File: ntop.txt

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ntop 3:3.3-11
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NTOP(8)                                                                NTOP(8)



NNAAMMEE
       ntop - display top network users

SSYYNNOOPPSSIISS
       nnttoopp  [@@ffiilleennaammee] [--aa|----aacccceessss--lloogg--ffiillee _<_p_a_t_h_>] [--bb|----ddiissaabbllee--ddeeccooddeerrss]
       [--cc|----ssttiicckkyy--hhoossttss]    [--ee|----mmaaxx--ttaabbllee--rroowwss]    [--ff|----ttrraaffffiicc--dduummpp--ffiillee
       _f_i_l_e_>] [--gg|----ttrraacckk--llooccaall--hhoossttss] [--hh|----hheellpp] [--jj|----ccrreeaattee--ootthheerr--ppaacckkeettss]
       [--ll|----ppccaapp--lloogg _<_p_a_t_h_>] [--mm|----llooccaall--ssuubbnneettss _<_a_d_d_r_e_s_s_e_s_>]  [--nn|----nnuummeerriicc--
       iipp--aaddddrreesssseess] [--oo|----nnoo--mmaacc] [--pp|----pprroottooccoollss _<_l_i_s_t_>] [--qq|----ccrreeaattee--ssuussppii--
       cciioouuss--ppaacckkeettss]   [--rr|----rreeffrreesshh--ttiimmee   _<_n_u_m_b_e_r_>]   [--ss|----nnoo--pprroommiissccuuoouuss]
       [--tt|----ttrraaccee--lleevveell  _<_n_u_m_b_e_r_>]  [--xx  _<_m_a_x___n_u_m___h_a_s_h___e_n_t_r_i_e_s_>]  [--ww|----hhttttpp--
       sseerrvveerr _<_p_o_r_t_>] [--zz|----ddiissaabbllee--sseessssiioonnss]  [--AA|----sseett--aaddmmiinn--ppaasssswwoorrdd  _p_a_s_s_-
       _w_o_r_d]    [--BB|----ffiilltteerr--eexxpprreessssiioonn    _e_x_p_r_e_s_s_i_o_n]    [--CC    _<_c_o_n_f_i_gmode>_]
       [--DD|----ddoommaaiinn _<_n_a_m_e_>] [--FF|----ffllooww--ssppeecc _<_s_p_e_c_s_>] [--MM|----nnoo--iinntteerrffaaccee--mmeerrggee]
       [--NN|----wwwwnn--mmaapp _<_p_a_t_h_>] [--OO|--------oouuttppuutt--ppaacckkeett--ppaatthh _<_p_a_t_h_>] [--PP|----ddbb--ffiillee--
       ppaatthh  _<_p_a_t_h_>]   [--QQ|----ssppooooll--ffiillee--ppaatthh   _<_p_a_t_h_>]   [--UU|----mmaappppeerr   _<_U_R_L_>]
       [--VV|----vveerrssiioonn]]  [--XX  _<_m_a_x___n_u_m___T_C_P___s_e_s_s_i_o_n_s_>] [----ddiissaabbllee--iinnssttaannttsseessssiioonn--
       ppuurrggee]  [----ddiissaabbllee--mmuutteexxeexxttrraaiinnffoo]  [----ddiissaabbllee--sscchheeddyyiieelldd]  [----ddiissaabbllee--
       ssttooppccaapp]  [----ffcc--oonnllyy] [----iinnssttaannccee] [----nnoo--ffcc] [----nnoo--iinnvvaalliidd--lluunn] [----pp33pp--
       ccpp] [----pp33pp--uurrii] [----sskkiipp--vveerrssiioonn--cchheecckk] [----ww33cc] [--44|----iippvv44]] [--66|----iippvv66]]

       Unix options:

       [--dd|----ddaaeemmoonn] [--ii|----iinntteerrffaaccee _<_n_a_m_e_>] [--uu|----uusseerr _<_u_s_e_r_>]  [--KK|----eennaabbllee--
       ddeebbuugg]  [--LL]  [----ppccaapp__sseettnnoonnbblloocckk]  [----uussee--ssyysslloogg==  _<_f_a_c_i_l_i_t_y_>] [----wweebb--
       sseerrvveerr--qquueeuuee _<_n_u_m_b_e_r_>]

       Windows option:

       [--ii|----iinntteerrffaaccee _<_n_u_m_b_e_r_|_n_a_m_e_>]

       OpenSSL options:

       [--WW|----hhttttppss--sseerrvveerr _<_p_o_r_t_>] [----ssssll--wwaattcchhddoogg]


DDEESSCCRRIIPPTTIIOONN
       nnttoopp shows the current network usage. It displays a list of hosts  that
       are  currently using the network and reports information concerning the
       (IP and non-IP) traffic generated and received by each host.  nnttoopp  may
       operate as a front-end collector (sFlow and/or netFlow plugins) or as a
       stand-alone collector/display program.  A  web  browser  is  needed  to
       access the information captured by the nnttoopp program.

       nnttoopp  is a hybrid layer 2 / layer 3 network monitor, that is by default
       it uses the layer 2 Media Access Control (MAC) addresses AND the  layer
       3 tcp/ip addresses.  nnttoopp is capable of associating the two, so that ip
       and non-ip traffic (e.g. arp, rarp) are combined for a complete picture
       of network activity.



CCOOMMMMAANNDD--LLIINNEE OOPPTTIIOONNSS
       @@ffiilleennaammee
        The  text  of  ffiilleennaammee  is  copied - ignoring line breaks and comment
        lines (anything following a #) - into the command line.  nnttoopp  behaves
        as  if  all  of the text had simply been typed directly on the command
        line.  For example, if the command line is "-t 3 @d -u ntop" and  file
        d contains just the line '-d', then the effective command line is -t 3
        -d -u ntop.  Multiple @s are permitted. Nested @s  (an  @  inside  the
        file) are not permitted.

        Remember,  most  nnttoopp  options  are "sticky", that is they just set an
        internal flag. Invoking them  multiple  times  doesn't  change  nnttoopp''ss
        behavior.  However,  options  that set a value, such as --trace-level,
        will use the LAST value given: --trace-level 2  --trace-level  3  will
        run as --trace-level 3.

        Beginning  with 3.1, many command-line options may also be set via the
        web browser interface.  These changes take effect on the next  run  of
        and on each subsequent run until changed.



       --aa || ----aacccceessss--lloogg--ffiillee
        By default nnttoopp does not maintain a log of HTTP requests to the inter-
        nal web server.  Use this parameter to request logging and to  specify
        the location of the file where these HTTP requests are logged.

        Each  log  entry is in Apache-like style.  The only difference between
        Apache and nnttoopp logs is that an additional column has been added which
        has  the time (in milliseconds) that nnttoopp needed to serve the request.
        Log entries look like this:

        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:55 -0500] - "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 1489 4
        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:55 -0500] - "GET /index_top.html HTTP/1.1" 200 1854 4
        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:55 -0500] - "GET /index_inner.html HTTP/1.1" 200 1441 7
        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:56 -0500] - "GET /index_left.html HTTP/1.1" 200 1356 4
        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:56 -0500] - "GET /home_.html HTTP/1.1" 200 154/617 9
        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:56 -0500] - "GET /home.html HTTP/1.1" 200 1100/3195 10
        192.168.1.1 - - [04/Sep/2003:20:38:56 -0500] - "GET /About.html HTTP/1.1" 200 2010 10

        This parameter is the complete file name of the access log.  In  prior
        releases it was erroneously called --access-log-path.


       --bb || ----ddiissaabbllee--ddeeccooddeerrss
        This parameter disables protocol decoders.

        Protocol decoders examine and collect information about layer 2 proto-
        cols such as NetBIOS or Netware SAP, as well as about specific  tcp/ip
        (layer 3) protocols, such as DNS, http and ftp.

        This  support is specifically coded for each protocol and is different
        from the capability to count raw information (packets  and  bytes)  by
        protocol specified by the -p | --protocols parameter, below.

        Decoding protocols is a significant consumer of resources. If the nnttoopp
        host is underpowered or monitoring a very busy network, you  may  wish
        to  disable  protocol  decoding  via  this  parameter.  It may also be
        appropriate to use this parameter if you believe that nnttoopp  has  prob-
        lems handling some protocols that occur on your network.

        Even  if  decoding  is  disabled, ftp-data traffic is still decoded to
        look for passive ftp port commands.


       --cc || ----ssttiicckkyy--hhoossttss
        Use this parameter to prevent idle hosts from being purged  from  mem-
        ory.

        By  default  idle  hosts are periodically purged from memory.  An idle
        host is identified when no packets from or to that host have been mon-
        itored   for   the   period   of   time   defined   by  the  value  of
        PARM_HOST_PURGE_MINIMUM_IDLE in globals-defines.h.

        If you use this option, all hosts - active and idle - are retained  in
        memory for the duration of the nnttoopp run.

        P2P  users,  port  scans,  popular web servers and other activity will
        cause nnttoopp to record data about a large number of hosts.  On an active
        network, this will consume a significant - and always growing - amount
        of memory.  It is  strongly  recommended  that  you  use  a  filtering
        expression  to  limit  the hosts which are stored if you use --sticky-
        hosts.

        The idle purge is a statistical one - a random selection of the eligi-
        ble  hosts will be purged during each cycle.  Thus it is possible on a
        busy system for an idle host to remain in the nnttoopp tables  and  appear
        'active' for some considerable time after it is truly idle.


       --dd || ----ddaaeemmoonn
        This  parameter causes ntop to become a daemon, i.e. a task which runs
        in the background without connection to a specific terminal.   To  use
        nnttoopp other than as a casual monitoring tool, you probably will want to
        use this option.

        WWAARRNNIINNGG:: If you are running as a daemon, the messages from  nnttoopp  will
        be  'printed'  on to stdout and thus dropped.  You probably don't want
        to do this.  So remember to also use the -L or --use-syslog options to
        save the messages into the system log.


       --ee || ----mmaaxx--ttaabbllee--rroowwss
        This  defines  the  maximum  number of lines that nnttoopp will display on
        each generated HTML page. If there are more lines to be displayed than
        this  setting permits, only part of the data will be displayed.  There
        will be page forward/back arrows placed at the bottom of the page  for
        navigation between pages.


       --ff || ----ttrraaffffiicc--dduummpp--ffiillee
        By  default, nnttoopp captures traffic from network interface cards (NICs)
        or from netFlow/sFlow probes.  However, nnttoopp can also read data from a
        file  - typically a tcpdump capture or the output from one of the nnttoopp
        packet capture options.

        if you specify -f, nnttoopp will not capture any traffic from NICs  during
        or after the file has been read.  netFlow/sFlow capture - if enabled -
        would still be active.

        This option is mostly used for debug purposes.


       --gg || ----ttrraacckk--llooccaall--hhoossttss
        By default, nnttoopp tracks all hosts that it sees from  packets  captured
        on  the various NICs.  Use this parameter to tell nnttoopp to capture data
        only about  local  hosts.   Local  hosts  are  defined  based  on  the
        addresses  of  the NICs and those networks identified as local via the
        -m | --local-subnets parameter.

        This parameter is useful on large networks  or  those  that  see  many
        hosts,  (e.g.  a  border  router  or gateway), where information about
        remote hosts is not desired/required to be tracked.


       --hh || ----hheellpp
        Print help information for nnttoopp,, including usage and parameters.


       --ii || ----iinntteerrffaaccee
        Specifies the network interface or interfaces to be used by  nnttoopp  for
        network monitoring.

        If  multiple  interfaces  are  used (this feature is available only if
        ntop is compiled with thread support) their names  must  be  separated
        with a comma. For instance -i "eth0,lo".

        If not specified, the default is the first Ethernet device, e.g. eth0.
        The specific device that is 'first' is highly system dependent.  Espe-
        cially  on  systems  where  the  device  name reflects the driver name
        instead of the type of interface.

        By default, traffic information obtained  by  all  the  interfaces  is
        merged together as if the traffic was seen by only one interface.  Use
        the -M parameter to keep traffic separate by interface.

        If you do not want nnttoopp to monitor any interfaces, use -i none.

        Under Windows, the parameter value is either the number of the  inter-
        face  or  its name, e.g.  {6252C14C-44C9-49D9-BF59-B2DC18C7B811}.  Run
        nnttoopp -h to see a list of interface name-number mappings (at the end of
        the help information).


       --jj || ----ccrreeaattee--ootthheerr--ppaacckkeettss
        This  parameter  causes nnttoopp to create a dump file of the 'other' net-
        work traffic captured.  One file is created for each network interface
        where <path>/ntop-other-pkts.<device>.pcap, where <path> is defined by
        the -O | --output-packet-path parameter.   This  file  is  useful  for
        understanding these unclassified packets.


       --ll || ----ppccaapp--lloogg
        This parameter causes a dump file to be created of the network traffic
        captured by nnttoopp in tcpdump (pcap) format.  This file  is  useful  for
        debug,  and may be read back into nnttoopp by the -f | --traffic-dump-file
        parameter.  The dump is made after processing any filter expression  (
        never even sees filtered packets).

        The  output  file  will  be named _<_p_a_t_h_>_/_<_l_o_g_>_._<_d_e_v_i_c_e_>_._p_c_a_p (Windows:
        _<_p_a_t_h_>_/_<_l_o_g_>_._p_c_a_p ), where <path> is defined by  the  -O  |  --output-
        packet-path  parameter  and  <log>  is defined by this -l | --pcap-log
        parameter.


       --mm || ----llooccaall--ssuubbnneettss
        nnttoopp determines the ip addresses and netmasks for each  active  inter-
        face.  Any traffic on those networks is considered local.  This param-
        eter allows the user to define  additional  networks  and  subnetworks
        whose  traffic  is  also  considered  local in nnttoopp reports. All other
        hosts are considered remote.

        Commas separate multiple network values.  Both netmask and CIDR  nota-
        tion    may    be    used,   even   mixed   together,   for   instance
        "131.114.21.0/24,10.0.0.0/255.0.0.0".

        The local subnet - as defined by the interface  address(es)  -  is/are
        always local and do not need to be specified.  If you do give the same
        value as a NIC's local address, a harmless warning message is  issued.


       --nn || ----nnuummeerriicc--iipp--aaddddrreesssseess
        By  default,  nnttoopp resolves IP addresses using a combination of active
        (explicit)  DNS  queries  and  passive  sniffing.   Sniffing  of   DNS
        responses  occurs  when  nnttoopp receives a network packet containing the
        response to some other user's DNS query.  nnttoopp captures this  informa-
        tion  and  enters  it into nnttoopp''ss DNS cache, in expectation of shortly
        seeing traffic addressed to that host.  This  way  nnttoopp  significantly
        reduces the number of DNS queries it makes.

        This  parameter  causes  nnttoopp  to  skip  DNS  resolution, showing only
        numeric IP addresses instead of the symbolic names.  This  option  can
        useful when the DNS is not present or quite slow.


       --oo || ----nnoo--mmaacc
        nnttoopp is a hybrid layer 2/3 network monitor.  That is, it uses both the
        lower level, physical device address - the MAC (Media Access  Control)
        address  - and the higher level, logical, tcp/ip address (the familiar
        www.ntop.org or 131.114.21.9 address).  This allows nnttoopp to  link  the
        logical  addresses to a physical machine with multiple addresses (This
        occurs with virtual hosts or  additional  addresses  assigned  to  the
        interface, etc.)  to present consolidated reporting.

        This  parameter specifies that nnttoopp should not trust the MAC addresses
        but just use the IP addresses.

        Normally, since the MAC address must  be  globally  unique,  the  dual
        nature  of nnttoopp is a benefit and provides far better information about
        the network than is available via a pure layer 2 or pure layer 3 moni-
        tor.

        Under certain circumstances - whenever nnttoopp is started on an interface
        where MAC addresses cannot be really trusted - you  may  require  this
        option.

        Situations  which  may  require  this option include port/VLAN mirror,
        some cases with switches and spanning tree protocol, and  (reportedly)
        some specific models of Ethernet switches which re-write MAC addresses
        of the packets they process.  Normally, you discover that this  option
        is  necessary  when  you  observe  that  hosts  seem  to  change their
        addresses or information about different machines get lumped together.

        Note  that  with  this option, information which is dependent upon the
        MAC addresses (non tcp/ip protocols like IPX) will  not  be  collected
        nor displayed.


       --pp || ----pprroottooccoollss
        This parameter is used to specify the TCP/UDP protocols that nnttoopp will
        monitor. The format is <label>=<protocol  list>  [,  <label>=<protocol
        list>],  where  label  is  used to symbolically identify the <protocol
        list>. The format of <protocol list> is <protocol>[|<protocol>], where
        <protocol>  is  either a valid protocol specified inside the /etc/ser-
        vices file or a numeric port range (e.g. 80, or 6000-6500).

        A simple example is --protocols="HTTP=http|www|https|3128,FTP=ftp|ftp-
        data",  which  reduces  the  protocols  displayed on the "IP" pages to
        three:

        Host                      Domain Data          HTTP   FTP   Other IP
        ns2.attbi.com             <flag>  954 63.9 %      0     0        954
        64.124.83.112.akamai.com  <flag>  240 16.1 %    240     0          0
        64.124.83.99.akamai.com   <flag>  240 16.1 %    240     0          0
        toolbarqueries.google.com <flag>   60 4.0 %      60     0          0

        If the <protocol list> is very long you may store it in  a  file  (for
        instance  protocol.list).   To do so, specify the file name instead of
        the <protocol list> on the command line.  e.g.  nnttoopp --pp pprroottooccooll..lliisstt

        If the -p parameter is omitted the following default value is used:

          FTP=ftp|ftp-data
          HTTP=http|www|https|3128     3128 is Squid, the HTTP cache
          DNS=name|domain
          Telnet=telnet|login
          NBios-IP=netbios-ns|netbios-dgm|netbios-ssn
          Mail=pop-2|pop-3|pop3|kpop|smtp|imap|imap2
          DHCP-BOOTP=67-68
          SNMP=snmp|snmp-trap
          NNTP=nntp
          NFS=mount|pcnfs|bwnfs|nfsd|nfsd-status
          X11=6000-6010
          SSH=22

          Peer-to-Peer Protocols
          ----------------------
          Gnutella=6346|6347|6348
          Kazaa=1214
          WinMX=6699|7730
          DirectConnect=0      Dummy port as this is a pure P2P protocol
          eDonkey=4661-4665

          Instant Messenger
          -----------------
          Messenger=1863|5000|5001|5190-5193

        NOTE: To resolve protocol names to port numbers, they must  be  speci-
        fied  in  the  system  file  used to list tcp/udp protocols and ports,
        which is typically /etc/services file.  You will  have  to  match  the
        names  in  that  file, exactly.  Missing or unspecified (non-standard)
        ports must be specified by number, such as 3128 in our examples above.

        If  you have a file named /etc/protocols, don't get confused by it, as
        that's the Ethernet protocol numbers, which are not what you're  look-
        ing for.


       --qq || ----ccrreeaattee--ssuussppiicciioouuss--ppaacckkeettss
        This parameter tells nnttoopp to create a dump file of suspicious packets.

        There are many, many, things that cause a  packet  to  be  labeled  as
        'suspicious', including:

          Detected ICMP fragment
          Detected Land Attack against host
          Detected overlapping/tiny packet fragment
          Detected traffic on a diagnostic port
          Host performed ACK/FIN/NULL scan
          Host rejected TCP session
          HTTP/FTP/SMTP/SSH detected at wrong port
          Malformed TCP/UDP/ICMP packet (packet too short)
          Packet # %u too long
          Received a ICMP protocol Unreachable from host
          Sent ICMP Administratively Prohibited packet to host
          Smurf packet detected for host
          TCP connection with no data exchanged
          TCP session reset without completing 3-way handshake
          Two MAC addresses found for the same IP address
          UDP data to a closed port
          Unknown protocol (no HTTP/FTP/SMTP/SSH) detected (on port 80/21/25/22)
          Unusual ICMP options

        When  this  parameter  is  used,  one file is created for each network
        interface where suspicious packets are found. The file is  in  tcpdump
        (pcap)  format and is named <path>/ntop-suspicious-pkts.<device>.pcap,
        where <path> is defined by the -O | --output-packet-path parameter.


       --rr || ----rreeffrreesshh--ttiimmee
        Specifies the delay (in seconds) between automatic screen updates  for
        those  generated HTML pages which support them.  This parameter allows
        you to leave your browser window open and have  it  always  displaying
        nearly real-time data from nnttoopp..

        The default is 3 seconds.  Please note that if the delay is very short
        (1 second for instance), nnttoopp might not be able to process all of  the
        network traffic.


       --ss || ----nnoo--pprroommiissccuuoouuss
        Use  this  parameter  to  prevent  from  setting the interface(s) into
        promiscuous mode.

        An interface in promiscuous mode  will  accept  ALL  Ethernet  frames,
        regardless  of  whether they directed (addressed) to the specific net-
        work interface (NIC) or not.  This is an essential  part  of  enabling
        nnttoopp  to  monitor  an entire network.  (Without promiscuous mode, nnttoopp
        will only see traffic directed to the specific host it is running  on,
        plus broadcast traffic such as the arp and dhcp protocols.

        Even if you use this parameter, the interface could well be in promis-
        cuous mode if another application enabled it.

        nnttoopp passes this setting on to libpcap, the  packet  capture  library.
        On  many systems, a non-promiscuous open of the network interface will
        fail, since the libpcap function on most systems require it to capture
        raw  packets  ( nnttoopp captures raw packets so that we may view and ana-
        lyze the layer 2 - MAC - information).

        Thus on most systems, nnttoopp must probably still be started as root, and
        this  option  is  largely  ornamental.   If  it  fails, you will see a
        ***FATALERROR*** message referring to  pcap_open_live()  and  then  an
        information  message,  "Sorry,  but  on  this system, even with -s, it
        appears that ntop must be started as root".


       --tt || ----ttrraaccee--lleevveell
        This parameter specifies the 'information' level of messages that  you
        wish  nnttoopp to display (on stdout or to the log).  The higher the trace
        level number the more information that is displayed.  The trace  level
        ranges between 0 (no trace) and 5 (full debug tracings).

        The default trace value is 3.

        Trace  level  0  is  not quite zero messages. Fatal errors and certain
        startup/shutdown messages are always displayed.  Trace level 1 is used
        to  display  errors  only,  level  2 for both errors and warnings, and
        level 3 displays error, warning and informational messages.

        Trace level 4 is called 'noisy' and it is - generating  many  messages
        about  the  internal functioning of nnttoopp..  Trace level 5 and above are
        'noisy' plus extra logs, i.e. all possible messages, with a  file:line
        tag prepended to every message.


       --uu || ----uusseerr
        Specifies the user nnttoopp should run as after it initializes.

        nnttoopp must normally be started as root so that it has sufficient privi-
        leges to open the  network  interfaces  in  promiscuous  mode  and  to
        receive  raw  frames.   See  the  discussion  of -s | --no-promiscuous
        above, if you wish to try starting nnttoopp as a non-root user.

        Shortly after starting up, nnttoopp becomes the  user  you  specify  here,
        which  normally has substantially reduced privileges, such as no login
        shell.  This is the userid  which  owns  nnttoopp''ss  database  and  output
        files.

        The  value  specified  may  be either a username or a numeric user id.
        The group id used will be the primary group of the user specified.

        If this parameter is not specified, ntop will try to switch  first  to
        'nobody' and then to 'anonymous' before giving up.

        NOTE:  This  should not be root unless you really understand the secu-
        rity risks. In order to prevent this by accident, the only way to  run
        nnttoopp as root is to explicitly specify -u root.  DDoonn''tt ddoo iitt..


       --xx

       --XX
        nnttoopp creates a new hash/list entry for each new host/TCP session seen.
        In case of DOS (Denial Of Service) an attacker can easily exhaust  all
        the  host  available memory because ntop is creating entries for dummy
        hosts. In order to avoid this you can set an upper limit in  order  to
        limit the memory ntop can use.


       --ww || ----hhttttpp--sseerrvveerr

       --WW || ----hhttttppss--sseerrvveerr
        nnttoopp offers an embedded web server to present the information that has
        been so painstakingly  gathered.   An  external  HTTP  server  is  NOT
        required  NOR  supported.   The  nnttoopp  web server is embedded into the
        application.  These parameters specify the port  (and  optionally  the
        address (i.e. interface)) of the nnttoopp web server.

        For  example,  if  started with -w 3000 (the default port), the URL to
        access nnttoopp is http://hostname:3000/.  If started with a full specifi-
        cation,   e.g.   -w   192.168.1.1:3000,  nnttoopp  listens  on  only  that
        address/port combination.

        If -w is set to 0 the web server will not listen for  http://  connec-
        tions.

        -W  operates similarly, but controls the port for the https:// connec-
        tions.

        Some examples:

        nnttoopp --ww 33000000 --WW 00 (this is the default setting) HTTP requests on  port
        3000 and no HTTPS.

        nnttoopp  --ww 8800 --WW 444433 Both HTTP and HTTPS have been enabled on their most
        common ports.

        nnttoopp --ww 00 --WW 444433 HTTP disabled, HTTPS enabled on the common port.

        Certain sensitive, configuration pages of the nnttoopp web server are pro-
        tected  by  a  userid/password.   By  default,  these are the user/URL
        administration, filter, shutdown and reset  stats  are  password  pro-
        tected
         and  are  accessible initially only to user aaddmmiinn with a password set
        during the first run of nnttoopp..

        Users can modify/add/delete users/URLs using ntop  itself  -  see  the
        Admin tab.

        The  passwords,  userids and URLs to protect with passwords are stored
        in a database file.  Passwords are stored in an encrypted form in  the
        database  for further security.  Best practices call for securing that
        database so that only the nnttoopp user can read it.

        There is a discussion in docs/FAQ  about  further  securing  the  nnttoopp
        environment.


       --zz || ----ddiissaabbllee--sseessssiioonnss
        This  parameter disables TCP session tracking.  Use it for better per-
        formance or when you don't really need/care to track sessions.


       --AA || ----sseett--aaddmmiinn--ppaasssswwoorrdd
        This parameter is used to start nnttoopp ,  set  the  admin  password  and
        quit. It is quite useful for installers that need to automatically set
        the password for the admin user.

        -A and --set-admin-password (without a value) will prompt the user for
        the password.

        You  may  also use this parameter to set a specific value using --set-
        admin-password=value.  TThhee == iiss RREEQQUUIIRREEDD aanndd nnoo ssppaacceess aarree  ppeerrmmiitttteedd!!

        If  you  attempt to run nnttoopp as a daemon without setting a password, a
        FATAL ERROR message is generated and nnttoopp stops.


       --BB || ----ffiilltteerr--eexxpprreessssiioonn
        Filters allows the user to restrict the traffic seen by nnttoopp  on  just
        about any imaginable item.

        The filter expression is set at run time by this parameter, but it may
        be changed during the nnttoopp run on the Admin | Change Filter web  page.

        The basic format is --BB ffiilltteerr , where the quotes are RREEQQUUIIRREEDD

        The syntax of the filter expression uses the same BPF (Berkeley Packet
        Filter) expressions used by other packages such as tcpdump

        For instance, suppose you are interested only in  the  traffic  gener-
        ated/received  by  the  host  jake.unipi.it.  nnttoopp can then be started
        with the following filter:

        nnttoopp --BB ssrrcc hhoosstt jjaakkee..uunniippii..iitt oorr ddsstt hhoosstt jjaakkee..uunniippii..iitt

        or in shorthand:

        nnttoopp --BB hhoosstt jjaakkee..uunniippii..iitt oorr hhoosstt jjaakkee..uunniippii..iitt

        See the 'expression' section of the ttccppdduummpp man page - usually  avail-
        able at http://www.tcpdump.org/tcpdump_man.html - for further informa-
        tion and the best quick guide to BPF filters currently available.

        WARNING: If you are using complex filter expressions, especially those
        with  =s or meaningful spaces in them, be sure and use the long option
        format, --filter-expression="xxxx" and not -B "xxxx".



       --CC ||
        This instruments ntop to be used in two configurations: host and  net-
        work  mode.  In  host  mode  (default)  ntop  works  as  usual: the IP
        addresses received are those of  real  hosts.  In  host  mode  the  IP
        addresses  received  are  those  of  the  C-class network to which the
        address belongs. Using ntop in network mode is extremely  useful  when
        installed  in  a traffic exchange (e.g. in the middle of the Internet)
        whereas the host mode should be used when ntop  is  installed  on  the
        edge  of  a network (e.g. inside a company). The network mode signifi-
        cantly reduces the amount of work ntop has to perform and it has to be
        used  whenever  ntop is used to find out how the network traffic flows
        and not to pin-point specific hosts.



       --DD || ----ddoommaaiinn
        This identifies the local domain suffix, e.g.  ntop.org.   It  may  be
        necessary, if nnttoopp is having difficulty determining it from the inter-
        face.


       --FF || ----ffllooww--ssppeecc
        It is used to specify network flows similar to more powerful  applica-
        tions  such  as NeTraMet.  A flow is a stream of captured packets that
        match a specified rule. The format is

        <<ffllooww--llaabbeell>>==''<<mmaattcchhiinngg eexxpprreessssiioonn>>''[[,,<<ffllooww--llaabbeell>>==''<<mmaattcchhiinngg  eexxpprreess--
        ssiioonn>>'']]

        ,  where the label is used to symbolically identify the flow specified
        by the expression.  The expression is a bpf (Berkeley  Packet  Filter)
        expression.  If  an expression is specified, then the information con-
        cerning flows can be accessed following the HTML link named 'List Net-
        Flows'.

        For  instance  define  two  flows  with the following expression LLuuccaa--
        HHoossttss==''hhoosstt jjaakkee..uunniippii..iitt oorr  hhoosstt  ppiissaanniinnoo..uunniippii..iitt'',,GGaatteewwaayyRRoouutteeddPP--
        kkttss==''ggaatteewwaayy ggaatteewwaayy..uunniippii..iitt'' ..

        All    the   traffic   sent/received   by   hosts   jake.unipi.it   or
        pisanino.unipi.it is collected by nnttoopp  and  added  to  the  LucaHosts
        flow,  whereas  all  the packet routed by the gateway gateway.unipi.it
        are added to the GatewayRoutedPkts flow. If the  flows  list  is  very
        long you may store in a file (for instance flows.list) and specify the
        file name instead of the actual flows list (in the above example, this
        would be 'ntop -F flows.list').

        Note  that the double quotations around the entire flow expression are
        required.


       --KK || ----eennaabbllee--ddeebbuugg
        Use this parameter to  simplify  application  debug.   It  does  three
        things: 1. Does not fork() on the "read only" html pages.  2. Displays
        mutex values on the configuration (info.html) page.  3. (If  available
        - glibc/gcc) Activates an automated backtrace on application errors.


       --LL || ----uussee--ssyysslloogg==ffaacciilliittyy
        Use  this  parameter to send log messages to the system log instead of
        stdout.

        -L and the simple form --use-syslog  use  the  default  log  facility,
        defined as LOG_DAEMON in the #define symbol DEFAULT_SYSLOG_FACILITY in
        globals-defines.h.

        The complex form, --use-syslog=facility will set the log  facility  to
        whatever value (e.g. local3, security) you specify.  TThhee == iiss RREEQQUUIIRREEDD
        aanndd nnoo ssppaacceess aarree aalllloowweedd!!

        This setting applies both to  nnttoopp  and  to  any  child  fork()ed  for
        reporting.   If  this  parameter  is not specified, any fork()ed child
        will use the default value and will log it's messages  to  the  system
        log  (this  occurs because the fork()ed child must give up it's access
        to the parents stdout).

        Because various systems do not make the permissible  names  available,
        we  have  a  table at the end of globals-core.c.  Look for myFacility-
        Names.


       --MM || ----nnoo--iinntteerrffaaccee--mmeerrggee
        By default, nnttoopp merges the data collected from all of the  interfaces
        (NICs) it is monitoring into a single set of counters.

        If you have a simple network, say a small LAN with a connection to the
        Internet, merging data is good as it gives you a better picture of the
        whole  network.   For  larger,  more complex networks, this may not be
        desirable.  You may also have other reasons  for  wishing  to  monitor
        each interface separately, for example DMZ vs. LAN traffic.

        This  option  instructs nnttoopp not to merge network interfaces together.
        This means that nnttoopp will collect statistics for  each  interface  and
        report them separately.

        Only  ONE  interface  may  be  reported on at a time - use the AAddmmiinn ||
        SSwwiittcchh NNIICC option on the web  server  to  select  which  interface  to
        report upon.

        Note  that  activating  either  the  netFlow and/or sFlow plugins will
        force the setting of -M.  Once enabled, you cannot go back.


       --NN || ----wwwwnn--mmaapp
        This options names the file providing the map of WWN to FCID/VSAN ids.


       --OO || ----oouuttppuutt--ppaacckkeett--ppaatthh
        This   parameter  defines  the  base  path  for  the  ntop-suspicious-
        pkts.XXX.pcap and normal packet dump files.

        If this parameter is not specified, the default value is the  config.h
        parameter  CFG_DBFILE_DIR,  which  is  set during ./configure from the
        --localstatedir= parameter.  If --localstatedir is not  specified,  it
        defaults to the --prefix value plus /var (e.g. /usr/local/var).

        Be  aware  that this may not be what you expect when running nnttoopp as a
        daemon or Windows service. Setting an explicit and absolute path value
        is SSTTRROONNGGLLYY recommended if you use this facility.


       --PP || ----ddbb--ffiillee--ppaatthh

       --QQ || ----ssppooooll--ffiillee--ppaatthh
        These parameters specify where nnttoopp stores database files.

        There  are  two  types,  'temporary'  - that is ones which need not be
        retained from nnttoopp run to nnttoopp run, and  'permanent',  which  must  be
        retained (or recreated).

        The 'permanent' databases are the preferences, "prefsCache.db" and the
        password file, "ntop_pw.db".  These are stored in the -P |  --db-file-
        path specified location.

        Certain  plugins  use  the  -P | --db-file-path specified location for
        their database ("LsWatch.db")  or  (as  a  default  value)  for  files
        (.../rrd/...).

        The  'temporary'  databases  are the address queue, "addressQueue.db",
        the cached DNS resolutions, "dnsCache.db" and the MAC  prefix  (vendor
        table), "macPrefix.db".

        If only -P | --db-file-path is specified, it is used for both types of
        databases.

        The directories named must allow read/write and file creation  by  the
        nnttoopp  user.  For security, nobody else should have even read access to
        these files.

        Note that the default value is the config.h parameter  CFG_DBFILE_DIR.
        This  is  set  during ./configure from the --localstatedir= parameter.
        If --localstatedir is not specified, it defaults to the --prefix value
        plus /var (e.g. /usr/local/var).

        This  may not be what you expect when running nnttoopp as a daemon or Win-
        dows service.

        Note that on versions of nnttoopp prior to 2.3, these parameters defaulted
        to "." (the current working directory, e.g.  the value returned by the
        pwd command) and caused havoc as it was different when  nnttoopp  was  run
        from  the  command line, vs. run via cron, vs. run from an initializa-
        tion script.

        Setting an explicit and absolute path value is SSTTRROONNGGLLYY recommended.


       --UU || ----mmaappppeerr
        Specifies the URL of the mapper.pl utility.

        If provided, nnttoopp creates a clickable hyperlink  on  the  'Info  about
        host  xxxxxx'  page to this URL by appending ?host=xxxxx.  Any type of
        host lookup could be performed, but this is  intended  to  lookup  the
        geographical location of the host.

        A cgi-based mapper interface to http://www.multimap.com is part of the
        nnttoopp distribution [see www/Perl/mapper.pl]).


       --VV || ----vveerrssiioonn
        Prints nnttoopp version information and then exits.


       --WW || ----hhttttppss--sseerrvveerr
        (See the joint documentation with the -w parameter, above)


       ----ddiissaabbllee--iinnssttaannttsseessssiioonnppuurrggee
        nnttoopp sets completed sessions as 'timed out' and then purge them almost
        instantly, which is not the behavior you might expect from the discus-
        sions about purge timeouts.  This switch makes ntop respect the  time-
        outs for completed sessions.  It is NOT the default because a busy web
        server may have 100s or 1000s of completed  sessions  and  this  would
        significantly increase the amount of memory nnttoopp uses.


       ----ddiissaabbllee--mmuutteexxeexxttrraaiinnffoo
        nnttoopp  stores extra information about the locks and unlocks of the pro-
        tective mutexes it uses. Since nnttoopp uses  fine-grained  locking,  this
        information  is  updated  frequently.   On some OSes, the system calls
        used to collect this information  (getpid()  and  gettimeofday())  are
        expensive.   This  option  disables  the extra information.  It should
        have no processing impact on nnttoopp
         - however should nnttoopp actually deadlock, we would lose  the  informa-
        tion that sometimes tells us why.


       ----ddiissaabbllee--sscchheeddyyiieelldd
        nnttoopp  uses  sched_yield()  calls  for  better interactive performance.
        Under some situations, primarily under  RedHat  Linux  8.0,  this  can
        deadlock,  causing  the  nnttoopp  web server to stop responding, although
        nnttoopp appears to still be operational according to the ps command.  Use
        this switch to disable these calls, IF you are seeing deadlocks.


       ----ddiissaabbllee--ssttooppccaapp
        Return nnttoopp to the old (v2.1) behavior on a memory error.  The default
        of stopcap enabled makes  the  web  interface  available  albeit  with
        static content until nnttoopp is shutdown.


       ----ffcc--oonnllyy

        Display only Fibre Channel statistics.


       ----iinnssttaannccee

        You  can  run  multiple instances of nnttoopp simultaneously by specifying
        different -P values (typically through separate ntop.conf files).   If
        you  set  a  value  for  this parameter (available only on the command
        line), you (1) display the 'instance' name on every web page  and  (2)
        alter the log prefix from "NTOP" to your chosen value.

        If  you want to make the tag more obvious, create a .instance class in
        style.css, e.g.:

           .instance {
             color: #666666;
             font-size: 18pt;
           }

        Note (UNIX): To run completely different versions of the nnttoopp  binary,
        you need to compile and install into a different library (using ./con-
        figure --prefix) and then specify the LD_LIBRARY_PATH before invoking,
        e.g.

        LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/devel/lib/ntop/:... /devel/bin/ntop ...args...

        If  present,  a file of the form <instance>_ntop_logo.gif will be used
        instead of the normal ntop_logo.gif.  This is tested for ONLY once, at
        the  beginning  of  the run.  The EXACT word(s) of the --instance flag
        are used, without testing if they make a proper file name.  If  -  for
        any reason - the file is not found, an informational message is logged
        and the normal logo file is used.  To construct your own logo, make it
        a 300x40 transparent gif.

        NOTE: On the web pages, nnttoopp uses the dladdr() function.  The original
        Solaris routine had a bug, replicated in FreeBSD (and  possibly  other
        places)  where  it uses the ARGV[0] value - which might be erroneous -
        instead of the actual file name.  If the 'running  from'  value  looks
        bogus but the 'libraries in' value looks OK, go with the library.


       ----nnoo--ffcc

        Disable processing & Display of Fibre Channel


       ----nnoo--iinnvvaalliidd--lluunn

        Don't display Invalid LUN information.


       ----pp33pp--ccpp

       ----pp33pp--uurrii

        P3P is a W3C recommendation - http://www.w3.org/TR/P3P/ - for specify-
        ing personal information a site collects and what  it  does  with  the
        information.  These parameters allow to return P3P information.  We do
        not supply samples.


       ----ppccaapp__sseettnnoonnbblloocckk
        On some platforms, the nnttoopp web server will hang or appear to hang (it
        actually  just  responds incredibly slowly to the first request from a
        browser session), while the rest of nnttoopp runs just fine. This is known
        to be an issue under FreeBSD 4.x.

        This  option  sets the non-blocking option (assuming it's available in
        the version of libpcap that is installed).

        While this works around the problem (by turning  an  interrupt  driven
        process into a poll), it also MAY significantly increase the CPU usage
        of nnttoopp..  Although it does not actually  interfere  with  other  work,
        seeing  nnttoopp use 80-90% or more of the cpu is not uncommon - don't say
        we didn't warn you.

        TTHHIISS OOPPTTIIOONN IISS OOFFFFIICCIIAALLLLYY UUNNSSUUPPPPOORRTTEEDD and used at your own risk.  Read
        the docs/FAQ write-up.


       ----sskkiipp--vveerrssiioonn--cchheecckk
        By  default,  nnttoopp accesses a remote file to periodically check if the
        most current version is running.  This  option  disables  that  check.
        Please  review  the privacy notice at the bottom of this page for more
        information.  By default, the recheck period is slightly more than  15
        days.   This  can be adjusted via a constant in globals-defines.h.  If
        the result of the initial check indicates that the nnttoopp version  is  a
        'new  development'  version  (that  is newer than the latest published
        development version), the recheck is disabled.  This is because  which
        fixes and enhancements were present/absent from the code.

        NOTE: At present, the recheck does not work under Windows.


       ----ssssll--wwaattcchhddoogg

        Enable  a watchdog for webserver hangs. These usually happen when con-
        necting with older browsers. The user  gets  nothing  back  and  other
        users can't connect. Internally, packet processing continues but there
        is no way to access the data through the web server or  shutdown  ntop
        cleanly.   With  the  watchdog,  a timeout occurs after 3 seconds, and
        processing continues with a log message. Unfortunately, the user  sees
        nothing - it just looks like a failed connection. (also available as a
        ./configure option, --enable-sslwatchdog)


       ----ww33cc
        By default, nnttoopp generates displayable but not great html.  There  are
        a  number  of tags we do not generate because they cause problems with
        older browsers which are still commonly used or are important to  look
        good  on  real-world browsers.  This flag tells nnttoopp to generate 'BET-
        TER' (but not perfect) w3c compliant html 4.01 output. This in no  way
        addresses  all  of the compatibility and markup issues.  Over time, we
        would like to make nnttoopp more compatible, but it will  never  be  100%.
        If you find any issues, please report them to ntop-dev.


       --44 || ----iippvv44
        Use IPv4 connections.


       --66 || ----iippvv66
        Use IPv6 connections


WWEEBB VVIIEEWWSS
       While  nnttoopp  is running, multiple users can access the traffic informa-
       tion using their web browsers.  nnttoopp does not generate 'fancy' or 'com-
       plex'  html,  although  it does use frames, shallowly nested tables and
       makes some use of JavaScript and Cascading Style Sheets.

       Beginning with release 3.1,  the  menus  are  cascading  dropdowns  via
       JSCookMenu.  With release 3.2, this extends to plugins.

       We do not expect problems with any current web browser, but our ability
       to test with less common ones is very limited.   Testing  has  included
       Firefox  and Internet Explorer, with very limited testing on other cur-
       rent common browsers such as Opera.

       In documentation and this man page, when we refer to  a  page  such  as
       Admin | Switch NIC, we mean the Broad category "Admin" and the detailed
       item "Switch NIC" on that Admin menu.


NNOOTTEESS
       nnttoopp requires a number of external  tools  and  libraries  to  operate.
       Certain  other  tools  are optional, but add to the program's capabili-
       ties.


       ----wweebbsseerrvveerr--qquueeuuee
        Specifies the maximum number of web server  requests  for  the  tcp/ip
        stack  to  retain  in  it's  queue  awaiting  delivery to the nnttoopp web
        server.  Requests in excess of this queue may be dropped (allowing for
        retransmission)  or rejected at the tcp/ip stack level, depending upon
        the OS.  Whatever happens, happens at the OS level, without any infor-
        mation being delivered to nnttoopp

        Required libraries include:

        lliibbppccaapp from http://www.tcpdump.org/, version 0.7.2 or newer. 0.8.3 or
        newer is strongly recommended.

        The Windows version makes use of WWiinnPPccaapp (libpcap for  Windows)  which
        may be downloaded from http://winpcap.polito.it/install/default.htm.

        WARNING: The 2.x releases of WWiinnPPccaapp will NOT support SMP machines.

        ggddbbmm from http://www.gnu.org/software/gdbm/gdbm.html

        nnttoopp  requires  a  POSIX  threads library. As of nnttoopp 3.2, the single-
        threaded version of nnttoopp is no longer available.

        The ggdd 2.x library, for  the  creation  of  png  files,  available  at
        http://www.boutell.com/gd/.

        The  lliibbppnngg 1.2.x library, for the creation of png files, available at
        http://www.libpng.org/pub/png/libpng.html.

        nnttoopp should support both gd 1.X and libpng 1.0.x  libraries  but  this
        has  not  been  tested.   Note that there are incompatibilities if you
        compile with one version of these libraries  and  then  run  with  the
        other.   Please  read  the discussion in docs/FAQ before reporting ANY
        problems of this nature.

        (if an https:// server is desired) ooppeennSSSSLL from  the  OpenSSL  project
        available at http://www.openssl.org.

        The  rrrrddttooooll  library  is required by the rrd plugin.  rrdtool creates
        'Round-Robin databases' which are used to store and  graph  historical
        data  in a format that permits long duration retention without growing
        larger  over   time.    The   rrdtool   home   page   is   http://peo-
        ple.ee.ethz.ch/~oetiker/webtools/rrdtool/

        nnttoopp includes a limited version of rrdtool 1.0.49 in the myrrd/ direc-
        tory.  Users of nnttoopp 3.2 should not need to specifically install  rrd-
        tool.

        The  ssffllooww  Plugin  is courtesy of and supported by InMon Corporation,
        http://www.inmon.com/sflowTools.htm.

        There are other optional libraries.  See the output of ./configure for
        a fuller listing.

        Tool  locations  are  current as of August 2005 - please send email to
        report new locations or dead links.


SSEEEE AALLSSOO
       ttoopp(1), ttccppdduummpp(8).  ppccaapp(3).


PPRRIIVVAACCYY NNOOTTIICCEE
       By default at startup and at periodic intervals, the nnttoopp program  will
       retrieve  a  file  containing current ntop program version information.
       Retrieving this file allows this nnttoopp instance to confirm  that  it  is
       running the most current version.

       The  retrieval is done using standard http:// requests, which will cre-
       ate log records on the hosting system.  These log  records  do  contain
       information  which  identifies  a specific nnttoopp site.  Accordingly, you
       are being notified that this individually identifiable  information  is
       being transmitted and recorded.

       You  may  request - via the ----sskkiipp--vveerrssiioonn--cchheecckk run-time option - that
       this check be eliminated.  If you  use  this  option,  no  individually
       identifiable information is transmitted or recorded, because the entire
       retrieval and check is skipped.

       We ask you to allow this retrieval and check, because it benefits  both
       you and the nnttoopp developers.  It benefits you because you will be auto-
       matically notified if the nnttoopp program  version  is  obsolete,  becomes
       unsupported  or  is  no  longer current.  It benefits the developers of
       nnttoopp because it allows us  to  determine  the  number  of  active  nnttoopp
       instances,  and  the  operating  system/versions that users are running
       nnttoopp under.  This allows us to focus development resources  on  systems
       like those our users are using nnttoopp on.

       The  individually  identifiable  information  is  contained  in the web
       server log records which are automatically created each time  the  ver-
       sion  file  is retrieved.  This is a function of the web server and not
       of nnttoopp , but we do take advantage of it.  The log record shows the  IP
       address  of  the  requestor (the nnttoopp instance) and a User-Agent header
       field.  We place information in the User-Agent header as follows:

           ntop/<version>
           host/<name from config.guess>
           distro/<if one>
           release/<of the distro, also if one>
           kernrlse/<kernel version or release>
           GCC/<version>
           config() <condensed parameters from ./configure>
           run()    <condensed flags - no data - from the execution line>
           libpcap/<version>
           gdbm/<version>
           openssl/<version>
           zlib/<version>
           access/<http, https, both or none>
           interfaces() <given interface names>

       For example:

           ntop/2.2.98 host/i686-pc-linux-gnu  distro/redhat  release/9  kern-
       rlse/2.4.20-8smp
           GCC/3.2.2  config(i18n) run(i; u; P; w; t; logextra; m; instantses-
       sionpurge;
           schedyield; d; usesyslog=; t) gdbm/1.8.0 openssl/0.9.7a zlib/1.1.4
           access/http interfaces(eth0,eth1)

       Distro and release information is determined at compile time  and  con-
       sists  of  information typically found in the /etc/release (or similar)
       file. See the nnttoopp tool linuxrelease for how this is determined.

       gcc compiler version (if available) is the internal version #s for  the
       gcc compiler, e.g. 3.2.3.

       kernrlse  is  the  Linux  Kernel  version or the xBSD 'release' such as
       4.9-RELEASE and is determined from the uname data (if it's  available).

       The ./configure parameters are stripped of directory paths, leading -s,
       etc. to create a short form that shows us what  ./configure  parameters
       people are using.

       Similarly, the run time parameters are stripped of data and paths, just
       showing which flags are being used.

       The libpcap, gdbm, openssl and zlib  versions  come  from  the  strings
       returned by the various inquiry functions (if they're available).

       Here's a sample log record:

       67.xxx.xxx.xxx  -  -  [28/Dec/2003:12:11:46  -0500]  "GET  /version.xml
       HTTP/1.0"
         200 1568 www.burtonstrauss.com "-"  "ntop/2.2.98  host/i686-pc-linux-
       gnu
         distro/redhat release/9 kernrlse/2.4.20-8smp GCC/3.2.2 config(i18n)
         run(i; u; P; w; t; logextra; m; instantsessionpurge; schedyield; d;
         usesyslog=)    libpcap/0.8   gdbm/1.8.0   openssl/0.9.7a   zlib/1.1.4
       access/http
         interfaces(eth0,eth1,eth2)" "-"


UUSSEERR SSUUPPPPOORRTT
       Please send bug reports to  the  ntop-dev  <ntop-dev@ntop.org>  mailing
       list. The ntop <ntop@ntop.org> mailing list is used for discussing ntop
       usage issues. In order to post messages on the lists a (free) subscrip-
       tion  is required to limit/avoid spam. Please do NOT contact the author
       directly unless this is a personal question.

       Commercial support is available upon request. Please see the ntop  site
       for further info.

       Please send code patches to <patch@ntop.org>.


AAUUTTHHOORR
       ntop's  author  is Luca Deri (http://luca.ntop.org/) who can be reached
       at <deri@ntop.org>.


LLIICCEENNCCEE
       ntop is distributed under the GNU GPL licence (http://www.gnu.org/).


AACCKKNNOOWWLLEEDDGGMMEENNTTSS
       The author acknowledges the Centro Serra of  the  University  of  Pisa,
       Italy (http://www-serra.unipi.it/) for hosting the ntop sites (both web
       and mailing lists), and Burton Strauss <burton@ntopsupport.com> for his
       help   and   user   assistance.  Many  thanks  to  Stefano  Suin  <ste-
       fano@ntop.org> and Rocco Carbone <rocco@ntop.org> for  contributing  to
       the project.



                            August 2005 (ntop 3.2)                     NTOP(8)