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            <h1>Thread</h1>


  <!--    -->
<ul><li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a><li><a href="#DEPRECATED">DEPRECATED</a><li><a href="#HISTORY">HISTORY</a><li><a href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><li><a href="#FUNCTIONS">FUNCTIONS</a><li><a href="#METHODS">METHODS</a><li><a href="#DEFUNCT">DEFUNCT</a><li><a href="#SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></ul><a name="NAME"></a><h1>NAME</h1>
<p>Thread - Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)</p>
<a name="DEPRECATED"></a><h1>DEPRECATED</h1>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span></code>
 module served as the frontend to the old-style thread model,
called <i>5005threads</i>, that was introduced in release 5.005.  That model was
deprecated, and has been removed in version 5.10.</p>
<p>For old code and interim backwards compatibility, the <code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span></code>
 module has
been reworked to function as a frontend for the new interpreter threads
(<i>ithreads</i>) model.  However, some previous functionality is not available.
Further, the data sharing models between the two thread models are completely
different, and anything to do with data sharing has to be thought differently.
With <i>ithreads</i>, you must explicitly <code class="inline"><span class="i">share</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span></code>
 variables between the
threads.</p>
<p>You are strongly encouraged to migrate any existing threaded code to the new
model (i.e., use the <code class="inline"><span class="w">threads</span></code>
 and <code class="inline"><span class="w">threads::shared</span></code>
 modules) as soon as
possible.</p>
<a name="HISTORY"></a><h1>HISTORY</h1>
<p>In Perl 5.005, the thread model was that all data is implicitly shared, and
shared access to data has to be explicitly synchronized.  This model is called
<i>5005threads</i>.</p>
<p>In Perl 5.6, a new model was introduced in which all is was thread local and
shared access to data has to be explicitly declared.  This model is called
<i>ithreads</i>, for "interpreter threads".</p>
<p>In Perl 5.6, the <i>ithreads</i> model was not available as a public API; only as
an internal API that was available for extension writers, and to implement
fork() emulation on Win32 platforms.</p>
<p>In Perl 5.8, the <i>ithreads</i> model became available through the <code class="inline"><span class="w">threads</span></code>

module, and the <i>5005threads</i> model was deprecated.</p>
<p>In Perl 5.10, the <i>5005threads</i> model was removed from the Perl interpreter.</p>
<a name="SYNOPSIS"></a><h1>SYNOPSIS</h1>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Thread</span> <span class="q">qw(:DEFAULT async yield)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$t</span> = <span class="w">Thread</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span>\<span class="i">&amp;start_sub</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">@start_args</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="i">$result</span> = <span class="i">$t</span><span class="i">-&gt;join</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <span class="i">$t</span><span class="i">-&gt;detach</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    if <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$t</span><span class="i">-&gt;done</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>        <span class="i">$t</span><span class="i">-&gt;join</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li>    if<span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$t</span><span class="i">-&gt;equal</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$another_thread</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>        <span class="c"># ...</span></li><li>    <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="i">yield</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$tid</span> = <span class="w">Thread</span><span class="w">-&gt;self</span><span class="w">-&gt;tid</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$scalar</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@array</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">%hash</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@list</span> = <span class="w">Thread</span><span class="w">-&gt;list</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="DESCRIPTION"></a><h1>DESCRIPTION</h1>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span></code>
 module provides multithreading support for Perl.</p>
<a name="FUNCTIONS"></a><h1>FUNCTIONS</h1>
<ul>
<li><a name="%24thread-%3d-Thread-%3enew(%5c%26start_sub)"></a><b>$thread = Thread-&gt;new(\&amp;start_sub)</b>
</li>
<li><a name="%24thread-%3d-Thread-%3enew(%5c%26start_sub%2c-LIST)"></a><b>$thread = Thread-&gt;new(\&amp;start_sub, LIST)</b>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">new</span></code>
 starts a new thread of execution in the referenced subroutine. The
optional list is passed as parameters to the subroutine. Execution
continues in both the subroutine and the code after the <code class="inline"><span class="w">new</span></code>
 call.</p>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span>-<span class="i">&amp;gt</span><span class="sc">;</span><span class="w">new</span></code>
 returns a thread object representing the newly created
thread.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="lock-VARIABLE"></a><b>lock VARIABLE</b>
<p><code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> places a lock on a variable until the lock goes out of scope.</p>
<p>If the variable is locked by another thread, the <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> call will
block until it's available.  <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> is recursive, so multiple calls
to <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> are safe--the variable will remain locked until the
outermost lock on the variable goes out of scope.</p>
<p>Locks on variables only affect <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> calls--they do <i>not</i> affect normal
access to a variable. (Locks on subs are different, and covered in a bit.)
If you really, <i>really</i> want locks to block access, then go ahead and tie
them to something and manage this yourself.  This is done on purpose.
While managing access to variables is a good thing, Perl doesn't force
you out of its living room...</p>
<p>If a container object, such as a hash or array, is locked, all the
elements of that container are not locked. For example, if a thread
does a <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a> <span class="i">@a</span></code>
, any other thread doing a <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock($a[12])</a></code> won't
block.</p>
<p>Finally, <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> will traverse up references exactly <i>one</i> level.
<code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock(\$a)</a></code> is equivalent to <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock($a)</a></code>, while <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock(\\$a)</a></code> is not.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="async-BLOCK%3b"></a><b>async BLOCK;</b>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">async</span></code>
 creates a thread to execute the block immediately following
it.  This block is treated as an anonymous sub, and so must have a
semi-colon after the closing brace. Like <code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span>-<span class="i">&amp;gt</span><span class="sc">;</span><span class="w">new</span></code>
, <code class="inline"><span class="w">async</span></code>

returns a thread object.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="Thread-%3eself"></a><b>Thread-&gt;self</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span><span class="w">-&gt;self</span></code>
 function returns a thread object that represents
the thread making the <code class="inline"><span class="w">Thread</span><span class="w">-&gt;self</span></code>
 call.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="Thread-%3elist"></a><b>Thread-&gt;list</b>
<p>Returns a list of all non-joined, non-detached Thread objects.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="cond_wait-VARIABLE"></a><b>cond_wait VARIABLE</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 function takes a <b>locked</b> variable as
a parameter, unlocks the variable, and blocks until another thread
does a <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_signal</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_broadcast</span></code>
 for that same locked
variable. The variable that <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 blocked on is relocked
after the <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 is satisfied.  If there are multiple threads
<code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
ing on the same variable, all but one will reblock waiting
to re-acquire the lock on the variable.  (So if you're only using
<code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 for synchronization, give up the lock as soon as
possible.)</p>
</li>
<li><a name="cond_signal-VARIABLE"></a><b>cond_signal VARIABLE</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_signal</span></code>
 function takes a locked variable as a parameter and
unblocks one thread that's <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
ing on that variable. If more than
one thread is blocked in a <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 on that variable, only one (and
which one is indeterminate) will be unblocked.</p>
<p>If there are no threads blocked in a <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 on the variable,
the signal is discarded.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="cond_broadcast-VARIABLE"></a><b>cond_broadcast VARIABLE</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_broadcast</span></code>
 function works similarly to <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_signal</span></code>
.
<code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_broadcast</span></code>
, though, will unblock <b>all</b> the threads that are
blocked in a <code class="inline"><span class="w">cond_wait</span></code>
 on the locked variable, rather than only
one.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="yield"></a><b>yield</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">yield</span></code>
 function allows another thread to take control of the
CPU. The exact results are implementation-dependent.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="METHODS"></a><h1>METHODS</h1>
<ul>
<li><a name="join"></a><b>join</b>
<p><code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code> waits for a thread to end and returns any values the thread
exited with.  <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code> will block until the thread has ended, though
it won't block if the thread has already terminated.</p>
<p>If the thread being <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code>ed <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/die.html">die</a></code>d, the error it died with will
be returned at this time. If you don't want the thread performing
the <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code> to die as well, you should either wrap the <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code> in
an <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/eval.html">eval</a></code> or use the <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/eval.html">eval</a></code> thread method instead of <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code>.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="detach"></a><b>detach</b>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">detach</span></code>
 tells a thread that it is never going to be joined i.e.
that all traces of its existence can be removed once it stops running.
Errors in detached threads will not be visible anywhere - if you want
to catch them, you should use $SIG{__DIE__} or something like that.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="equal"></a><b>equal</b>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">equal</span></code>
 tests whether two thread objects represent the same thread and
returns true if they do.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="tid"></a><b>tid</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">tid</span></code>
 method returns the tid of a thread. The tid is
a monotonically increasing integer assigned when a thread is
created. The main thread of a program will have a tid of zero,
while subsequent threads will have tids assigned starting with one.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="done"></a><b>done</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">done</span></code>
 method returns true if the thread you're checking has
finished, and false otherwise.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="DEFUNCT"></a><h1>DEFUNCT</h1>
<p>The following were implemented with <i>5005threads</i>, but are no longer
available with <i>ithreads</i>.</p>
<ul>
<li><a name="lock(%5c%26sub)"></a><b>lock(\&amp;sub)</b>
<p>With 5005threads, you could also <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/lock.html">lock</a></code> a sub such that any calls to that sub
from another thread would block until the lock was released.</p>
<p>Also, subroutines could be declared with the <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">locked</span></code>
 attribute which would
serialize access to the subroutine, but allowed different threads
non-simultaneous access.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="eval"></a><b>eval</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/eval.html">eval</a></code> method wrapped an <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/eval.html">eval</a></code> around a <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a></code>, and so waited for a
thread to exit, passing along any values the thread might have returned and
placing any errors into <code class="inline"><span class="i">$@</span></code>
.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="flags"></a><b>flags</b>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">flags</span></code>
 method returned the flags for the thread - an integer value
corresponding to the internal flags for the thread.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="SEE-ALSO"></a><h1>SEE ALSO</h1>
<p><a href="threads.html">threads</a>, <a href="threads/shared.html">threads::shared</a>, <a href="Thread/Queue.html">Thread::Queue</a>, <a href="Thread/Semaphore.html">Thread::Semaphore</a></p>




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