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            <h1>bignum</h1>


  <!--    -->
<ul><li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a><li><a href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><ul><li><a href="#Options">Options</a><li><a href="#Methods">Methods</a><li><a href="#Caveats">Caveats</a><li><a href="#Math-Library">Math Library</a><li><a href="#INTERNAL-FORMAT">INTERNAL FORMAT</a><li><a href="#SIGN">SIGN</a></ul><li><a href="#CAVEATS">CAVEATS</a><li><a href="#MODULES-USED">MODULES USED</a><li><a href="#EXAMPLES">EXAMPLES</a><li><a href="#BUGS">BUGS</a><li><a href="#SUPPORT">SUPPORT</a><li><a href="#LICENSE">LICENSE</a><li><a href="#SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a><li><a href="#AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></ul><a name="NAME"></a><h1>NAME</h1>
<p>bignum - Transparent BigNumber support for Perl</p>
<a name="SYNOPSIS"></a><h1>SYNOPSIS</h1>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>  <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">2</span> + <span class="n">4.5</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>                    <span class="c"># BigFloat 6.5</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="n">2</span> ** <span class="n">512</span> * <span class="n">0.1</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>            <span class="c"># really is what you think it is</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">inf</span> <span class="i">* inf</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>                 <span class="c"># prints inf</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">NaN</span> <span class="i">* 3</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>                   <span class="c"># prints NaN</span></li><li></li><li>  <span class="s">{</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/no.html">no</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="n">2</span> ** <span class="n">256</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>                <span class="c"># a normal Perl scalar now</span></li><li>  <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li>  <span class="c"># for older Perls, import into current package:</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span> <span class="q">qw/hex oct/</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/hex.html">hex</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;0x1234567890123490&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/oct.html">oct</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;01234567890123490&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="DESCRIPTION"></a><h1>DESCRIPTION</h1>
<p>All operators (including basic math operations) are overloaded. Integer and
floating-point constants are created as proper BigInts or BigFloats,
respectively.</p>
<p>If you do</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>at the top of your script, Math::BigFloat and Math::BigInt will be loaded
and any constant number will be converted to an object (Math::BigFloat for
floats like 3.1415 and Math::BigInt for integers like 1234).</p>
<p>So, the following line:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">1234</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>creates actually a Math::BigInt and stores a reference to in $x.
This happens transparently and behind your back, so to speak.</p>
<p>You can see this with the following:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -le <span class="q">&#39;print ref(1234)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Don't worry if it says Math::BigInt::Lite, bignum and friends will use Lite
if it is installed since it is faster for some operations. It will be
automatically upgraded to BigInt whenever necessary:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -le <span class="q">&#39;print ref(2**255)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>This also means it is a bad idea to check for some specific package, since
the actual contents of $x might be something unexpected. Due to the
transparent way of bignum <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/ref.html">ref()</a></code> should not be necessary, anyway.</p>
<p>Since Math::BigInt and BigFloat also overload the normal math operations,
the following line will still work:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -le <span class="q">&#39;print ref(1234+1234)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Since numbers are actually objects, you can call all the usual methods from
BigInt/BigFloat on them. This even works to some extent on expressions:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        perl -Mbignum -le '$x = 1234; print $x-&gt;bdec()'</li><li>        perl -Mbignum -le 'print 1234-&gt;copy()-&gt;binc();'</li><li>        perl -Mbignum -le 'print 1234-&gt;copy()-&gt;binc-&gt;badd(6);'</li><li>        perl -Mbignum -le 'print +(1234)-&gt;copy()-&gt;binc()'</li></ol></pre><p>(Note that print doesn't do what you expect if the expression starts with
'(' hence the <code class="inline">+</code>
)</p>
<p>You can even chain the operations together as usual:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        perl -Mbignum -le 'print 1234-&gt;copy()-&gt;binc-&gt;badd(6);'</li><li>        1241</li></ol></pre><p>Under bignum (or bigint or bigrat), Perl will "upgrade" the numbers
appropriately. This means that:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        perl -Mbignum -le 'print 1234+4.5'</li><li>        1238.5</li></ol></pre><p>will work correctly. These mixed cases don't do always work when using
Math::BigInt or Math::BigFloat alone, or at least not in the way normal Perl
scalars work.</p>
<p>If you do want to work with large integers like under <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">integer</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
, try
<code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bigint</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        perl -Mbigint -le 'print 1234.5+4.5'</li><li>        1238</li></ol></pre><p>There is also <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bigrat</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
 which gives you big rationals:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 1234+4.1'</li><li>        12381/10</li></ol></pre><p>The entire upgrading/downgrading is still experimental and might not work
as you expect or may even have bugs. You might get errors like this:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        Can't use an undefined value as an ARRAY reference at</li><li>        /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0/Math/BigInt/Calc.pm line 864</li></ol></pre><p>This means somewhere a routine got a BigFloat/Lite but expected a BigInt (or
vice versa) and the upgrade/downgrad path was missing. This is a bug, please
report it so that we can fix it.</p>
<p>You might consider using just Math::BigInt or Math::BigFloat, since they
allow you finer control over what get's done in which module/space. For
instance, simple loop counters will be Math::BigInts under <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
 and
this is slower than keeping them as Perl scalars:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;for ($i = 0; $i &lt; 10; $i++) { print ref($i); }&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Please note the following does not work as expected (prints nothing), since
overloading of '..' is not yet possible in Perl (as of v5.8.0):</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;for (1..2) { print ref($_); }&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="Options"></a><h2>Options</h2>
<p>bignum recognizes some options that can be passed while loading it via use.
The options can (currently) be either a single letter form, or the long form.
The following options exist:</p>
<ul>
<li><a name="a-or-accuracy"></a><b>a or accuracy</b>
<p>This sets the accuracy for all math operations. The argument must be greater
than or equal to zero. See Math::BigInt's bround() function for details.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">a</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="n">50</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print sqrt(20)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="p-or-precision"></a><b>p or precision</b>
<p>This sets the precision for all math operations. The argument can be any
integer. Negative values mean a fixed number of digits after the dot, while
a positive value rounds to this digit left from the dot. 0 or 1 mean round to
integer. See Math::BigInt's bfround() function for details.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">p</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="n">-50</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print sqrt(20)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="t-or-trace"></a><b>t or trace</b>
<p>This enables a trace mode and is primarily for debugging bignum or
Math::BigInt/Math::BigFloat.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="l-or-lib"></a><b>l or lib</b>
<p>Load a different math lib, see <a href="#Math-Library">Math Library</a>.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">l</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="w">GMP</span> -e <span class="q">&#39;print 2 ** 512&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Currently there is no way to specify more than one library on the command
line. This means the following does not work:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">l</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="w">GMP</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="w">Pari</span> -e <span class="q">&#39;print 2 ** 512&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>This will be hopefully fixed soon ;)</p>
</li>
<li><a name="hex"></a><b>hex</b>
<p>Override the built-in hex() method with a version that can handle big
numbers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under
Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as hex() is lexically
overridden in the current scope whenever the bignum pragma is active.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="oct"></a><b>oct</b>
<p>Override the built-in oct() method with a version that can handle big
numbers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under
Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as oct() is lexically
overridden in the current scope whenever the bigint pragma is active.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="v-or-version"></a><b>v or version</b>
<p>This prints out the name and version of all modules used and then exits.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">v</span></li></ol></pre></li>
</ul>
<a name="Methods"></a><h2>Methods</h2>
<p>Beside import() and AUTOLOAD() there are only a few other methods.</p>
<p>Since all numbers are now objects, you can use all functions that are part of
the BigInt or BigFloat API. It is wise to use only the bxxx() notation, and not
the fxxx() notation, though. This makes it possible that the underlying object
might morph into a different class than BigFloat.</p>
<a name="Caveats"></a><h2>Caveats</h2>
<p>But a warning is in order. When using the following to make a copy of a number,
only a shallow copy will be made.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">9</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="n">7</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>If you want to make a real copy, use the following:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="i">-&gt;copy</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Using the copy or the original with overloaded math is okay, e.g. the
following work:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">9</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$x</span> + <span class="n">1</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot; &quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$y</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>     <span class="c"># prints 10 9</span></li></ol></pre><p>but calling any method that modifies the number directly will result in
<b>both</b> the original and the copy being destroyed:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">9</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$x</span><span class="i">-&gt;badd</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot; &quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$y</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>        <span class="c"># prints 10 10</span></li><li></li><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">9</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$x</span><span class="i">-&gt;binc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot; &quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$y</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>        <span class="c"># prints 10 10</span></li><li></li><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">9</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$x</span><span class="i">-&gt;bmul</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">2</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot; &quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$y</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>        <span class="c"># prints 18 18</span></li></ol></pre><p>Using methods that do not modify, but test the contents works:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="n">9</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="i">$x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="i">$z</span> = <span class="n">9</span> if <span class="i">$x</span><span class="i">-&gt;is_zero</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span>                <span class="c"># works fine</span></li></ol></pre><p>See the documentation about the copy constructor and <code class="inline">=</code>
 in overload, as
well as the documentation in BigInt for further details.</p>
<ul>
<li><a name="inf()"></a><b>inf()</b>
<p>A shortcut to return Math::BigInt-&gt;binf(). Useful because Perl does not always
handle bareword <code class="inline"><span class="w">inf</span></code>
 properly.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="NaN()"></a><b>NaN()</b>
<p>A shortcut to return Math::BigInt-&gt;bnan(). Useful because Perl does not always
handle bareword <code class="inline"><span class="w">NaN</span></code>
 properly.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="e"></a><b>e</b>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="c"># perl -Mbignum=e -wle &#39;print e&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Returns Euler's number <code class="inline"><span class="w">e</span></code>
, aka exp(1).</p>
</li>
<li><a name="PI()"></a><b>PI()</b>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="c"># perl -Mbignum=PI -wle &#39;print PI&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Returns PI.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="bexp()"></a><b>bexp()</b>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">bexp</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$power</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="i">$accuracy</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Returns Euler's number <code class="inline"><span class="w">e</span></code>
 raised to the appropriate power, to
the wanted accuracy.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="c"># perl -Mbignum=bexp -wle &#39;print bexp(1,80)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="bpi()"></a><b>bpi()</b>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="i">bpi</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$accuracy</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Returns PI to the wanted accuracy.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="c"># perl -Mbignum=bpi -wle &#39;print bpi(80)&#39;</span></li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="upgrade()"></a><b>upgrade()</b>
<p>Return the class that numbers are upgraded to, is in fact returning
<code class="inline"><span class="i">$Math::BigInt::upgrade</span></code>
.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="in_effect()"></a><b>in_effect()</b>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;in effect\n&quot;</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> <span class="w">bignum::in_effect</span><span class="sc">;</span>       <span class="c"># true</span></li><li>        <span class="s">{</span></li><li>          <a class="l_k" href="functions/no.html">no</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>          <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;in effect\n&quot;</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> <span class="w">bignum::in_effect</span><span class="sc">;</span>     <span class="c"># false</span></li><li>        <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><p>Returns true or false if <code class="inline"><span class="w">bignum</span></code>
 is in effect in the current scope.</p>
<p>This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="Math-Library"></a><h2>Math Library</h2>
<p>Math with the numbers is done (by default) by a module called
Math::BigInt::Calc. This is equivalent to saying:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span> <span class="w">lib</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&#39;Calc&#39;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>You can change this by using:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span> <span class="w">lib</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">'GMP'</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>The following would first try to find Math::BigInt::Foo, then
Math::BigInt::Bar, and when this also fails, revert to Math::BigInt::Calc:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span> <span class="w">lib</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&#39;Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar&#39;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Please see respective module documentation for further details.</p>
<p>Using <code class="inline"><span class="w">lib</span></code>
 warns if none of the specified libraries can be found and
<a href="Math/BigInt.html">Math::BigInt</a> did fall back to one of the default libraries.
To suppress this warning, use <code class="inline"><span class="w">try</span></code>
 instead:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span> <span class="w">try</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">'GMP'</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>If you want the code to die instead of falling back, use <code class="inline"><span class="w">only</span></code>
 instead:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span> <span class="w">only</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">'GMP'</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="INTERNAL-FORMAT"></a><h2>INTERNAL FORMAT</h2>
<p>The numbers are stored as objects, and their internals might change at anytime,
especially between math operations. The objects also might belong to different
classes, like Math::BigInt, or Math::BigFloat. Mixing them together, even
with normal scalars is not extraordinary, but normal and expected.</p>
<p>You should not depend on the internal format, all accesses must go through
accessor methods. E.g. looking at $x-&gt;{sign} is not a bright idea since there
is no guaranty that the object in question has such a hashkey, nor is a hash
underneath at all.</p>
<a name="SIGN"></a><h2>SIGN</h2>
<p>The sign is either '+', '-', 'NaN', '+inf' or '-inf' and stored separately.
You can access it with the sign() method.</p>
<p>A sign of 'NaN' is used to represent the result when input arguments are not
numbers or as a result of 0/0. '+inf' and '-inf' represent plus respectively
minus infinity. You will get '+inf' when dividing a positive number by 0, and
'-inf' when dividing any negative number by 0.</p>
<a name="CAVEATS"></a><h1>CAVEATS</h1>
<ul>
<li><a name="Operator-vs-literal-overloading"></a><b>Operator vs literal overloading</b>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">bignum</span></code>
 works by overloading handling of integer and floating point
literals, converting them to <a href="Math/BigInt.html">Math::BigInt</a> or <a href="Math/BigFloat.html">Math::BigFloat</a>
objects.</p>
<p>This means that arithmetic involving only string values or string
literals will be performed using Perl's built-in operators.</p>
<p>For example:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bignum</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$x</span> = <span class="q">&quot;900000000000000009&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$y</span> = <span class="q">&quot;900000000000000007&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$x</span> - <span class="i">$y</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>will output <code class="inline"><span class="n">0</span></code>
 on default 32-bit builds, since <code class="inline"><span class="w">bigrat</span></code>
 never sees
the string literals.  To ensure the expression is all treated as
<code class="inline"><span class="w">Math::BigInt</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="w">BigFloat</span></code>
 objects, use a literal number in the
expression:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> +<span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0</span>+<span class="i">$x</span><span class="s">)</span> - <span class="i">$y</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="in_effect()"></a><b>in_effect()</b>
<p>This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="hex()%2foct()"></a><b>hex()/oct()</b>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">bigint</span></code>
 overrides these routines with versions that can also handle
big integer values. Under Perl prior to version v5.9.4, however, this
will not happen unless you specifically ask for it with the two
import tags "hex" and "oct" - and then it will be global and cannot be
disabled inside a scope with "no bigint":</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bigint</span> <span class="q">qw/hex oct/</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/hex.html">hex</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;0x1234567890123456&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="s">{</span></li><li>                <a class="l_k" href="functions/no.html">no</a> <span class="w">bigint</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>                <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/hex.html">hex</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;0x1234567890123456&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><p>The second call to hex() will warn about a non-portable constant.</p>
<p>Compare this to:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bigint</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>        <span class="c"># will warn only under older than v5.9.4</span></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/hex.html">hex</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;0x1234567890123456&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre></li>
</ul>
<a name="MODULES-USED"></a><h1>MODULES USED</h1>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">bignum</span></code>
 is just a thin wrapper around various modules of the Math::BigInt
family. Think of it as the head of the family, who runs the shop, and orders
the others to do the work.</p>
<p>The following modules are currently used by bignum:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">Math::BigInt::Lite</span>      <span class="s">(</span><a class="l_k" href="functions/for.html">for</a> <span class="w">speed</span><span class="cm">,</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/and.html">and</a> <span class="w">only</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> <span class="w">it</span> <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">loadable</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li>        <span class="w">Math::BigInt</span></li><li>        <span class="w">Math::BigFloat</span></li></ol></pre><a name="EXAMPLES"></a><h1>EXAMPLES</h1>
<p>Some cool command line examples to impress the Python crowd ;)</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print sqrt(33)&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 2*255&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 4.5+2*255&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 123-&gt;is_odd()&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print log(2)&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print exp(1)&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 2 ** 0.5&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">a</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="n">65</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 2 ** 0.2&#39;</span></li><li>        <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">Mbignum</span>=<span class="w">a</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="n">65</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="w">l</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="w">GMP</span> -<a class="l_k" href="functions/le.html">le</a> <span class="q">&#39;print 7 ** 7777&#39;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="BUGS"></a><h1>BUGS</h1>
<p>Please report any bugs or feature requests to
<code class="inline"><span class="w">bug</span>-<span class="w">math</span>-<span class="w">bigint</span> <span class="w">at</span> <span class="w">rt</span>.<span class="w">cpan</span>.<span class="w">org</span></code>
, or through the web interface at
<a href="https://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Create.html?Queue=bignum">https://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Create.html?Queue=bignum</a> (requires login).
We will be notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of
progress on your bug as I make changes.</p>
<a name="SUPPORT"></a><h1>SUPPORT</h1>
<p>You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> <span class="w">bignum</span></li></ol></pre><p>You can also look for information at:</p>
<ul>
<li><a name="*-RT%3a-CPAN's-request-tracker"></a><b>RT: CPAN's request tracker</b>
<p><a href="https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=bignum">https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=bignum</a></p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-AnnoCPAN%3a-Annotated-CPAN-documentation"></a><b>AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation</b>
<p><a href="http://annocpan.org/dist/bignum">http://annocpan.org/dist/bignum</a></p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-CPAN-Ratings"></a><b>CPAN Ratings</b>
<p><a href="http://cpanratings.perl.org/dist/bignum">http://cpanratings.perl.org/dist/bignum</a></p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-Search-CPAN"></a><b>Search CPAN</b>
<p><a href="http://search.cpan.org/dist/bignum/">http://search.cpan.org/dist/bignum/</a></p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-CPAN-Testers-Matrix"></a><b>CPAN Testers Matrix</b>
<p><a href="http://matrix.cpantesters.org/?dist=bignum">http://matrix.cpantesters.org/?dist=bignum</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="LICENSE"></a><h1>LICENSE</h1>
<p>This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.</p>
<a name="SEE-ALSO"></a><h1>SEE ALSO</h1>
<p><a href="bigint.html">bigint</a> and <a href="bigrat.html">bigrat</a>.</p>
<p><a href="Math/BigInt.html">Math::BigInt</a>, <a href="Math/BigFloat.html">Math::BigFloat</a>, <a href="Math/BigRat.html">Math::BigRat</a> and <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Math::Big">Math::Big</a> as well as
<a href="Math/BigInt/FastCalc.html">Math::BigInt::FastCalc</a>, <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Math::BigInt::Pari">Math::BigInt::Pari</a> and <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Math::BigInt::GMP">Math::BigInt::GMP</a>.</p>
<a name="AUTHORS"></a><h1>AUTHORS</h1>
<ul>
<li>
<p>(C) by Tels <a href="http://bloodgate.com/">http://bloodgate.com/</a> in early 2002 - 2007.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Maintained by Peter John Acklam &lt;pjacklam@gmail.com&lt;gt&gt;, 2014-.</p>
</li>
</ul>




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