    Authentication
   
Printing
   
    Setting up the PAP print server
    Using AppleTalk printers
   
Time Services
   
    Using Netatalk as a time server for Macintoshes
   
Starting and stopping Netatalk

Appletalk

AppleTalk, the network protocol family founded by Apple, contains different
protocols for different uses (address resolution, address/name mapping, service
location, establishing connections, and the like)

A complete overview can be found inside the developer documentation.

To use AppleTalk or not

You'll need the AppleTalk support built into netatalk in case you want to
provide printing services via PAP by papd(8) or file services via AppleTalk via
afpd(8) for older AFP clients not capable of using AFP over TCP. You'll need it
also, if you want to use the deprecated AppleTalk-based timeserver timelord(8)
for older Mac clients.

But even if you don't need PAP or AFP over AppleTalk, you might consider using
AppleTalk for service propagation/location, having the ease of use for your
network clients in mind. The Apple engineers implemented a way to easily locate
an AFP server via AppleTalk but establishing the AFP connection itself via AFP
over TCP (see the developer documentation for details on this cool feature,
too).

To use the different base AppleTalk protocols with netatalk, one has to use
atalkd(8). It can also be used as an AppleTalk router to connect different
independent network segments to each other.

To use AppleTalk/atalkd, your system has to have kernel support for AppleTalk.
On some systems supported by netatalk, this isn't currently true (notably
True64 Unix) so you can use only netatalk services that do not rely on
AppleTalk (which means "AFP over TCP" and requires the -noddp switch in
afpd.conf).

No AppleTalk routing

This is the most simple form, you can use AppleTalk with netatalk. In case, you
have only one network interface up and running, you haven't to deal with
atalkd's config at all: atalkd will use AppleTalk's self-configuration features
to get an AppleTalk address and to register itself in the network
automagically.

In case, you have more than one active network interface, you have to make a
decision:

  * Using only one interface: Just add the interface name (en1, le0, eth2, ...
    for example) to atalkd.conf on a single line. Do only list one interface
    here.
   
    Example 3.1. atalkd.conf containing one entry
   
    eth0
   
    Appletalk networking should be enabled on eth0 interface. All the necessary
    configuration will be fetched from the network
   
    At startup time, atalkd will add the real settings (address and network and
    eventually a zone) to atalkd.conf on its own
   
    Example 3.2. atalkd.conf containing one entry after atalkd started
   
    eth0 -phase 2 -net 0-65534 -addr 65280.166
   
    atalkd filled in the AppleTalk settings that apply to this network segment.
    A netrange of 0-65534 indicates that there is no AppleTalk router present,
    so atalkd will fetch an address that matches the following criteria:
    netrange from inside the so called "startup range" 65280-65533 and a node
    address between 142 and 255.
   
  * When using several interfaces you have to add them line by line following
    the "-dontroute" switch in atalkd.conf.
   
    Example 3.3. atalkd.conf containing several entries with the -dontroute
    option
   
    eth0 -dontroute
    eth1 -dontroute
    eth2 -dontroute
   
    Appletalk networking should be enabled on all three interfaces, but no
    routing should be done between the different segments. Again, all the
    necessary configuration will be fetched from the connected networks.
   
    Example 3.4. atalkd.conf containing several entries with the -dontroute
    option after atalkd started
   
    eth0 -dontroute -phase 2 -net 0-65534 -addr 65280.152
    eth1 -dontroute -phase 2 -net 0-65534 -addr 65280.208
    eth2 -dontroute -phase 2 -net 1-1000 -addr 10.142 -zone "Printers"
   
    On eth0 and eth1, there are no other routers present, so atalkd chooses an
    address from within the startup range. But on eth2 there lives an already
    connected AppleTalk router, publishing one zone called "Printers" and
    forcing clients to assign themselves an address in a netrange between 1 and
    1000.
   
    In this case, atalkd will handle each interface as it would be the only
    active one. This can have some side effects when it comes to the point
    where AFP clients want to do the magic switch from AppleTalk to TCP, so use
    this with caution.
   
In case, you have more than one active network interface and do not take
special precautions as outlined above, then autoconfiguration of the interfaces
might fail in a situation where one of your network interfaces is connected to
a network where no other active AppleTalk router is present and supplies
appropriate routing settings.

For further information see atalkd.conf(5) and the developer documentation.

atalkd acting as an AppleTalk router

There exist several types of AppleTalk routers: seed, non-seed and so called
soft-seed routers.

  * A seed router has its own configuration and publishes this into the network
    segments it is configured for.
   
  * A non-seed router needs a seed router on the interface to which it is
    connected to learn the network configuration. So this type of AppleTalk
    router can work completely without manual configuration.
   
  * A so called soft-seed router is exactly the same as a non-seed router
    except the fact, that it can also remember the configuration of a seed
    router and act as a replacement in case, the real seed router disappears
    from the net.
   
Netatalk's atalkd can act as both a seed and a soft-seed router, even in a
mixed mode, where it acts on one interface in this way and on the other in
another.

If you leave your atalkd.conf completely empty or simply add all active
interfaces line by line without using seed settings (atalkd will act
identically in both cases), then atalkd is forced to act as a soft-seed router
on each interface, so it will fail on the first interface, where no seed router
is accessible to fetch routing information from.

In this case, other services, that depend on atalkd, might also fail.

So you should have atalkd act as a seed router on one or all active interfaces.
A seed router has to supply informations about:

  * The specific netrange on this segment
   
  * Its own AppleTalk address
   
  * The zones (one to many) available in this segment
   
  * The so called "default zone" for this segment
   
Warning

Unless you are the network admin yourself, consider asking her/him before
changing anything related to AppleTalk routing, as changing these settings
might have side effects for all of your AppleTalk network clients!

In an AppleTalk network netranges have to be unique and must not overlap each
other. Fortunately netatalk's atalkd is polite enough to check whether your
settings are in conflict with already existing ones on the net. In such a case
it simply discards your settings and tries to adapt the already established
ones on the net (if in doubt, always check syslog for details).

Netranges, you can use, include pretty small ones, eg. 42-42, to very large
ones, eg. 1-65279 - the latter one representing the maximum. In routed
environments you can use any numbers in the range between 1 and 65279 unless
they do not overlap with settings of other connected subnets.

The own AppleTalk address consists of a net part and a node part (the former 16
bit, the latter 8 bit, for example 12057.143). Apple recommends using node
addresses of 128 or above for servers, letting client Macs assign themselves an
address faster (as they will primarily search for a node address within 1-127
in the supplied netrange). As we don't want to get in conflict with Apple
servers, we prefer using node addresses of 142 or above.

AppleTalk zones have nothing to do with physical networks. They're just a hint
for your client's convenience, letting them locate network resources in a more
comfortable/faster way. You can either use one zone name across multiple
physical segments as well as more than one zone name on a single segment (and
various combinations of this).

So all you have to do is to draw a network chart containing the physical
segments, the netranges you want to assign to each one, the zone names you want
to publish in which segments and the default zone per segment (this is always
the first zone name, you supply with the "-zone" switch in atalkd.conf).

Given, you finished the steps outlined above, you might want to edit
atalkd.conf to fit your needs.

You'll have to set the following options in atalkd.conf:

  * -net (use reasonable values between 1-65279 for each interface)
   
    In case, this value is suppressed but -addr is present, the netrange from
    this specific address will be used
   
  * -addr (the net part must match the -net settings if present, the node
    address should be between 142 and 255)
   
  * -zone (can be used multiple times in one single line, the first entry is
    the default zone)
   
Note that you are able to set up "zone mapping", that means publishing exactly
the same zone name on all AppleTalk segments, as well as providing more than
one single zone name per interface. Dumb AppleTalk devices, like LaserWriters,
will always register themselves in the default zone (the first zone entry you
use in atalkd.conf per interface), more intelligent ones will have the ability
to choose one specific zone via a user interface.

Example 3.5. atalkd.conf making netatalk a seed router on two interfaces

eth0 -seed -phase 2 -net 1-1000 -addr 1000.142 -zone "Printers" -zone "Spoolers"
eth1 -seed -phase 2 -net 1001-2000 -addr 2000.142 -zone "Macs" -zone "Servers"

The settings for eth0 force AppleTalk devices within the connected network to
assign themselves an address in the netrange 1-1000. Two zone names are
published into this segment, "Printers" being the so called "standard zone",
forcing dumb AppleTalk devices like Laser printers to show up automatically
into this zone. AppleTalk printer queues supplied by netatalk's papd can be
registered into the zone "Spoolers" simply by adjusting the settings in
papd.conf(5). On eth1 we use the different and non-overlapping netrange
1001-2000, set the default zone to "Macs" and publish a fourth zone name
"Servers".

Example 3.6. atalkd.conf configured for "zone mapping"

eth0 -seed -phase 2 -net 1-1000 -addr 1000.142 -zone "foo"
lo0 -phase 1 -net 1 -addr 1.142 -zone "foo"

We use the same network settings as in the example above but let atalkd publish
the same zone name on both segments. As the same zone name will be used on all
segments of the AppleTalk network no zone names will show up at all... but
AppleTalk routing will still be active. In this case, we connect a so called
"non-extended" LocalTalk network (phase 1) to an EtherTalk "extended" network
(phase 2) transparently.

Example 3.7. atalkd.conf for a soft-seed router configuration

eth0
eth1
eth2

As we have more than one interface, atalkd will try to act as an AppleTalk
router between both segments. As we don't supply any network configuration on
our own we depend on the availability of seed routers in every connected
segment. If only one segment is without such an available seed router the whole
thing will fail.

Example 3.8. atalkd.conf for a soft-seed router configuration after atalkd
started

eth0 -phase 2 -net 10-10 -addr 10.166 -zone "Parking"
eth1 -phase 2 -net 10000-11000 -addr 10324.151 -zone "No Parking" -zone "Parking"
eth2 -phase 2 -net 65279-65279 -addr 65279.142 -zone "Parking" -zone "No Parking"

In this case, active seed routers are present in all three connected networks,
so atalkd was able to fetch the network configuration from them and, since the
settings do not conflict, act as a soft-seed router from now on between the
segments. So even in case, all of the three seed routers would disappear from
the net, atalkd would still supply the connected network with the network
configuration once learned from them. Only in case, atalkd would be restarted
afterwards, the routing information will be lost (as we're not acting as seed
router).

Example 3.9. atalkd.conf ready for mixed seed/soft-seed mode

eth0
eth1 -seed -phase 2 -net 99-100 -addr 99.200 -zone "Testing"

In case in the network connected to eth0 lives no active seed router or one
with a mismatching configuration (eg. an overlapping netrange of 1-200) atalkd
will fail. Otherwise it will fetch the configuration from this machine and will
route between eth0 and eth1, on the latter acting as a seed router itself.

By the way: It is perfectly legal to have more than one seed router connected
to a network segment. But in this case, you should take care that the
configuration of all connected routers is exactly the same regarding netranges,
published zone names and also the "standard zone" per segment

File Services

Netatalk supplies two different transport protocols for AFP services and both
can run at the same time. Classic AFP over AppleTalk requires the afpd and 
atalkd daemons. AFP over IP only requires afpd.

Setting up the AFP file server

AFP (the Apple Filing Protocol) is the protocol Apple Macintoshes use for file
services. The protocol has evolved over the years, at the time of this writing
7 different "versions" exist. The latest changes to the protocol, called "AFP
3.1", were added with the release of Panther (Mac OS X 10.3).

AFP3 brought some big changes. For the first time, AppleShare Clients can use
filenames up to 255 characters (actually 255 bytes leading to 85-255 chars
depending on the glyphs used), UTF-8 is used on the wire and large files (>4GB)
are supported.

The afpd daemon offers the fileservices to Apple Clients. It's configured using
the afpd.conf and the AppleVolumes.* files.

afpd.conf

afpd.conf is the configuration file used by afpd to determine the behaviour and
configuration of the different virtual file servers that it provides. Any line
not prefixed with '#' is interpreted.

If afpd switches set on the command line are in conflict with afpd.conf
settings, the latter will have higher priority.

Format: - [options] to specify options for the default server and/or "Server
name" [options] to specify an additional server.

Leaving the afpd.conf file empty equals to the following configuration:

- -transall -uamlist uams_guest.so,uams_clrtxt.so,uams_dhx.so -nosavepassword

For a more detailed explanation of the available options, please refer to the
afpd.conf(5) man page.

AppleVolumes.default

The AppleVolumes.default file is used to define volumes that will by default be
shown to all users, including users logged in as guest. A volume will not be
presented in the chooser, if the user has no read access to the specified
volume path.

You can limit access to a specific volume by using the allow and deny options.

For a more detailed explanation of the available options, please refer to the
AppleVolumes.default(5) man page.

CNID backends

Unlike other protocols like smb or nfs, the AFP protocol mostly refers to files
and directories by ID and not by a path (the IDs are also called CNID, that
means Catalog Node ID). A typical AFP request uses a directory ID and a
filename, something like "server, please open the file named 'Test' in the
directory with id 167". For example "Aliases" on the Mac basically work by ID
(with a fallback to the absolute path in more recent AFP clients. But this
applies only to Finder, not to applications).

Every file in an AFP volume has to have a unique file ID, IDs must, according
to the specs, never be reused, and IDs are 32 bit numbers (Directory IDs use
the same ID pool). So, after ~4 billion files/folders have been written to an
AFP volume, the ID pool is depleted and no new file can be written to the
volume. No whining please :-)

Netatalk needs to map IDs to files and folders in the host filesystem. To
achieve this, several different CNID backends are available and can be choosed
by the cnidscheme option in the AppleVolumes.default(5) configuration file. A
CNID backend is basically a database storing ID <-> name mappings.

In the past, many users used the so called "last" CNID scheme. However, this
scheme has some serious drawbacks, as it is based on the device and inode of a
file. Therefore, IDs will be eventually be reused and you can get duplicate IDs
as well.

The CNID Databases are by default located in the .AppleDB folder in every afpd
volume root. With the new ADv2 format, afpd stores the files/directories ID in
the corresponding .AppleDouble file as well.

Note

There are some CNID related things you should keep in mind when working with
netatalk:

  * Don't use unix symlinks. Just don't. With a symlink a file/directory
    "exists" twice, something AFP doesn't allow. There's currently no way this
    can be resolved, as we either end up with two file/dirs having the same id,
    or a file having two parents. If you still insist on using them, be aware
    you're heavily violating the specs. You have been warned...
   
  * Don't nest volumes.
   
  * CNID backends are databases, so they turn afpd into a file server/database
    mix. Keep this in mind, killing an afpd process with kill -9 will likely
    leave the database unusable.
   
  * If there's no more space on the filesystem left, the database will get
    corrupted. You can work around this by either using the -dbpath option and
    put the database files into another location or, if you use quotas, make
    sure the .AppleDB folder is owned by a user/group without a quota.
   
  * Be careful with CNID databases for volumes that are mounted via NFS. That
    is a pretty audacious decision to make anyway, but putting a database there
    as well is really asking for trouble, i.e. database corruption. Use the
    dbpath: directive in the AppleVolumes.* configuration files to put the
    databases onto a local disk if you must use NFS mounted volumes.
   
cdb

The "concurrent database" backend is based on sleepycat's Berkeley DB. With
this backend, several afpd daemons access the CNID database directly. Berkeley
DB locking is used to synchronize access, if more than one afpd process is
active for a volume. The drawback is, that the crash of a single afpd process
might corrupt the database.

dbd

Access to the CNID database is restricted to the cnid_dbd daemon process. afpd
processes communicate with the daemon for database reads and updates. If built
with Berkeley DB transactions, the probability for database corruption is
practically zero, but performance can be slower than with cdb. As a database
process gets spawned for each volume, you're probably better off using cdb for
sharing home directories for a larger number of users.

last

The last backend is a semi-persistent backend. IDs will be reused and, what is
much worse, you can get duplicate IDs. You should use it for sharing cdroms
only, don't use it for sharing normal volumes.

Charsets/Unicode

Why Unicode?

Internally, computers don't know anything about characters and texts, they only
know numbers. Therefore, each letter is assigned a number. A character set,
often referred to as charset or codepage, defines the mappings between numbers
and letters.

If two or more computer systems need to communicate with each other, the have
to use the same character set. In the 1960s the ASCII (American Standard Code
for Information Interchange) character set was defined by the American
Standards Association. The original form of ASCII represented 128 characters,
more than enough to cover the English alphabet and numerals. Up to date, ASCII
has been the normative character scheme used by computers.

Later versions defined 256 characters to produce a more international fluency
and to include some slightly esoteric graphical characters. Using this mode of
encoding each character takes exactly one byte. Obviously, 256 characters still
wasn't enough to map all the characters used in the various languages into one
character set.

As a result localized character sets were defined later, e.g the ISO-8859
character sets. Most operating system vendors introduced their own characters
sets to satisfy their needs, e.g. IBM defined the codepage 437 (DOSLatinUS),
Apple introduced the MacRoman codepage and so on. The characters that were
assigned number larger than 127 were referred to as extended characters. These
character sets conflict with another, as they use the same number for different
characters, or vice versa.

Almost all of those characters sets defined 256 characters, where the first 128
(0-127) character mappings are identical to ASCII. As a result, communication
between systems using different codepages was effectively limited to the ASCII
charset.

To solve this problem new, larger character sets were defined. To make room for
more character mappings, these character sets use at least 2 bytes to store a
character. They are therefore referred to as multibyte character sets.

One standardized multibyte charset encoding scheme is known as unicode. A big
advantage of using a multibyte charset is that you only need one. There is no
need to make sure two computers use the same charset when they are
communicating.

character sets used by Apple

In the past, Apple clients used single-byte charsets to communicate over the
network. Over the years Apple defined a number of codepages, western users will
most likely be using the MacRoman codepage.

Codepages defined by Apple include:

  * MacArabic, MacFarsi
   
  * MacCentralEurope
   
  * MacChineseSimple
   
  * MacChineseTraditional
   
  * MacCroation
   
  * MacCyrillic
   
  * MacDevanagari
   
  * MacGreek
   
  * MacHebrew
   
  * MacIcelandic
   
  * MacKorean
   
  * MacJapanese
   
  * MacRoman
   
  * MacRomanian
   
  * MacThai
   
  * MacTurkish
   
Starting with Mac OS X and AFP3, UTF-8 is used. UTF-8 encodes Unicode
characters in an ASCII compatible way, each Unicode character is encoded into
1-6 ASCII characters. UTF-8 is therefore not really a charset itself, it's an
encoding of the Unicode charset.

To complicate things, Unicode defines several normalization forms. While samba
uses precomposed Unicode, which most Unix tools prefer as well, Apple decided
to use the decomposed normalization.

For example lets take the German character ''. Using the precomposed
normalization, Unicode maps this character to 0xE4. In decomposed
normalization, '' is actually mapped to two characters, 0x61 and 0x308. 0x61
is the mapping for an 'a', 0x308 is the mapping for a COMBINING DIAERESIS.

Netatalk refers to precomposed UTF-8 as UTF8 and to decomposed UTF-8 as 
UTF8-MAC.

afpd and character sets

To support new AFP 3.x and older AFP 2.x clients at the same time, afpd needs
to be able to convert between the various charsets used. AFP 3.x clients always
use UTF-8, AFP 2.2 clients use one of the Apple codepages.

At the time of this writing, netatalk supports the following Apple codepages:

  * MAC_CENTRALEUROPE
   
  * MAC_CYRILLIC
   
  * MAC_HEBREW
   
  * MAC_ROMAN
   
  * MAC_TURKISH
   
afpd handles three different character set options:

unixcodepage
   
    This is the codepage used internally by your operating system. If not
    specified and your system support Unix locales, afpd tries to detect the
    codepage, otherwise it defaults to ASCII. afpd uses this codepage to read
    its configuration files, so you can use extended characters for volume
    names, login messages, etc. see afpd.conf(5).
   
maccodepage
   
    As already mentioned, older MacOS clients (up to AFP 2.2) use codepages to
    communicate with afpd. However, there is no support for negotiating the
    codepage used by the client in the AFP protocol. If not specified
    otherwise, afpd assumes the MacRoman codepage is used. In case you're
    clients use another codepage, e.g. MacCyrillic, you'll have to explicitly
    configure this. see afpd.conf(5).
   
volcharset
   
    This defines the charset afpd should use for filenames on disk. The default
    is UTF8. If you have iconv installed, you can use any iconv provided
    charset as well.
   
    afpd needs a way to preserve extended macintosh characters, or characters
    illegal in unix filenames, when saving files on a unix filesystem. Earlier
    versions used the the so called CAP encoding. An extended character (>0x7F)
    would be converted to a :xx hex sequence, e.g. the Apple Logo (MacRoman:
    0XF0) was saved as :f0. Some special characters will be converted as to :xx
    notation as well. '/' will be encoded to :2f, if -usedots is not specified,
    a leading dot '.' will be encoded as :2e. Even though this version now uses
    UTF-8 as the default encoding for filenames, special characters, like '/'
    and a leading '.' will still be CAP style encoded. For western users
    another useful setting could be -volcharset ISO-8859-15.
   
    If a character cannot be converted from the mac codepage to the selected
    volcharset, afpd will save it as a CAP encoded character. For AFP3 clients,
    afpd will convert the UTF-8 character to maccodepage first. If this
    conversion fails, you'll receive a -50 error on the mac. Note: Whenever you
    can, please stick with the default UTF-8 volume format. see
    AppleVolumes.default(5).
   
Authentication

AFP authentication basics

Apple chose a flexible model called "User Authentication Modules" (UAMs) for
authentication purposes between AFP client and server. An AFP client initially
connecting to an AFP server will ask for the list of UAMs which the server
provides, and will choose the one with strongest encryption that the client
supports.

Several UAMs have been developed by Apple over the time, some by 3rd-party
developers.

UAMs supported by Netatalk

Netatalk supports the following ones by default:

  * "No User Authent" UAM (guest access without authentication)
   
  * "Cleartxt Passwrd" UAM (no password encryption)
   
  * "Randnum exchange"/"2-Way Randnum exchange" UAMs (weak password encryption,
    separate password storage)
   
  * "DHCAST128" UAM (stronger password encryption, should be used these days)
   
There exist other optional UAMs as well:

  * "PGPuam 1.0" UAM (PGP-based authentication for pre-Mac OS X clients. You'll
    also need the PGPuam client to let this work)
   
    You'll have to add "--enable-pgp-uam" to your configure switches to have
    this UAM available.
   
  * "Kerberos IV"/"AFS Kerberos" UAMs (suitable to use Kerberos v4 based
    authentication and AFS file servers)
   
    Use "--enable-krb4-uam" at compile time to activate the build of this UAM.
   
  * "Client Krb v2" UAM (Kerberos V, suitable for "Single Sign On" Scenarios
    with Mac OS X clients -- see below)
   
    "--enable-krbV-uam" will provide you with the ability to use this UAM.
   
You can configure which UAMs should be activated by defining $AFPD_UAM_LIST in
netatalk.conf(5). afpd will log which UAMs it's using and if problems occur
while activating them in either netatalk.log or syslog at startup time.
asip-status.pl(1) can be used to query the available UAMs of AFP servers as
well.

Having a specific UAM available at the server does not automatically mean that
a client can use it. Client-side support is also necessary. Fortunately this
isn't such a problem these days since Mac OS X' AFP-client supports DHCAST128
from the beginning on. For older Macintoshes running Mac OS < X DHCAST128
support exists since AppleShare client 3.8.x.

On Mac OS X, there exist some client-side techniques to make the AFP-client
more verbose, so one can have a look what's happening while negotiating the
UAMs to use. Compare with this hint.

Which UAMs to activate?

It depends primarily on your needs and on the kind of Mac OS versions you have
to support. Basically one should try to use DHCAST128 where possible because of
its strength of password encryption.

  * Unless you really have to supply guest access to your server's volumes
    ensure that you disable "No User Authent" since it might lead accidentally
    to unauthorized access. In case you must enable guest access take care that
    you enforce this on a per volume base using the access controls the
    AppleVolumes.default(5) config file supplies or think about setting up an
    own server definition serving these public shares in afpd.conf(5).
   
  * The "ClearTxt Passwrd" UAM is as bad as it sounds since passwords go
    unencrypted over the wire. Try to avoid it at both the server's side as
    well as on the client's. Note: If you want to provide Mac OS 8/9 clients
    with NetBoot-services then you need uams_cleartext.so since the AFP-client
    integrated into the Mac's firmware can only deal with this basic form of
    authentication.
   
  * Since "Randnum exchange"/"2-Way Randnum exchange" uses only 56 bit DES for
    encryption it should be avoided as well. Another disadvantage is the fact
    that the passwords have to be stored in cleartext on the server and that it
    doesn't integrate into both PAM scenarios or classic /etc/shadow (you have
    to administrate passwords separately by using the afppasswd(1) utility, if
    clients should use these UAMs)
   
  * "DHCAST128" should be a good compromise for most people since it combines
    stronger encryption with PAM integration. Hopefully Netatalk will support
    its successor "DHX2" (Diffie Hellman Exchange 2) in the future, which
    provides even stronger encryption.
   
  * Using the Kerberos V ("Client Krb v2") UAM, it's possible to implement real
    single sign on scenarios using Kerberos tickets. The password is not sent
    over the network. Instead, the user password is used to decrypt a service
    ticket for the appleshare server. The service ticket contains an encryption
    key for the client and some encrypted data (which only the appleshare
    server can decrypt). The encrypted portion of the service ticket is sent to
    the server and used to authenticate the user. Because of the way that the
    afpd service principal detection is implemented, this authentication method
    is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.
   
For a more detailed overview over the technical implications of the different
UAMs, please have a look at Apple's File Server Security pages.

Using different authentication sources with specific UAMs

Some UAMs provide the ability to use different authentication "backends",
namely uams_cleartext.so and uams_dhx.so. They can both use either classic Unix
passwords from /etc/passwd (/etc/shadow) or PAM if the system supports that.
uams_cleartext.so can be symlinked to either uams_passwd.so or uams_pam.so,
uams_dhx.so to uams_dhx_passwd.so or uams_dhx_pam.so. So, if it looks like this
in Netatalk's UAMs folder (per default /etc/netatalk/uams/):

uams_clrtxt.so -> uams_pam.so
uams_dhx.so -> uams_dhx_pam.so

then you're using PAM, otherwise classic Unix passwords. The main advantage of
using PAM is that one can integrate Netatalk in centralized authentication
scenarios, eg. via LDAP, NIS and the like. Please always keep in mind that the
protection of your user's login credentials in such scenarios also depends on
the strength of encryption that the UAM in question supplies. So think about
eliminating weak UAMs like "ClearTxt Passwrd" and "Randnum exchange" completely
from your network.

Netatalk UAM overview table

A small overview of the most common used UAMs.

Table 3.1. Netatalk UAM overview

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|   UAM    |   No User    |Cleartxt Passwrd|(2-Way) Randnum|    DHCAST128    |  Client Krb v2  |
|          |   Authent    |                |   exchange    |                 |                 |
|----------+--------------+----------------+---------------+-----------------+-----------------|
| pssword  | guest access |     max. 8     |    max. 8     |     max. 64     |Kerberos tickets |
|  length  |              |   characters   |  characters   |   characters    |                 |
|----------+--------------+----------------+---------------+-----------------+-----------------|
|          |              |built-in in all |               | built-in since  |                 |
|          |              |Mac OS versions |               |AppleShare client|                 |
|  Client  |built-in into |except 10.0. Has| built-in into |3.8.4, available | built-in since  |
| support  |  all Mac OS  |to be activated |almost all Mac |as a plug-in for |  MacOS X 10.2   |
|          |   versions   | explicitly in  |  OS versions  |3.8.3, integrated|                 |
|          |              |recent Mac OS X |               |in Mac OS X' AFP |                 |
|          |              |    versions    |               |     client      |                 |
|----------+--------------+----------------+---------------+-----------------+-----------------|
|          |              |Password will be| 8-byte random |                 |                 |
|          |              |    sent in     |  numbers are  |Password will be | Password is not |
|          |              | cleartext over | sent over the | encrypted with  |  sent over the  |
|          |              | the wire. Just |     wire,     |128 bit SSL, user| network. Due to |
|          |Enables guest |  as bad as it  |comparable with|     will be     |   the service   |
|          |access without|    sounds,     | DES, 56 bits. |  authenticated  |    principal    |
|Encryption|authentication|therefore avoid | Vulnerable to |   against the   |detection method,|
|          |between client|   at all if    |    offline    | server but not  |      this       |
|          | and server.  |possible (note: |  dictionary   |   vice versa.   | authentication  |
|          |              |   providing    |    attack.    |  Therefor weak  |    method is    |
|          |              |NetBoot services|   Requires    |     against     |  vulnerable to  |
|          |              |  requires the  | passwords in  |man-in-the-middle|man-in-the-middle|
|          |              | ClearTxt UAM)  | clear on the  |    attacks.     |    attacks.     |
|          |              |                |    server.    |                 |                 |
|----------+--------------+----------------+---------------+-----------------+-----------------|
|  Server  |uams_guest.so |uams_cleartxt.so|uams_randnum.so|   uams_dhx.so   |   uams_gss.so   |
| support  |              |                |               |                 |                 |
|----------+--------------+----------------+---------------+-----------------+-----------------|
|          |              |                |   Passwords   |                 |                 |
| Password |              |  Either /etc/  |stored in clear|  Either /etc/   | At the Kerberos |
| storage  |     None     | passwd (/etc/  |   text in a   |  passwd (/etc/  |Key Distribution |
|  method  |              | shadow) or PAM | separate text | shadow) or PAM  |     Center*     |
|          |              |                |     file      |                 |                 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

* Have a look at this Kerberos overview

SSH tunneling

Tunneling and all sort of VPN stuff has nothing to do with AFP authentication
and UAMs in general. But since Apple introduced an option called "Allow Secure
Connections Using SSH" and many people tend to confuse both things, we'll speak
about that here too.

Manually tunneling an AFP session

This works since the first AFP servers that spoke "AFP over TCP" appeared in
networks. One simply tunnels the remote server's AFP port to a local port
different than 548 and connects locally to this port afterwards. On MacOS X
this can be done by

ssh -l $USER $SERVER -L 10548:127.0.0.1:548 sleep 3000

After establishing the tunnel one will use "afp://127.0.0.1:10548" in the
"Connect to server" dialog. All AFP traffic including the initial connection
attempts will be sent encrypted over the wire since the local AFP client will
connect to the Mac's local port 10548 which will be forwarded to the remote
server's AFP port (we used the default 548) over SSH.

These sorts of tunnels are an ideal solution if you've to access an AFP server
providing weak authentications mechanisms through the Internet without having
the ability to use a "real" VPN. Note that you can let ssh compress the data by
using its "-C" switch and that the tunnel endpoints can be different from both
AFP client and server (compare with the SSH documentation for details).

Automatically establishing a tunneled AFP connection

Starting with Mac OS X 10.2 Apple added an "Allow Secure Connections Using SSH"
checkbox to the "Connect to Server" dialog. The idea behind: When the server
signals that it can be contacted by SSH then Mac OS X' AFP client tries to
establish the tunnel and automagically sends all AFP traffic through it.

But it took until the release of Mac OS X 10.3 that this feature worked the
first time... partly. In case, the SSH tunnel can't be established the AFP
client silently fell back to an unencrypted AFP connection attempt.

Netatalk's afpd will report that it is capable of handling SSH tunneled AFP
requests, when both -advertise_ssh and -fqdn options are set in afpd.conf(5)
(double check with asip-status.pl(1) after you restarted afpd when you made
changes to the settings). But there are a couple of reasons why you don't want
to use this option at all:

  * Tunneling TCP over TCP (as SSH does) is not the best idea. There exist
    better solutions like VPNs based on the IP layer.
   
  * Since this SSH kludge isn't a normal UAM that integrates directly into the
    AFP authentication mechanisms but instead uses a single flag signalling
    clients whether they can try to establish a tunnel or not, it makes life
    harder to see what's happening when things go wrong.
   
  * You cannot control which machines are logged on by Netatalk tools like nu
    or macusers since all connection attempts seem to be made from localhost.
   
  * On the other side you've to limit access to afpd to localhost only (TCP
    wrappers) and disable AFP over DDP when you want to ensure that all AFP
    sessions are SSH encrypted or...
   
  * ...when you're using 10.2 - 10.3.3 then you get the opposite of what you'd
    expect: potentially unencrypted AFP communication (including logon
    credentials) on the network without a single notification that establishing
    the tunnel failed. Apple fixed that not until Mac OS X 10.3.4.
   
  * Encrypting all AFP sessions via SSH can lead to a significantly higher load
    on the Netatalk server
   
Printing

Netatalk can act as both a PAP client to access AppleTalk-capable printers and
a PAP server. The former by using the pap(1) utility and the latter by starting
the papd(8) service.

The "Printer Access Protocol" as part of the AppleTalk protocol suite is a
fully 8 bit aware and bidirectional printing protocol, developed by Apple in
1985. 8 bit aware means that the whole set of bytes can be used for printing
(binary encoding). This has been a great advantage compared with other
protocols like Adobe's Standard Protocol to drive serial and parallel
PostScript printers (compare with Adobe TechNote 5009) or LPR which made only
use of the lower 128 bytes for printing because the 8th bit has been reserved
for control codes.

Bidirectional means that printing source (usually a Macintosh computer) and
destination (a printer or spooler implementation) communicate about both
destination's capabilities via feature queries (compare with Adobe TechNote
5133) and device status. This allows the LaserWriter driver on the Macintosh to
generate appropriate device specific PostScript code (color or b/w, only
embedding needed fonts, and so on) on the one hand and notifications about the
printing process or problems (paper jam for example) on the other.

Setting up the PAP print server

Netatalk's papd is able to provide AppleTalk printing services for Macintoshes
or, to be more precise, PAP clients in general. Netatalk does not contain a
full-blown spooler implementation itself, papd only handles the bidirectional
communication and submittance of printjobs from PAP clients. So normally one
needs to integrate papd with a Unix printing system like eg. classic SysV lpd,
BSD lpr, LPRng, CUPS or the like.

Since it is so important to answer the client's feature queries correctly, how
does papd achieve this? By parsing the relevant keywords of the assigned PPD
file. That said, it's always necessary to carefully choose the right PPD at the
server's side.

Netatalk formerly had built-in support for System V lpd printing in a way that
papd saved the printed job directly into the spooldir and calls lpd afterwards,
to pick up the file and do the rest. Due to incompatibilities with many lpd
implementations the normal behaviour was to print directly into a pipe instead
of specifying a printer by name and using lpd interaction. With Netatalk 2.0
another alternative has been implemented: direct interaction with CUPS (Note:
when CUPS support is compiled in, then the SysV lpd support doesn't work at
all). Detailed examples can be found in the papd.conf(5) manual page.

Integrating papd with SysV lpd

Unless CUPS support has been compiled in (which is default from Netatalk 2.0
on) one simply defines the lpd queue in question by setting the pr parameter to
the queue name. If no pr parameter is set, the default printer will be used.

Using pipes with papd

An alternative to the technique outlined above is to direct papd's output via a
pipe into another program. Using this mechanism almost all printing systems can
be driven. Netatalk supplies three "wildcards" that get substituted with values
of the already printed job:

%F
   
    will be substituted with the contents of the %%For: comment in the
    PostScript stream.
   
%U
   
    If authenticated printing has been enabled then this will be substituted
    with the user name of the printjob's originator.
   
%J
   
    will be substituted with the contents of the %%Title: comment of the
    PostScript stream.
   
Using these wildcards, one can pass those parameters directly to programs or
implement small wrapper scripts to call the printing system in question.

Using direct CUPS support

Starting with Netatalk 2.0, direct CUPS integration is available. In this case,
defining only a queue name as pr parameter won't invoke the SysV lpd daemon but
uses CUPS instead. Unless a specific PPD has been assigned using the pd switch,
the PPD configured in CUPS will be used by papd, too.

There exists one special share named "cupsautoadd". If this is present in
papd.conf, then all available CUPS queues will be served automagically using
the parameters assigned to this global share. But subsequent printer
definitions can be used to override these global settings for individual
spoolers.

Using AppleTalk printers

Netatalk's papstatus(8) can be used to query AppleTalk printers, pap(1) to
print to them. With psf(8) there exists a lpd filter program suitable for
converting other formats (like text) to PostScript output, do page accounting
and eventually change the page order using psorder(1). But these days, modern
printing systems like CUPS can do the latter tasks for themselves in a more
reliable way.

pap can be used stand-alone or as part of an output filter or a CUPS backend
(which is the preferred method since one does not have to deal with all the
options).

Example 3.10. pap printing to a PostScript LaserWriter

pap -p"ColorLaserWriter 16/600@*" /usr/share/doc/gs/examples/tiger.ps

The file /usr/share/doc/gs/examples/tiger.ps is sent to a printer called
"ColorLaserWriter 16/600" in the standard zone "*". The device type is
"LaserWriter" (can be suppressed since it is the default).

Example 3.11. pap printing to a non-PostScript printer

gs -q -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=cdjcolor -sOutputFile=- test.ps | pap -E

GhostScript is used to convert a PostScript job to PCL3 output suitable for a
Color DeskWriter. Since no file has been supplied on the command line, pap
reads the data from stdin. The printer's address will be read from the .paprc
file in the same directory, pap will be called (in our example simply
containing "Color DeskWriter:DeskWriter@Printers"). The -E switch forces pap to
not wait for an EOF from the printer.

Time Services

Using Netatalk as a time server for Macintoshes

timelord, an AppleTalk based time server, is deprecated these days. Use NTP
instead.

For further information please have a look at the timelord(8) manual page.

Starting and stopping Netatalk

The Netatalk distribution comes with several operating system specific startup
script templates that are tailored according to the options given to the
"configure" script before compiling. Currently, templates are provided for
NetBSD, BSD, RedHat, SuSE and True64. You can select to install the generated
startup script(s) by specifying a system type to "configure". To automatically
install startup scripts for e.g. the SuSE Linux distribution try to give the
--enable-suse option to "configure". Some of the scripts can be further
parametrized by the configuration file netatalk.conf (described in the
netatalk.conf(5) manual page), some obtain that information in another,
operating system specific way (like Netbsd).

Since new releases of Linux distributions appear all the time and the startup
procedure for the other systems mentioned above might change as well, it is
probably a good idea to not blindly install a startup script but to look at it
first to see if it will work on your system. If you use Netatalk as part of a
fixed setup, like a Linux distribution, an RPM or a BSD package, things will
probably have been arranged properly for you. The following therefore applies
mostly for people who have compiled Netatalk themselves.

The following daemons need to be started by whatever startup script mechanism
is used:

  * atalkd (if you use the AppleTalk protocol)
   
  * afpd
   
  * cnid_metad (if the dbd CNID backend is used)
   
  * papd (if you want to provide print services via AppleTalk)
   
  * timelord (for old style time synchronisation via AppleTalk)
   
Additionally, make sure that the various configuration files (afpd.conf,
AppleVolumes.default, papd.conf etc.) are in the right place and that
netatalk.conf (if used) contains the right entries. If you want e.g. papd to be
started using this mechanism, set the environment variable "PAPD_RUN" to "yes"
in netatalk.conf. See the manual pages for details.

Chapter 4. Upgrading from a previous version of Netatalk

Jrg Lenneis

initial version

26 June, 2004

Table of Contents

Overview
Volumes and filenames
   
    How to upgrade a volume to 2.0
    How to use a 1.x CAP encoded volume with 2.0
    How to use a 1.x NLS volume with 2.0
   
Choosing a CNID storage scheme
   
    How to upgrade if no persistent CNID storage was used
    How to upgrade if a persistent CNID storage scheme was used
    How to upgrade if a persistent CNID storage scheme was used, the brute
        force approach
   
Setting up a test server on the same machine
   
    Setting up an empty test share
    Duplicating an already existing share
    Configuring and running the test afpd
   
Overview

Version 2.0 of the Netatalk suite includes significant changes and enhancements
in functionality compared to previous versions. AFP 3.x is now supported which
allows UTF-8 encoded filenames of up to 255 bytes (85-255 chars) in length
amongst other things. The Catalogue Node ID (CNID) subsystem has been reworked
as well and should now be much more robust. For an overview of what CNIDs are
and why you need them please see the CNID section in the manual.

The downside of these enhancements is that upgrading to Netatalk 2.0 is not a
process that can be easily automated. Too many factors depend on site specific
configuration and administrators have to make choices that suit their
requirements. This document attempts to clarify the issues and outline the
steps that need to be taken for a successful upgrade. As usual, the first of
these steps should be to make a complete backup of all volumes and home
directories that were in use with Netatalk before. Afterwards, you'll have to
decide

 1. what encoding to use for filenames in the future and how to convert
    existing filenames
   
 2. what storage scheme to use for CNIDs and maybe convert an existing database
    to that scheme
   
The following two sections deal with each of these areas in turn.

Volumes and filenames

Previous Netatalk versions saved filenames in the so called CAP encoding by
default. Alternatively, there was the NLS system, that allowed you to convert
filenames to other codepages, like ISO-8859-1.

For Netatalk 2.0 the charset conversion routines had to be completely rewritten
to support AFP 3.x. For more indepth information on character sets please read
the Unicode/charsets section in the manual.

As a consequence, Netatalk 2.0 now stores filenames in UTF-8 by default.
Additionally you have to specify a maccodepage in afpd.conf, if your Mac
clients are not using MacRoman.

The format of the metadata files stored in the .AppleDouble folders has changed
from AppleDouble v1 to AppleDouble v2. Netatalk 2.0 is still able to use AD1
files, if configured. Otherwise ADv1 files will silently be updated to the new
ADv2 format, which will prevent you from using this volume with 1.x again.

Warning

Do not share a 1.x volume with Netatalk 2.0 without setting the proper options!

Note

You should consider 'upgrading' your volumes using the new defaults UTF-8 and
AppleDouble v2, even if this is a time consuming process. AFP 3.x uses UTF-8
and it is impossible to fully map UTF-8 to any of the old volume formats.

How to upgrade a volume to 2.0

To convert the 1.x CAP or NLS encoded volumes on the server, we provide the
uniconv(1) utility. Please see the man page for details.

Another option to perform an upgrade, is to copy all files using a Mac client.
Either copy the volume to a Mac while you are still running 1.6, then install
2.0 and copy the data back to a fresh share, or try to set up the volume with
the compatibility options described below and do a share to share copy.

How to use a 1.x CAP encoded volume with 2.0

Using a 1.x CAP encoded volume is still possible with Netatalk 2.0. To work
properly, the following options need to be set, matching your 1.x setup:

afpd.conf:

  * maccodepage
   
AppleVolumes.default:

  * volcharset
   
  * adouble
   
You have to make sure maccodepage matches your Apple clients codepage. For
western users the default Mac_Roman should be fine.

Set volcharset to ASCII.

Set adouble:v1, this will make sure the metadata files will not be changed to
AppleDouble v2. If you do not set this option, it will not be possible to use
the volume with Netatalk 1.x anymore.

Example:

afpd.conf:

 - -transall -maccodepage:MAC_CENTRALEUROPE

AppleVolumes.default:

 /path/to/share "1.x Volume" adouble:v1 volcharset:ASCII

How to use a 1.x NLS volume with 2.0

Whether you can still use an 1.x NLS encoded volume with Netatalk 2.0 mainly
depends on which NLS setting you used with 1.x.

Make sure you set the correct maccodepage in afpd.conf !

maccode.iso8859-1
   
    Use the following settings in AppleVolumes.default:
   
     /path/to/share "1.x Volume" adouble:v1 volcharset:ISO-8859-1
maccode.iso8859-1.adapted
   
    Sorry, you're out of luck. This NLS contains a non standard mapping and is
    not supported by afpd anymore. You'll have to convert the volume to a
    supported encoding.
   
maccode.437
   
    Using the following settings in AppleVolumes.default might work, but is
    untested:
   
     /path/to/share "1.x Volume" adouble:v1 volcharset:CP437
maccode.850
   
    Using the following settings in AppleVolumes.default might work, but is
    untested:
   
     /path/to/share "1.x Volume" adouble:v1 volcharset:CP850
maccode.koi8-r
   
    Using the following settings in AppleVolumes.default might work, but is
    untested:
   
     /path/to/share "1.x Volume" adouble:v1 volcharset:KOI8-R

Note

All of the above require iconv to be installed and to supply the volcharset
codepage!

Choosing a CNID storage scheme

Previous versions of Netatalk allocated CNIDs either on the fly or CNIDs were
recorded in a persistent database. "On the fly methods" work by either
generating a CNID from the device and inode number or simply by using a counter
that is increased by one on each access to a file or directory from the client.
The counter only lasts for the lifetime of an afpd daemon process and inode
numbers are reused for a different file once the original file has been
deleted. These methods therefore violate a fundamental assumption: A CNID once
assigned must never be reused for the lifetime of a volume. Netatalk 2.0
supports one "On the fly scheme" called last. It computes CNIDs for files from
device and inode of the file and uses a counter for directories. You should
think twice about using it in production. Depending on your needs and the
semantics of the underlying file system it might be OK on read only volumes,
but even there we are not certain if OS X clients will work properly.

That leaves the CNID schemes that use persistent storage for CNIDs. Netatalk
2.0 supports two: cdb and dbd. Both are based on the Berkeley DB database
library as before. One difference is, though, that you are not restricted to
using a single scheme for all of your volumes that has to be determined at
compile time. The CNID scheme (also called a "CNID backend") is now a runtime
option for a volume. That means that you can make the choice per volume based
on your requirements. Here are the properties as well as the advantages and
disadvantages of the three supported schemes:

 1. last: See above. Avoid, if at all possible.
   
 2. cdb: Roughly analogous to the Netatalk 1.6.x versions with what was called
    then the "DID scheme" option set to "cnid" and the "CNID with Concurrent
    Data Store" option set to "yes". Access to the CNID database for a volume
    happens directly from the Netatalk afpd daemons. A Berkeley DB locking
    scheme (the "Concurrent Data Store" bit) is used to avoid database
    inconsistencies. Robustness is much improved compared to previous releases.
    The CNID database can only become corrupted if an afpd daemon crashes
    unexpectedly, is killed by the administrator or the whole machine crashes.
   
 3. dbd: There is only a single daemon that accesses the CNID database for a
    given volume. Any afpd process that wishes to retrieve or update CNIDs for
    that volume needs to do it via the daemon. The CNID can database be (this
    is a compile time option) updated under Berkeley DB transactional
    protection. This design combined with the transactional updates makes the
    CNID database crashproof: Any of the participating afpd daemons, the
    database daemon itself or the whole machine can crash and the CNID database
    should still be in a consistent state. The downside to this is that the
    speed of updates and retrieval is slower than with the cdb scheme. If this
    is a problem, you might want to disable transactions at Netatalk compile
    time (currently, the default is to compile without transactions anyway).
    That will give you safety against afpd crashing, but not if the machine
    goes down unexpectedly. Also, have a look at the nosync option documented
    in the cnid_dbd manual page.
   
It is also possible to switch between cdb and dbd for a given volume, since
they use the same database format. You just have to shut down all processes
accessing the database cleanly, make the necessary configuration changes and
restart. Please note, that you can easily specify a default CNID backend for
all shares by applying the cnidscheme option to the ":DEFAULT:" share (compare
with the AppleVolumes.default(5) manual page for details).

Note that the dbd backend needs an auxiliary daemon, called cnid_metad, to
work. It should be started together with afpd. If the dbd backend is compiled
into afpd (the default), this should happen automatically. If you cannot find
it in the process list even though the dbd backend is used please check for
errors in the startup scripts.

If you compile Netatalk 2.0 yourself and invoke configure --help, you'll notice
that there are in fact more CNID backends to chose from. Don't use any of them.
They are either broken or incomplete. Some of them might turn into something
useful in the future.

How to upgrade if no persistent CNID storage was used

That is easy. Just pick a CNID backend from above, configure it properly in
afpd.conf and the AppleVolumes file and start up the necessary Netatalk
processes. The databases will be automatically created in a subdirectory
.AppleDB of the volume in question.

How to upgrade if a persistent CNID storage scheme was used

In that case the CNID databases need to be upgraded. A script called
cnid2_create that comes with Netatalk 2.0 does most of the work. The steps you
have to take depend on what version of Berkeley DB is installed on your system.
If you already use one of the supported versions of Berkeley DB (4.1.25 or
4.2.52) for your old Netatalk installation and plan to use it for Netatalk 2.0
as well just use the db_dump and db_load utilities that came with it as
indicated below. Otherwise it is probably best to have the old and the new (to
be used with Netatalk 2.0) version of Berkeley DB installed side by side until
you have finished the upgrade. The reason for this is that we will dump out the
old databases with the currently installed version of Berkeley DB in ASCII
format and reload them with the new version. This avoids any incompatibility
problems between Berkeley DB releases with respect to the on-disk format.

For each volume to be upgraded, follow these steps

  * Stop all afpd daemons accessing the volume.
   
  * Change to the database directory for that volume, most likely the .AppleDB
    subdirectory of the volume toplevel directory in question.
   
  * Dump the contents of cnid.db and didname.db using the old (installed)
    version of Berkeley DB like this:
   
     db_dump -f cnid.dump cnid.db 
     db_dump -f didname.dump didname.db
   
    Make sure the db_dump utility you are using is the correct (currently used)
    one. Use the full path to the db_dump executable if in doubt. So if this
    database was created with Berkeley DB 3.xx installed in /usr/local/db3 use
    /usr/local/db3/bin/db_dump instead. This will create two files, cnid.dump
    and didname.dump in the current directory.
   
  * Run the cnid2_create script:
   
     /path/to/netatalk/bin/cnid2_create 
   
    The script assumes that .AppleDB is a subdirectory of the volume directory
    to be upgraded. If that is not the case give the full path name of the
    volume as the first argument to cnid2_create. The script will create a file
    cnid2.dump in ASCII format.
   
  * Remove the old Berkeley DB environment and logfiles (if present):
   
     rm __db.* log.*
  * Load cnid2.dump into the new database. You should use the db_load utility
    of Berkeley DB that will be used with version 2.0 of Netatalk. So if
    Berkeley DB 4.xx lives in /usr/local/db4 use
   
     /usr/local/db4/bin/db_load -f cnid2.dump cnid2.db 
   
    This will create the new database file, cnid2.db. Remove the old database
    files cnid.db, didname.db and devino.db. The intermediate files cnid.dump,
    didname.dump and cnid2.dump can be removed now or at some later time.
   
If you do not want to have two versions of Berkeley DB installed side by side
during the upgrade, you should first dump out the old databases as indicated
above for all volumes, upgrade Berkeley DB and then load them with db_load. The
cnid2_create script can be run before or after the upgrade. Berkeley DB
environment and logfiles should still be removed before running db_load.

How to upgrade if a persistent CNID storage scheme was used, the brute force
approach

If you are absolutely sure what you are doing, you can also just clear out all
database files from the .AppleDB directories. They will be recreated, but will 
not contain the same CNIDs as before!! That might lead to all sorts of
problems, like aliases not working any more on clients. As I said, make sure
you know the consequences and don't mind them.

Setting up a test server on the same machine

Providing a test environment in parallel with the existing production
installation is not difficult and, if done properly, it should not in any way
disrupt the normal operation. However, as always, it is recommended to make a
backup of the existing installation before proceeding. When compiling a newer
netatalk version you should also take care that you do not overwrite the
binaries of an older version (make use of the --prefix= configure option).

There could be more than two afpd servers running on one UNIX box. You just
have to be careful to keep them from running into each other:

  * the shares/volumes (AppleVolumes.default)
   
  * the PID file (afpd -P command line option)
   
  * the port number (-port option in afpd.conf)
   
  * no use of AppleTalk (-noddp option in afpd.conf)
   
You should test the new Netatalk version with both a freshly created new share
and another one that has been duplicated/converted from an already existing
volume. This helps finding mistakes you probably made in the upgrade process
when the first share behaves well and the latter not.

Setting up an empty test share

First, you have to provide some space for the test share. Just create a
directory on one of your data filesystems. However, this directory must not be
accessible from the production afpd server. Don't forget to set appropriate
permissions for the share. For example:

 mkdir /macdata/testshare
 chown root.macusers /macdata/testshare
 chmod g+wrx,g+s /macdata/testshare

Duplicating an already existing share

Ensure that users cannot access the share in question and copy the whole
contents (including all the metadata directories like .AppleDB) to another
location.

 cp -pr /production/testshare /macdata/

Then do the somewhat extensive upgrade of CNID databases and filename encodings
outlined earlier in this chapter.

Configuring and running the test afpd

Normally the test afpd cannot listen on the standard afpovertcp port, because
that one is already bound by the production afpd. So the afpd.conf should look
like

 - -noddp -nouservol -port 5480 -loginmsg "WARNING: test server"

You also have to present the share to the Mac users by editing the
AppleVolumes.default file. Remove the line containing a single "~" at the end
of the file and append something like:

 /macdata/testshare "Test Volume (not production)"

That should be the only uncommented line in the file. Do not forget to adjust
encoding and AppleDouble setting when you're not using the recommended defaults
UTF8 and ADv2.

In case you have many users and want to restrict access to the test server,
there is a provision for that in the AppleVolumes.default file. First, create a
group named, say, afpdtest, and put in it all users you would want to enable
access to the test volumes. Then, instead of the line above, append a line like
this one:

 /macdata/testshare "Test Volume (not production)" allow:@afpdtest

The test afpd server can be started now:

 $TESTDIR/sbin/afpd -P /var/run/afpd-test.pid

You can also put this line in the production netatalk start script, in the
"start" case. In the "stop" case, you should insert

 [ -f /var/run/afpd-test.pid ] && kill `cat /var/run/afpd-test.pid`

The production server has to know about the test server. Otherwise the Mac
users would not be able to see the test server in their choosers. Append the
following line to the production afpd.conf (usually in /etc/netatalk/
afpd.conf):

 "Test server (not production)" -proxy -uamlist "" -port 5480

and restart the production netatalk. Note that the port directive here should
match the one which appears above in the test afpd.conf.

Important

Note that there is a limit of 31 characters for the server's name. Should the
name be longer, then afpd will just refuse to register the server.

The test server should appear in the chooser on Macs. You can also test that
from the UNIX command line:

 nbplkup =:AFPServer

or

 netstat -an | grep 5480

If everything went fine spread the word about the test server among your more
experienced Mac users and see whether things work as expected.

Chapter 5. Manual Pages

Table of Contents

achfile - change type and/or creator of Apple Macintosh files (netatalk format)
acleandir - clean up a directory containing netatalk Apple Macintosh files
aecho - send AppleTalk Echo Protocol packets to network hosts
afile - display type and creator of Apple Macintosh files (netatalk format)
afpd - AppleTalk Filing Protocol daemon
afpd.conf - Configuration file used by afpd(8) to determine the setup of its
    file sharing services
afppasswd - netatalk password maintenance utility
AppleVolumes.default - Configuration file used by afpd(8) to determine the
    shares made available through Appletalk
apple_cp - Do an apple copy, copying file metadata and the resource fork as
    well
apple_mv - Do an apple move, moving metadata and the resource fork as well
apple_rm - Do an apple remove, remove metadata and resource fork as well
asip-status.pl - Queries AFP servers for their capabilities
atalk - AppleTalk protocol family
atalkd - AppleTalk RTMP, NBP, ZIP, and AEP manager
atalkd.conf - Configuration file used by atalkd(8) to determine the interfaces
    used by the master Netatalk daemon
atalk_aton - AppleTalk address parsing
cnid_dbd - implement access to CNID databases through a dedicated daemon
    process
cnid_index - check and repair Netatalk CNID database indexes
cnid_metad - start cnid_dbd daemons on request
getzones - list AppleTalk zone names
megatron - Macintosh file format transformer
nbp - access NBP database
nbp_name - NBP name parsing
netatalk.conf - Configuration file used by netatalk(8) to determine its general
    configuration 
netatalk-config - script to get information about the installed version of
    netatalk
pap - client interface to remote printers using Printer Access Protocol
papd - AppleTalk print server daemon
papd.conf - Configuration file used by papd(8) to determine the configuration
    of printers used by the Netatalk printing daemon
papstatus - get the status of an AppleTalk-connected printer
psf - PostScript filter
psorder - PostScript pageorder filter
timelord - Macintosh time server daemon
timeout - Send a signal to a program after a certain time
uniconv - convert Netatalk volume encoding

This is a collection of the man pages delivered with Netatalk.

Name

achfile - change type and/or creator of Apple Macintosh files (netatalk format)

Synopsis

achfile [ -t type ] [ -c creator ] file...

DESCRIPTION

achfile changes the Macintosh type and/or creator of the file arguments which
have a corresponding .AppleDouble file.

OPTIONS

-t type change the type.

-c creator change the creator.

DIAGNOSTICS

returns exit status 0 if all files changed successfully

SEE ALSO

afile(1), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

acleandir - clean up a directory containing netatalk Apple Macintosh files

Synopsis

acleandir [-rnvi] dirname

DESCRIPTION

acleandir cleans up the directory dirname. By default it simply removes
"orphan" AppleDouble files, i.e. those which do not have a corresponding data
file.

OPTIONS

-d
   
    Also remove the .AppleDouble directory if it contains no AppleDouble files
    after "orphan" removal. This will result in the finder location of dirname
    within its parent being lost.
   
-r, -R
   
    Recursive. Clean up directories recursively.
   
-n
   
    Display the filenames of "orphans" but don't remove any. Display size if
    "orphan" appears to contain a resource fork.
   
-i
   
    Interactive. Prompt for confirmation before a removal. A y in answer
    confirms that the removal should proceed.
   
-v
   
    Verbose. Display the names of all "orphans" and .AppleDouble directories
    removed. Reports the size if the "orphan" appears to contain a resource
    fork.
   
-a
   
    Aggressive. Remove all AppleDouble files, not just "orphans". Also remove
    the .AppleDesktop directory if present. Impies -d option. Use with caution
    as the Macintosh type/creator and finder location of all files will be lost
    and the content of some documents, such as Symantec Projects, will be
    destroyed.
   
DIAGNOSTICS

returns exit status 0 unless bad options are provided or a directory is not
given on the command line.

SEE ALSO

afile(1), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

aecho - send AppleTalk Echo Protocol packets to network hosts

Synopsis

aecho [ -c count ] ( address | nbpname )

DESCRIPTION

aecho repeatedly sends an Apple Echo Protocol (AEP) packet to the host
specified by the given AppleTalk address or nbpname and reports whether a reply
was received. Requests are sent at the rate of one per second.

address is parsed by atalk_aton(3). nbpname is parsed by nbp_name(3). The nbp
type defaults to `Workstation'.

When aecho is terminated, it reports the number of packets sent, the number of
responses received, and the percentage of packets lost. If any responses were
received, the minimum, average, and maximum round trip times are reported.

EXAMPLE

Check to see if a particular host is up and responding to AEP packets:

example% aecho bloodsport
11 bytes from 8195.13: aep_seq=0. time=10. ms
11 bytes from 8195.13: aep_seq=1. time=10. ms
11 bytes from 8195.13: aep_seq=2. time=10. ms
11 bytes from 8195.13: aep_seq=3. time=10. ms
11 bytes from 8195.13: aep_seq=4. time=10. ms
11 bytes from 8195.13: aep_seq=5. time=9. ms
^C
----8195.13 AEP Statistics----
6 packets sent, 6 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip (ms)  min/avg/max = 9/9/10

OPTIONS

-c count
   
    Stop after count packets.
   
SEE ALSO

ping(1), atalk_aton(3), nbp_name(3), aep(4), atalkd(8).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

afile - display type and creator of Apple Macintosh files (netatalk format)

Synopsis

afile [-a] file...

DESCRIPTION

afile displays the name and Macintosh type and creator of the file arguments.
Tests whether the file is an AppleDouble header, in which case it checks the
corresponding data fork exists, or assumes it is a data fork in which case it
looks for the corresponding AppleDouble to find the type/creator information.

afile does not look at any of the extension mapping files such as
AppleVolumes.system.

OPTIONS

-a
   
    Include directories and data files of unknown type (i.e. without
    corresponding AppleDouble) in output.
   
DIAGNOSTICS

returns exit status 0 if all files have a corresponding valid .AppleDouble
header or data fork, or 99 for bad command line options. Otherwise it returns
the following error code relating to the last invalid file.

1 file doesn't exist

2 file is unreadable

3 file is directory

4 file is AppleDouble without data fork

5 file is AppleDouble with unreadable data fork

6 file is data fork without AppleDouble

7 file is data fork with unreadable AppleDouble

8 file is data fork with short AppleDouble

9 bad magic in AppleDouble

SEE ALSO

achfile(1), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

afpd - AppleTalk Filing Protocol daemon

Synopsis

afpd [-duptDTvI] [-f defaultvolumes] [-s systemvolumes] [-n nbpname] [-c
maxconnections] [-g guest] [-P pidfile] [-S port] [-L message] [-F config] [-U
uamsv] [-m umask]

Description

afpd provides an AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) interface to the Unix file
system. It is normally started at boot time from /etc/rc.

The list of volumes offered to the user is generated from /etc/netatalk/
AppleVolumes.system and one of /etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.default, ~/
AppleVolumes, or ~/.AppleVolumes. The AppleVolumes files is used to specify
volumes to mount and file name extension mappings. It is formatted as follows,
one specification per line: pathname [ volumename ] .extension [ type [ creator
] ] If volumename is unspecified, the last component of pathname is used. No
two volumes may have the same name. If type is unspecified '????' is used. If
creator is unspecified 'UNIX' is used. The extension '.' sets the default
creator and type for otherwise untyped Unix files. Blank lines and lines
beginning with `#' are ignored.

Options

-d
   
    Specifies that the daemon should not fork. If netatalk has been configured
    with --enable-debug1, a trace of all AFP commands will be written to
    stdout.
   
-p
   
    Prevents clients from saving their passwords. (Equivalent to -nosavepasswd
    in afpd.conf.)
   
-t
   
    Allows clients to change their passwords. (Equivalent to -setpasswd in
    afpd.conf.)
   
-D
   
    Use DDP (AppleTalk) as transport protocol. (Equivalent to -ddp in
    afpd.cond.)
   
-T
   
    Use TCP/IP as transport protocol. (Equivalent to -tcp in afpd.conf.)
   
-v
   
    Print version information and exit.
   
-I
   
    Use a platform specific icon. (Equivalent to -icon in afpd.conf.)
   
-f defaultvolumes
   
    Specifies that defaultvolumes should be read for a list of default volumes
    to offer, instead of /etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.default.
   
-s systemvolumes
   
    Specifies that systemvolumes should be read for a list of volume that all
    users will be offered, instead of /etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.system.
   
-u
   
    Read the user's AppleVolumes file first. This option causes volume names in
    the user's AppleVolumes file to override volume names in the system's
    AppleVolumes file. The default is to read the system AppleVolumes file
    first. Note that this option doesn't effect the precendence of filename
    extension mappings: the user's AppleVolumes file always has precedence.
   
-n nbpname
   
    Specifies that nbpname should be used for NBP registration, instead of the
    first component of the hostname in the local zone.
   
-c maxconnections
   
    Specifies the maximum number of connections to allow for this afpd. The
    default is 20.
   
-g guest
   
    Specifies the name of the guest account. The default is 'nobody'.
   
-P pidfile
   
    Specifies the file in which afpd stores its process id.
   
-S port
   
    Specifies the port to register with when doing AFPoverTCP. Defaults to 548.
    (Equivalent to -port in afpd.conf.)
   
-L message
   
    Specifies the login message that will be sent to clients. (Equivalent to
    -loginmsg in afpd.conf.)
   
-F configfile
   
    Specifies the configuration file to use. (Defaults to /etc/netatalk/
    netatalk/afpd.conf.)
   
-U uams
   
    Comma-separated list of UAMs to use for the authentication process.
    (Equivalent to -uamlist in afpd.conf.)
   
-m umask
   
    Use this umask for the creation of folders in Netatalk.
   
SIGNALS

Signals that are sent to the main afpd process are propagated to the children,
so all will be affected.

SIGHUP
   
    Sending a SIGHUP to afpd will cause it to reload its configuration files.
   
SIGUSR1
   
    The afpd process will send the message "The server is going down for
    maintenance." to the client and shut itself down in 5 minutes. New
    connections are not allowed. If this is sent to a child afpd, the other
    children are not affected. However, the main process will still exit,
    disabling all new connections.
   
SIGUSR2
   
    The afpd process will look in the message directory configured at build
    time for a file named message.pid. For each one found, a the contents will
    be sent as a message to the associated AFP client. The file is removed
    after the message is sent. This should only be sent to a child afpd.
    Warning: If the --with-message-dir option was not used, this will kill the 
    afpd process
   
    To shut down a user's afpd process it is recommended that SIGKILL (-9) NOT
    be used, except as a last resort, as this may leave the CNID database in an
    inconsistent state. The safe way to terminate an afpd is to send it a 
    SIGTERM (-15) signal and wait for it to die on its own.
   
FILES

/etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.default
   
    list of default volumes to mount
   
/etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.system
   
    list of volumes to offer all users
   
~/AppleVolumes
   
    user's list of volumes to mount
   
/etc/netatalk/netatalk/msg/message.pid
   
    contains messages to be sent to users.
   
BUGS

SEE ALSO

hosts_access(5), afpd.conf(5), AppleVolumes.default(5), AppleVolumes.system(5).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

afpd.conf - Configuration file used by afpd(8) to determine the setup of its
file sharing services

Description

/etc/netatalk/afpd.conf is the configuration file used by afpd to determine the
behavior and configuration of the different virtual file servers that it
provides.

Any line not prefixed with # is interpreted. The configuration lines are
composed like: server name [ options ] If a - is used instead of a server name,
the default server is specified. Server names must be quoted if they contain
spaces. They must not contain ":" or "@". The path name must be a fully
qualified path name, or a path name using either the ~ shell shorthand or any
of the substitution variables, which are listed below.

Note

Each server has to be configured on a single line.

The possible options and their meanings are:

AppleVolumes Files

-defaultvol [path]
   
    Specifies path to AppleVolumes.default file (default is /etc/netatalk/
    AppleVolumes.default).
   
-systemvol [path]
   
    Specifies path to AppleVolumes.system file (default is /etc/netatalk/
    AppleVolumes.system).
   
-[no]uservol
   
    Enables or disables reading of the users' individual volumes file entirely.
   
-[no]uservolfirst
   
    Enables or disables reading of the users' individual volumes file before
    processing the global AppleVolumes.default file.
   
Authentication Methods

-uamlist [uams list]
   
    Comma separated list of UAMs. (The default is uams_clrtxt.so,uams_dhx.so).
   
    The most commonly used UAMs are:
   
    uams_guest.so
       
        allows guest logins
       
    uams_clrtxt.so
       
        (uams_pam.so or uams_passwd.so) Allow logins with passwords transmitted
        in the clear.
       
    uams_randum.so
       
        allows Random Number and Two-Way Random Number Exchange for
        authentication (requires a separate file containing the passwords,
        either /etc/netatalk/afppasswd file or the one specified via
        -passwdfile. See afppasswd(1) for details
       
    uams_dhx.so
       
        (uams_dhx_pam.so or uams_dhx_passwd.so) Allow Diffie-Hellman eXchange
        (DHX) for authentication.
       
    uam_gss.so
       
        Allow Kerberos V for authentication (optional)
       
-uampath [path]
   
    Sets the default path for UAMs for this server (default is /etc/netatalk/
    uams).
   
-k5keytab [path], -k5service [service], -k5realm [realm]
   
    These are required if the server supports the Kerberos 5 authentication
    UAM.
   
Codepage Options

With OS X Apple introduced the AFP3 protocol. One of the big changes was, that
AFP3 uses Unicode names encoded as UTF-8 decomposed. Previous AFP/OS versions
used codepages like MacRoman, MacCentralEurope, etc.

To be able to serve AFP3 and older clients at the same time, afpd needs to be
able to convert between UTF-8 and Mac codepages. Even OS X clients partly still
rely on codepages. As there's no way, afpd can detect the codepage a pre AFP3
client uses, you have to specify it using the -maccodepage option. The default
is MacRoman, which should be fine for most western users.

As afpd needs to interact with unix operating system as well, it need's to be
able to convert from UTF-8/MacCodepage to the unix codepage. By default afpd
uses the systems LOCALE, or ASCII if your system doesn't support locales. You
can set the unix codepage using the -unixcodepage option. If you're using
extended characters in the configuration files for afpd, make sure your
terminal matches the -unixcodepage.

-unixcodepage [CODEPAGE]
   
    Specifies the servers unix codepage, e.g. "ISO-8859-15" or "UTF8". This is
    used to convert strings to/from the systems locale, e.g. for
    authenthication, server messages and volume names. Defaults to LOCALE if
    your system supports it, otherwise ASCII will be used.
   
-maccodepage [CODEPAGE]
   
    Specifies the mac clients codepage, e.g. "MAC_ROMAN". This is used to
    convert strings and filenames to the clients codepage for OS9 and Classic,
    i.e. for authentication and AFP messages (SIGUSR2 messaging). This will
    also be the default for the volumes maccharset. Defaults to MAC_ROMAN.
   
Password Options

-loginmaxfail [number]
   
    Sets the maximum number of failed logins, if supported by the UAM
    (currently none)
   
-passwdfile [path]
   
    Sets the path to the Randnum UAM passwd file for this server (default is /
    etc/netatalk/afppasswd).
   
-passwdminlen [number]
   
    Sets the minimum password length, if supported by the UAM
   
-[no]savepassword
   
    Enables or disables the ability of clients to save passwords locally
   
-[no]setpassword
   
    Enables or disables the ability of clients to change their passwords via
    chooser or the "connect to server" dialog
   
Transport Protocols

-[no]ddp
   
    Enables or disables AFP-over-Appletalk. If -proxy is specified, you must
    instead use -uamlist "" to prevent DDP connections from working.
   
-[no]tcp
   
    Enables or disables AFP-over-TCP
   
-transall
   
    Make both available (default)
   
Transport Options

-advertise_ssh
   
    Allows Mac OS X clients (10.3.3 or above) to automagically establish a
    tunneled AFP connection through SSH. If this option is set, the server's
    answers to client's FPGetSrvrInfo requests contain an additional entry. It
    depends on both client's settings and a correctly configured and running
    sshd(8) on the server to let things work.
   
    Note
   
    Setting this option is not recommended since globally encrypting AFP
    connections via SSH will increase the server's load significantly. On the
    other hand, Apple's client side implementation of this feature in MacOS X
    versions prior to 10.3.4 contained a security flaw.
   
-ddpaddr [ddp address]
   
    Specifies the DDP address of the server. The default is to auto-assign an
    address (0.0). This is only useful if you are running AppleTalk on more
    than one interface.
   
-fqdn [name:port]
   
    Specifies a fully-qualified domain name, with an optional port. This is
    discarded if the server cannot resolve it. This option is not honored by
    AppleShare clients <= 3.8.3. This option is disabled by default. Use with
    caution as this will involve a second name resolution step on the client
    side. Also note that afpd will advertise this name:port combination but not
    automatically listen to it.
   
-ipaddr [ip address]
   
    Specifies the IP address that the server should advertise and listens to
    (the default is the first IP address of the system). This option also
    allows to use one machine to advertise the AFP-over-TCP/IP settings of
    another machine via NBP when used together with the -proxy option.
   
-port [port number]
   
    Allows a different TCP port to be used for AFP-over-TCP. The default is
    548.
   
-proxy
   
    Runs an AppleTalk proxy server for the specified AFP-over-TCP server. If
    the address and port aren't given, then the first IP address of the system
    and port 548 will be used. If you don't want the proxy server to act as a
    DDP server as well, set -uamlist "".
   
-server_quantum [number]
   
    This specifies the DSI server quantum. The minimum value is 303840
    (0x4A2E0). The maximum value is 0xFFFFFFFFF. If you specify a value that is
    out of range, the default value will be set (which is the minimum). Do not
    change this value unless you're absolutely sure, what you're doing
   
-noslp
   
    Do not register this server using the Service Location Protocol (if SLP
    support was compiled in). This is useful if you are running multiple
    servers and want one to be hidden, perhaps because it is advertised
    elsewhere, ie. by a SLP Directory Agent.
   
Miscellaneous Options

-admingroup [group]
   
    Allows users of a certain group to be seen as the superuser when they log
    in. This option is disabled by default.
   
-authprintdir [path]
   
    Specifies the path to be used (per server) to store the files required to
    do CAP-style print authentication which papd will examine to determine if a
    print job should be allowed. These files are created at login and if they
    are to be properly removed, this directory probably needs to be umode 1777.
   
    Note
   
    -authprintdir will only work for clients connecting via DDP. Almost all
    modern Clients will use TCP.
   
-client_polling
   
    With this switch enabled, afpd won't advertise that it is capable of server
    notifications, so that connected clients poll the server every 10 seconds
    to detect changes in opened server windows. Note: Depending on the number
    of simultaneously connected clients and the network's speed, this can lead
    to a significant higher load on your network!
   
    Note
   
    Do not use this option any longer as Netatalk 2.0 correctly supports server
    notifications, allowing connected clients to update folder listings in case
    another client changed the contents.
   
-cnidserver [ipaddress:port]
   
    Specifies the IP address and port of a cnid_metad server, required for CNID
    dbd backend. Defaults to localhost:4700.
   
-guestname [name]
   
    Specifies the user that guests should use (default is "nobody"). The name
    should be quoted.
   
-icon
   
    Use the platform-specific icon
   
-loginmesg [message]
   
    Sets a message to be displayed when clients logon to the server. The
    message should be in unixcodepage and should be quoted. Extended characters
    are allowed.
   
-nodebug
   
    Disables debugging.
   
-sleep [number]
   
    AFP 3.x waits number hours before disconnecting clients in sleep mode.
    Default is 10 hours.
   
-signature { user:<text> | host }
   
    Specify a server signature. This option is useful while running multiple
    independent instances of afpd on one machine (eg. in clustered
    environments, to provide fault isolation etc.). "host" signature type
    allows afpd generating signature automatically (based on machine primary IP
    address). "user" signature type allows administrator to set up a signature
    string manually. The maximum length is 16 characters
   
    Example 5.1. Three server definitions using 2 different server signatures
   
    first -signature user:USERS 
    second -signature user:USERS 
    third -signature user:ADMINS
   
    First two servers will appear as one logical AFP service to the clients -
    if user logs in to first one and then connects to second one, session will
    be automatically redirected to the first one. But if client connects to
    first and then to third, will be asked for password twice and will see
    resources of both servers. Traditional method of signature generation
    causes two independent afpd instances to have the same signature and thus
    cause clients to be redirected automatically to server (s)he logged in
    first.
   
Logging Options

Note

Extended logging capabilities are only available if Netatalk was built using 
--with-logfile. As of Netatalk 2.0, the default is --without-logfile since the
logger code is partially broken and needs a complete rewrite (the -setuplog
option might not work as expected). If Netatalk was built without logger
support then the daemons log to syslog.

-[un]setuplog "<logtype> <loglevel> [<filename>]"
   
    Specify that the given loglevel should be applied to log messages of the
    given logtype and that these messages should be logged to the given file.
    If the filename is ommited the loglevel applies to messages passed to
    syslog. Each logtype may have a loglevel applied to syslog and a loglevel
    applied to a single file. Latter -setuplog settings will override earlier
    ones of the same logtype (file or syslog).
   
    logtypes: Default, Core, Logger, CNID, AFP
   
    Daemon loglevels: LOG_SEVERE, LOG_ERROR, LOG_WARN, LOG_NOTE, LOG_INFO,
    LOG_DEBUG, LOG_DEBUG6, LOG_DEBUG7, LOG_DEBUG8, LOG_DEBUG9, LOG_MAXDEBUG
   
    Example 5.2. Some ways to change afpd's logging behaviour via -[un]setuplog
   
    Example:
   
    -setuplog "logger log_maxdebug /var/log/netatalk-logger.log" 
    -setuplog "afpdaemon log_maxdebug /var/log/netatalk-afp.log" 
    -unsetuplog "default level file" 
    -setuplog "default log_maxdebug"

Debug Options

These options are useful for debugging only.

-tickleval [number]
   
    Sets the tickle timeout interval (in seconds). Defaults to 30.
   
-timeout [number]
   
    Specify the number of tickles to send before timing out a connection. The
    default is 4, therefore a connection will timeout after 2 minutes.
   
Examples

Example 5.3. afpd.conf default configuration

- -transall -uamlist uams_clrtxt.so,uams_dhx.so

Example 5.4. afpd.conf MacCyrillic setup / UTF8 unix locale

- -transall -maccodepage mac_cyrillic -unixcodepage utf8

Example 5.5. afpd.conf setup for Kerberos V auth

- -transall -uamlist uams_clrtxt.so,uams_dhx.so,uams_guest.so,uams_gss.so \ 
-k5service afpserver -k5keytab /path/to/afpserver.keytab \ 
-k5realm YOUR.REALM -fqdn your.fqdn.namel:548

Example 5.6. afpd.conf letting afpd appear as three servers on the net

"Guest Server" -uamlist uams_guest.so -loginmesg "Welcome guest!"
"User Server" -uamlist uams_dhx.so -port 12000
"special" -notcp -defaultvol <path> -systemvol <path>

See also

afpd(8), afppasswd(1), AppleVolumes.default(5)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

afppasswd - netatalk password maintenance utility

Synopsis

afppasswd [-acfn] [ -p passwd file ] [ -u minimum uid ]

DESCRIPTION

afppasswd allows the maintenance of afppasswd files created by netatalk for use
by the uams_randnum.so UAM (providing the "Randnum exchange" and "2-Way Randnum
exchange" User Authentication Modules).

afppasswd can either be called by root with parameters, or can be called by
local system users with no parameters to change their AFP passwords.

Note

With this utility you can only change the passwords used by two specific UAMs.
As they provide only weak password encryption, the use of the "Randnum
exchange" and "2-Way Randnum exchange" UAMs is deprecated unless one has to
support very old AFP clients, that can not deal with the more secure
"DHCAST128" UAM instead. Please compare with the Authentication chapter inside
Netatalk's documentation.

EXAMPLE

Local user changing their own password:

example% afppasswd
Enter NEW AFP password: (hidden)
Enter NEW AFP password again: (hidden)
afppasswd: updated password.

OPTIONS

-a
   
    Add a new user to the afppasswd file.
   
-c
   
    Create and/or initialize afppasswd file or specific user.
   
-f
   
    Force the current action.
   
-p path
   
    Path to afppasswd file.
   
-n
   
    If cracklib support is built into netatalk this option will cause cracklib
    checking to be disabled, if the superuser does not want to have the
    password run against the cracklib dictionary.
   
-u minimum uid
   
    This is the minimum user id (uid) that afppasswd will use when creating
    users.
   
SEE ALSO

afpd(8), atalkd(8).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

AppleVolumes.default - Configuration file used by afpd(8) to determine the
shares made available through Appletalk

Description

/etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.default is the configuration file used by afpd to
determine what portions of the file system will be shared via Apple Filing
Protocol, as well as their behaviour. Any line not prefixed with # is
interpreted. The configuration lines are composed like:

path [ volume name ] [ options ]

The path name must be a fully qualified path name, or a path name using either
the ~ shell shorthand or any of the substitution variables, which are listed
below.

The volume name is the name that appears in the Chooser ot the "connect to
server" dialog on Macintoshes to represent the appropriate share. If there are
spaces in the name, it should be in quotes (i.e. "File Share"). The volume name
may not exceed 27 characters in length, and cannot contain the ':' character.

Note

Each volume has to be configured on a single line.

The possible options and their meanings are:

adouble:[v1|v2|osx]
   
    specify the format of the metadata files, which are used for saving Mac
    resource fork as well. Earlier versions used AppleDouble V1, the new
    default format is V2. Starting with Netatalk 2.0, the scheme MacOS X uses
    currently (10.3.x), is also supported
   
    Note
   
    Using adouble:osx is not recommended for production use. Its only aim is to
    temporarely share eg. FAT32 formatted FireWire harddrives written on a
    Macintosh with afpd. Apple's metadata scheme lacks several essential
    features, so using it on the server's side will break both CNIDs and MacOS
    9 compatibility
   
allow:[users/groups]
   
    The allow option allows the users and groups that access a share to be
    specified. Users and groups are specified, delimited by commas. Groups are
    designated by a @ prefix. Example: allow:user1,user2,@group
   
deny:[users/groups]
   
    The deny option specifies users and groups who are not allowed access to
    the share. It follows the same format as the allow option.
   
cnidscheme:[backend]
   
    set the CNID backend to be used for the volume, default is [cdb] available
    schemes: [cdb,dbd,last]
   
dbpath:[path]
   
    Sets the database information to be stored in path. You have to specifiy a
    writable location, even if the volume is read only.
   
maccharset:[charset]
   
    specifies the mac client codepage for this Volume, e.g. "MAC_ROMAN",
    "MAC_CYRILLIC". If not specified the setting from afpd.conf is inherited.
    This setting is only required if you need volumes, where the mac codepage
    differs from the one globally set in afpd.conf.
   
options:[option]
   
    This allows multiple options to be specified in a comma delimited format.
    The available options are:
   
    limitsize
       
        Limit disk size reporting to 2GB. This can be used for older
        Macintoshes using newer Appleshare clients.
       
    ro
       
        Specifies the share as being read only for all users. The .AppleDB
        directory has to be writeable, you can use the -dbpath option to
        relocate it.
       
    usedots
       
        Don't do :hex translation for dot files. note: when this option gets
        set, certain file names become illegal. These are .Parent and anything
        that starts with .Apple. Also, dot files created on the unix side are
        marked invisible.
       
    root_preexec_close
       
        a non-zero return code from root_preexec closes the volume immediately,
        preventing clients to mount/see the volume in question.
       
    preexec_close
       
        a non-zero return code from preexec close the volume being immediately,
        preventing clients to mount/see the volume in question.
       
password:[password]
   
    This option allows you to set a volume password, which can be a maximum of
    8 characters long (using ASCII strongly recommended at the time of this
    writing).
   
preexec:[command]
   
    command to be run when the volume is mounted, ignored for user defined
    volumes
   
postexec:[command]
   
    command to be run when the volume is closed, ignored for user defined
    volumes
   
root_preexec:[command]
   
    command to be run as root when the volume is mounted, ignored for user
    defined volumes
   
root_postexec:[command]
   
    command to be run as root when the volume is closed, ignored for user
    defined volumes
   
rolist:[users/groups]
   
    Allows certain users and groups to have read-only access to a share. This
    follows the allow option format.
   
rwlist:[users/groups]
   
    Allows certain users and groups to have read/write access to a share. This
    follows the allow option format.
   
veto:[vetoed name]
   
    hide files and directories,where the path matches one of the '/' delimited
    vetoed names. Matches are partial, e.g. path is /abc/def/file and veto:/abc
    / will hide the file.
   
volcharset:[charset]
   
    specifies the volume codepage, e.g. "UTF8", "UTF8-MAC", "ISO-8859-15".
    Defaults to "UTF8".
   
Variable substitutions

You can use variables in both volume path and volume name.

 1. if you specify an unknown variable, it will not get converted.
   
 2. if you specify a known variable, but that variable doesn't have a value, it
    will get ignored.
   
The variables which can be used for substitutions are:

$b
   
    basename
   
$c
   
    client's ip or appletalk address
   
$d
   
    volume pathname on server
   
$f
   
    full name (contents of the gecos field in the passwd file)
   
$g
   
    group name
   
$h
   
    hostname
   
$i
   
    client's ip, without port
   
$s
   
    server name (this can be the hostname)
   
$u
   
    user name (if guest, it is the user that guest is running as)
   
$v
   
    volume name (either ADEID_NAME or basename of path)
   
$z
   
    appletalk zone (may not exist)
   
$$
   
    prints dollar sign ($)
   
When using variable substitution in the volume name, always keep in mind, not
to exceed the 27 characters limit

Example 5.7. Using variable substitution when defining volumes

/home/groups/$g "Groupdir for $g"
~ "$f is the best one"

We define "groupdirs" for each primary group and use a personalized server name
for homedir shares.

CNID backends

The AFP protocol mostly refers to files and directories by ID and not by name.
Netatalk needs a way to store these ID's in a persistent way, to achieve this
several different CNID backends are available. The CNID Databases are by
default located in the .AppleDB folder in the volume root.

cdb
   
    "Concurrent database", backend is based on Sleepycat's Berkely DB. With
    this backend several afpd deamons access the CNID database directly.
    Berkeley DB locking is used to synchronize access, if more than one afpd
    process is active for a volume. The drawback is, that the crash of a single
    afpd process might corrupt the database.
   
dbd
   
    Access to the CNID database is restricted to the cnid_metad daemon process.
    afpd processes communicate with the daemon for database reads and updates.
    If built with Berkeley DB transactions the probability for database
    corruption is practically zero, but performance can be slower than with cdb
   
last
   
    This backend is an exception, in terms of ID persistency. ID's are only
    valid for the current session. This is basically what afpd did in the 1.5
    (and 1.6) versions. This backend is still available, as it is useful for
    e.g. sharing cdroms.
   
    Warning: It is NOT recommended to use this backend for volumes anymore, as 
    afpd now relies heavily on a persistent ID database. Aliases will likely
    not work and filename mangling is not supported.
   
Even though ./configure --help might show that there are other CNID backends
available, be warned those are likely broken or mainly used for testing. Don't
use them unless you know what you're doing, they may be removed without further
notice from future versions.

Charset options

With OS X Apple introduced the AFP3 protocol. One of the most important changes
was that AFP3 uses unicode names encoded as UTF-8 decomposed. Previous AFP/OS
versions used codepages, like MacRoman, MacCentralEurope, etc.

afpd needs a way to preserve extended macintosh characters, or characters
illegal in unix filenames, when saving files on a unix filesystem. Earlier
versions used the the so called CAP encoding. An extended character (>0x7F)
would be converted to a :xx sequence, e.g. the Apple Logo (MacRoman: 0XF0) was
saved as :f0. Some special characters will be converted as to :xx notation as
well. '/' will be encoded to :2f, if -usedots is not specified, a leading dot
'.' will be encoded as :2e.

This version now uses UTF-8 as the default encoding for names. Special
characters, like '/' and a leading '.' will still be CAP style encoded .

The -volcharset option will allow you to select another volume encoding. E.g.
for western users another useful setting could be -volcharset ISO-8859-15. apfd
will accept any iconv(1) provided charset. If a character cannot be converted
from the mac codepage to the selected volcharset, afpd will save it as a CAP
encoded character. For AFP3 clients, afpd will convert the UTF-8 character to
-maccharset first. If this conversion fails, you'll receive a -50 error on the
mac.

Note: Whenever you can, please stick with the default UTF-8 volume format.

Compatibility with earlier versions

To use a volume created with an earlier afpd version, you'll have to specify
the following options:

Example 5.8. use a 1.x style volume

/path/to/volume "Volname" adouble:v1 volcharset:ASCII

In case you used an NLS you could try using a compatible iconv charset for
-volcharset.

Example 5.9. use a 1.x style volume, created with maccode.iso8859-1

/path/to/volume "Volname" adouble:v1 volcharset:ISO-8859-1

You should consider converting old style volumes to the new UTF-8/AD2 format.
The safest way to do this, is to create a new volume with the default options
and copy the files between this volumes with a mac.

Note: Using above example options will allow you to downgrade to 1.x netatalk
again.

Note: Some 1.x NLS files used non standard mappings, e.g.
maccode.iso8859-1.adapted. This is not supported anymore. You'll have to copy
the contents of those volumes files to a Mac and then back to the netatalk
server, preferably to an UTF-8 volume.

Advanced Options

The following options should only be used after serious consideration. Be sure
you fully understood the, sometimes complex, consequences, before using them.

casefold:[option]
   
    The casefold option handles, if the case of filenames should be changed.
    The available options are:
   
    tolower - Lowercases names in both directions.
   
    toupper - Uppercases names in both directions.
   
    xlatelower - Client sees lowercase, server sees uppercase.
   
    xlateupper - Client sees uppercase, server sees lowercase.
   
options:[option]
   
    This allows multiple options to be specified in a comma delimited format.
    The available options are:
   
    cachecnid
       
        If set afpd uses the ID information stored in AppleDouble V2 header
        files to reduce database load. Don't set this option if the volume is
        modified by non AFP clients (NFS/SMB/local). Defaults to off.
       
    crlf
       
        Enables crlf translation for TEXT files, automatically converting
        macintosh line breaks into Unix ones. Use of this option might be
        dangerous since some older programs store binary data files as type
        "TEXT" when saving and switch the filetype in a second step. Afpd will
        potentially destroy such files when "erroneously" changing bytes in
        order to do line break translation.
       
    dropbox
       
        Allows a volume to be declared as being a "dropbox." Note that netatalk
        must be compiled with dropkludge support for this to function. Warning:
        This option is deprecated and might not work as expected.
       
    mswindows
       
        Forces filename restrictions imposed by MS WinXX. Warning: This is NOT
        recommened for volumes mainly used by Macs. Please make sure you fully
        understand this option before using it.
       
        Warning
       
        This option breaks direct saving to netatalk volumes from some
        applications, i.e. OfficeX.
       
    noadouble
       
        Forces afpd to not create .AppleDouble directories unless macintosh
        metadata needs to be written. This option is only useful if you want to
        share files mostly used NOT by macs, causing afpd to not automatically
        create .AppleDouble subdirs containing AD header files in every
        directory it enters (which will it do by default).
       
        In case, you save or change files from mac clients, AD metadata files
        have to be written even in case you set this option. So you can't avoid
        the creation of .AppleDouble directories and its contents when you give
        macs write access to a share and they make use of it.
       
        Try to avoid noadouble whenever possible.
       
    nodev
       
        always use 0 for device number, helps when the device number is not
        constant across a reboot, cluster, ...
       
    nofileid
       
        don't advertise createfileid, resolveid, deleteid calls.
       
    nohex
       
        Disables :hex translations for anything except dot files. This option
        makes the '/' character illegal.
       
    prodos
       
        Provides compatibility with Apple II clients.
       
    nostat
       
        don't stat volume path when enumerating volumes list, useful for
        automounting or volumes created by a preexec script.
       
    upriv
       
        use AFP3 unix privileges. Become familiar with the new "unix
        privileges" AFP permissions concepts in MacOS X before using this
        option.
       
See Also

afpd.conf(5), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

apple_cp - Do an apple copy, copying file metadata and the resource fork as
well

Synopsis

/usr/bin/apple_cp SOURCE DEST /usr/bin/apple_cp SOURCE... DIRECTORY

DESCRIPTION

apple_cp is a perl script to copy SOURCE to DEST or multiple SOURCE(s) to
DIRECTORY. It also copies the file specific metadata (including resource forks)
to the .AppleDouble directory for DEST or DIRECTORY. If the .AppleDouble
directory doesn't exist for DEST or DIRECTORY it will create it.

EXAMPLES

/usr/bin/apple_cp test.text /target/directory/

/usr/bin/apple_cp test.text /target/directory/test2.text

/usr/bin/apple_cp test.text testing.text /target/directory/

REPORTING BUGS

Report bugs to the Netatalk-devel list <netatalk-devel@lists.sourceforge.net>.

SEE ALSO

apple_mv(1), apple_rm(1).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

apple_mv - Do an apple move, moving metadata and the resource fork as well

Synopsis

/usr/bin/apple_mv SOURCE DEST /usr/bin/apple_mv SOURCE... DIRECTORY

DESCRIPTION

apple_mv is a perl script to move SOURCE to DEST or multiple SOURCE(s) to
DIRECTORY. It also moves the file specific metadata (including resource forks)
to the .AppleDouble directory for DEST or DIRECTORY. If the .AppleDouble
directory doesn't exist for DEST or DIRECTORY it will create it.

EXAMPLES

/usr/bin/apple_mv test.text /target/directory/

/usr/bin/apple_mv test.text /target/directory/test2.text

/usr/bin/apple_mv test.text testing.text /target/directory/

REPORTING BUGS

Report bugs to the Netatalk-devel list <netatalk-devel@lists.sourceforge.net>.

SEE ALSO

apple_cp(1), apple_rm(1).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

apple_rm - Do an apple remove, remove metadata and resource fork as well

Synopsis

/usr/bin/apple_rm FILE...

DESCRIPTION

apple_rm is a perl script that removes FILE(s) as well as the .AppleDouble
metadata file(s) that corresponds to FILE(s). These AppleDouble header files
eventually also contain the resource fork if the files had one. apple_rm does
not delete directories.

EXAMPLES

/usr/bin/apple_rm test.text

/usr/bin/apple_rm test.text testing.text

REPORTING BUGS

Report bugs to the Netatalk-devel list <netatalk-devel@lists.sourceforge.net>.

SEE ALSO

apple_cp(1), apple_mv(1).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

asip-status.pl - Queries AFP servers for their capabilities

Synopsis

/usr/bin/asip-status.pl ADDRESS:PORT...

DESCRIPTION

asip-status.pl is a perl script that sends a FPGetSrvrInfo request to an AFP
server at ADDRESS:PORT and displays the results, namely "Machine type", the
server's name, supported AFP versions, UAMs and AFP flags, the "server
signature" and the network addresses, the server provides AFP services on.

When you don't supply :PORT, then the default AFP port, 548, will be used.

EXAMPLES

/usr/bin/asip-status.pl 192.168.21.2
AFP reply from 192.168.21.2:548
Flags: 1  Cmd: 3  ID: 57005
Reply: DSIGetStatus
Request ID: 57005
Machine type: Macintosh
AFP versions: AFPVersion 1.1,AFPVersion 2.0,AFPVersion 2.1,AFP2.2
UAMs: Cleartxt passwrd,Randnum exchange,2-Way Randnum exchange
Flags: SupportsCopyFile,SupportsChgPwd,SupportsServerMessages,
SupportsServerSignature,SupportsTCP/IP,SupportsSuperClient
Server name: PowerMac 9600/200
Signature:
04 c1 6e 59 04 c1 6e 59 04 c1 6e 59 04 c1 6e 59  ..nY..nY..nY..nY
                                                  
Network address: 192.168.21.2:548 (tcp/ip address and port)
Network address: 10.20 (ddp address)
/usr/bin/asip-status.pl 192.168.21.1:10548
AFP reply from 192.168.21.1:10548
Flags: 1  Cmd: 3  ID: 57005
Reply: DSIGetStatus
Request ID: 57005
Machine type: Netatalk
AFP versions: AFPVersion 1.1,AFPVersion 2.0,AFPVersion 2.1,AFP2.2,AFPX03,
AFP3.1
UAMs: Cleartxt passwrd,Randnum exchange,2-Way Randnum exchange,DHCAST128
Flags: SupportsCopyFile,SupportsServerMessages,SupportsServerSignature,
SupportsTCP/IP,SupportsSrvrNotifications,SupportsOpenDirectory,
SupportsUTF8Servername,SupportsSuperClient
Server name: Fire V480
Signature:
83 29 cc 60 83 29 cc 60 83 29 cc 60 83 29 cc 60  .).`.).`.).`.).`
                                                  
Network address: 192.168.21.1:10548 (TCP/IP address and port)
Network address: 65282.142 (ddp address)
UTF8 Servername: Fire V480

REPORTING BUGS

Report bugs to the Netatalk-devel list <netatalk-devel@lists.sourceforge.net>.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

atalk - AppleTalk protocol family

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <netatalk/at.h>

DESCRIPTION

The AppleTalk protocol family is a collection of protocols layered above the
Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP), and using AppleTalk address format. The
AppleTalk family may provide SOCK_STREAM (ADSP), SOCK_DGRAM (DDP), SOCK_RDM
(ATP), and SOCK_SEQPACKET (ASP). Currently, only DDP is implemented in the
kernel; ATP and ASP are implemented in user level libraries; and ADSP is
planned.

ADDRESSING

AppleTalk addresses are three byte quantities, stored in network byte order.
The include file <netatalk/at.h> defines the AppleTalk address format.

Sockets in the AppleTalk protocol family use the following address structure:

struct sockaddr_at {
    short sat_family;
    u_char sat_port;
    struct at_addr sat_addr;
    char sat_zero[ 8 ];
};

The port of a socket may be set with bind(2). The node for bind must always be 
ATADDR_ANYNODE: ``this node.'' The net may be ATADDR_ANYNET or ATADDR_LATENET. 
ATADDR_ANYNET coresponds to the machine's ``primary'' address (the first
configured). ATADDR_LATENET causes the address in outgoing packets to be
determined when a packet is sent, i.e. determined late. ATADDR_LATENET is
equivalent to opening one socket for each network interface. The port of a
socket and either the primary address or ATADDR_LATENET are returned with
getsockname(2).

SEE ALSO

bind(2), getsockname(2), atalkd(8).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

atalkd - AppleTalk RTMP, NBP, ZIP, and AEP manager

Synopsis

atalkd [-f configfile] [-1] [-2]

Description

atalkd is responsible for all user level AppleTalk network management. This
includes routing, name registration and lookup, zone lookup, and the AppleTalk
Echo Protocol (similar to ping(8)). atalkd is typically started at boot time,
out of /etc/rc. It first reads from its configuration file, /etc/netatalk/
atalkd.conf. If there is no configuration file, atalkd will attempt to
configure all available interfaces and will create a configuration file. The
file consists of a series of interfaces, one per line. Lines with `#' in the
first column are ignored, as are blank lines. The syntax is

interface [ -seed ] [ -phase number ] [ -net net-range ] [ -addr address ] [
-zone zonename ] ...

Note that all fields except the interface are optional. The loopback interface
is configured automatically. If -seed is specified, all other fields must be
present. Also, atalkd will exit during bootstrapping, if a router disagrees
with its seed information. If -seed is not given, all other information may be
overriden during auto-configuration. If no -phase option is given, the default
phase as given on the command line is used (the default is 2). If -addr is
given and -net is not, a net-range of one is assumed.

The first -zone directive for each interface is the ``default'' zone. Under
Phase 1, there is only one zone. Under Phase 2, all routers on the network are
configured with the default zone and must agree. atalkd maps ``*'' to the
default zone of the first interface. Note: The default zone for a machine is
determined by the configuration of the local routers; to appear in a
non-default zone, each service, e.g. afpd, must individually specify the
desired zone. See also nbp_name(3).

Routing

If you are connecting a netatalk router to an existing AppleTalk internet, you
should first contact your local network administrators to obtain appropriate
network addresses.

atalkd can provide routing between interfaces by configuring multiple
interfaces. Each interface must be assigned a unique net-range between 1 and
65279 (0 and 65535 are illegal, and addresses between 65280 and 65534 are
reserved for startup). It is best to choose the smallest useful net-range, i.e.
if you have three machines on an Ethernet, don't chose a net-range of
1000-2000. Each net-range may have an arbitrary list of zones associated with
it.

Examples

Below is an example configuration file for a sun4/40. The machine has two
interfaces, ``le0'' and ``le1''. The ``le0'' interface is configured
automatically from other routers on the network. The machine is the only router
for the ``le1'' interface.

   le0
   le1 -seed -net 9461-9471 -zone netatalk -zone Argus

atalkd automatically acts as a router if there is more than one interface.

Files

/etc/netatalk/atalkd.conf configuration file

Bugs

On some systems, atalkd can not be restarted.

SEE ALSO

atalkd.conf(5)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

atalkd.conf - Configuration file used by atalkd(8) to determine the interfaces
used by the master Netatalk daemon

DESCRIPTION

/etc/netatalk/atalkd.conf is the configuration file used by atalkd to configure
the Appletalk interfaces and their behavior

Any line not prefixed with # is interpreted. The configuration lines are
composed like:

Interface [ options ]

The simplest case is to have either no atalkd.conf, or to have one that has no
active lines. In this case, atalkd should auto-discover the local interfaces on
the machine. Please note that you cannot split lines.

The interface is the network interface that this to work over, such as eth0 for
Linux, or le0 for Sun.

The possible options and their meanings are:

-addr net.node
   
    Allows specification of the net and node numbers for this interface,
    specified in Appletalk numbering format (example: -addr 66.6).
   
-dontroute
   
    Disables Appletalk routing. It is the opposite of -router.
   
-net first[-last]
   
    Allows the available net to be set, optionally as a range.
   
-noallmulti (linux only)
   
    On linux the interfaces, atalkd uses, are set to ALLMULTI by default caused
    by countless NICs having problems without being forced into this mode (some
    even don't work with allmulti set). In case, you've a NIC known to support
    multicasts properly, you might want to set this option causing less packets
    to be processed
   
-phase ( 1 | 2 )
   
    Specifies the Appletalk phase that this interface is to use (either Phase 1
    or Phase 2).
   
-router
   
    Like -seed, but allows single interface routing. It is the opposite of
    -dontroute.
   
-seed
   
    The seed option only works if you have multiple interfaces. It also causes
    all missing arguments to be automagically configured from the network.
   
-zone zonename
   
    Specifies a specific zone that this interface should appear on (example:
    -zone "Parking Lot"). Please note that zones with spaces and other special
    characters should be enclosed in parentheses.
   
SEE ALSO

atalkd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

atalk_aton - AppleTalk address parsing

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <netatalk/at.h>

atalk_aton(cp, ata);
char * cp;
struct at_addr * ata;

DESCRIPTION

The atalk_aton() routine converts an ASCII representation of an AppleTalk
address to a format appropriate for system calls. Acceptable ASCII
representations include both hex and base 10, in triples or doubles. For
instance, the address `0x1f6b.77' has a network part of `8043' and a node part
of `119'. This same address could be written `8043.119', `31.107.119', or
`0x1f.6b.77'. If the address is in hex and the first digit is one of `A-F', a
leading `0x' is redundant.

SEE ALSO

atalk(4).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

cnid_dbd - implement access to CNID databases through a dedicated daemon
process

Synopsis

cnid_dbd dbdir ctrlfd clntfd

DESCRIPTION

cnid_dbd provides an interface for storage and retrieval of catalog node IDs
(CNIDs) and related information to the afpd daemon. CNIDs are a component of
Macintosh based file systems with semantics that map not easily onto Unix file
systems. This makes separate storage in a database necessary. cnid_dbd is part
of the CNID backend framework of afpd and implements the dbd backend.

cnid_dbd is never started via the command line or system startup scripts but
only by the cnid_metad daemon. There is at most one instance of cnid_dbd per
netatalk volume.

cnid_dbd uses the Berkleley DB database library and optionally supports
transactionally protected updates if the netatalk package is compiled with the
appropriate options. Using the dbd backend without transactions will protect
the CNID database against unexpected crashes of the afpd daemon. Using the dbd
backend with transactions will avoid corruption of the CNID database even if
the system crashes unexpectedly.

cnid_dbd uses the same on-disk database format as the cdb backend. It is
therefore possible to switch between the two backends as necessary.

cnid_dbd inherits the effective userid and groupid from cnid_metad on startup,
which is normally caused by afpd serving a netatalk volume to a client. It
changes to the Berkleley DB database home directory dbdir that is associated
with the volume. If the userid inherited from cnid_metad is 0 (root), cnid_dbd
will change userid and groupid to the owner and group of the database home
directory. Otherwise, it will continue to use the inherited values. cnid_dbd
will then attempt to open the database and start serving requests using
filedescriptor clntfd. Subsequent instances of afpd that want to access the
same volume are redirected to the running cnid_dbd process by cnid_metad via
the filedescriptor ctrlfd.

cnid_dbd can be configured to run forever or to exit after a period of
inactivity. If cnid_dbd receives a TERM or an INT signal it will exit cleanly
after flushing dirty database buffers to disk and closing Berkleley DB database
environments. It is safe to terminate cnid_dbd this way, it will be restarted
when necessary. Other signals are not handled and will cause an immediate exit,
possibly leaving the CNID database in an inconsistent state (no transactions)
or losing recent updates during recovery (transactions).

If transactions are used the Berkleley DB database subsystem will create files
named log.xxxxxxxxxx in the database home directory dbdir, where xxxxxxxxxx is
a monotonically increasing integer. These files contain information to replay
database changes and are not automatically removed, unless the 
logfile_autoremove option is specified in the db_param configuration file (see
below). Please see the sections Database and log file archival, Log file
removal and the documentation of the db_archive command line utility in the
Berkeley DB Tutorial and Reference for information when and how it is safe to
remove these files manually.

Do not use cnid_dbd for databases on NFS mounted file systems. It makes the
whole point of securing database changes properly moot. Use the dbdir: Option
in the appropriate AppleVolumes configuration file to put the database onto a
local disk.

CONFIGURATION

cnid_dbd reads configuration information from the file db_param in the database
directory dbdir on startup. If the file does not exist or a parameter is not
listed, suitable default values are used. The format for a single parameter is
the parameter name, followed by one or more spaces, followed by the parameter
value, followed by a newline. The following parameters are currently
recognized:

logfile_autoremove
   
    This flag is ignored unless transactional support is enabled. If set to 1,
    unused Berkeley DB transactional logfiles (log.xxxxxxxxxx in the database
    home directory) are removed on startup of cnid_dbd. This is usually safe if
    the content of the database directory is backed up on a regular basis.
    Default: 0.
   
cachesize
   
    Determines the size of the Berkeley DB cache in kilobytes. Default: 1024.
    Each cnid_dbd process grabs that much memory on top of its normal memory
    footprint. It can be used to tune database performance. The db_stat utility
    with the -m option that comes with Berkely DB can help you determine wether
    you need to change this value. The default is pretty conservative so that a
    large percentage of requests should be satisfied from the cache directly.
    If memory is not a bottleneck on your system you might want to leave it at
    that value. The Berkeley DB Tutorial and Reference Guide has a section 
    Selecting a cache size that gives more detailed information.
   
nosync
   
    This flag is ignored unless transactional support is enabled. If it is set
    to 1, transactional changes to the database are not synchronously written
    to disk when the transaction completes. This will increase performance
    considerably at the risk of recent changes getting lost in case of a crash.
    The database will still be consistent, though. See Transaction Throughput
    in the Berkeley DB Tutorial for more information. Default: 0.
   
flush_frequency, flush_interval
   
    flush_frequency (Default: 100) and flush_interval (Default: 30) control how
    often changes to the database are written to the underlying database files
    if no transactions are used or how often the transaction system is
    checkpointed for transactions. Both of these operations are performed if
    either i) more than flush_frequency requests have been received or ii) more
    than flush_interval seconds have elapsed since the last save/checkpoint. If
    you use transactions with nosync set to zero these parameters only
    influence how long recovery takes after a crash, there should never be any
    lost data. If nosync is 1, changes might be lost, but only since the last
    checkpoint. Be careful to check your harddisk configuration for on disk
    cache settings. Many IDE disks just cache writes as the default behaviour,
    so even flushing database files to disk will not have the desired effect.
   
fd_table_size
   
    is the maximum number of connections (filedescriptors) that can be open for
    afpd client processes in cnid_dbd. Default: 16. If this number is exceeded,
    one of the existing connections is closed and reused. The affected afpd
    process will transparently reconnect later, which causes slight overhead.
    On the other hand, setting this parameter too high could affect performance
    in cnid_dbd since all descriptors have to be checked in a select() system
    call, or worse, you might exceed the per process limit of open file
    descriptors on your system. It is safe to set the value to 1 on volumes
    where only one afpd client process is expected to run, e.g. home
    directories.
   
idle_timeout
   
    is the number of seconds of inactivity before an idle cnid_dbd exits.
    Default: 600. Set this to 0 to disable the timeout.
   
check
   
    is a flag value. If set cnid_dbd will automatically check the database
    indexes. Default: 0. Set this to 1 to enable checking.
   
SEE ALSO

cnid_metad(8), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

cnid_index - check and repair Netatalk CNID database indexes

Synopsis

cnid_index dbdir

DESCRIPTION

cnid_index is a utility to check CNID databases for consistency. If needed, the
indexes are repaired. It works for databases created by the cdb and dbd
backends.

Volumes usind the dbd CNID scheme can also be checked automatically, for
further information please see the cnid_dbd(8) man page.

Warning

When using cnid_index on cdb handled databases, cnid_index cannot check if
another process (afpd) accesses the CNID databases. In this case, you have to
manually ensure no other process accesses the database when running cnid_index.

SEE ALSO

cnid_dbd(8), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

cnid_metad - start cnid_dbd daemons on request

Synopsis

cnid_metad [-d] [ -h hostname ] [ -p port ] [ -u user ] [ -g group ] [ -s
cnid_dbdpathname ]

DESCRIPTION

cnid_metad waits for requests from afpd to start up instances of the cnid_dbd
daemon. It keeps track of the status of a cnid_dbd instance once started and
will restart it if necessary. cnid_metad is normally started at boot time from
/etc/rc or equivalent and runs until shutdown. afpd needs to be configured with
the -cnidserver option in afpd.conf in order to access cnid_metad. It is
possible to run more than one instance of cnid_metad on the same machine if
different values for the interface and/or port are specified with the -h and -p
options.

OPTIONS

-d
   
    cnid_metad will remain in the foreground and will also leave the standard
    input, standard output and standard error file descriptors open. Useful for
    debugging.
   
-h hostname
   
    Use hostname as the network interface for requests as opposed to the
    default localhost .
   
-p port
   
    Use port as the port number for reqests. Default is 4700.
   
-u user
   
    Switch to the userid of user before serving requests. This userid will be
    inherited by all cnid_dbd daemon processes started.
   
-u group
   
    Switch to the groupid of group before serving requests. This groupid will
    be inherited by all cnid_dbd daemon processes started. Both user and group
    must be specified as strings.
   
-s cnid_dbd pathname
   
    Use cnid_dbd pathname as the pathname of the executeable of the cnid_dbd
    daemon. The default is /usr/sbin/cnid_dbd.
   
CAVEATS

The number of cnid_dbd subprocecesses is currently limited to 128. This
restriction will be lifted in the future.

cnid_metad does not block or catch any signals apart from SIGPIPE. It will
therefore exit on most signals received. This will also cause all instances of 
cnid_dbd's started by that cnid_metad to exit gracefully. Since state about and
IPC access to the subprocesses is only maintained in memory by cnid_metad this
is desired behaviour. As soon as cnid_metad is restarted afpd processes will
transparently reconnect.

SEE ALSO

cnid_dbd(8), afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

getzones - list AppleTalk zone names

Synopsis

getzones [ -m | -l ] [address]

DESCRIPTION

Getzones is used to obtain a list of AppleTalk zone names using the Zone
Information Protocol (ZIP). It sends a GetZoneList request to an AppleTalk
router. By default, it sends the request to the locally running atalkd(8).

OPTIONS

-m
   
    List the name of the local zone only; this is accomplished by sending a ZIP
    GetMyZone request.
   
-l
   
    List the local zones; this is accomplished by sending a GetLocalZones
    request.
   
address
   
    Contact the AppleTalk router at address. address is parsed by atalk_aton
    (3).
   
SEE ALSO

atalk_aton(3), atalkd(8).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

megatron, unhex, unbin, unsingle, hqx2bin, single2bin, macbinary - Macintosh
file format transformer

Synopsis

megatron [sourcefile...]

unbin [sourcefile...]

unhex [sourcefile...]

unsingle [sourcefile...]

hqx2bin [sourcefile...]

single2bin [sourcefile...]

macbinary [sourcefile...]

DESCRIPTION

megatron is used to transform files from BinHex, MacBinary, AppleSingle, or 
netatalk style AppleDouble formats into MacBinary or netatalk style AppleDouble
formats. The netatalk style AppleDouble format is the file format used by afpd,
the netatalk Apple Filing Protocol (AppleShare) server. BinHex, MacBinary, and
AppleSingle are commonly used formats for transferring Macintosh files between
machines via email or file transfer protocols. megatron uses its name to
determine what type of tranformation is being asked of it.

If megatron is called as unhex , unbin or unsingle, it tries to convert file(s)
from BinHex, MacBinary, or AppleSingle into AppleDouble format. BinHex is the
format most often used to send Macintosh files by e-mail. Usually these files
have an extension of ".hqx". MacBinary is the format most often used by
terminal emulators "on the fly" when transferring Macintosh files in binary
mode. MacBinary files often have an extension of ".bin". Some Macintosh
LAN-based email packages use uuencoded AppleSingle format to "attach" or
"enclose" files in email. AppleSingle files don't have a standard filename
extension.

If megatron is called as hqx2bin, single2bin, or macbinary, it will try to
convert the file(s) from BinHex, AppleSingle, or AppleDouble into MacBinary.
This last translation may be useful in moving Macintosh files from your afpd
server to some other machine when you can't copy them from the server using a
Macintosh for some reason.

If megatron is called with any other name, it uses the default translation,
namely unhex.

If no source file is given, or if sourcefile is `-', and if the conversion is
from a BinHex or MacBinary file, megatron will read from standard input.

The filename used to store any output file is the filename that is encoded in
the source file. MacBinary files are created with a ".bin" extension. In the
case of conflicts, the old file is overwritten!

SEE ALSO

afpd(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

nbplkup, nbprgstr, nbpunrgstr - access NBP database

Synopsis

nbplkup [-r maxresponses] [-A address] [-m maccodepage] nbpname

nbprgstr [-A address] [-p port] [-m maccodepage] nbpname

nbpunrgstr [-A address] [-m maccodepage] nbpname

Description

nbprgstr registers nbpname with atalkd(8), at the given port. nbpunrgstr
informs atalkd that nbpname is no longer to be advertised.

nbplkup displays up to maxresponses (default 1000) entities registered on the
AppleTalk internet. nbpname is parsed by nbp_name(3). An `=' for the object or 
type matches anything, and an `*' for zone means the local zone. The default
values are taken from the NBPLKUP environment variable, parsed as an nbpname.

Environment Variables

NBPLKUP
   
    default nbpname for nbplkup
   
ATALK_MAC_CHARSET
   
    the codepage used by the clients on the Appletalk network
   
ATALK_UNIX_CHARSET
   
    the codepage used to display extended characters on this shell.
   
Example

Find all devices of type LaserWriter in the local zone.

example% nbplkup :LaserWriter
               Petoskey:LaserWriter        7942.129:218
             Gloucester:LaserWriter        8200.188:186
                 Rahway:LaserWriter        7942.2:138
             517 Center:LaserWriter        7942.2:132
                  ionia:LaserWriter        7942.2:136
     Evil DEC from Hell:LaserWriter        7942.2:130
              Hamtramck:LaserWriter        7942.2:134
         Iron Mountain :LaserWriter        7942.128:250
example%

See also

nbp_name(3), atalkd(8).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

nbp_name - NBP name parsing

Synopsis

int nbp_name(  name,   
               obj,    
               type,   
               zone);  
char *    name;
char **   obj; 
char **   type;
char **   zone;

DESCRIPTION

nbp_name() parses user supplied names into their component object, type, and
zone. obj, type, and zone should be passed by reference, and should point to
the caller's default values. nbp_name() will change the pointers to the
parsed-out values. name is of the form object:type@zone, where each of object, 
:type, and @zone replace obj, type, and zone, respectively. type must be
proceeded by `:', and zone must be preceded by `@'.

EXAMPLE

The argument of afpd(8)'s -n option is parsed with nbp_name(). The default
value of obj is the first component of the machine's hostname (as returned by
gethostbyname(3)). The default value of type is ``AFPServer'', and of zone is
``*'', the default zone. To cause afpd to register itself in some zone other
than the default, one would invoke it as

afpd -n @some-other-zone

obj and type would retain their default values.

BUGS

obj, type, and zone return pointers into static area which may be over-written
on each call.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

netatalk.conf - Configuration file used by netatalk(8) to determine its general
configuration 

DESCRIPTION

/etc/netatalk/netatalk.conf is the configuration file used by afpd to determine
what portions of the file system will be shared via Appletalk, as well as their
behaviors.

Any line not prefixed with # is interpreted. The configuration lines are
composed like:

option = value

The possible options and their meanings are:

AFPD_GUEST
   
    Sets the id of the guest user to a local user on the system.
   
AFPD_MAX_CLIENTS
   
    Sets the maximum number of clients that can simultaneously connect to the
    server.
   
AFPD_RUN
   
    Enables the afpd daemon if set to "yes". This should be enabled if you are
    planning on using netatalk as a file server.
   
AFPD_UAM_LIST
   
    Sets the default UAMs for afpd (and papd, if printer authentication is
    compiled in) to use.
   
    Example: AFPD_UAMLIST="-U uams_guest.so,uams_randnum.so"
   
CNID_METAD_RUN
   
    Enables the cnid_metad daemon if set to "yes". This should be enabled if
    you are going to use the dbd CNID backend.
   
ATALK_BGROUND
   
    "yes" will set netatalk to initialize in the background, and "no" will
    cause normal initialization.
   
ATALK_NAME
   
    Sets the machines' Appletalk name.
   
ATALK_ZONE
   
    Sets the machines' Appletalk zone.
   
ATALKD_RUN
   
    Enables the atalkd daemon if set to "yes". This should be enabled if you
    are planning on providing Appletalk services.
   
PAPD_RUN
   
    Enables the papd daemon if set to "yes". This should be enabled if you are
    planning on using netatalk as a print server.
   
ATALK_MAC_CHARSET
   
    Set the Mac client codepage, used by atalkd and papd to convert extended
    characters from the Unix to the Mac codepage.
   
ATALK_UNIX_CHARSET
   
    Set the Unix codepage, used by atalkd and papd to convert extended
    characters from the Unix to the Mac codepage. Has to match the codepage of
    the configuration files.
   
SEE ALSO

atalkd(8), atalkd.conf(5)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

netatalk-config - script to get information about the installed version of
netatalk

Synopsis

netatalk-config [ --prefix [=DIR]] [ --exec_prefix [=DIR]] [--help] [--version]
[--libs] [--libs-dirs] [--libs-names] [--cflags] [--macros]

DESCRIPTION

netatalk-config is a tool that is used to determine the compiler and linker
flags that should be used to compile and link programs that use the netatalk
run-time libraries.

OPTIONS

netatalk-config accepts the following options:

--help
   
    Print a short help for this command and exit.
   
--version
   
    Print the currently installed version of netatalk on the standard output.
   
--libs
   
    Print the linker flags that are necessary to link against the netatalk
    run-time libraries.
   
--libs-dirs
   
    Print only the -l/-R part of --libs.
   
--libs-names
   
    Print only the -l part of --libs.
   
--cflags
   
    Print the compiler flags that are necessary to compile a program linked
    against the netatalk run-time libraries.
   
--macros
   
    Print the netatalk m4 directory.
   
--prefix=PREFIX
   
    If specified, use PREFIX instead of the installation prefix that netatalk
    was built with when computing the output for the --cflags and --libs
    options. This option is also used for the exec prefix if --exec-prefix was
    not specified. This option must be specified before any --libs or --cflags
    options.
   
--exec\_prefix=PREFIX
   
    If specified, use PREFIX instead of the installation exec prefix that 
    netatalk was built with when computing the output for the --cflags and
    --libs options. This option must be specified before any --libs or --cflags
    options.
   
COPYRIGHT

Copyright  1998 Owen Taylor

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that
the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright
notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.

Man page adapted for netatalk-config by Sebastian Rittau in 2001.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

pap - client interface to remote printers using Printer Access Protocol

Synopsis

pap [ -A address ] [-c] [-d] [-e] [-E] [ -p nbpname ] [ -s statusfile ] [-w]
[-W] [FILES]

DESCRIPTION

pap is used to connect and send files to an AppleTalk connected printer using
the Apple Printer Access Protocol (PAP). When pap starts execution, it tries to
open a session with the printer using PAP, and then downloads the files to the
printer.

If no files are given on the command line, pap begins reading from standard
input.

If no printer is specified on the command line, pap looks for a file called
.paprc in the current working directory and reads it to obtain the nbpname of a
printer. Blank lines and lines that begin with a `#' are ignored. type and zone
default to LaserWriter and the zone of the local host, respectively.

Note that pap is designed to be useful as a communication filter for sending
lpd(8) spooled print jobs to AppleTalk connected printers. See psf(8) for hints
on how to use it this way.

OPTIONS

-A address
   
    Connect to the printer with Appletalk address address and do not consult
    the .paprc file to find a printer name. See atalk_aton(3) for the syntax of
    address.
   
-c
   
    Take cuts. The PAP protocol specified a simple queuing procedure, such that
    the clients tell the printer how long they have been waiting to print. This
    option causes pap to lie about how long it has been waiting.
   
-d
   
    Enable debug output.
   
-e
   
    Send any message from the printer to stderr instead of stdout. psf(8)
    invokes pap with this option.
   
-E
   
    Don't wait for EOF from the printer. This option is useful for printers
    which don't implement PAP correctly. In a correct implementation, the
    client side should wait for the printer to return EOF before closing the
    connection. Some clients don't wait, and hence some printers have related
    bugs in their implementation.
   
-p nbpname
   
    Connect to the printer named nbpname and do not consult the .paprc file to
    find a printer name. See nbp_name(3) for the syntax of nbpname.
   
-s statusfile
   
    Update the file called statusfile to contain the most recent status message
    from the printer. pap gets the status from the printer when it is waiting
    for the printer to process input. The statusfile will contain a single line
    terminated with a newline. This is useful when pap is invoked by psf(8)
    within lpd's spool directory.
   
-w
   
    Wait for the printer status to contain the word "waiting" before sending
    the job. This is to defeat printer-side spool available on HP IV and V
    printers.
   
-W
   
    Wait for the printer status to contain the word "idle" before sending the
    job. This is to defeat printer-side spool available on HP IV and V
    printers.
   
FILES

.paprc
   
    file read to obtain printer name if not specified on command line
   
SEE ALSO

nbp_name(3), atalk_aton(3), lpd(8), psf(8).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

papd - AppleTalk print server daemon

Synopsis

papd [-d] [-f configfile] [-p printcap]

Description

papd is the AppleTalk printer daemon. This daemon accepts print jobs from
AppleTalk clients (typically Macintosh computers) using the Printer Access
Protocol (PAP). When used with System V printing systems, papd spools jobs
directly into an lpd(8) spool directory and wakes up lpd after accepting a job
from the network to have it re-examine the appropriate spool directory. The
actual printing and spooling is handled entirely by lpd.

papd can also pipe the print job to an external program for processing, and
this is the preferred method on systems not using CUPS to avoid compatibility
problems with all the flavours of lpd in use.

As of version 2.0, CUPS is also supported. Simply using cupsautoadd as first
papd.conf entry will share all CUPS printers automagically using the PPD files
configured in CUPS. It ist still possible to overwrite these defaults by
individually define printer shares. See papd.conf(5) for details.

papd is typically started at boot time, out of system init scripts. It first
reads from its configuration file, /etc/netatalk/papd.conf. The file is in the
same format as /etc/printcap. See printcap(5) for details. The name of the
entry is registered with NBP.

The following options are supported:

Name Type  Default                         Description                      
 pd  str  '.ppd'     Pathname to PPD file                                   
 pr  str  'lp'       LPD or CUPS printer name (or pipe to a print command)  
 op  str  'operator' Operator name for LPD spooling                         
 au  bool false      Whether to do authenticated printing or not            
 ca  str  NULL       Pathname used for CAP-style authentification           
 sp  bool false      PSSP-style authetication                               
 am  str  NULL       UAMS to use for authentication                         
 pa  str  NULL       Printer's AppleTalk address                            
 co  str  NULL       CUPS options as supplied to the lp(1) command with "-o"
 fo  bool false      adjust lineending for foomatic-rip                     

If no configuration file is given, the hostname of the machine is used as the
NBP name and all options take their default value.

Options

-d
   
    Do not fork or disassociate from the terminal. Write some debugging
    information to stderr.
   
-f configfile
   
    Consult configfile instead of /etc/netatalk/papd.conf for the configuration
    information.
   
-p printcap
   
    Consult printcap instead of /etc/printcap for LPD configuration
    information.
   
Notes

PSSP (Print Server Security Protocol) is an authentication protocol carried out
through postscript printer queries to the print server. Using PSSP requires
LaserWriter 8.6.1 or greater on the client mac. The user will be prompted to
enter their username and password before they print. It may be necessary to
re-setup the printer on each client the first time PSSP is enabled, so that the
client can figure out that authentication is required to print. You can enable
PSSP on a per-printer basis. PSSP is the recommended method of authenticating
printers as it is more robust than CAP-style authentication, described below.

CAP-style authentication gets its name from the method the CAP (Columbia
APpletalk) package used to authenticate its mac clients' printing. This method
requires that a user login to a file share before they print. afpd records the
username in a temporary file named after the client's Appletalk address, and it
deletes the temporary file when the user disconnects. Therefore CAP style
authentification will not work for clients connected to afpd via TCP/IP. papd
gets the username from the file with the same Appletalk address as the machine
connecting to it. CAP-style authentication will work with any mac client. If
both CAP and PSSP are enabled for a particular printer, CAP will be tried
first, then papd will fall back to PSSP.

The list of UAMs to use for authentication (specified with the 'am' option)
applies to all printers. It is not possible to define different authentication
methods on each printer. You can specify the list of UAMS multiple times, but
only the last setting will be used. Currently only uams_guest.so and
uams_clrtxt.so are supported as printer authentication methods. The guest
method requires a valid username, but not a password. The Cleartext UAM
requires both a valid username and the correct password.

Note

As of this writing, Mac OS X makes no use of PSSP authentication any longer.
CAP-style authentication normally won't be an option, too caused by the use of
AFP over TCP these days.

Files

/etc/netatalk/papd.conf
   
    Default configuration file.
   
/etc/printcap
   
    Printer capabilities database.
   
.ppd
   
    PostScript Printer Description file. papd answers configuration and font
    queries from printing clients by consulting the configured PPD file. Such
    files are available for download from Adobe, Inc. (http://www.adobe.com/
    support/downloads/main.htm), or from the printer's manufacturer. If no PPD
    file is configured, papd will return the default answer, possibly causing
    the client to send excessively large jobs.
   
Caveats

papd accepts characters with the high bit set (a full 8-bits) from the clients,
but some PostScript printers (including Apple Computer's LaserWriter family)
only accept 7-bit characters on their serial interface by default. The same
applies for some printers when they're accessed via TCP/IP methods (remote LPR
or socket). You will need to configure your printer to accept a full 8 bits or
take special precautions and convert the printjob's encoding (eg. by using co=
"protocol=BCP" when using CUPS 1.1.19 or above).

When printing clients run MacOS 10.2 or above, take care that PPDs do not make
use of *cupsFilter: comments unless the appropriate filters are installed at
the client's side, too (remember: Starting with 10.2 Apple chose to integrate
CUPS into MacOS X). For in-depth information on how CUPS uses PPDs see chapter
3.4 in http://tinyurl.com/zbxn).

See also

lpr(1),lprm(1),printcap(5),lpc(8),lpd(8), lp(1).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

papd.conf - Configuration file used by papd(8) to determine the configuration
of printers used by the Netatalk printing daemon

DESCRIPTION

/etc/netatalk/papd.conf is the configuration file used by papd to configure the
printing services offered by netatalk. Please note that papd must be enabled in
/etc/netatalk/netatalk.conf for this to take any effect. papd shares the same
defaults as lpd on many systems, but not Solaris.

Any line not prefixed with # is interpreted. The configuration lines are
composed like:

printername:[options]

On systems running a System V printing system the simplest case is to have
either no papd.conf, or to have one that has no active lines. In this case,
atalkd should auto-discover the local printers on the machine. Please note that
you can split lines by using \\fR.

printername may be just a name (Printer 1), or it may be a full name in
nbp_name format (Printer 1:LaserWriter@My Zone).

Systems using a BSD printing system should make use of a pipe to the printing
command in question within the pr option (eg. pr=|/usr/bin/lpr -J%J -u%U).
Note: When printing using a pipe, papd recognizes several wildcards: %F will be
replaced by the name present in the "%%For:" comment in the PostScript stream,
same with %J for the "%%Title:" comment. %U will be substituted with the login
name (the latter applies only when authenticated printing is in effect).

When CUPS support is compiled in, then cupsautoadd as the first entry in
papd.conf will automagically share all CUPS printers by papd utilizing the PPDs
assigned in CUPS (customizable -- see below). This can be overwritten for
individal printers by subsequently adding individual entries using the CUPS
queue name as pr entry. Note: CUPS support is mutually exclusive with System V
support described above.

The possible options are colon delimited (:), and lines must be terminated with
colons. The possible options and flags are:

am=(uams list)
   
    The am option allows specific UAMs to be specified for a particular
    printer. It has no effect if the au flag is not present or if papd
    authentication was not built into netatalk. Note: possible values are 
    uams_guest.so and uams_clrtxt.so only. The first method requires a valid
    username, but no password. The second requires both a valid username and
    the correct password.
   
au
   
    If present, this flag enables authentication for the printer. Please note
    that papd authentication must be built into netatalk for this to take
    effect.
   
co=(CUPS options)
   
    The co option allows options to be passed through to CUPS (eg. co="protocol
    =TBCP" or co="raw").
   
cupsautoadd[:type][@zone]
   
    If used as the first entry in papd.conf this will share all CUPS printers
    via papd. type/zone settings as well as other parameters assigned to this
    special printer share will apply to all CUPS printers. Unless the pd option
    is set, the CUPS PPDs will be used. To overwrite these global settings for
    individual printers simply add them subsequently to papd.conf and assign
    different settings.
   
fo
   
    If present, this flag enables a hack to translate line endings originating
    from pre Mac OS X LaserWriter drivers to let foomatic-rip recognize
    foomatic PPD options set in the printer dialog. Attention: Use with caution
    since this might corrupt binary print jobs!
   
op=(operator)
   
    This specifies the operator name, for lpd spooling.
   
pa=(appletalk address)
   
    Allows specification of Appletalk addresses. Usually not needed.
   
pd=(path to ppd file)
   
    Specifies a particular PPD (printer description file) to associate with the
    selected printer.
   
pr=(lpd/CUPS printer name or pipe command)
   
    Sets the lpd or CUPS printer that this is spooled to.
   
Examples

Unless CUPS support has been compiled in (which is default from Netatalk 2.0
on) one simply defines the lpd queue in question by setting the pr parameter to
the queue name, in the following example "ps". If no pr parameter is set, the
default printer will be used.

Example 5.10. papd.conf System V printing system examples

The first spooler is known by the AppleTalk name Mac Printer Spooler, and uses
a PPD file located in /usr/share/lib/ppd. In addition, the user mcs will be the
owner of all jobs that are spooled. The second spooler is known as HP Printer
and all options are the default.

Mac Printer Spooler:\
   :pr=ps:\
   :pd=/usr/share/lib/ppd/HPLJ_4M.PPD:\
   :op=mcs:

HP Printer:\
   :

An alternative to the technique outlined above is to direct papd's output via a
pipe into another program. Using this mechanism almost all printing systems can
be driven. Netatalk supplies three "wildcards" that get substituted with values
of the already printed job: %F, %U and %J. Using these wildcards, one can pass
those parameters directly to programs or implement small wrapper scripts to
call the printing system in question.

Example 5.11. papd.conf examples using pipes

The first spooler is known as HP 8100. It pipes the print job to /usr/bin/lpr
for printing using the value of the %%Title: comment as job name. PSSP
authenticated printing is enabled, as is CAP-style authenticated printing. Both
methods support guest and cleartext authentication as specified by the 'am'
option. The PPD used is /etc/atalk/ppds/hp8100.ppd. The second spooler is
called "Dump PostScript" and uses a pipe to cat to send the raw PostScript code
into the user's home directory into a file called like the printjob.

HP 8100:\
   :pr=|/usr/bin/lpr -Plp -J"%J":\
   :sp:\
   :ca=/tmp/print:\
   :am=uams_guest.so,uams_pam.so:\
   :pd=/etc/atalk/ppds/hp8100.ppd:

Dump PostScript:LaserWriter@Server:\
   :pr=|cat >/home/%U/%J-prn.out:\
   :pd=/usr/share/lib/ppd/mooralana.ppd:\
   :sp:au:op=lp:\
   :am=uams_clrtxt.so:

Starting with Netatalk 2.0 direct CUPS integration is available. In this case,
defining only a queue name as pr parameter won't invoke the SysV lpd daemon but
uses CUPS instead. Unless a specific PPD has been assigned using the pd switch,
the PPD configured in CUPS will be used by papd, too.

There exists one special share named "cupsautoadd". If this is present as the
first entry then all available CUPS queues will be served automagically using
the parameters assigned to this global share. But subsequent printer
definitions can be used to override these global settings for individual
spoolers.

Example 5.12. papd.conf CUPS examples

The first entry sets up automatic sharing of all CUPS printers. All those
shares appear in the zone "1st floor" and since no additional settings have
been made, they use the CUPS printer name as NBP name and use the PPD
configured in CUPS. The second entry defines different settings for one single
CUPS printer. It's NBP name is differing from the printer's name and the
registration happens in another zone.

cupsautoadd@1st floor:op=root:

Boss' LaserWriter@2nd floor:\
   :pr=laserwriter-chief:

SEE ALSO

papd(8), atalkd.conf(5), lpd(8), lpoptions(8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

papstatus - get the status of an AppleTalk-connected printer

Synopsis

/usr/sbin/papstatus [-d] [ -p printer ] [retrytime]

DESCRIPTION

papstatus is used to obtain the current status message from an AppleTalk
connected printer. It uses the Printer Access Protocol (PAP) to obtain the
status information.

If no printer is specified on the command line, papstatus looks for a file
called .paprc in the current directory and reads it to obtain the name of a
printer. The .paprc file should contain a single line of the form object:type@
zone where each of object, :type, and @zone are optional. type and zone must be
proceeded by `:' and `@' respectively. Blank lines and lines the begin with a `
#' are ignored. type and zone default to LaserWriter and the zone of the local
host, respectively.

OPTIONS

-d
   
    Turns on a debugging mode that prints some extra information to standard
    error.
   
-p printer
   
    Get status from printer (do not consult any .paprc files to find a printer
    name). The syntax for printer is the same as discussed above for the .paprc
    file.
   
retrytime
   
    Normally, papstatus only gets the status from the printer once. If 
    retrytime is specified, the status is obtained repeatedly, with a sleep of 
    retrytime seconds between inquiring the printer.
   
FILES

.paprc
   
    file that contains printer name
   
SEE ALSO

nbp(1), pap(1)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

psf - PostScript filter

Synopsis

psf [ -n name ] [ -h host ] [ -w width ] [ -l length ] [ -i indent ] [-c]

DESCRIPTION

psf is an lpd filter for PostScript printing. psf interprets the name it was
called with to determine what filters to invoke. First, if the string ``pap''
appears anywhere in the name, psf invokes pap to talk to a printer via
AppleTalk. Next, if the string ``rev'' appears, psf invokes psorder to reverse
the pages of the job. Finally, if psf was called with a filter's name as the
leading string, it invokes that filter. If there is no filter to run, psf
examines the magic number of the input, and if the input is not PostScript,
converts it to PostScript.

KLUDGE

In the default configuration, psf supports two kludges. The first causes psf to
check its name for the letter `m'. If this letter is found and accounting is
turned on, psf calls pap twice, once to get an initial page count and to print
the job, and another time to get a final page count. This is a work-around for
bugs in a variety of PAP implementions that cause printers to never properly
close the PAP output file. A notable example is any printer by Hewlett-Packard.

The second kludge causes psf to examine its name for the letter `w'. If this
letter is found and accounting is turned on, psf calls pap with the -w flag.
This flag causes pap to wait until the printer's status contains the string
`idle'. Once this string is found, the job is printed as normal. This kludge is
a work-around for printers, notably Hewlett-Packard's LaserJet IV, which will
report a page count while a previous jobs is still printing.

EXAMPLE

The sample printcap entry below invokes psf to print text files, PostScript
files, troff's C/A/T output, and TeX's DVI output, to an AppleTalk connected
LaserWriter Plus. Since the LaserWriter Plus stacks pages in descending order,
we reverse the pages and print the burst page last.


laser|lp|LaserWriter Plus on AppleTalk:\
    :sd=/usr/spool/lpd/laser:\
    :lp=/usr/spool/lpd/laser/null:\
    :lf=/var/adm/lpd-errs:pw#80:hl:\
    :of=/usr/libexec/ofpap:\
    :if=/usr/libexec/ifpaprev:\
    :tf=/usr/libexec/tfpaprev:\
    :df=/usr/libexec/dfpaprev:

Note that if the host in question spools to more than one AppleTalk printer, /
dev/null should not be used for the lp capability. Instead, a null device
should be created with mknod for each printer, as has been done above.

Finally, there is a file in the spool directory, /var/spool/lpd/laser, called
.paprc, which pap reads for the AppleTalk name of the printer.

SEE ALSO

psorder(1), printcap(5), lpd(1), mknod(1), pap(1).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

psorder - PostScript pageorder filter

Synopsis

psorder [-duf] sourcefile

DESCRIPTION

psorder is a filter that re-orders the pages of a PostScript document. The
result is written to the standard output. By default, documents are processed
into ascending order (the lowest numbered page is printed first). Some
PostScript documents specify that the order of their pages should never be
changed; the default action of psorder is to follow this specification.

If no source file is given, or if sourcefile is `-', psorder reads from the
standard input file.

OPTIONS

-d
   
    Re-order the pages of the document in downward or descending order. This is
    typically used to change the order of a document to be printed by a printer
    that stacks pages face-up, such as an Apple LaserWriter or LaserWriter
    Plus.
   
-u
   
    Specifies forward order, and is the default. It is used to try and ensure
    the correct ordering when a document will be printed by a printer that
    stacks the pages face-down.
   
-f
   
    Force psorder to re-order the pages, even if the document claims that its
    page order is not to be trifled with. This option should only be used
    experimentally, as it may cause documents to print incorrectly.
   
SEE ALSO

psf(8), lpr(1).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

timelord - Macintosh time server daemon

Synopsis

SYNTAX

timelord [-d] [-n filename]

DESCRIPTION

timelord is a simple time server for Macintosh computers that use the tardis
client.

OPTIONS

-d
   
    Debug mode, i.e. don't disassociate from controlling TTY.
   
-n nbpname
   
    Register this server as nbpname. This defaults to the hostname.
   
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

timeout - Send a signal to a program after a certain time

SYNTAX

timeout [-s signal] seconds program [args]

DESCRIPTION

timeout executes a program (with arguments args) and sends a signal to it after
a certain amount of seconds.

OPTIONS

-s signal
   
    Signal to send to the spawned process. This can be a numerical or symbolic
    ID. This defaults to TERM.
   
EXAMPLES

timeout 10 pap foo.ps
   
    Execute "pap foo.ps" and send a SIGTERM if pap doesn't return after 10
    seconds.
   
timeout -s HUP 60 sh
   
    Spawn a shell and send a hangup signal after one minute.
   
timeout -s 9 10 evilprog
   
    Execute a program and KILL it if it doesn't quit after 10 seconds.
   
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

uniconv - convert Netatalk volume encoding

Synopsis

uniconv [-ndv] -c cnidbackend -f fromcode -t tocode [-m maccode] volumepath

Description

uniconv converts the volume encoding of volumepath from the fromcode to the
tocode encoding.

Options

-c
   
    CNID backend used on this volume, usually cdb or dbd. Should match the
    backend selected with afpd for this volume. If not specified, the default
    CNID backend `cdb' is used
   
-d
   
    don't CAP encode leading dots (:2e), equivalent to usedots in
    AppleVolumes.default(5)
   
-f
   
    encoding to convert from, use ASCII for CAP encoded volumes
   
-h
   
    display help
   
-m
   
    Macintosh client codepage, required for CAP encoded volumes. Defaults to
    `MAC_ROMAN'
   
-n
   
    `dry run', don't do any real changes
   
-t
   
    volume encoding to convert to, e.g. UTF8
   
-v
   
    verbose output, use twice for maximum logging.
   
-V
   
    print version and exit
   
WARNING

Setting the wrong options might render your data unusable!!! Make sure you know
what you are doing. Always backup your data first.

It is *strongly* recommended to do a `dry run' first and to check the output
for conversion errors.

afpd(8) should not be running while you change the volume encoding. Remember to
change volcodepage in AppleVolumes.default(5) to the new codepage, before
restarting afpd.

USE AT YOUR OWN RISK!!!

Selectable charsets

Netatalk provides internal support for UTF-8 (pre- and decomposed) and CAP. If
you want to use other charsets, they must be provided by iconv(1)

uniconv also knows iso-8859.adapted, an old style 1.x NLS widely used. This is
only intended for upgrading old volumes, afpd(8) cannot handle iso-8859.adapted
anymore.

CNID background

The CNID backends maintains name to ID mappings. If you change a filename
outside afpd(8) (shell, samba), the CNID db, i.e. the DIDNAME index, gets
inconsistent. Netatalk tries to recover from such inconsistencies as gracefully
as possible. The mechanisms to resolve such inconsistencies may fail sometimes,
though, as this is not an easy task to accomplish. I.e. if several names in the
path to the file or directory have changed, things may go wrong.

If you change a lot of filenames at once, chances are higher that the afpds
fallback mechanisms fail, i.e. files will be assigned new IDs, even though the
file hasn't changed. uniconv therefore updates the CNID entry for each file/
directory directly after it changes the name to avoid inconsistencies. The two
supported backends for volumes, dbd and cdb, use the same CNID db format.
Therefore, you could use uniconv with cdb and afpd with dbd later.

Warning: There must not be two processes opening the CNID database using
different backends at once! If a volume is still opened with dbd (cnid_metad/
cnid_dbd) and you start uniconv with cdb, the result will be a corrupted CNID
database, as the two backends use different locking schemes. You might run into
additional problems, e.g. if dbd is compiled with transactions, cdb will not
update the transaction logs.

In general, it is recommended to use the same backend for uniconv you are using
with afpd(8).

Examples

convert 1.x CAP encoded volume to UTF-8, clients used MacRoman codepage,
cnidscheme is dbd:

example% uniconv -c dbd -f ASCII -t UTF8 -m MAC_ROMAN /path/to/share

convert iso8859-1 volume to UTF-8, cnidscheme is cdb:

example% uniconv -c cdb -f ISO-8859-1 -t UTF8 -m MAC_ROMAN /path/to/share

convert 1.x volume using iso8859-1 adapted NLS to CAP encoding:

example% uniconv -f ISO-8859-ADAPTED -t ASCII -m MAC_ROMAN/path/to/share

convert UTF-8 volume to CAP, for MacCyrillic clients:

example% uniconv -f UTF8 -t ASCII -m MAC_CYRILLIC /path/to/share

See also

AppleVolumes.default(5),afpd(8),iconv(1),cnid_metad(8),cnid_dbd(8)

Index

Symbols

2-Way Randnum exchange
   
    "2-Way Randnum exchange" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
A

achfile, achfile
acleandir, acleandir
ADv1
   
    AppleDouble v1, Volumes and filenames
   
ADv2
   
    AppleDouble v2, CNID backends, Volumes and filenames
   
aecho, aecho
AEP
   
    Apple Echo Protocol, aecho, atalkd
   
afile, afile
AFP
   
    Apple Filing Protocol, File Services
   
afpd, Starting and stopping Netatalk, afpd
afpd.conf, afpd.conf
AFPD_GUEST, netatalk.conf
AFPD_MAX_CLIENTS, netatalk.conf
AFPD_RUN, netatalk.conf
AFPD_UAM_LIST, netatalk.conf
afppasswd, afppasswd
AFS Kerberos
   
    "AFS Kerberos" UAM (Kerberos IV), UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
ALLMULTI
   
    NIC multicast settings, atalkd.conf
   
AppleDB
   
    .AppleDB CNID database store, How to upgrade if no persistent CNID storage
        was used
    CNID database folder, CNID backends
   
AppleShare
   
    Synonym for an AFP server, Setting up the AFP file server
   
Appletalk
   
    The AppleTalk protocol suite, Appletalk
   
AppleVolumes.default, AppleVolumes.default
apple_cp, apple_cp
apple_mv, apple_mv
apple_rm, apple_rm
ASCII
   
    afpd's unixcodepage setting, afpd and character sets
    afpd's volcharset setting, Compatibility with earlier versions
    American Standard Code for Information Interchange, Why Unicode?
   
asip-status.pl, asip-status.pl
atalk, atalk
atalkd, Starting and stopping Netatalk, atalkd
atalkd.conf, atalkd.conf
ATALKD_RUN, netatalk.conf
atalk_aton, atalk_aton
ATALK_BGROUND, netatalk.conf
ATALK_MAC_CHARSET, netatalk.conf
ATALK_NAME, netatalk.conf
ATALK_UNIX_CHARSET, netatalk.conf
ATALK_ZONE, netatalk.conf
authenticated printing, Using pipes with papd, Notes
Authentication
   
    between AFP client and server, Authentication
   
B

Backend
   
    CNID backend, CNID backends
    CUPS backend, Using AppleTalk printers
   
BDB
   
    Berkeley DB, Required third party software
   
C

CAP
   
    Columbia AppleTalk Package, Volumes and filenames
   
CAP encoding
   
    CAP style character encoding, afpd and character sets
   
CAP-style authentication
   
    old-style printing authentication, Notes
   
CDB
   
    "cdb" CNID backend, cdb, Choosing a CNID storage scheme
   
Charset
   
    character set, Charsets/Unicode
   
Cleartxt Passwrd
   
    "Cleartxt Passwrd" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
Client Krb v2
   
    "Client Krb v2" UAM (Kerberos V), UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
CNID
   
    Catalog Node ID, CNID backends, Choosing a CNID storage scheme
   
CNID backend, CNID backends, cnid_dbd, cnid_index
cnidscheme
   
    specifying a CNID backend, CNID backends, Choosing a CNID storage scheme, 
        AppleVolumes.default
   
cnid_dbd, cnid_dbd
cnid_index, cnid_index
cnid_metad, Starting and stopping Netatalk, cnid_metad
   
    dbd CNID database daemon, Choosing a CNID storage scheme
   
CNID_METAD_RUN, netatalk.conf
Codepage, Why Unicode?
Compile
   
    Compiling Netatalk from Source, Compiling Netatalk
   
CUPS
   
    Common Unix Printing System, Setting up the PAP print server
   
CVS
   
    Concurrent Versioning System, Anonymous CVS
   
D

DBD
   
    "dbd" CNID backend, dbd, Choosing a CNID storage scheme
   
DDP
   
    Datagram Delivery Protocol, Transport Options
   
Deb
   
    Debian package, Binary packages
   
Decomposed
   
    Decomposed Unicode normalization, character sets used by Apple
   
DHCAST128
   
    "DHCAST128" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
DID
   
    Directory ID, CNID backends
   
F

FID
   
    File ID, CNID backends
   
File Services
   
    Netatalk's File Services, File Services
   
G

getzones, getzones

H

hqx2bin, megatron

I

Iconv
   
    iconv encoding conversion engine, afpd and character sets
   
IETF
   
    Internet Engineering Task Force, Optional third party software
   
ISO-8859-1
   
    afpd's volcharset setting, Charset options
   
ISO-8859-15
   
    afpd's volcharset setting, Charset options
   
K

Kerberos IV
   
    "Kerberos IV" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
Kerberos V
   
    "Client Krb v2" UAM, Which UAMs to activate?
   
L

Last
   
    "last" CNID backend, last, Choosing a CNID storage scheme
   
lpd
   
    System V line printer daemon, Setting up the PAP print server
   
LPR
   
    Remote Line Printer Protocol, Printing
   
lpr
   
    BSD lpd/lpr daemon, Setting up the PAP print server
   
LPRng
   
    LPR Next Generation, Setting up the PAP print server
   
M

macbinary, megatron
maccodepage
   
    afpd's maccodepage setting, afpd and character sets
   
MacRoman
   
    MacRoman charset, Why Unicode?
   
megatron, megatron

N

NBP
   
    Name Binding Protocol, Transport Options, atalkd
   
nbp, nbp
nbplkup, nbp
nbprgstr, nbp
nbpunrgstr, nbp
nbp_name, nbp_name
Nested volumes, CNID backends
net-range
   
    AppleTalk net-range, Routing
   
netatalk-config, netatalk-config
netatalk.conf, Starting and stopping Netatalk, netatalk.conf
NFS
   
    Network File System, CNID backends, cnid_dbd
   
NLS
   
    Native Language Support, Volumes and filenames
   
No User Authent
   
    "No User Authent" UAM (guest access), UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
NTP
   
    Network Time Protocol, Using Netatalk as a time server for Macintoshes
   
P

page accounting, Using AppleTalk printers
PAM
   
    Pluggable Authentication Modules, Optional third party software
   
Panther
   
    Mac OS X 10.3, Setting up the AFP file server
   
PAP
   
    Printer Access Protocol, Printing
   
pap, pap
papd, Starting and stopping Netatalk, papd
papd.conf, papd.conf
PAPD_RUN, Starting and stopping Netatalk, netatalk.conf
papstatus, papstatus
PGPuam 1.0
   
    "PGPuam 1.0" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
Phase
   
    AppleTalk phase 1 or 2, atalkd, atalkd.conf
   
Ports
   
    FreeBSD port, Binary packages
   
PPD
   
    PostScript Printer Description file, Setting up the PAP print server
   
Precomposed
   
    Precomposed Unicode normalization, character sets used by Apple
   
Printing, Printing
psf, psf
psorder, psorder
PSSP
   
    Print Server Security Protocol, Notes
   
Q

Quotas
   
    Disk usage quotas, CNID backends
   
R

Randnum exchange
   
    "Randnum exchange" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
Router
   
    AppleTalk router, atalkd acting as an AppleTalk router
   
RPM
   
    Red Hat Package Manager package, Binary packages
   
RTMP
   
    Routing Table Maintainance Protocol, atalkd
   
S

Samba, character sets used by Apple
single2bin, megatron
SLP
   
    Service Location Protocol, Optional third party software, Transport Options
   
Startscript
   
    startup script, Starting and stopping Netatalk, netatalk.conf
   
SUN
   
    Sun Microsystems, Optional third party software
   
Symlink
   
    Unix softlink, CNID backends
   
T

Time Services, Time Services
Timelord
   
    AppleTalk time server, Time Services
   
timelord, Using Netatalk as a time server for Macintoshes, Starting and
    stopping Netatalk, timelord
timeout, timeout

U

UAM
   
    User Authentication Module, AFP authentication basics, afppasswd, papd
   
uams_cleartxt.so
   
    "Cleartxt Passwrd" UAM, Netatalk UAM overview table
   
uams_dhx.so
   
    "DHCAST128" UAM, Netatalk UAM overview table
   
uams_gss.so
   
    "Client Krb v2" UAM (Kerberos V), Netatalk UAM overview table
   
uams_guest.so
   
    "No User Authent" UAM (guest access), Netatalk UAM overview table
   
uams_krb4.so
   
    "Kerberos IV" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
uams_pgp.so
   
    "PGPuam 1.0" UAM, UAMs supported by Netatalk
   
uams_randnum.so
   
    "(2-Way) Randnum exchange" UAM, Netatalk UAM overview table
   
unbin, megatron
unhex, megatron
Unicode, Charsets/Unicode
uniconv, uniconv
unixcodepage
   
    afpd's unixcodepage setting, afpd and character sets
   
unsingle, megatron
UTF8
   
    afpd's volcharset setting, Charset options
    Netatalk's precomposed UTF-8 encoding, character sets used by Apple
   
UTF8-MAC
   
    afpd's volcharset setting, Charset options
    Netatalk's decomposed UTF-8 encoding, character sets used by Apple
   
V

volcharset
   
    afpd's volcharset setting, afpd and character sets
   
Z

ZIP
   
    Zone Information Protocol, atalkd