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            <h1>perlmodinstall</h1>


  <!--    -->
<ul><li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><ul><li><a href="#PREAMBLE">PREAMBLE</a></ul><li><a href="#PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a><li><a href="#HEY">HEY</a><li><a href="#AUTHOR">AUTHOR</a><li><a href="#COPYRIGHT">COPYRIGHT</a></ul><a name="NAME"></a><h1>NAME</h1>
<p>perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules</p>
<a name="DESCRIPTION"></a><h1>DESCRIPTION</h1>
<p>You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of reusable Perl
code; see <a href="perlmod.html">perlmod</a> for details.  Whenever anyone creates a chunk of
Perl code that they think will be useful to the world, they register
as a Perl developer at <a href="http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html">http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html</a>
so that they can then upload their code to the CPAN.  The CPAN is the
Comprehensive Perl Archive Network and can be accessed at
<a href="http://www.cpan.org/">http://www.cpan.org/</a> , and searched at <a href="http://search.cpan.org/">http://search.cpan.org/</a> .</p>
<p>This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN modules
and install them on their own computer.</p>
<a name="PREAMBLE"></a><h2>PREAMBLE</h2>
<p>First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your system?  Try
<code class="inline"><span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">MFoo</span> -e <span class="n">1</span></code>
.  (Replace "Foo" with the name of the module; for
instance, <code class="inline"><span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">MCGI::Carp</span> -e <span class="n">1</span></code>
.)</p>
<p>If you don't see an error message, you have the module.  (If you do
see an error message, it's still possible you have the module, but
that it's not in your path, which you can display with <code class="inline"><span class="w">perl</span> -e
<span class="q">&quot;print qq(@INC)&quot;</span></code>
.)  For the remainder of this document, we'll assume
that you really honestly truly lack an installed module, but have
found it on the CPAN.</p>
<p>So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often, .zip).  You
know there's a tasty module inside.  There are four steps you must now
take:</p>
<ul>
<li><a name="*DECOMPRESS*-the-file"></a><b><b>DECOMPRESS</b> the file</b>
</li>
<li><a name="*UNPACK*-the-file-into-a-directory"></a><b><b>UNPACK</b> the file into a directory</b>
</li>
<li><a name="*BUILD*-the-module-(sometimes-unnecessary)"></a><b><b>BUILD</b> the module (sometimes unnecessary)</b>
</li>
<li><a name="*INSTALL*-the-module."></a><b><b>INSTALL</b> the module.</b>
</li>
</ul>
<p>Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.  This is
&lt;not&gt; a substitute for reading the README and INSTALL files that
might have come with your module!</p>
<p>Also note that these instructions are tailored for installing the
module into your system's repository of Perl modules, but you can
install modules into any directory you wish.  For instance, where I
say <code class="inline"><span class="w">perl</span> <span class="w">Makefile</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></code>
, you can substitute <code class="inline">perl Makefile.PL
PREFIX=/my/perl_directory</code> to install the modules into
<i>/my/perl_directory</i>.  Then you can use the modules from your Perl
programs with <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">lib</span> <span class="q">&quot;/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
 or
sometimes just <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="q">&quot;/my/perl_directory&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
.  If you're on a system
that requires superuser/root access to install modules into the
directories you see when you type <code class="inline"><span class="w">perl</span> -e <span class="q">&quot;print qq(@INC)&quot;</span></code>
, you'll
want to install them into a local directory (such as your home
directory) and use this approach.</p>
<ul>
<li>
<p><b>If you're on a Unix or Unix-like system,</b></p>
<p>You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module
( <a href="http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN">http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN</a> )
to automate the following steps, from DECOMPRESS through INSTALL.</p>
<p>A. DECOMPRESS</p>
<p>Decompress the file with <code class="inline"><span class="w">gzip</span> -d <span class="w">yourmodule</span>.<span class="w">tar</span>.<span class="w">gz</span></code>
</p>
<p>You can get gzip from <a href="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/">ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/</a></p>
<p>Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk space:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="w">gzip</span> -<span class="w">dc</span> <span class="w">yourmodule</span>.<span class="w">tar</span>.<span class="w">gz</span> | <span class="w">tar</span> -<span class="w">xof</span> -</li></ol></pre><p>B. UNPACK</p>
<p>Unpack the result with <code class="inline"><span class="w">tar</span> -<span class="w">xof</span> <span class="w">yourmodule</span>.<span class="w">tar</span></code>
</p>
<p>C. BUILD</p>
<p>Go into the newly-created directory and type:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      <span class="w">perl</span> <span class="w">Makefile</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></li><li>      <span class="w">make</span> <span class="w">test</span></li></ol></pre><p>or</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory</li></ol></pre><p>to install it locally.  (Remember that if you do this, you'll have to
put <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">lib</span> <span class="q">&quot;/my/perl_directory&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></code>
 near the top of the program that
is to use this module.</p>
<p>D. INSTALL</p>
<p>While still in that directory, type:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      <span class="w">make</span> <span class="w">install</span></li></ol></pre><p>Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to install the module
in your Perl 5 library directory.  Often, you'll need to be root.</p>
<p>That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic linking.
Most Unix systems have dynamic linking. If yours doesn't, or if for
another reason you have a statically-linked perl, <b>and</b> the
module requires compilation, you'll need to build a new Perl binary
that includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to be root.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><b>If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP, Linux, Solaris),</b></p>
<p>First, type <code class="inline"><span class="w">ppm</span></code>
 from a shell and see whether ActiveState's PPM
repository has your module.  If so, you can install it with <code class="inline"><span class="w">ppm</span></code>
 and
you won't have to bother with any of the other steps here.  You might
be able to use the CPAN instructions from the "Unix or Linux" section
above as well; give it a try.  Otherwise, you'll have to follow the
steps below.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">A</span>. <span class="w">DECOMPRESS</span></li></ol></pre><p>You can use the shareware Winzip ( <a href="http://www.winzip.com">http://www.winzip.com</a> ) to
decompress and unpack modules.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">B</span>. <span class="w">UNPACK</span></li></ol></pre><p>If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">C</span>. <span class="w">BUILD</span></li></ol></pre><p>You'll need the <code class="inline"><span class="w">nmake</span></code>
 utility, available at
<a href="http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe">http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe</a>
or dmake, available on CPAN.
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/">http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/</a></p>
<p>Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have files that end
in .xs, .c, .h, .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?  If it does, life is now
officially tough for you, because you have to compile the module
yourself (no easy feat on Windows).  You'll need a compiler such as
Visual C++.  Alternatively, you can download a pre-built PPM package
from ActiveState.
<a href="http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Downloads/ActivePerl/PPM/">http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Downloads/ActivePerl/PPM/</a></p>
<p>Go into the newly-created directory and type:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      <span class="w">perl</span> <span class="w">Makefile</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></li><li>      <span class="w">nmake</span> <span class="w">test</span></li><li></li><li></li><li>   <span class="w">D</span>. <span class="w">INSTALL</span></li></ol></pre><p>While still in that directory, type:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      <span class="w">nmake</span> <span class="w">install</span></li></ol></pre></li>
<li>
<p><b>If you're using a Macintosh with "Classic" MacOS and MacPerl,</b></p>
<p>A. DECOMPRESS</p>
<p>First, make sure you have the latest <b>cpan-mac</b> distribution (
<a href="http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/">http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/</a> ), which has utilities for
doing all of the steps.  Read the cpan-mac directions carefully and
install it.  If you choose not to use cpan-mac for some reason, there
are alternatives listed here.</p>
<p>After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on the
<b>untarzipme</b> droplet, which will decompress and unpack for you.</p>
<p><b>Or</b>, you can either use the shareware <b>StuffIt Expander</b> program
( <a href="http://my.smithmicro.com/mac/stuffit/">http://my.smithmicro.com/mac/stuffit/</a> )
or the freeware <b>MacGzip</b> program (
<a href="http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html">http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html</a> ).</p>
<p>B. UNPACK</p>
<p>If you're using untarzipme or StuffIt, the archive should be extracted
now.  <b>Or</b>, you can use the freeware <b>suntar</b> or <i>Tar</i> (
<a href="http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/cmp/">http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/cmp/</a> ).</p>
<p>C. BUILD</p>
<p>Check the contents of the distribution.
Read the module's documentation, looking for
reasons why you might have trouble using it with MacPerl.  Look for
<i>.xs</i> and <i>.c</i> files, which normally denote that the distribution
must be compiled, and you cannot install it "out of the box."
(See <a href="#PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a>.)</p>
<p>D. INSTALL</p>
<p>If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the
<b>installme</b> droplet, and use the module.</p>
<p><b>Or</b>, if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual labor.</p>
<p>Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac format, not Unix format.
If they are not then you might have decompressed them incorrectly.  Check
your decompression and unpacking utilities settings to make sure they are
translating text files properly.</p>
<p>As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perl</span> -<span class="w">i</span>.<span class="w">bak</span> -<span class="w">pe</span> <span class="q">&#39;s/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g&#39;</span> &lt;<span class="w">filenames</span>&gt;</li></ol></pre><p>on the source files.</p>
<p>Then move the files (probably just the <i>.pm</i> files, though there
may be some additional ones, too; check the module documentation)
to their final destination: This will
most likely be in <code class="inline">$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:</code> (i.e.,
<code class="inline">HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:</code>).  You can add new paths to
the default <code class="inline"><span class="i">@INC</span></code>
 in the Preferences menu item in the
MacPerl application (<code class="inline">$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:</code> is added
automagically).  Create whatever directory structures are required
(i.e., for <code class="inline"><span class="w">Some::Module</span></code>
, create
<code class="inline">$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:</code> and put
<code class="inline"><span class="w">Module</span>.<span class="w">pm</span></code>
 in that directory).</p>
<p>Then run the following script (or something like it):</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="c">#!perl -w</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">AutoSplit</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$dir</span> = <span class="q">&quot;${MACPERL}site_perl&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <span class="i">autosplit</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;$dir:Some:Module.pm&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;$dir:auto&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">0</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre></li>
<li>
<p><b>If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,</b></p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">A</span>. <span class="w">DECOMPRESS</span></li></ol></pre><p>djtarx ( <a href="ftp://ftp.delorie.com/pub/djgpp/current/v2/">ftp://ftp.delorie.com/pub/djgpp/current/v2/</a> )
will both uncompress and unpack.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">B</span>. <span class="w">UNPACK</span></li></ol></pre><p>See above.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">C</span>. <span class="w">BUILD</span></li></ol></pre><p>Go into the newly-created directory and type:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>      <span class="w">perl</span> <span class="w">Makefile</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></li><li>      <span class="w">make</span> <span class="w">test</span></li></ol></pre><p>You will need the packages mentioned in <i>README.dos</i>
in the Perl distribution.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>   <span class="w">D</span>. <span class="w">INSTALL</span></li></ol></pre><p>While still in that directory, type:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="w">make</span> <span class="w">install</span></li></ol></pre><p>You will need the packages mentioned in <i>README.dos</i> in the Perl distribution.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><b>If you're on OS/2,</b></p>
<p>Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either Hobbes (
<a href="http://hobbes.nmsu.edu">http://hobbes.nmsu.edu</a> ) or Leo ( <a href="http://www.leo.org">http://www.leo.org</a> ), and then follow
the instructions for Unix.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><b>If you're on VMS,</b></p>
<p>When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a <code class="inline">.tgz</code>
extension instead of <code class="inline">.tar.gz</code>.  All other periods in the
filename should be replaced with underscores.  For example,
<code class="inline"><span class="w">Your</span>-<span class="w">Module</span>-<span class="n">1.33</span>.<span class="w">tar</span>.<span class="w">gz</span></code>
 should be downloaded as
<code class="inline">Your-Module-1_33.tgz</code>.</p>
<p>A. DECOMPRESS</p>
<p>Type</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">gzip</span> -d <span class="w">Your</span>-<span class="w">Module</span>.<span class="w">tgz</span></li></ol></pre><p>or, for zipped modules, type</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">unzip</span> <span class="w">Your</span>-<span class="w">Module</span>.<span class="w">zip</span></li></ol></pre><p>Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/</li></ol></pre><p>and their source code:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    http://www.fsf.org/order/ftp.html</li></ol></pre><p>Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as Info-ZIP's zip/unzip
package.  The former is a simple compression tool; the latter permits
creation of multi-file archives.</p>
<p>B. UNPACK</p>
<p>If you're using VMStar:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="w">VMStar</span> <span class="w">xf</span> <span class="w">Your</span>-<span class="w">Module</span>.<span class="w">tar</span></li></ol></pre><p>Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="w">tar</span>/<span class="w">extract</span>/<span class="w">verbose</span> <span class="w">Your_Module</span>.<span class="w">tar</span></li></ol></pre><p>C. BUILD</p>
<p>Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware MMK ( available
from MadGoat at <a href="http://www.madgoat.com">http://www.madgoat.com</a> ).  Then type this to create
the DESCRIP.MMS for the module:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">perl</span> <span class="w">Makefile</span>.<span class="w">PL</span></li></ol></pre><p>Now you're ready to build:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">mms</span> <span class="w">test</span></li></ol></pre><p>Substitute <code class="inline"><span class="w">mmk</span></code>
 for <code class="inline"><span class="w">mms</span></code>
 above if you're using MMK.</p>
<p>D. INSTALL</p>
<p>Type</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="w">mms</span> <span class="w">install</span></li></ol></pre><p>Substitute <code class="inline"><span class="w">mmk</span></code>
 for <code class="inline"><span class="w">mms</span></code>
 above if you're using MMK.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><b>If you're on MVS</b>,</p>
<p>Introduce the <i>.tar.gz</i> file into an HFS as binary; don't translate from
ASCII to EBCDIC.</p>
<p>A. DECOMPRESS</p>
<p>Decompress the file with <code class="inline"><span class="w">gzip</span> -d <span class="w">yourmodule</span>.<span class="w">tar</span>.<span class="w">gz</span></code>
</p>
<p>You can get gzip from
<a href="http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html">http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html</a></p>
<p>B. UNPACK</p>
<p>Unpack the result with</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="w">pax</span> -o <span class="w">to</span>=<span class="w">IBM</span>-<span class="n">1047</span><span class="cm">,</span><span class="w">from</span>=<span class="w">ISO8859</span>-<span class="n">1</span> -<span class="w">r</span> &lt; <span class="w">yourmodule</span>.<span class="w">tar</span></li></ol></pre><p>The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for Unix.  Some
modules generate Makefiles that work better with GNU make, which is
available from <a href="http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/">http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="PORTABILITY"></a><h1>PORTABILITY</h1>
<p>Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms.
See <a href="perlport.html">perlport</a> for more information on portability issues.
Read the documentation to see if the module will work on your
system.  There are basically three categories
of modules that will not work "out of the box" with all
platforms (with some possibility of overlap):</p>
<ul>
<li>
<p><b>Those that should, but don't.</b>  These need to be fixed; consider
contacting the author and possibly writing a patch.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><b>Those that need to be compiled, where the target platform
doesn't have compilers readily available.</b>  (These modules contain
<i>.xs</i> or <i>.c</i> files, usually.)  You might be able to find
existing binaries on the CPAN or elsewhere, or you might
want to try getting compilers and building it yourself, and then
release the binary for other poor souls to use.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p><b>Those that are targeted at a specific platform.</b>
(Such as the Win32:: modules.)  If the module is targeted
specifically at a platform other than yours, you're out
of luck, most likely.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<p>Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your platform
but it doesn't behave as you'd expect, or you aren't sure whether or
not a module will work under your platform.  If the module you want
isn't listed there, you can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers know,
you can join CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    http://testers.cpan.org/</li></ol></pre><a name="HEY"></a><h1>HEY</h1>
<p>If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me know.  Please
don't send me mail asking for help on how to install your modules.
There are too many modules, and too few Orwants, for me to be able to
answer or even acknowledge all your questions.  Contact the module
author instead, ask someone familiar with Perl on your operating
system, or if all else fails, file a ticket at <a href="http://rt.cpan.org/">http://rt.cpan.org/</a>.</p>
<a name="AUTHOR"></a><h1>AUTHOR</h1>
<p>Jon Orwant</p>
<p>orwant@medita.mit.edu</p>
<p>with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help from Brandon
Allbery, Charles Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic Dunlop, Jarkko
Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tuomas
J. Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen, Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy,
Christoph Spalinger, Dan Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.</p>
<p>First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21, 2001.</p>
<a name="COPYRIGHT"></a><h1>COPYRIGHT</h1>
<p>Copyright (C) 1998, 2002, 2003 Jon Orwant.  All Rights Reserved.</p>
<p>This document may be distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.</p>




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