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                <h1>charnames</h1>
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            <h1>charnames</h1>


  <!--    -->
<ul><li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a><li><a href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><li><a href="#LOOSE-MATCHES">LOOSE MATCHES</a><li><a href="#ALIASES">ALIASES</a><li><a href="#CUSTOM-ALIASES">CUSTOM ALIASES</a><li><a href="#charnames%3a%3astring_vianame(_name_)">charnames::string_vianame(_name_)</a><li><a href="#charnames%3a%3avianame(_name_)">charnames::vianame(_name_)</a><li><a href="#charnames%3a%3aviacode(_code_)">charnames::viacode(_code_)</a><li><a href="#CUSTOM-TRANSLATORS">CUSTOM TRANSLATORS</a><li><a href="#BUGS">BUGS</a></ul><a name="NAME"></a><h1>NAME</h1>
<p>charnames - access to Unicode character names and named character sequences; also define character names</p>
<a name="SYNOPSIS"></a><h1>SYNOPSIS</h1>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&#39;:full&#39;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA} is called sigma.\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH VERTICAL LINE BELOW}&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>       <span class="q">&quot; is an officially named sequence of two Unicode characters\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&#39;:loose&#39;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{Greek small-letter  sigma}&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>        <span class="q">&quot;can be used to ignore case, underscores, most blanks,&quot;</span></li><li>        <span class="q">&quot;and when you aren&#39;t sure if the official name has hyphens\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&#39;:short&#39;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{greek:Sigma} is an upper-case sigma.\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(cyrillic greek)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{sigma} is Greek sigma, and \N{be} is Cyrillic b.\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">utf8</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&quot;:full&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:alias&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>   <span class="w">e_ACUTE</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>   <span class="w">mychar</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">0xE8000</span><span class="cm">,</span>  <span class="c"># Private use area</span></li><li>   <span class="q">&quot;&#x81EA;&#x8EE2;&#x8ECA;&#x306B;&#x4E57;&#x308B;&#x4EBA;&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;BICYCLIST&quot;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{e_ACUTE} is a small letter e with an acute.\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;\N{mychar} allows me to name private use characters.\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="q">&quot;And I can create synonyms in other languages,&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>       <span class="q">&quot; such as \N{&#x81EA;&#x8EE2;&#x8ECA;&#x306B;&#x4E57;&#x308B;&#x4EBA;} for &quot;</span><span class="w">BICYCLIST</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="w">U</span>+<span class="n">1</span><span class="w">F6B4</span><span class="s">)</span>\<span class="w">n</span><span class="q">&quot;;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="q"> use charnames ();</span></li><li> <span class="q"> print charnames::viacode(0x1234); # prints &quot;</span><span class="w">ETHIOPIC</span> <span class="w">SYLLABLE</span> <span class="w">SEE</span><span class="q">&quot;</span></li><li> <span class="q"> printf &quot;</span>%<span class="n">04</span><span class="w">X</span><span class="q">&quot;, charnames::vianame(&quot;</span><span class="w">GOTHIC</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">AHSA</span><span class="q">&quot;); # prints</span></li><li>                                                          <span class="q">                                                          # &quot;</span><span class="n">10330</span><span class="q">&quot;</span></li><li> <span class="q"> print charnames::vianame(&quot;</span><span class="w">LATIN</span> <span class="w">CAPITAL</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">A</span><span class="q">&quot;); # prints 65 on</span></li><li>                                                     <span class="q">                                                     # ASCII platforms;</span></li><li>                                                     <span class="q">                                                     # 193 on EBCDIC</span></li><li> <span class="q"> print charnames::string_vianame(&quot;</span><span class="w">LATIN</span> <span class="w">CAPITAL</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">A</span><span class="q">&quot;); # prints &quot;</span><span class="w">A</span><span class="q">&quot;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="DESCRIPTION"></a><h1>DESCRIPTION</h1>
<p>Pragma <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span></code>
 is used to gain access to the names of the
Unicode characters and named character sequences, and to allow you to define
your own character and character sequence names.</p>
<p>All forms of the pragma enable use of the following 3 functions:</p>
<ul>
<li>
<p><a href="#charnames%3a%3astring_vianame(name)">charnames::string_vianame(name)</a> for run-time lookup of a
either a character name or a named character sequence, returning its string
representation</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><a href="#charnames%3a%3avianame(name)">charnames::vianame(name)</a> for run-time lookup of a
character name (but not a named character sequence) to get its ordinal value
(code point)</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><a href="#charnames%3a%3aviacode(code)">charnames::viacode(code)</a> for run-time lookup of a code point to get its
Unicode name.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<p>Starting in Perl v5.16, any occurrence of <code class="inline">\N{<i>CHARNAME</i>}</code> sequences
in a double-quotish string automatically loads this module with arguments
<code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
 and <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">short</span></code>
 (described below) if it hasn't already been loaded with
different arguments, in order to compile the named Unicode character into
position in the string.  Prior to v5.16, an explicit <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span></code>
 was
required to enable this usage.  (However, prior to v5.16, the form <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;use</span>
<span class="q">charnames ();&quot;</span></code>
 did not enable <code class="inline">\N{<i>CHARNAME</i>}</code>.)</p>
<p>Note that <code class="inline">\N{U+<i>...</i>}</code>, where the <i>...</i> is a hexadecimal number,
also inserts a character into a string.
The character it inserts is the one whose Unicode code point
(ordinal value) is equal to the number.  For example, <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;\N{U+263a}&quot;</span></code>
 is
the Unicode (white background, black foreground) smiley face
equivalent to <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;\N{WHITE SMILING FACE}&quot;</span></code>
.
Also note, <code class="inline">\N{<i>...</i>}</code> can mean a regex quantifier instead of a character
name, when the <i>...</i> is a number (or comma separated pair of numbers
(see <a href="perlreref.html#QUANTIFIERS">QUANTIFIERS in perlreref</a>), and is not related to this pragma.</p>
<p>The <code class="inline"><span class="w">charnames</span></code>
 pragma supports arguments <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
, <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
, <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">short</span></code>
,
script names and <a href="#CUSTOM-ALIASES">customized aliases</a>.</p>
<p>If <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
 is present, for expansion of
<code class="inline">\N{<i>CHARNAME</i>}</code>, the string <i>CHARNAME</i> is first looked up in the list of
standard Unicode character names.</p>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
 is a variant of <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
 which allows <i>CHARNAME</i> to be less
precisely specified.  Details are in <a href="#LOOSE-MATCHES">LOOSE MATCHES</a>.</p>
<p>If <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">short</span></code>
 is present, and
<i>CHARNAME</i> has the form <code class="inline"><i>SCRIPT</i>:<i>CNAME</i></code>, then <i>CNAME</i> is looked up
as a letter in script <i>SCRIPT</i>, as described in the next paragraph.
Or, if <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span></code>
 is used
with script name arguments, then for <code class="inline">\N{<i>CHARNAME</i>}</code> the name
<i>CHARNAME</i> is looked up as a letter in the given scripts (in the
specified order). Customized aliases can override these, and are explained in
<a href="#CUSTOM-ALIASES">CUSTOM ALIASES</a>.</p>
<p>For lookup of <i>CHARNAME</i> inside a given script <i>SCRIPTNAME</i>,
this pragma looks in the table of standard Unicode names for the names</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>  <span class="w">SCRIPTNAME</span> <span class="w">CAPITAL</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">CHARNAME</span></li><li>  <span class="w">SCRIPTNAME</span> <span class="w">SMALL</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">CHARNAME</span></li><li>  <span class="w">SCRIPTNAME</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">CHARNAME</span></li></ol></pre><p>If <i>CHARNAME</i> is all lowercase,
then the <code class="inline"><span class="w">CAPITAL</span></code>
 variant is ignored, otherwise the <code class="inline"><span class="w">SMALL</span></code>
 variant
is ignored, and both <i>CHARNAME</i> and <i>SCRIPTNAME</i> are converted to all
uppercase for look-up.  Other than that, both of them follow <a href="#LOOSE-MATCHES">loose</a> rules if <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
 is also specified; strict otherwise.</p>
<p>Note that <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
 is compile-time; it's a special form of string
constant used inside double-quotish strings; this means that you cannot
use variables inside the <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
.  If you want similar run-time
functionality, use
<a href="#charnames%3a%3astring_vianame(name)">charnames::string_vianame()</a>.</p>
<p>Note, starting in Perl 5.18, the name <code class="inline"><span class="w">BELL</span></code>
 refers to the Unicode character
U+1F514, instead of the traditional U+0007.  For the latter, use <code class="inline"><span class="w">ALERT</span></code>

or <code class="inline"><span class="w">BEL</span></code>
.</p>
<p>It is a syntax error to use <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">NAME</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
 where <code class="inline"><span class="w">NAME</span></code>
 is unknown.</p>
<p>For <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">NAME</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
, it is a fatal error if <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bytes</span></code>
 is in effect and the
input name is that of a character that won't fit into a byte (i.e., whose
ordinal is above 255).</p>
<p>Otherwise, any string that includes a <code class="inline">\N{<i>charname</i>}</code> or
<code class="inline">\N{U+<i>code point</i>}</code> will automatically have Unicode rules (see
<a href="perlunicode.html#Byte-and-Character-Semantics">Byte and Character Semantics in perlunicode</a>).</p>
<a name="LOOSE-MATCHES"></a><h1>LOOSE MATCHES</h1>
<p>By specifying <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
, Unicode's <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/http:#%2fwww.unicode.org%2freports%2ftr44%23Matching_Rules">loose character name matching</a> rules are
selected instead of the strict exact match used otherwise.
That means that <i>CHARNAME</i> doesn't have to be so precisely specified.
Upper/lower case doesn't matter (except with scripts as mentioned above), nor
do any underscores, and the only hyphens that matter are those at the
beginning or end of a word in the name (with one exception:  the hyphen in
U+1180 <code class="inline"><span class="w">HANGUL</span> <span class="w">JUNGSEONG</span> <span class="w">O</span>-<span class="w">E</span></code>
 does matter).
Also, blanks not adjacent to hyphens don't matter.
The official Unicode names are quite variable as to where they use hyphens
versus spaces to separate word-like units, and this option allows you to not
have to care as much.
The reason non-medial hyphens matter is because of cases like
U+0F60 <code class="inline"><span class="w">TIBETAN</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> -A</code>
 versus U+0F68 <code class="inline"><span class="w">TIBETAN</span> <span class="w">LETTER</span> <span class="w">A</span></code>
.
The hyphen here is significant, as is the space before it, and so both must be
included.</p>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
 slows down look-ups by a factor of 2 to 3 versus
<code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
, but the trade-off may be worth it to you.  Each individual look-up
takes very little time, and the results are cached, so the speed difference
would become a factor only in programs that do look-ups of many different
spellings, and probably only when those look-ups are through <code class="inline"><span class="i">vianame</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span></code>
 and
<code class="inline"><span class="i">string_vianame</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span></code>
, since <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
 look-ups are done at compile time.</p>
<a name="ALIASES"></a><h1>ALIASES</h1>
<p>Starting in Unicode 6.1 and Perl v5.16, Unicode defines many abbreviations and
names that were formerly Perl extensions, and some additional ones that Perl
did not previously accept.  The list is getting too long to reproduce here,
but you can get the complete list from the Unicode web site:
<a href="http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/NameAliases.txt">http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/NameAliases.txt</a>.</p>
<p>Earlier versions of Perl accepted almost all the 6.1 names.  These were most
extensively documented in the v5.14 version of this pod:
<a href="http://perldoc.perl.org/5.14.0/charnames.html#ALIASES">http://perldoc.perl.org/5.14.0/charnames.html#ALIASES</a>.</p>
<a name="CUSTOM-ALIASES"></a><h1>CUSTOM ALIASES</h1>
<p>You can add customized aliases to standard (<code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
) Unicode naming
conventions.  The aliases override any standard definitions, so, if
you're twisted enough, you can change <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A}&quot;</span></code>
 to
mean <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;B&quot;</span></code>
, etc.</p>
<p>Aliases must begin with a character that is alphabetic.  After that, each may
contain any combination of word (<code class="inline">\<span class="w">w</span></code>
) characters, SPACE (U+0020),
HYPHEN-MINUS (U+002D), LEFT PARENTHESIS (U+0028), RIGHT PARENTHESIS (U+0029),
and NO-BREAK SPACE (U+00A0).  These last three should never have been allowed
in names, and are retained for backwards compatibility only; NO-BREAK SPACE IS
currently deprecated and scheduled for removal in Perl v5.26; the other two
may also be
deprecated and removed in future releases of Perl, so don't use them for new
names.  (More precisely, the first character of a name you specify must be
something that matches all of <code class="inline">\<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">ID_Start</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
, <code class="inline">\<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Alphabetic</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
, and
<code class="inline">\<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Gc</span>=<span class="w">Letter</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
.  This makes sure it is what any reasonable person would view
as an alphabetic character.  And, the continuation characters that match <code class="inline">\<span class="w">w</span></code>

must also match <code class="inline">\<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">ID_Continue</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
.)  Starting with Perl v5.18, any Unicode
characters meeting the above criteria may be used; prior to that only
Latin1-range characters were acceptable.</p>
<p>An alias can map to either an official Unicode character name (not a loose
matched name) or to a
numeric code point (ordinal).  The latter is useful for assigning names
to code points in Unicode private use areas such as U+E800 through
U+F8FF.
A numeric code point must be a non-negative integer, or a string beginning
with <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;U+&quot;</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;0x&quot;</span></code>
 with the remainder considered to be a
hexadecimal integer.  A literal numeric constant must be unsigned; it
will be interpreted as hex if it has a leading zero or contains
non-decimal hex digits; otherwise it will be interpreted as decimal.
If it begins with <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;U+&quot;</span></code>
, it is interpreted as the Unicode code point;
otherwise it is interpreted as native.  (Only code points below 256 can
differ between Unicode and native.)  Thus <code class="inline"><span class="w">U</span>+<span class="n">41</span></code>
 is always the Latin letter
"A"; but <code class="inline"><span class="n">0x41</span></code>
 can be "NO-BREAK SPACE" on EBCDIC platforms.</p>
<p>Aliases are added either by the use of anonymous hashes:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&quot;:alias&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>        <span class="w">e_ACUTE</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>        <span class="w">mychar1</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">0xE8000</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>        <span class="s">}</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$str</span> = <span class="q">&quot;\N{e_ACUTE}&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>or by using a file containing aliases:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&quot;:alias&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;pro&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>This will try to read <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;unicore/pro_alias.pl&quot;</span></code>
 from the <code class="inline"><span class="i">@INC</span></code>
 path. This
file should return a list in plain perl:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="s">(</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_GRAVE</span>         <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_CIRCUM</span>        <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_DIAERES</span>       <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_TILDE</span>         <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_BREVE</span>         <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_RING</span>          <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">A_MACRON</span>        <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="w">mychar2</span>         <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;U+E8001&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>    <span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Both these methods insert <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;:full&quot;</span></code>
 automatically as the first argument (if no
other argument is given), and you can give the <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;:full&quot;</span></code>
 explicitly as
well, like</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&quot;:full&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:alias&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;pro&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p><code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;:loose&quot;</span></code>
 has no effect with these.  Input names must match exactly, using
<code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;:full&quot;</span></code>
 rules.</p>
<p>Also, both these methods currently allow only single characters to be named.
To name a sequence of characters, use a
<a href="#CUSTOM-TRANSLATORS">custom translator</a> (described below).</p>
<a name="charnames%3a%3astring_vianame(_name_)"></a><h1>charnames::string_vianame(<i>name</i>)</h1>
<p>This is a runtime equivalent to <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
.  <i>name</i> can be any expression
that evaluates to a name accepted by <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
 under the <a href="#DESCRIPTION">:full option</a> to <code class="inline"><span class="w">charnames</span></code>
.  In addition, any other options for the
controlling <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;use charnames&quot;</span></code>
 in the same scope apply, like <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
 or any
<a href="#DESCRIPTION">script list, :short option</a>, or <a href="#CUSTOM-ALIASES">custom aliases</a> you may have defined.</p>
<p>The only differences are due to the fact that <code class="inline"><span class="w">string_vianame</span></code>
 is run-time
and <code class="inline">\<span class="w">N</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
 is compile time.  You can't interpolate inside a <code class="inline">\<span class="w">N</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
, (so
<code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="i">$variable</span><span class="s">}</span></code>
 doesn't work); and if the input name is unknown,
<code class="inline"><span class="w">string_vianame</span></code>
 returns <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code> instead of it being a syntax error.</p>
<a name="charnames%3a%3avianame(_name_)"></a><h1>charnames::vianame(<i>name</i>)</h1>
<p>This is similar to <code class="inline"><span class="w">string_vianame</span></code>
.  The main difference is that under most
circumstances, <code class="inline"><span class="w">vianame</span></code>
 returns an ordinal code
point, whereas <code class="inline"><span class="w">string_vianame</span></code>
 returns a string.  For example,</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <a class="l_k" href="functions/printf.html">printf</a> <span class="q">&quot;U+%04X&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">charnames::vianame</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;FOUR TEARDROP-SPOKED ASTERISK&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>prints "U+2722".</p>
<p>This leads to the other two differences.  Since a single code point is
returned, the function can't handle named character sequences, as these are
composed of multiple characters (it returns <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code> for these.  And, the code
point can be that of any
character, even ones that aren't legal under the <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bytes</span></code>
 pragma,</p>
<p>See <a href="#BUGS">BUGS</a> for the circumstances in which the behavior differs
from  that described above.</p>
<a name="charnames%3a%3aviacode(_code_)"></a><h1>charnames::viacode(<i>code</i>)</h1>
<p>Returns the full name of the character indicated by the numeric code.
For example,</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">charnames::viacode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0x2722</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>prints "FOUR TEARDROP-SPOKED ASTERISK".</p>
<p>The name returned is the "best" (defined below) official name or alias
for the code point, if
available; otherwise your custom alias for it, if defined; otherwise <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code>.
This means that your alias will only be returned for code points that don't
have an official Unicode name (nor alias) such as private use code points.</p>
<p>If you define more than one name for the code point, it is indeterminate
which one will be returned.</p>
<p>As mentioned, the function returns <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code> if no name is known for the code
point.  In Unicode the proper name for these is the empty string, which
<code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code> stringifies to.  (If you ask for a code point past the legal
Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF that you haven't assigned an alias to, you
get <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code> plus a warning.)</p>
<p>The input number must be a non-negative integer, or a string beginning
with <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;U+&quot;</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;0x&quot;</span></code>
 with the remainder considered to be a
hexadecimal integer.  A literal numeric constant must be unsigned; it
will be interpreted as hex if it has a leading zero or contains
non-decimal hex digits; otherwise it will be interpreted as decimal.
If it begins with <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;U+&quot;</span></code>
, it is interpreted as the Unicode code point;
otherwise it is interpreted as native.  (Only code points below 256 can
differ between Unicode and native.)  Thus <code class="inline"><span class="w">U</span>+<span class="n">41</span></code>
 is always the Latin letter
"A"; but <code class="inline"><span class="n">0x41</span></code>
 can be "NO-BREAK SPACE" on EBCDIC platforms.</p>
<p>As mentioned above under <a href="#ALIASES">ALIASES</a>, Unicode 6.1 defines extra names
(synonyms or aliases) for some code points, most of which were already
available as Perl extensions.  All these are accepted by <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
 and the
other functions in this module, but <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 has to choose which one
name to return for a given input code point, so it returns the "best" name.
To understand how this works, it is helpful to know more about the Unicode
name properties.  All code points actually have only a single name, which
(starting in Unicode 2.0) can never change once a character has been assigned
to the code point.  But mistakes have been made in assigning names, for
example sometimes a clerical error was made during the publishing of the
Standard which caused words to be misspelled, and there was no way to correct
those.  The Name_Alias property was eventually created to handle these
situations.  If a name was wrong, a corrected synonym would be published for
it, using Name_Alias.  <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 will return that corrected synonym as the
"best" name for a code point.  (It is even possible, though it hasn't happened
yet, that the correction itself will need to be corrected, and so another
Name_Alias can be created for that code point; <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 will return the
most recent correction.)</p>
<p>The Unicode name for each of the control characters (such as LINE FEED) is the
empty string.  However almost all had names assigned by other standards, such
as the ASCII Standard, or were in common use.  <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 returns these names
as the "best" ones available.  Unicode 6.1 has created Name_Aliases for each
of them, including alternate names, like NEW LINE.  <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 uses the
original name, "LINE FEED" in preference to the alternate.  Similarly the
name returned for U+FEFF is "ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE", not "BYTE ORDER
MARK".</p>
<p>Until Unicode 6.1, the 4 control characters U+0080, U+0081, U+0084, and U+0099
did not have names nor aliases.
To preserve backwards compatibility, any alias you define for these code
points will be returned by this function, in preference to the official name.</p>
<p>Some code points also have abbreviated names, such as "LF" or "NL".
<code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 never returns these.</p>
<p>Because a name correction may be added in future Unicode releases, the name
that <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
 returns may change as a result.  This is a rare event, but it
does happen.</p>
<a name="CUSTOM-TRANSLATORS"></a><h1>CUSTOM TRANSLATORS</h1>
<p>The mechanism of translation of <code class="inline">\<span class="i">N</span><span class="s">{</span>...<span class="s">}</span></code>
 escapes is general and not
hardwired into <i>charnames.pm</i>.  A module can install custom
translations (inside the scope which <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a></code>s the module) with the
following magic incantation:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li><a name="import"></a>    sub <span class="m">import</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>        <a class="l_k" href="functions/shift.html">shift</a><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="i">$^H</span>{<span class="w">charnames</span>} = \<span class="i">&amp;translator</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><p>Here translator() is a subroutine which takes <i>CHARNAME</i> as an
argument, and returns text to insert into the string instead of the
<code class="inline">\N{<i>CHARNAME</i>}</code> escape.</p>
<p>This is the only way you can create a custom named sequence of code points.</p>
<p>Since the text to insert should be different
in <code class="inline"><span class="w">bytes</span></code>
 mode and out of it, the function should check the current
state of <code class="inline"><span class="w">bytes</span></code>
-flag as in:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bytes</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span>                      <span class="c"># for $bytes::hint_bits</span></li><li><a name="translator"></a>    sub <span class="m">translator</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>        if <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$^H</span> &amp; <span class="i">$bytes::hint_bits</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>            <a class="l_k" href="functions/return.html">return</a> <span class="i">bytes_translator</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@_</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="s">}</span></li><li>        else <span class="s">{</span></li><li>            <a class="l_k" href="functions/return.html">return</a> <span class="i">utf8_translator</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@_</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>        <span class="s">}</span></li><li>    <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><p>See <a href="#CUSTOM-ALIASES">CUSTOM ALIASES</a> above for restrictions on <i>CHARNAME</i>.</p>
<p>Of course, <code class="inline"><span class="w">vianame</span></code>
, <code class="inline"><span class="w">viacode</span></code>
, and <code class="inline"><span class="w">string_vianame</span></code>
 would need to be
overridden as well.</p>
<a name="BUGS"></a><h1>BUGS</h1>
<p>vianame() normally returns an ordinal code point, but when the input name is of
the form <code class="inline"><span class="w">U</span>+...</code>
, it returns a chr instead.  In this case, if <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">bytes</span></code>
 is
in effect and the character won't fit into a byte, it returns <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></code> and
raises a warning.</p>
<p>Since evaluation of the translation function (see <a href="#CUSTOM-TRANSLATORS">CUSTOM TRANSLATORS</a>) happens in the middle of compilation (of a string
literal), the translation function should not do any <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/eval.html">eval</a></code>s or
<code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/require.html">require</a></code>s.  This restriction should be lifted (but is low priority) in
a future version of Perl.</p>




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