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            <h1>perldoc</h1>


  <!--    -->
<ul><li><a href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><li><a href="#OPTIONS">OPTIONS</a><li><a href="#SECURITY">SECURITY</a><li><a href="#ENVIRONMENT">ENVIRONMENT</a><li><a href="#CHANGES">CHANGES</a><li><a href="#SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a><li><a href="#AUTHOR">AUTHOR</a></ul><a name="SYNOPSIS"></a><h1>SYNOPSIS</h1>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">h</span><span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">D</span><span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-t<span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-u<span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="q">m] [-l]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">U</span><span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">F</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">i</span><span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">V</span><span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-T<span class="s">]</span> <span class="s">[</span>-r<span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-d <span class="w">destination_file</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-o <span class="w">formatname</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-M <span class="w">FormatterClassName</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-w <span class="w">formatteroption</span><span class="co">:</span><span class="w">value</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">n</span> <span class="w">nroff</span>-<span class="w">replacement</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span><a class="l_k" href="functions/-X.html">-X</a><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="s">[</span>-<span class="w">L</span> <span class="w">language_code</span><span class="s">]</span></li><li>        <span class="w">PageName</span>|<span class="w">ModuleName</span>|<span class="w">ProgramName</span>|<span class="w">URL</span></li></ol></pre><p>Examples:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> -f <span class="w">BuiltinFunction</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="w">L</span> <span class="w">it</span> -f <span class="w">BuiltinFunction</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="q">q FAQ Keyword</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="q">    perldoc -L fr -q FAQ</span> <span class="w">Keyword</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="w">v</span> <span class="w">PerlVariable</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="w">a</span> <span class="w">PerlAPI</span></li></ol></pre><p>See below for more description of the switches.</p>
<a name="DESCRIPTION"></a><h1>DESCRIPTION</h1>
<p><b>perldoc</b> looks up documentation in .pod format that is embedded in the perl
installation tree or in a perl script, and displays it using a variety of
formatters.  This is primarily used for the documentation for the perl library
modules.</p>
<p>Your system may also have man pages installed for those modules, in
which case you can probably just use the man(1) command.</p>
<p>If you are looking for a table of contents to the Perl library modules
documentation, see the <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/perltoc">perltoc</a> page.</p>
<a name="OPTIONS"></a><h1>OPTIONS</h1>
<ul>
<li><a name="*-h*"></a><b><b>-h</b></b>
<p>Prints out a brief <b>h</b>elp message.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-D*"></a><b><b>-D</b></b>
<p><b>D</b>escribes search for the item in <b>d</b>etail.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-t*"></a><b><b>-t</b></b>
<p>Display docs using plain <b>t</b>ext converter, instead of nroff. This may be faster,
but it probably won't look as nice.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-u*"></a><b><b>-u</b></b>
<p>Skip the real Pod formatting, and just show the raw Pod source (<b>U</b>nformatted)</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-m*-_module_"></a><b><b>-m</b> <i>module</i></b>
<p>Display the entire module: both code and unformatted pod documentation.
This may be useful if the docs don't explain a function in the detail
you need, and you'd like to inspect the code directly; perldoc will find
the file for you and simply hand it off for display.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-l*"></a><b><b>-l</b></b>
<p>Display on<b>l</b>y the file name of the module found.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-U*"></a><b><b>-U</b></b>
<p>When running as the superuser, don't attempt drop privileges for security.
This option is implied with <b>-F</b>.</p>
<p><b>NOTE</b>: Please see the heading SECURITY below for more information.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-F*"></a><b><b>-F</b></b>
<p>Consider arguments as file names; no search in directories will be performed.
Implies <b>-U</b> if run as the superuser.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-f*-_perlfunc_"></a><b><b>-f</b> <i>perlfunc</i></b>
<p>The <b>-f</b> option followed by the name of a perl built-in function will
extract the documentation of this function from <a href="perlfunc.html">perlfunc</a>.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      <span class="w">perldoc</span> -f <a class="l_k" href="functions/sprintf.html">sprintf</a></li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="*-q*-_perlfaq-search-regexp_"></a><b><b>-q</b> <i>perlfaq-search-regexp</i></b>
<p>The <b>-q</b> option takes a regular expression as an argument.  It will search
the <b>q</b>uestion headings in perlfaq[1-9] and print the entries matching
the regular expression.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     perldoc -q shuffle</li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="*-a*-_perlapifunc_"></a><b><b>-a</b> <i>perlapifunc</i></b>
<p>The <b>-a</b> option followed by the name of a perl api function will
extract the documentation of this function from <a href="perlapi.html">perlapi</a>.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="w">a</span> <span class="w">newHV</span></li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="*-v*-_perlvar_"></a><b><b>-v</b> <i>perlvar</i></b>
<p>The <b>-v</b> option followed by the name of a Perl predefined variable will
extract the documentation of this variable from <a href="perlvar.html">perlvar</a>.</p>
<p>Examples:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     perldoc -v '$"'</li><li>     perldoc -v @+</li><li>     perldoc -v DATA</li></ol></pre></li>
<li><a name="*-T*"></a><b><b>-T</b></b>
<p>This specifies that the output is not to be sent to a pager, but is to
be sent directly to STDOUT.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-d*-_destination-filename_"></a><b><b>-d</b> <i>destination-filename</i></b>
<p>This specifies that the output is to be sent neither to a pager nor
to STDOUT, but is to be saved to the specified filename.  Example:
<code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="w">oLaTeX</span> -<span class="w">dtextwrapdocs</span>.<span class="w">tex</span> <span class="w">Text::Wrap</span></code>
</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-o*-_output-formatname_"></a><b><b>-o</b> <i>output-formatname</i></b>
<p>This specifies that you want Perldoc to try using a Pod-formatting
class for the output format that you specify.  For example:
<code class="inline">-<span class="w">oman</span></code>
.  This is actually just a wrapper around the <code class="inline">-M</code>
 switch;
using <code class="inline">-o<i>formatname</i></code> just looks for a loadable class by adding
that format name (with different capitalizations) to the end of
different classname prefixes.</p>
<p>For example, <code class="inline">-<span class="w">oLaTeX</span></code>
 currently tries all of the following classes:
Pod::Perldoc::ToLaTeX Pod::Perldoc::Tolatex Pod::Perldoc::ToLatex
Pod::Perldoc::ToLATEX Pod::Simple::LaTeX Pod::Simple::latex
Pod::Simple::Latex Pod::Simple::LATEX Pod::LaTeX Pod::latex Pod::Latex
Pod::LATEX.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-M*-_module-name_"></a><b><b>-M</b> <i>module-name</i></b>
<p>This specifies the module that you want to try using for formatting the
pod.  The class must at least provide a <code class="inline"><span class="w">parse_from_file</span></code>
 method.
For example: <code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span> -<span class="w">MPod::Perldoc::ToChecker</span></code>
.</p>
<p>You can specify several classes to try by joining them with commas
or semicolons, as in <code class="inline">-<span class="w">MTk::SuperPod</span><span class="sc">;</span><span class="w">Tk::Pod</span></code>
.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-w*-_option%3avalue_-or-*-w*-_option_"></a><b><b>-w</b> <i>option:value</i> or <b>-w</b> <i>option</i></b>
<p>This specifies an option to call the formatter <b>w</b>ith.  For example,
<code class="inline">-w textsize:15</code> will call
<code class="inline"><span class="i">$formatter</span><span class="i">-&gt;textsize</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">15</span><span class="s">)</span></code>
 on the formatter object before it is
used to format the object.  For this to be valid, the formatter class
must provide such a method, and the value you pass should be valid.
(So if <code class="inline"><span class="w">textsize</span></code>
 expects an integer, and you do <code class="inline">-w textsize:big</code>,
expect trouble.)</p>
<p>You can use <code class="inline">-w <span class="w">optionname</span></code>
 (without a value) as shorthand for
<code class="inline">-w optionname:<i>TRUE</i></code>.  This is presumably useful in cases of on/off
features like: <code class="inline">-w <span class="w">page_numbering</span></code>
.</p>
<p>You can use an "=" instead of the ":", as in: <code class="inline">-w <span class="w">textsize</span>=<span class="n">15</span></code>
.  This
might be more (or less) convenient, depending on what shell you use.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-X*"></a><b><b>-X</b></b>
<p>Use an index if it is present. The <b>-X</b> option looks for an entry
whose basename matches the name given on the command line in the file
<code class="inline"><span class="i">$Config</span>{<span class="w">archlib</span>}/<span class="w">pod</span>.<span class="w">idx</span></code>
. The <i>pod.idx</i> file should contain fully
qualified filenames, one per line.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-L*-_language_code_"></a><b><b>-L</b> <i>language_code</i></b>
<p>This allows one to specify the <i>language code</i> for the desired language
translation. If the <code class="inline"><span class="w">POD2::</span><span class="q">&lt;language_code&gt;</span></code>
 package isn't
installed in your system, the switch is ignored.
All available translation packages are to be found under the <code class="inline"><span class="w">POD2::</span></code>

namespace. See <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/POD2::IT">POD2::IT</a> (or <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/POD2::FR">POD2::FR</a>) to see how to create new
localized <code class="inline"><span class="w">POD2::</span>*</code>
 documentation packages and integrate them into
<a href="Pod/Perldoc.html">Pod::Perldoc</a>.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*PageName%7cModuleName%7cProgramName%7cURL*"></a><b><b>PageName|ModuleName|ProgramName|URL</b></b>
<p>The item you want to look up.  Nested modules (such as <code class="inline"><span class="w">File::Basename</span></code>
)
are specified either as <code class="inline"><span class="w">File::Basename</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="w">File</span>/<span class="w">Basename</span></code>
.  You may also
give a descriptive name of a page, such as <code class="inline"><span class="w">perlfunc</span></code>
.  For URLs, HTTP and
HTTPS are the only kind currently supported.</p>
<p>For simple names like 'foo', when the normal search fails to find
a matching page, a search with the "perl" prefix is tried as well.
So "perldoc intro" is enough to find/render "perlintro.pod".</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-n*-_some-formatter_"></a><b><b>-n</b> <i>some-formatter</i></b>
<p>Specify replacement for groff</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-r*"></a><b><b>-r</b></b>
<p>Recursive search.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-i*"></a><b><b>-i</b></b>
<p>Ignore case.</p>
</li>
<li><a name="*-V*"></a><b><b>-V</b></b>
<p>Displays the version of perldoc you're running.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="SECURITY"></a><h1>SECURITY</h1>
<p>Because <b>perldoc</b> does not run properly tainted, and is known to
have security issues, when run as the superuser it will attempt to
drop privileges by setting the effective and real IDs to nobody's
or nouser's account, or -2 if unavailable.  If it cannot relinquish
its privileges, it will not run.</p>
<p>See the <code class="inline">-<span class="w">U</span></code>
 option if you do not want this behavior but <b>beware</b>
that there are significant security risks if you choose to use <code class="inline">-<span class="w">U</span></code>
.</p>
<p>Since 3.26, using <code class="inline">-<span class="w">F</span></code>
 as the superuser also implies <code class="inline">-<span class="w">U</span></code>
 as opening
most files and traversing directories requires privileges that are
above the nobody/nogroup level.</p>
<a name="ENVIRONMENT"></a><h1>ENVIRONMENT</h1>
<p>Any switches in the <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERLDOC</span></code>
 environment variable will be used before the
command line arguments.</p>
<p>Useful values for <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERLDOC</span></code>
 include <code class="inline">-<span class="w">oterm</span></code>
, <code class="inline">-<span class="w">otext</span></code>
, <code class="inline">-<span class="w">ortf</span></code>
,
<code class="inline">-<span class="w">oxml</span></code>
, and so on, depending on what modules you have on hand; or
the formatter class may be specified exactly with <code class="inline">-<span class="w">MPod::Perldoc::ToTerm</span></code>

or the like.</p>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span></code>
 also searches directories
specified by the <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERL5LIB</span></code>
 (or <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERLLIB</span></code>
 if <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERL5LIB</span></code>
 is not
defined) and <code class="inline"><span class="w">PATH</span></code>
 environment variables.
(The latter is so that embedded pods for executables, such as
<code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span></code>
 itself, are available.)</p>
<p>In directories where either <code class="inline"><span class="w">Makefile</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="w">Build</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></code>
 exist, <code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span></code>

will add <code class="inline">.</code> and <code class="inline"><span class="w">lib</span></code>
 first to its search path, and as long as you're not
the superuser will add <code class="inline"><span class="w">blib</span></code>
 too.  This is really helpful if you're working
inside of a build directory and want to read through the docs even if you
have a version of a module previously installed.</p>
<p><code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span></code>
 will use, in order of preference, the pager defined in
<code class="inline"><span class="w">PERLDOC_PAGER</span></code>
, <code class="inline"><span class="w">MANPAGER</span></code>
, or <code class="inline"><span class="w">PAGER</span></code>
 before trying to find a pager
on its own. (<code class="inline"><span class="w">MANPAGER</span></code>
 is not used if <code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span></code>
 was told to display
plain text or unformatted pod.)</p>
<p>When using perldoc in it's <code class="inline">-m</code> mode (display module source code),
<code class="inline"><span class="w">perldoc</span></code>
 will attempt to use the pager set in <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERLDOC_SRC_PAGER</span></code>
.
A useful setting for this command is your favorite editor as in
<code class="inline"><span class="q">/usr/</span><span class="w">bin</span>/<span class="w">nano</span></code>
. (Don't judge me.)</p>
<p>One useful value for <code class="inline"><span class="w">PERLDOC_PAGER</span></code>
 is <code class="inline"><span class="w">less</span> -+<span class="w">C</span> -<span class="w">E</span></code>
.</p>
<p>Having PERLDOCDEBUG set to a positive integer will make perldoc emit
even more descriptive output than the <code class="inline">-<span class="w">D</span></code>
 switch does; the higher the
number, the more it emits.</p>
<a name="CHANGES"></a><h1>CHANGES</h1>
<p>Up to 3.14_05, the switch <b>-v</b> was used to produce verbose
messages of <b>perldoc</b> operation, which is now enabled by <b>-D</b>.</p>
<a name="SEE-ALSO"></a><h1>SEE ALSO</h1>
<p><a href="perlpod.html">perlpod</a>, <a href="Pod/Perldoc.html">Pod::Perldoc</a></p>
<a name="AUTHOR"></a><h1>AUTHOR</h1>
<p>Current maintainer: Mark Allen <code class="inline"><span class="q">&lt;mallen@cpan.org&gt;</span></code>
</p>
<p>Past contributors are:
brian d foy <code class="inline"><span class="q">&lt;bdfoy@cpan.org&gt;</span></code>
 
Adriano R. Ferreira <code class="inline"><span class="q">&lt;ferreira@cpan.org&gt;</span></code>
,
Sean M. Burke <code class="inline"><span class="q">&lt;sburke@cpan.org&gt;</span></code>
,
Kenneth Albanowski <code class="inline"><span class="q">&lt;kjahds@kjahds.com&gt;</span></code>
,
Andy Dougherty  <code class="inline"><span class="q">&lt;doughera@lafcol.lafayette.edu&gt;</span></code>
,
and many others.</p>




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