File: perlunicook.html

package info (click to toggle)
perl-doc-html 5.26.0-4
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: sid
  • size: 39,400 kB
  • sloc: xml: 36; makefile: 7
file content (762 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 108,954 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
  <title>perlunicook - perldoc.perl.org</title>
  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
  <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en-gb">
  <link rel="search" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" title="Search perldoc.perl.org" href="/static/search.xml"/>
  <link href="static/css-20100830.css" rel="stylesheet" rev="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="screen">
  <link href="static/exploreperl.css" rel="stylesheet" rev="stylesheet" type="text/css">
</head>

<body onLoad="perldoc.startup();" onPageShow="if (event.persisted) perldoc.startup();">
    <div id="page">
      
      <div id="header">
	<div id="homepage_link">
	  <a href="index.html"></a>
	</div>
	<div id="strapline">
	  Perl Programming Documentation
	</div>
	<div id="download_link" class="download">
	  <a href="http://www.perl.org/get.html">Download Perl</a>
	</div>
	<div id="explore_link" class="download">
	  <a id="explore_anchor" href="#">Explore</a>
	</div>
      </div>
      
      <div id="body">
        <div id="left_column">
          <div class="side_group">
            
	    <div class="side_panel doc_panel">
              <p>Manual</p>
              <ul>
                <li><a href="index-overview.html">Overview</a>
                <li><a href="index-tutorials.html">Tutorials</a>
                <li><a href="index-faq.html">FAQs</a>
                <li><a href="index-history.html">History / Changes</a>
                <li><a href="index-licence.html">License</a>
              </ul>
            </div>
            <div class="side_panel doc_panel">
              <p>Reference</p>
              <ul>
                <li><a href="index-language.html">Language</a>
                <li><a href="index-functions.html">Functions</a>
                <li><a href="perlop.html">Operators</a>
                <li><a href="perlvar.html">Special Variables</a>
                <li><a href="index-pragmas.html">Pragmas</a>
                <li><a href="index-utilities.html">Utilities</a>
                <li><a href="index-internals.html">Internals</a>
                <li><a href="index-platforms.html">Platform Specific</a>
              </ul>
            </div>
            <div class="side_panel doc_panel">
              <p>Modules</p>
              <ul>
		<li>
		
                
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		
                  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		
                  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		
                  
		
                  
		    
		  
		
                  
		
                  
		
		
                    <a href="index-modules-A.html">A</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-B.html">B</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-C.html">C</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-D.html">D</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-E.html">E</a>
                    
                      
                        <li>
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-F.html">F</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-G.html">G</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-H.html">H</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-I.html">I</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-L.html">L</a>
                    
                      
                        <li>
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-M.html">M</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-N.html">N</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-O.html">O</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-P.html">P</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-S.html">S</a>
                    
                      
                        <li>
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-T.html">T</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-U.html">U</a>
                    
                      
                        &bull;
                      
                    
                
                    <a href="index-modules-X.html">X</a>
                    
                
              </ul>
            </div>
            
	      <div class="side_panel doc_panel">
		<p>Tools</p>
		<ul>
		  <li><a href="preferences.html">Preferences</a>
		</ul>
	      </div>
            
          </div>
        </div>
        <div id="centre_column">
          <div id="content_header">
            <div id="title_bar">
              <div id="page_name">
                <h1>perlunicook</h1>
              </div>
              <div id="perl_version">
                Perl 5 version 26.0 documentation
              </div>
              <div class="page_links" id="page_links_top">
                <a href="#" onClick="toolbar.goToTop();return false;">Go to top</a>
		
              </div>
	      <div class="page_links" id="page_links_bottom">
		
                  <a href="#" id="page_index_toggle">Show page index</a> &bull;
		
                <a href="#" id="recent_pages_toggle">Show recent pages</a>		
	      </div>
	      <div id="search_form">
		<form action="search.html" method="GET" id="search">
		  <input type="text" name="q" id="search_box" alt="Search">
		</form>
	      </div>
            </div>
            <div id="breadcrumbs">
                
    <a href="index.html">Home</a> &gt;
    
      
        <a href="index-language.html">Language reference</a> &gt;
      
    
    perlunicook
  

            </div>
          </div>
          <div id="content_body">
	    <!--[if lt IE 7]>
 <div class="noscript">
   <p>
     <strong>It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 6. This is a very old
     browser which does not offer full support for modern websites.</strong>
   </p>
   <p>
     Unfortunately this means that this website will not work on
     your computer.
   </p>
   <p>
     Don't miss out though! To view the site (and get a better experience from
     many other websites), simply upgrade to
     <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/windows/Internet-explorer/default.aspx">Internet
Explorer 8</a>
     or download an alternative browser such as
     <a href="http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/firefox/firefox.html">Firefox</a>,
     <a href="http://www.apple.com/safari/download/">Safari</a>, or
     <a href="http://www.google.co.uk/chrome">Google Chrome</a>.
   </p>
   <p>
     All of these browsers are free. If you're using a PC at work, you may
     need to contact your IT administrator.
   </p>
 </div>
<![endif]-->
	    <noscript>
	      <div class="noscript">
	      <p>
                <strong>Please note: Many features of this site require JavaScript. You appear to have JavaScript disabled,
	        or are running a non-JavaScript capable web browser.</strong>
	      </p>
	      <p>
		To get the best experience, please enable JavaScript or download a modern web browser such as <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/windows/Internet-explorer/default.aspx">Internet Explorer 8</a>, <a href="http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/firefox/firefox.html">Firefox</a>, <a href="http://www.apple.com/safari/download/">Safari</a>, or <a href="http://www.google.co.uk/chrome">Google Chrome</a>.
              </p>
	      </div>
	    </noscript>

	    <div id="recent_pages" class="hud_container">
	      <div id="recent_pages_header" class="hud_header">
		<div id="recent_pages_close" class="hud_close"><a href="#" onClick="recentPages.hide();return false;"></a></div>
		<div id="recent_pages_title" class="hud_title"><span class="hud_span_top">Recently read</span></div>
		<div id="recent_pages_topright" class="hud_topright"></div>
	      </div>
	      <div id="recent_pages_content" class="hud_content">
	      </div>
	      <div id="recent_pages_footer" class="hud_footer">
		<div id="recent_pages_bottomleft" class="hud_bottomleft"></div>
		<div id="recent_pages_bottom" class="hud_bottom"><span class="hud_span_bottom"></span></div>
		<div id="recent_pages_resize" class="hud_resize"></div>
	      </div>
	    </div>
  
	    <div id="from_search"></div>
            <h1>perlunicook</h1>


  <!--    -->
<ul><li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><li><a href="#EXAMPLES">EXAMPLES</a><ul><li><a href="#%211e-0%3a-Standard-preamble">℞ 0: Standard preamble</a><li><a href="#%211e-1%3a-Generic-Unicode-savvy-filter">℞ 1: Generic Unicode-savvy filter</a><li><a href="#%211e-2%3a-Fine-tuning-Unicode-warnings">℞ 2: Fine-tuning Unicode warnings</a><li><a href="#%211e-3%3a-Declare-source-in-utf8-for-identifiers-and-literals">℞ 3: Declare source in utf8 for identifiers and literals</a><li><a href="#%211e-4%3a-Characters-and-their-numbers">℞ 4: Characters and their numbers</a><li><a href="#%211e-5%3a-Unicode-literals-by-character-number">℞ 5: Unicode literals by character number</a><li><a href="#%211e-6%3a-Get-character-name-by-number">℞ 6: Get character name by number</a><li><a href="#%211e-7%3a-Get-character-number-by-name">℞ 7: Get character number by name</a><li><a href="#%211e-8%3a-Unicode-named-characters">℞ 8: Unicode named characters</a><li><a href="#%211e-9%3a-Unicode-named-sequences">℞ 9: Unicode named sequences</a><li><a href="#%211e-10%3a-Custom-named-characters">℞ 10: Custom named characters</a><li><a href="#%211e-11%3a-Names-of-CJK-codepoints">℞ 11: Names of CJK codepoints</a><li><a href="#%211e-12%3a-Explicit-encode%2fdecode">℞ 12: Explicit encode/decode</a><li><a href="#%211e-13%3a-Decode-program-arguments-as-utf8">℞ 13: Decode program arguments as utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-14%3a-Decode-program-arguments-as-locale-encoding">℞ 14: Decode program arguments as locale encoding</a><li><a href="#%211e-15%3a-Declare-STD%7bIN%2cOUT%2cERR%7d-to-be-utf8">℞ 15: Declare STD{IN,OUT,ERR} to be utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-16%3a-Declare-STD%7bIN%2cOUT%2cERR%7d-to-be-in-locale-encoding">℞ 16: Declare STD{IN,OUT,ERR} to be in locale encoding</a><li><a href="#%211e-17%3a-Make-file-I%2fO-default-to-utf8">℞ 17: Make file I/O default to utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-18%3a-Make-all-I%2fO-and-args-default-to-utf8">℞ 18: Make all I/O and args default to utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-19%3a-Open-file-with-specific-encoding">℞ 19: Open file with specific encoding</a><li><a href="#%211e-20%3a-Unicode-casing">℞ 20: Unicode casing</a><li><a href="#%211e-21%3a-Unicode-case-insensitive-comparisons">℞ 21: Unicode case-insensitive comparisons</a><li><a href="#%211e-22%3a-Match-Unicode-linebreak-sequence-in-regex">℞ 22: Match Unicode linebreak sequence in regex</a><li><a href="#%211e-23%3a-Get-character-category">℞ 23: Get character category</a><li><a href="#%211e-24%3a-Disabling-Unicode-awareness-in-builtin-charclasses">℞ 24: Disabling Unicode-awareness in builtin charclasses</a><li><a href="#%211e-25%3a-Match-Unicode-properties-in-regex-with-%5cp%2c-%5cP">℞ 25: Match Unicode properties in regex with \p, \P</a><li><a href="#%211e-26%3a-Custom-character-properties">℞ 26: Custom character properties</a><li><a href="#%211e-27%3a-Unicode-normalization">℞ 27: Unicode normalization</a><li><a href="#%211e-28%3a-Convert-non-ASCII-Unicode-numerics">℞ 28: Convert non-ASCII Unicode numerics</a><li><a href="#%211e-29%3a-Match-Unicode-grapheme-cluster-in-regex">℞ 29: Match Unicode grapheme cluster in regex</a><li><a href="#%211e-30%3a-Extract-by-grapheme-instead-of-by-codepoint-(regex)">℞ 30: Extract by grapheme instead of by codepoint (regex)</a><li><a href="#%211e-31%3a-Extract-by-grapheme-instead-of-by-codepoint-(substr)">℞ 31: Extract by grapheme instead of by codepoint (substr)</a><li><a href="#%211e-32%3a-Reverse-string-by-grapheme">℞ 32: Reverse string by grapheme</a><li><a href="#%211e-33%3a-String-length-in-graphemes">℞ 33: String length in graphemes</a><li><a href="#%211e-34%3a-Unicode-column-width-for-printing">℞ 34: Unicode column-width for printing</a><li><a href="#%211e-35%3a-Unicode-collation">℞ 35: Unicode collation</a><li><a href="#%211e-36%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-Unicode-sort">℞ 36: Case- _and_ accent-insensitive Unicode sort</a><li><a href="#%211e-37%3a-Unicode-locale-collation">℞ 37: Unicode locale collation</a><li><a href="#%211e-38%3a-Making-cmp-work-on-text-instead-of-codepoints">℞ 38: Making cmp work on text instead of codepoints</a><li><a href="#%211e-39%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-comparisons">℞ 39: Case- _and_ accent-insensitive comparisons</a><li><a href="#%211e-40%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-locale-comparisons">℞ 40: Case- _and_ accent-insensitive locale comparisons</a><li><a href="#%211e-41%3a-Unicode-linebreaking">℞ 41: Unicode linebreaking</a><li><a href="#%211e-42%3a-Unicode-text-in-DBM-hashes%2c-the-tedious-way">℞ 42: Unicode text in DBM hashes, the tedious way</a><li><a href="#%211e-43%3a-Unicode-text-in-DBM-hashes%2c-the-easy-way">℞ 43: Unicode text in DBM hashes, the easy way</a><li><a href="#%211e-44%3a-PROGRAM%3a-Demo-of-Unicode-collation-and-printing">℞ 44: PROGRAM: Demo of Unicode collation and printing</a></ul><li><a href="#SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a><li><a href="#AUTHOR">AUTHOR</a><li><a href="#COPYRIGHT-AND-LICENCE">COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE</a><li><a href="#REVISION-HISTORY">REVISION HISTORY</a></ul><a name="NAME"></a><h1>NAME</h1>
<p>perlunicook - cookbookish examples of handling Unicode in Perl</p>
<a name="DESCRIPTION"></a><h1>DESCRIPTION</h1>
<p>This manpage contains short recipes demonstrating how to handle common Unicode
operations in Perl, plus one complete program at the end. Any undeclared
variables in individual recipes are assumed to have a previous appropriate
value in them.</p>
<a name="EXAMPLES"></a><h1>EXAMPLES</h1>
<a name="%211e-0%3a-Standard-preamble"></a><h2>&#x211e; 0: Standard preamble</h2>
<p>Unless otherwise notes, all examples below require this standard preamble
to work correctly, with the <code class="inline"><span class="c">#!</span></code>
 adjusted to work on your system:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c">#!/usr/bin/env perl</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">utf8</span><span class="sc">;</span>      <span class="c"># so literals and identifiers can be in UTF-8</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="v">v5.12</span><span class="sc">;</span>     <span class="c"># or later to get &quot;unicode_strings&quot; feature</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">strict</span><span class="sc">;</span>    <span class="c"># quote strings, declare variables</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">warnings</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># on by default</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">warnings</span>  <span class="q">qw(FATAL utf8)</span><span class="sc">;</span>    <span class="c"># fatalize encoding glitches</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a>      <span class="q">qw(:std :encoding(UTF-8))</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="c"># undeclared streams in UTF-8</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full :short)</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># unneeded in v5.16</span></li></ol></pre><p>This <i>does</i> make even Unix programmers <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a></code> your binary streams,
or open them with <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">raw</span></code>
, but that's the only way to get at them
portably anyway.</p>
<p><b>WARNING</b>: <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">autodie</span></code>
 (pre 2.26) and <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a></code>
 do not get along with each
other.</p>
<a name="%211e-1%3a-Generic-Unicode-savvy-filter"></a><h2>&#x211e; 1: Generic Unicode-savvy filter</h2>
<p>Always decompose on the way in, then recompose on the way out.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Normalize</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/while.html">while</a> <span class="s">(</span>&lt;&gt;<span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <span class="i">$_</span> = <span class="i">NFD</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$_</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span>   <span class="c"># decompose + reorder canonically</span></li><li>     ...</li><li> <span class="s">}</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/continue.html">continue</a> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">NFC</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$_</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># recompose (where possible) + reorder canonically</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-2%3a-Fine-tuning-Unicode-warnings"></a><h2>&#x211e; 2: Fine-tuning Unicode warnings</h2>
<p>As of v5.14, Perl distinguishes three subclasses of UTF&#x2011;8 warnings.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="v">v5.14</span><span class="sc">;</span>                  <span class="c"># subwarnings unavailable any earlier</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/no.html">no</a> <span class="w">warnings</span> <span class="q">&quot;nonchar&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>      <span class="c"># the 66 forbidden non-characters</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/no.html">no</a> <span class="w">warnings</span> <span class="q">&quot;surrogate&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>    <span class="c"># UTF-16/CESU-8 nonsense</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/no.html">no</a> <span class="w">warnings</span> <span class="q">&quot;non_unicode&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># for codepoints over 0x10_FFFF</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-3%3a-Declare-source-in-utf8-for-identifiers-and-literals"></a><h2>&#x211e; 3: Declare source in utf8 for identifiers and literals</h2>
<p>Without the all-critical <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">utf8</span></code>
 declaration, putting UTF&#x2011;8 in your
literals and identifiers won&#x2019;t work right.  If you used the standard
preamble just given above, this already happened.  If you did, you can
do things like this:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">utf8</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$measure</span>   = <span class="q">&quot;&Aring;ngstr&ouml;m&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@&mu;soft</span>     = <span class="q">qw( cp852 cp1251 cp1252 )</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@&#x1F51;&pi;&#x3AD;&rho;&mu;&epsilon;&gamma;&alpha;&sigmaf;</span> = <span class="q">qw( &#x1F51;&pi;&#x3AD;&rho;  &mu;&epsilon;&gamma;&alpha;&sigmaf; )</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@&#x9BC9;</span>        = <span class="q">qw( koi8-f koi8-u koi8-r )</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$motto</span>     = <span class="q">&quot;&#x1F46A; &#x1F497; &#x1F42A;&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="c"># FAMILY, GROWING HEART, DROMEDARY CAMEL</span></li></ol></pre><p>If you forget <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">utf8</span></code>
, high bytes will be misunderstood as
separate characters, and nothing will work right.</p>
<a name="%211e-4%3a-Characters-and-their-numbers"></a><h2>&#x211e; 4: Characters and their numbers</h2>
<p>The <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/ord.html">ord</a></code> and <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/chr.html">chr</a></code> functions work transparently on all codepoints,
not just on ASCII alone &#x2014; nor in fact, not even just on Unicode alone.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># ASCII characters</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/ord.html">ord</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;A&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/chr.html">chr</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">65</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># characters from the Basic Multilingual Plane</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/ord.html">ord</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;&Sigma;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/chr.html">chr</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0x3A3</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># beyond the BMP</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/ord.html">ord</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;&#x1D45B;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span>               <span class="c"># MATHEMATICAL ITALIC SMALL N</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/chr.html">chr</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0x1D45B</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># beyond Unicode! (up to MAXINT)</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/ord.html">ord</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;\x{20_0000}&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/chr.html">chr</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0x20_0000</span><span class="s">)</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-5%3a-Unicode-literals-by-character-number"></a><h2>&#x211e; 5: Unicode literals by character number</h2>
<p>In an interpolated literal, whether a double-quoted string or a
regex, you may specify a character by its number using the
<code class="inline">\x{<i>HHHHHH</i>}</code> escape.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="j">String:</span> <span class="q">&quot;\x{3a3}&quot;</span></li><li> <span class="w">Regex</span><span class="co">:</span>  <span class="q">/\x{3a3}/</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="w">String</span><span class="co">:</span> <span class="q">&quot;\x{1d45b}&quot;</span></li><li> <span class="w">Regex</span><span class="co">:</span>  <span class="q">/\x{1d45b}/</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># even non-BMP ranges in regex work fine</span></li><li> /<span class="s">[</span>\<span class="i">x</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="n">1</span><span class="w">D434</span><span class="s">}</span>-\<span class="i">x</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="n">1</span><span class="w">D467</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="s">]</span><span class="q">/</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-6%3a-Get-character-name-by-number"></a><h2>&#x211e; 6: Get character name by number</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$name</span> = <span class="i">charnames::viacode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0x03A3</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-7%3a-Get-character-number-by-name"></a><h2>&#x211e; 7: Get character number by name</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$number</span> = <span class="i">charnames::vianame</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-8%3a-Unicode-named-characters"></a><h2>&#x211e; 8: Unicode named characters</h2>
<p>Use the <code class="inline">\N{<i>charname</i>}</code> notation to get the character
by that name for use in interpolated literals (double-quoted
strings and regexes).  In v5.16, there is an implicit</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full :short)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>But prior to v5.16, you must be explicit about which set of charnames you
want.  The <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">full</span></code>
 names are the official Unicode character name, alias, or
sequence, which all share a namespace.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full :short latin greek)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{MATHEMATICAL ITALIC SMALL N}&quot;</span>      <span class="c"># :full</span></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA}&quot;</span>       <span class="c"># :full</span></li></ol></pre><p>Anything else is a Perl-specific convenience abbreviation.  Specify one or
more scripts by names if you want short names that are script-specific.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{Greek:Sigma}&quot;</span>                      <span class="c"># :short</span></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{ae}&quot;</span>                               <span class="c">#  latin</span></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{epsilon}&quot;</span>                          <span class="c">#  greek</span></li></ol></pre><p>The v5.16 release also supports a <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">loose</span></code>
 import for loose matching of
character names, which works just like loose matching of property names:
that is, it disregards case, whitespace, and underscores:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{euro sign}&quot;</span>                        <span class="c"># :loose (from v5.16)</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-9%3a-Unicode-named-sequences"></a><h2>&#x211e; 9: Unicode named sequences</h2>
<p>These look just like character names but return multiple codepoints.
Notice the <code class="inline"><span class="i">%vx</span></code>
 vector-print functionality in <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/printf.html">printf</a></code>.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$seq</span> = <span class="q">&quot;\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON AND GRAVE}&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/printf.html">printf</a> <span class="q">&quot;U+%v04X\n&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$seq</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="w">U</span>+<span class="n">0100</span>.<span class="n">0300</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-10%3a-Custom-named-characters"></a><h2>&#x211e; 10: Custom named characters</h2>
<p>Use <code class="inline"><span class="j">:</span><span class="w">alias</span></code>
 to give your own lexically scoped nicknames to existing
characters, or even to give unnamed private-use characters useful names.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">&quot;:full&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:alias&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <span class="w">ecute</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;APPLE LOGO&quot;</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">0xF8FF</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># private use character</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{ecute}&quot;</span></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;\N{APPLE LOGO}&quot;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-11%3a-Names-of-CJK-codepoints"></a><h2>&#x211e; 11: Names of CJK codepoints</h2>
<p>Sinograms like &#x201c;&#x6771;&#x4eac;&#x201d; come back with character names of
<code class="inline"><span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">UNIFIED</span> <span class="w">IDEOGRAPH</span>-<span class="n">6771</span></code>
 and <code class="inline"><span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">UNIFIED</span> <span class="w">IDEOGRAPH</span>-<span class="n">4</span><span class="w">EAC</span></code>
,
because their &#x201c;names&#x201d; vary.  The CPAN <code class="inline"><span class="w">Unicode::Unihan</span></code>
 module
has a large database for decoding these (and a whole lot more), provided you
know how to understand its output.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># cpan -i Unicode::Unihan</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Unihan</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$str</span> = <span class="q">&quot;&#x6771;&#x4EAC;&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$unhan</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Unihan</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/for.html">for</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$lang</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="q">qw(Mandarin Cantonese Korean JapaneseOn JapaneseKun)</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/printf.html">printf</a> <span class="q">&quot;CJK $str in %-12s is &quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$lang</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/say.html">say</a> <span class="i">$unhan</span><span class="i">-&gt;$lang</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><p>prints:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">&#x6771;&#x4EAC;</span> <span class="w">in</span> <span class="w">Mandarin</span>     <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">DONG1JING1</span></li><li> <span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">&#x6771;&#x4EAC;</span> <span class="w">in</span> <span class="w">Cantonese</span>    <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">dung1ging1</span></li><li> <span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">&#x6771;&#x4EAC;</span> <span class="w">in</span> <span class="w">Korean</span>       <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">TONGKYENG</span></li><li> <span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">&#x6771;&#x4EAC;</span> <span class="w">in</span> <span class="w">JapaneseOn</span>   <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">TOUKYOU</span> <span class="w">KEI</span> <span class="w">KIN</span></li><li> <span class="w">CJK</span> <span class="w">&#x6771;&#x4EAC;</span> <span class="w">in</span> <span class="w">JapaneseKun</span>  <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">HIGASHI</span> <span class="w">AZUMAMIYAKO</span></li></ol></pre><p>If you have a specific romanization scheme in mind,
use the specific module:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># cpan -i Lingua::JA::Romanize::Japanese</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Lingua::JA::Romanize::Japanese</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$k2r</span> = <span class="w">Lingua::JA::Romanize::Japanese</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$str</span> = <span class="q">&quot;&#x6771;&#x4EAC;&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/say.html">say</a> <span class="q">&quot;Japanese for $str is &quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$k2r</span><span class="i">-&gt;chars</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>prints</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="w">Japanese</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/for.html">for</a> <span class="w">&#x6771;&#x4EAC;</span> <span class="w">is</span> <span class="w">toukyou</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-12%3a-Explicit-encode%2fdecode"></a><h2>&#x211e; 12: Explicit encode/decode</h2>
<p>On rare occasion, such as a database read, you may be
given encoded text you need to decode.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode</span> <span class="q">qw(encode decode)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$chars</span> = <span class="i">decode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;shiftjis&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$bytes</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="c"># OR</span></li><li>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$bytes</span> = <span class="i">encode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;MIME-Header-ISO_2022_JP&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$chars</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>For streams all in the same encoding, don't use encode/decode; instead
set the file encoding when you open the file or immediately after with
<code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a></code> as described later below.</p>
<a name="%211e-13%3a-Decode-program-arguments-as-utf8"></a><h2>&#x211e; 13: Decode program arguments as utf8</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="i">$ perl</span> -<span class="w">CA</span> ...</li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <span class="i">$ export</span> <span class="w">PERL_UNICODE</span>=<span class="w">A</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode</span> <span class="q">qw(decode)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <span class="i">@ARGV</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/map.html">map</a> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">decode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&#39;UTF-8&#39;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$_</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@ARGV</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-14%3a-Decode-program-arguments-as-locale-encoding"></a><h2>&#x211e; 14: Decode program arguments as locale encoding</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="c"># cpan -i Encode::Locale</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode</span> <span class="q">qw(locale)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode::Locale</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="c"># use &quot;locale&quot; as an arg to encode/decode</span></li><li>    <span class="i">@ARGV</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/map.html">map</a> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">decode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">locale</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="i">$_</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@ARGV</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-15%3a-Declare-STD%7bIN%2cOUT%2cERR%7d-to-be-utf8"></a><h2>&#x211e; 15: Declare STD{IN,OUT,ERR} to be utf8</h2>
<p>Use a command-line option, an environment variable, or else
call <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a></code> explicitly:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="i">$ perl</span> -<span class="w">CS</span> ...</li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <span class="i">$ export</span> <span class="w">PERL_UNICODE</span>=<span class="w">S</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a> <span class="q">qw(:std :encoding(UTF-8))</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">STDIN</span><span class="cm">,</span>  <span class="q">&quot;:encoding(UTF-8)&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">STDOUT</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:utf8&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">STDERR</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:utf8&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-16%3a-Declare-STD%7bIN%2cOUT%2cERR%7d-to-be-in-locale-encoding"></a><h2>&#x211e; 16: Declare STD{IN,OUT,ERR} to be in locale encoding</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <span class="c"># cpan -i Encode::Locale</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode::Locale</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="c"># or as a stream for binmode or open</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a> <span class="w">STDIN</span><span class="cm">,</span>  <span class="q">&quot;:encoding(console_in)&quot;</span>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> -t <span class="w">STDIN</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a> <span class="w">STDOUT</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:encoding(console_out)&quot;</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> -t <span class="w">STDOUT</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a> <span class="w">STDERR</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:encoding(console_out)&quot;</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> -t <span class="w">STDERR</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-17%3a-Make-file-I%2fO-default-to-utf8"></a><h2>&#x211e; 17: Make file I/O default to utf8</h2>
<p>Files opened without an encoding argument will be in UTF-8:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="i">$ perl</span> -<span class="w">CD</span> ...</li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <span class="i">$ export</span> <span class="w">PERL_UNICODE</span>=<span class="w">D</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a> <span class="q">qw(:encoding(UTF-8))</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-18%3a-Make-all-I%2fO-and-args-default-to-utf8"></a><h2>&#x211e; 18: Make all I/O and args default to utf8</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>     <span class="i">$ perl</span> -<span class="w">CSDA</span> ...</li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <span class="i">$ export</span> <span class="w">PERL_UNICODE</span>=<span class="w">SDA</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/or.html">or</a></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a> <span class="q">qw(:std :encoding(UTF-8))</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode</span> <span class="q">qw(decode)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <span class="i">@ARGV</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/map.html">map</a> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">decode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&#39;UTF-8&#39;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$_</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@ARGV</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-19%3a-Open-file-with-specific-encoding"></a><h2>&#x211e; 19: Open file with specific encoding</h2>
<p>Specify stream encoding.  This is the normal way
to deal with encoded text, not by calling low-level
functions.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># input file</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a><span class="s">(</span><a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$in_file</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;&lt; :encoding(UTF-16)&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;wintext&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="w">OR</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a><span class="s">(</span><a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$in_file</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;&lt;&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;wintext&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$in_file</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:encoding(UTF-16)&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="w">THEN</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$line</span> = <span class="q">&lt;$in_file&gt;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># output file</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$out_file</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;&gt; :encoding(cp1252)&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;wintext&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="w">OR</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a><span class="s">(</span><a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$out_file</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;&gt;&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;wintext&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/binmode.html">binmode</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$out_file</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;:encoding(cp1252)&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="w">THEN</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$out_file</span> <span class="q">&quot;some text\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>More layers than just the encoding can be specified here. For example,
the incantation <code class="inline"><span class="q">&quot;:raw :encoding(UTF-16LE) :crlf&quot;</span></code>
 includes implicit
CRLF handling.</p>
<a name="%211e-20%3a-Unicode-casing"></a><h2>&#x211e; 20: Unicode casing</h2>
<p>Unicode casing is very different from ASCII casing.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/uc.html">uc</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;henry &#x2177;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span>  <span class="c"># &quot;HENRY &#x2167;&quot;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/uc.html">uc</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;tsch&uuml;&szlig;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span>   <span class="c"># &quot;TSCH&Uuml;SS&quot;  notice &szlig; =&gt; SS</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># both are true:</span></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;tsch&uuml;&szlig;&quot;</span>  =~ <span class="q">/TSCH&Uuml;SS/i</span>   <span class="c"># notice &szlig; =&gt; SS</span></li><li> <span class="q">&quot;&Sigma;&#x3AF;&sigma;&upsilon;&phi;&omicron;&sigmaf;&quot;</span> =~ <span class="q">/&Sigma;&#x38A;&Sigma;&Upsilon;&Phi;&Omicron;&Sigma;/i</span>   <span class="c"># notice &Sigma;,&sigma;,&sigmaf; sameness</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-21%3a-Unicode-case-insensitive-comparisons"></a><h2>&#x211e; 21: Unicode case-insensitive comparisons</h2>
<p>Also available in the CPAN <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::CaseFold">Unicode::CaseFold</a> module,
the new <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/fc.html">fc</a></code> &#x201c;foldcase&#x201d; function from v5.16 grants
access to the same Unicode casefolding as the <code class="inline">/i</code>
pattern modifier has always used:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">feature</span> <span class="q">&quot;fc&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="c"># fc() function is from v5.16</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># sort case-insensitively</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@sorted</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/sort.html">sort</a> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">fc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$a</span><span class="s">)</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/cmp.html">cmp</a> <span class="i">fc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$b</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@list</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># both are true:</span></li><li> <span class="i">fc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;tsch&uuml;&szlig;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span>  <a class="l_k" href="functions/eq.html">eq</a> <span class="i">fc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;TSCH&Uuml;SS&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span></li><li> <span class="i">fc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;&Sigma;&#x3AF;&sigma;&upsilon;&phi;&omicron;&sigmaf;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/eq.html">eq</a> <span class="i">fc</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;&Sigma;&#x38A;&Sigma;&Upsilon;&Phi;&Omicron;&Sigma;&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-22%3a-Match-Unicode-linebreak-sequence-in-regex"></a><h2>&#x211e; 22: Match Unicode linebreak sequence in regex</h2>
<p>A Unicode linebreak matches the two-character CRLF
grapheme or any of seven vertical whitespace characters.
Good for dealing with textfiles coming from different
operating systems.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> \<span class="w">R</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="q">s/\R/\n/g</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># normalize all linebreaks to \n</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-23%3a-Get-character-category"></a><h2>&#x211e; 23: Get character category</h2>
<p>Find the general category of a numeric codepoint.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::UCD</span> <span class="q">qw(charinfo)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$cat</span> = <span class="i">charinfo</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0x3A3</span><span class="s">)</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">category</span>}<span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># &quot;Lu&quot;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-24%3a-Disabling-Unicode-awareness-in-builtin-charclasses"></a><h2>&#x211e; 24: Disabling Unicode-awareness in builtin charclasses</h2>
<p>Disable <code class="inline">\<span class="w">w</span></code>
, <code class="inline">\<span class="w">b</span></code>
, <code class="inline">\s</code>, <code class="inline">\<span class="w">d</span></code>
, and the POSIX
classes from working correctly on Unicode either in this
scope, or in just one regex.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="v">v5.14</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">re</span> <span class="q">&quot;/a&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># OR</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$num</span><span class="s">)</span> = <span class="i">$str</span> =~ <span class="q">/(\d+)/</span><span class="w">a</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Or use specific un-Unicode properties, like <code class="inline">\<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">ahex</span><span class="s">}</span></code>

and <code class="inline">\<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">POSIX_Digit</span></code>
}.  Properties still work normally
no matter what charset modifiers (<code class="inline"><span class="q">/d /</span><span class="w">u</span> /<span class="w">l</span> /<span class="w">a</span> /<span class="w">aa</span></code>
)
should be effect.</p>
<a name="%211e-25%3a-Match-Unicode-properties-in-regex-with-%5cp%2c-%5cP"></a><h2>&#x211e; 25: Match Unicode properties in regex with \p, \P</h2>
<p>These all match a single codepoint with the given
property.  Use <code class="inline">\<span class="w">P</span></code>
 in place of <code class="inline">\<span class="w">p</span></code>
 to match
one codepoint lacking that property.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> \<span class="w">pL</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="w">pN</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="w">pS</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="w">pP</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="w">pM</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="w">pZ</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="w">pC</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Sk</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Ps</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Lt</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">alpha</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">upper</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">lower</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Latin</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Greek</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">script_extensions</span>=<span class="w">Latin</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">scx</span>=<span class="w">Greek</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">East_Asian_Width</span>=<span class="w">Wide</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">EA</span>=<span class="w">W</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Line_Break</span>=<span class="w">Hyphen</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">LB</span>=<span class="w">HY</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">Numeric_Value</span>=<span class="n">4</span><span class="s">}</span><span class="cm">,</span> \<span class="i">p</span><span class="s">{</span><span class="w">NV</span>=<span class="n">4</span><span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-26%3a-Custom-character-properties"></a><h2>&#x211e; 26: Custom character properties</h2>
<p>Define at compile-time your own custom character
properties for use in regexes.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># using private-use characters</span></li><li><a name="In_Tengwar"></a> sub <span class="m">In_Tengwar</span> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="q">&quot;E000\tE07F\n&quot;</span> <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/if.html">if</a> <span class="s">(</span><span class="q">/\p{In_Tengwar}/</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span> ... <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># blending existing properties</span></li><li><a name="Is_GraecoRoman_Title"></a> sub <span class="m">Is_GraecoRoman_Title</span> <span class="s">{</span><span class="h">&lt;&lt;&#39;END_OF_SET&#39;</span><span class="s">}</span></li><li><span class="hh"> +utf8::IsLatin</span></li><li><span class="hh"> +utf8::IsGreek</span></li><li><span class="hh"> &amp;utf8::IsTitle</span></li><li><span class="hh"> END_OF_SET</span></li><li></li><li><span class="hh"> if (/\p{Is_GraecoRoman_Title}/ { ... }</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-27%3a-Unicode-normalization"></a><h2>&#x211e; 27: Unicode normalization</h2>
<p>Typically render into NFD on input and NFC on output. Using NFKC or NFKD
functions improves recall on searches, assuming you've already done to the
same text to be searched. Note that this is about much more than just pre-
combined compatibility glyphs; it also reorders marks according to their
canonical combining classes and weeds out singletons.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Normalize</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$nfd</span>  = <span class="i">NFD</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$orig</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$nfc</span>  = <span class="i">NFC</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$orig</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$nfkd</span> = <span class="i">NFKD</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$orig</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$nfkc</span> = <span class="i">NFKC</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$orig</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-28%3a-Convert-non-ASCII-Unicode-numerics"></a><h2>&#x211e; 28: Convert non-ASCII Unicode numerics</h2>
<p>Unless you&#x2019;ve used <code class="inline"><span class="q">/a</span></code>
 or <code class="inline"><span class="q">/aa</span></code>
, <code class="inline">\<span class="w">d</span></code>
 matches more than
ASCII digits only, but Perl&#x2019;s implicit string-to-number
conversion does not current recognize these.  Here&#x2019;s how to
convert such strings manually.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="v">v5.14</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># needed for num() function</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::UCD</span> <span class="q">qw(num)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$str</span> = <span class="q">&quot;got &#x216B; and &#x96A;&#x96B;&#x96C;&#x96D; and &#x215E; and here&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@nums</span> = <span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/while.html">while</a> <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span> =~ <span class="q">/(\d+|\N)/g</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span>  <span class="c"># not just ASCII!</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/push.html">push</a> <span class="i">@nums</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">num</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/say.html">say</a> <span class="q">&quot;@nums&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span>   <span class="c">#     12      4567      0.875</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$nv</span> = <span class="i">num</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;\N{RUMI DIGIT ONE}\N{RUMI DIGIT TWO}&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-29%3a-Match-Unicode-grapheme-cluster-in-regex"></a><h2>&#x211e; 29: Match Unicode grapheme cluster in regex</h2>
<p>Programmer-visible &#x201c;characters&#x201d; are codepoints matched by <code class="inline"><span class="q">/./s</span></code>
,
but user-visible &#x201c;characters&#x201d; are graphemes matched by <code class="inline"><span class="q">/\X/</span></code>
.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># Find vowel *plus* any combining diacritics,underlining,etc.</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$nfd</span> = <span class="i">NFD</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$orig</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="i">$nfd</span> =~ <span class="q">/ (?=[aeiou]) \X /xi</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-30%3a-Extract-by-grapheme-instead-of-by-codepoint-(regex)"></a><h2>&#x211e; 30: Extract by grapheme instead of by codepoint (regex)</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># match and grab five first graphemes</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$first_five</span><span class="s">)</span> = <span class="i">$str</span> =~ <span class="q">/^ ( \X{5} ) /x</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-31%3a-Extract-by-grapheme-instead-of-by-codepoint-(substr)"></a><h2>&#x211e; 31: Extract by grapheme instead of by codepoint (substr)</h2>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># cpan -i Unicode::GCString</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$gcs</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$first_five</span> = <span class="i">$gcs</span><span class="i">-&gt;substr</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="n">0</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">5</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-32%3a-Reverse-string-by-grapheme"></a><h2>&#x211e; 32: Reverse string by grapheme</h2>
<p>Reversing by codepoint messes up diacritics, mistakenly converting
<code class="inline"><span class="w">cr&egrave;me</span> <span class="w">br&ucirc;l&eacute;e</span></code>
 into <code class="inline"><span class="w">&eacute;el&#x302;urb</span> <span class="w">em&#x300;erc</span></code>
 instead of into <code class="inline"><span class="w">e&eacute;l&ucirc;rb</span> <span class="w">em&egrave;rc</span></code>
;
so reverse by grapheme instead.  Both these approaches work
right no matter what normalization the string is in:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="i">$str</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/join.html">join</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/reverse.html">reverse</a> <span class="i">$str</span> =~ <span class="q">/\X/g</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># OR: cpan -i Unicode::GCString</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="i">$str</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/reverse.html">reverse</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-33%3a-String-length-in-graphemes"></a><h2>&#x211e; 33: String length in graphemes</h2>
<p>The string <code class="inline"><span class="w">br&ucirc;l&eacute;e</span></code>
 has six graphemes but up to eight codepoints.
This counts by grapheme, not by codepoint:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$str</span> = <span class="q">&quot;br&ucirc;l&eacute;e&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$count</span> = <span class="n">0</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/while.html">while</a> <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span> =~ <span class="q">/\X/g</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">$count</span>++ <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li>  <span class="c"># OR: cpan -i Unicode::GCString</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$gcs</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$count</span> = <span class="i">$gcs</span><span class="i">-&gt;length</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-34%3a-Unicode-column-width-for-printing"></a><h2>&#x211e; 34: Unicode column-width for printing</h2>
<p>Perl&#x2019;s <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/printf.html">printf</a></code>, <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/sprintf.html">sprintf</a></code>, and <code class="inline"><a class="l_k" href="functions/format.html">format</a></code> think all
codepoints take up 1 print column, but many take 0 or 2.
Here to show that normalization makes no difference,
we print out both forms:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Normalize</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@words</span> = <span class="q">qw/cr&egrave;me br&ucirc;l&eacute;e/</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="i">@words</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/map.html">map</a> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">NFC</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$_</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">NFD</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$_</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@words</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/for.html">for</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$str</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@words</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$gcs</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$cols</span> = <span class="i">$gcs</span><span class="i">-&gt;columns</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$pad</span> = <span class="q">&quot; &quot;</span> x <span class="s">(</span><span class="n">10</span> - <span class="i">$cols</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/say.html">say</a> <span class="i">str</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$pad</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot; |&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><p>generates this to show that it pads correctly no matter
the normalization:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="w">cr&egrave;me</span>      |</li><li> <span class="w">cre&#x300;me</span>      |</li><li> <span class="w">br&ucirc;l&eacute;e</span>     |</li><li> <span class="w">bru&#x302;le&#x301;e</span>     |</li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-35%3a-Unicode-collation"></a><h2>&#x211e; 35: Unicode collation</h2>
<p>Text sorted by numeric codepoint follows no reasonable alphabetic order;
use the UCA for sorting text.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$col</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@list</span> = <span class="i">$col</span><span class="i">-&gt;sort</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@old_list</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>See the <i>ucsort</i> program from the <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::Tussle">Unicode::Tussle</a> CPAN module
for a convenient command-line interface to this module.</p>
<a name="%211e-36%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-Unicode-sort"></a><h2>&#x211e; 36: Case- <i>and</i> accent-insensitive Unicode sort</h2>
<p>Specify a collation strength of level 1 to ignore case and
diacritics, only looking at the basic character.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$col</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">level</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@list</span> = <span class="i">$col</span><span class="i">-&gt;sort</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@old_list</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-37%3a-Unicode-locale-collation"></a><h2>&#x211e; 37: Unicode locale collation</h2>
<p>Some locales have special sorting rules.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># either use v5.12, OR: cpan -i Unicode::Collate::Locale</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Collate::Locale</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$col</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate::Locale</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">locale</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;de__phonebook&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">@list</span> = <span class="i">$col</span><span class="i">-&gt;sort</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@old_list</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>The <i>ucsort</i> program mentioned above accepts a <code class="inline">--<span class="w">locale</span></code>
 parameter.</p>
<a name="%211e-38%3a-Making-cmp-work-on-text-instead-of-codepoints"></a><h2>&#x211e; 38: Making <code class="inline">cmp</code>
 work on text instead of codepoints</h2>
<p>Instead of this:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="i">@srecs</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/sort.html">sort</a> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <span class="i">$b</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">AGE</span>}   &lt;=&gt;  <span class="i">$a</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">AGE</span>}</li><li>                 ||</li><li>     <span class="i">$a</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">NAME</span>}  <a class="l_k" href="functions/cmp.html">cmp</a>  <span class="i">$b</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">NAME</span>}</li><li> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@recs</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><p>Use this:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$coll</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/for.html">for</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$rec</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">@recs</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <span class="i">$rec</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">NAME_key</span>} = <span class="i">$coll</span><span class="i">-&gt;getSortKey</span><span class="s">(</span> <span class="i">$rec</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">NAME</span>} <span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li><li> <span class="i">@srecs</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/sort.html">sort</a> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <span class="i">$b</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">AGE</span>}       &lt;=&gt;  <span class="i">$a</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">AGE</span>}</li><li>                     ||</li><li>     <span class="i">$a</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">NAME_key</span>}  <a class="l_k" href="functions/cmp.html">cmp</a>  <span class="i">$b</span>-&gt;{<span class="w">NAME_key</span>}</li><li> <span class="s">}</span> <span class="i">@recs</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-39%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-comparisons"></a><h2>&#x211e; 39: Case- <i>and</i> accent-insensitive comparisons</h2>
<p>Use a collator object to compare Unicode text by character
instead of by codepoint.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$es</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span></li><li>     <span class="w">level</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>     <span class="w">normalization</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/undef.html">undef</a></li><li> <span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>  <span class="c"># now both are true:</span></li><li> <span class="i">$es</span><span class="i">-&gt;eq</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;Garc&iacute;a&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span>  <span class="q">&quot;GARCIA&quot;</span> <span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="i">$es</span><span class="i">-&gt;eq</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;M&aacute;rquez&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;MARQUEZ&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-40%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-locale-comparisons"></a><h2>&#x211e; 40: Case- <i>and</i> accent-insensitive locale comparisons</h2>
<p>Same, but in a specific locale.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$de</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate::Locale</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span></li><li>            <span class="w">locale</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;de__phonebook&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span></li><li>          <span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># now this is true:</span></li><li> <span class="i">$de</span><span class="i">-&gt;eq</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;tsch&uuml;&szlig;&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;TSCHUESS&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># notice &uuml; =&gt; UE, &szlig; =&gt; SS</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-41%3a-Unicode-linebreaking"></a><h2>&#x211e; 41: Unicode linebreaking</h2>
<p>Break up text into lines according to Unicode rules.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c"># cpan -i Unicode::LineBreak</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::LineBreak</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$para</span> = <span class="q">&quot;This is a super\N{HYPHEN}long string. &quot;</span> x <span class="n">20</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$fmt</span> = <span class="w">Unicode::LineBreak</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">$fmt</span><span class="i">-&gt;break</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$para</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;\n&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-42%3a-Unicode-text-in-DBM-hashes%2c-the-tedious-way"></a><h2>&#x211e; 42: Unicode text in DBM hashes, the tedious way</h2>
<p>Using a regular Perl string as a key or value for a DBM
hash will trigger a wide character exception if any codepoints
won&#x2019;t fit into a byte.  Here&#x2019;s how to manually manage the translation:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">DB_File</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Encode</span> <span class="q">qw(encode decode)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/tie.html">tie</a> <span class="i">%dbhash</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;DB_File&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;pathname&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># STORE</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="c"># assume $uni_key and $uni_value are abstract Unicode strings</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$enc_key</span>   = <span class="i">encode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;UTF-8&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$uni_key</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$enc_value</span> = <span class="i">encode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;UTF-8&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$uni_value</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <span class="i">$dbhash</span>{<span class="i">$enc_key</span>} = <span class="i">$enc_value</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># FETCH</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="c"># assume $uni_key holds a normal Perl string (abstract Unicode)</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$enc_key</span>   = <span class="i">encode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;UTF-8&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$uni_key</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$enc_value</span> = <span class="i">$dbhash</span>{<span class="i">$enc_key</span>}<span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$uni_value</span> = <span class="i">decode</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;UTF-8&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$enc_value</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="n">1</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-43%3a-Unicode-text-in-DBM-hashes%2c-the-easy-way"></a><h2>&#x211e; 43: Unicode text in DBM hashes, the easy way</h2>
<p>Here&#x2019;s how to implicitly manage the translation; all encoding
and decoding is done automatically, just as with streams that
have a particular encoding attached to them:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">DB_File</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">DBM_Filter</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$dbobj</span> = <a class="l_k" href="functions/tie.html">tie</a> <span class="i">%dbhash</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;DB_File&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;pathname&quot;</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>    <span class="i">$dbobj</span><span class="i">-&gt;Filter_Value</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="q">&quot;utf8&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># this is the magic bit</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># STORE</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="c"># assume $uni_key and $uni_value are abstract Unicode strings</span></li><li>    <span class="i">$dbhash</span>{<span class="i">$uni_key</span>} = <span class="i">$uni_value</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li>  <span class="c"># FETCH</span></li><li></li><li>    <span class="c"># $uni_key holds a normal Perl string (abstract Unicode)</span></li><li>    <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$uni_value</span> = <span class="i">$dbhash</span>{<span class="i">$uni_key</span>}<span class="sc">;</span></li></ol></pre><a name="%211e-44%3a-PROGRAM%3a-Demo-of-Unicode-collation-and-printing"></a><h2>&#x211e; 44: PROGRAM: Demo of Unicode collation and printing</h2>
<p>Here&#x2019;s a full program showing how to make use of locale-sensitive
sorting, Unicode casing, and managing print widths when some of the
characters take up zero or two columns, not just one column each time.
When run, the following program produces this nicely aligned output:</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li><span class="q">    Cr&egrave;me Br&ucirc;l&eacute;e....... &euro;2.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    &Eacute;clair............. &euro;1.60</span></li><li><span class="q">    Fideu&agrave;............. &euro;4.20</span></li><li><span class="q">    Hamburger.......... &euro;6.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    Jam&oacute;n Serrano...... &euro;4.45</span></li><li><span class="q">    Lingui&ccedil;a........... &euro;7.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    P&acirc;t&eacute;............... &euro;4.15</span></li><li><span class="q">    Pears.............. &euro;2.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    P&ecirc;ches............. &euro;2.25</span></li><li><span class="q">    Sm&oslash;rbr&oslash;d........... &euro;5.75</span></li><li><span class="q">    Sp&auml;tzle............ &euro;5.50</span></li><li><span class="q">    Xori&ccedil;o............. &euro;3.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    &Gamma;&#x3CD;&rho;&omicron;&sigmaf;.............. &euro;6.50</span></li><li><span class="q">    &#xB9C9;&#xAC78;&#xB9AC;............. &euro;4.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    &#x304A;&#x3082;&#x3061;............. &euro;2.65</span></li><li><span class="q">    &#x304A;&#x597D;&#x307F;&#x713C;&#x304D;......... &euro;8.00</span></li><li><span class="q">    &#x30B7;&#x30E5;&#x30FC;&#x30AF;&#x30EA;&#x30FC;&#x30E0;..... &euro;1.85</span></li><li><span class="q">    &#x5BFF;&#x53F8;............... &euro;9.99</span></li><li><span class="q">    &#x5305;&#x5B50;............... &euro;7.50</span></li></ol></pre><p>Here's that program; tested on v5.14.</p>
<pre class="verbatim"><ol><li> <span class="c">#!/usr/bin/env perl</span></li><li> <span class="c"># umenu - demo sorting and printing of Unicode food</span></li><li> <span class="c">#</span></li><li> <span class="c"># (obligatory and increasingly long preamble)</span></li><li> <span class="c">#</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">utf8</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="v">v5.14</span><span class="sc">;</span>                       <span class="c"># for locale sorting</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">strict</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">warnings</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">warnings</span>  <span class="q">qw(FATAL utf8)</span><span class="sc">;</span>    <span class="c"># fatalize encoding faults</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/open.html">open</a>      <span class="q">qw(:std :encoding(UTF-8))</span><span class="sc">;</span> <span class="c"># undeclared streams in UTF-8</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">charnames</span> <span class="q">qw(:full :short)</span><span class="sc">;</span>  <span class="c"># unneeded in v5.16</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># std modules</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Normalize</span><span class="sc">;</span>          <span class="c"># std perl distro as of v5.8</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">List::Util</span> <span class="q">qw(max)</span><span class="sc">;</span>          <span class="c"># std perl distro as of v5.10</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::Collate::Locale</span><span class="sc">;</span>    <span class="c"># std perl distro as of v5.14</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># cpan modules</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/use.html">use</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="sc">;</span>           <span class="c"># from CPAN</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># forward defs</span></li><li> sub <span class="m">pad($$$)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> sub <span class="m">colwidth(_)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> sub <span class="m">entitle(_)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">%price</span> = <span class="s">(</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&gamma;&#x3CD;&rho;&omicron;&sigmaf;&quot;</span>             <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">6.50</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># gyros</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;pears&quot;</span>             <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">2.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># like um, pears</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;lingui&ccedil;a&quot;</span>          <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">7.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># spicy sausage, Portuguese</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;xori&ccedil;o&quot;</span>            <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">3.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># chorizo sausage, Catalan</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;hamburger&quot;</span>         <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">6.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># burgermeister meisterburger</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&eacute;clair&quot;</span>            <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">1.60</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># dessert, French</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;sm&oslash;rbr&oslash;d&quot;</span>          <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">5.75</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># sandwiches, Norwegian</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;sp&auml;tzle&quot;</span>           <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">5.50</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># Bayerisch noodles, little sparrows</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&#x5305;&#x5B50;&quot;</span>              <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">7.50</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># bao1 zi5, steamed pork buns, Mandarin</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;jam&oacute;n serrano&quot;</span>     <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">4.45</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># country ham, Spanish</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;p&ecirc;ches&quot;</span>            <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">2.25</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># peaches, French</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&#x30B7;&#x30E5;&#x30FC;&#x30AF;&#x30EA;&#x30FC;&#x30E0;&quot;</span>    <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">1.85</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># cream-filled pastry like eclair</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&#xB9C9;&#xAC78;&#xB9AC;&quot;</span>            <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">4.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># makgeolli, Korean rice wine</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&#x5BFF;&#x53F8;&quot;</span>              <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">9.99</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># sushi, Japanese</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&#x304A;&#x3082;&#x3061;&quot;</span>            <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">2.65</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># omochi, rice cakes, Japanese</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;cr&egrave;me br&ucirc;l&eacute;e&quot;</span>      <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">2.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># crema catalana</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;fideu&agrave;&quot;</span>            <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">4.20</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># more noodles, Valencian</span></li><li>                                  <span class="c"># (Catalan=fideuada)</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;p&acirc;t&eacute;&quot;</span>              <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">4.15</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># gooseliver paste, French</span></li><li>     <span class="q">&quot;&#x304A;&#x597D;&#x307F;&#x713C;&#x304D;&quot;</span>        <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="n">8.00</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="c"># okonomiyaki, Japanese</span></li><li> <span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$width</span> = <span class="n">5</span> + <span class="w">max</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/map.html">map</a> <span class="s">{</span> <span class="i">colwidth</span> <span class="s">}</span> <a class="l_k" href="functions/keys.html">keys</a> <span class="i">%price</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <span class="c"># So the Asian stuff comes out in an order that someone</span></li><li> <span class="c"># who reads those scripts won&#39;t freak out over; the</span></li><li> <span class="c"># CJK stuff will be in JIS X 0208 order that way.</span></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$coll</span>  = <span class="w">Unicode::Collate::Locale</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="w">locale</span> <span class="cm">=&gt;</span> <span class="q">&quot;ja&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li></li><li> <a class="l_k" href="functions/for.html">for</a> <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a> <span class="i">$item</span> <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$coll</span><span class="i">-&gt;sort</span><span class="s">(</span><a class="l_k" href="functions/keys.html">keys</a> <span class="i">%price</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="s">)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/print.html">print</a> <span class="i">pad</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">entitle</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$item</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$width</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="q">&quot;.&quot;</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/printf.html">printf</a> <span class="q">&quot; &euro;%.2f\n&quot;</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$price</span>{<span class="i">$item</span>}<span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li><a name="pad"></a> sub <span class="m">pad($$$)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$width</span><span class="cm">,</span> <span class="i">$padchar</span><span class="s">)</span> = <span class="i">@_</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/return.html">return</a> <span class="i">$str</span> . <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$padchar</span> x <span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$width</span> - <span class="i">colwidth</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li><a name="colwidth"></a> sub <span class="m">colwidth(_)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span> = <span class="i">@_</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/return.html">return</a> <span class="w">Unicode::GCString</span><span class="w">-&gt;new</span><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span><span class="i">-&gt;columns</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li><li></li><li><a name="entitle"></a> sub <span class="m">entitle(_)</span> <span class="s">{</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/my.html">my</a><span class="s">(</span><span class="i">$str</span><span class="s">)</span> = <span class="i">@_</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <span class="i">$str</span> =~ <span class="q">s{ (?=\pL)(\S)     (\S*) }</span></li><li>              <span class="q">              { ucfirst($1) . lc($2)  }xge</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li>     <a class="l_k" href="functions/return.html">return</a> <span class="i">$str</span><span class="sc">;</span></li><li> <span class="s">}</span></li></ol></pre><a name="SEE-ALSO"></a><h1>SEE ALSO</h1>
<p>See these manpages, some of which are CPAN modules:
<a href="perlunicode.html">perlunicode</a>, <a href="perluniprops.html">perluniprops</a>,
<a href="perlre.html">perlre</a>, <a href="perlrecharclass.html">perlrecharclass</a>,
<a href="perluniintro.html">perluniintro</a>, <a href="perlunitut.html">perlunitut</a>, <a href="perlunifaq.html">perlunifaq</a>,
<a href="PerlIO.html">PerlIO</a>, <a href="DB_File.html">DB_File</a>, <a href="DBM_Filter.html">DBM_Filter</a>, <a href="DBM_Filter/utf8.html">DBM_Filter::utf8</a>,
<a href="Encode.html">Encode</a>, <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Encode::Locale">Encode::Locale</a>,
<a href="Unicode/UCD.html">Unicode::UCD</a>,
<a href="Unicode/Normalize.html">Unicode::Normalize</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::GCString">Unicode::GCString</a>, <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::LineBreak">Unicode::LineBreak</a>,
<a href="Unicode/Collate.html">Unicode::Collate</a>, <a href="Unicode/Collate/Locale.html">Unicode::Collate::Locale</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::Unihan">Unicode::Unihan</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::CaseFold">Unicode::CaseFold</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::Tussle">Unicode::Tussle</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Lingua::JA::Romanize::Japanese">Lingua::JA::Romanize::Japanese</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Lingua::ZH::Romanize::Pinyin">Lingua::ZH::Romanize::Pinyin</a>,
<a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Lingua::KO::Romanize::Hangul">Lingua::KO::Romanize::Hangul</a>.</p>
<p>The <a href="http://search.cpan.org/perldoc/Unicode::Tussle">Unicode::Tussle</a> CPAN module includes many programs
to help with working with Unicode, including
these programs to fully or partly replace standard utilities:
<i>tcgrep</i> instead of <i>egrep</i>,
<i>uniquote</i> instead of <i>cat -v</i> or <i>hexdump</i>,
<i>uniwc</i> instead of <i>wc</i>,
<i>unilook</i> instead of <i>look</i>,
<i>unifmt</i> instead of <i>fmt</i>,
and
<i>ucsort</i> instead of <i>sort</i>.
For exploring Unicode character names and character properties,
see its <i>uniprops</i>, <i>unichars</i>, and <i>uninames</i> programs.
It also supplies these programs, all of which are general filters that do Unicode-y things:
<i>unititle</i> and <i>unicaps</i>;
<i>uniwide</i> and <i>uninarrow</i>;
<i>unisupers</i> and <i>unisubs</i>;
<i>nfd</i>, <i>nfc</i>, <i>nfkd</i>, and <i>nfkc</i>;
and <i>uc</i>, <i>lc</i>, and <i>tc</i>.</p>
<p>Finally, see the published Unicode Standard (page numbers are from version
6.0.0), including these specific annexes and technical reports:</p>
<ul>
<li><a name="%a73.13-Default-Case-Algorithms%2c-page-113%3b-%a74.2--Case%2c-pages-120%2013122%3b-Case-Mappings%2c-page-166%2013172%2c-especially-Caseless-Matching-starting-on-page-170."></a><b>&#xa7;3.13 Default Case Algorithms, page 113;
&#xa7;4.2  Case, pages 120&#x2013;122;
Case Mappings, page 166&#x2013;172, especially Caseless Matching starting on page 170.</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UAX-%2344%3a-Unicode-Character-Database"></a><b>UAX #44: Unicode Character Database</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UTS-%2318%3a-Unicode-Regular-Expressions"></a><b>UTS #18: Unicode Regular Expressions</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UAX-%2315%3a-Unicode-Normalization-Forms"></a><b>UAX #15: Unicode Normalization Forms</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UTS-%2310%3a-Unicode-Collation-Algorithm"></a><b>UTS #10: Unicode Collation Algorithm</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UAX-%2329%3a-Unicode-Text-Segmentation"></a><b>UAX #29: Unicode Text Segmentation</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UAX-%2314%3a-Unicode-Line-Breaking-Algorithm"></a><b>UAX #14: Unicode Line Breaking Algorithm</b>
</li>
<li><a name="UAX-%2311%3a-East-Asian-Width"></a><b>UAX #11: East Asian Width</b>
</li>
</ul>
<a name="AUTHOR"></a><h1>AUTHOR</h1>
<p>Tom Christiansen &lt;tchrist@perl.com&gt; wrote this, with occasional
kibbitzing from Larry Wall and Jeffrey Friedl in the background.</p>
<a name="COPYRIGHT-AND-LICENCE"></a><h1>COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE</h1>
<p>Copyright &#xa9; 2012 Tom Christiansen.</p>
<p>This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.</p>
<p>Most of these examples taken from the current edition of the &#x201c;Camel Book&#x201d;;
that is, from the 4&#x1d57;&#x2b0; Edition of <i>Programming Perl</i>, Copyright &#xa9; 2012 Tom
Christiansen &lt;et al.&gt;, 2012-02-13 by O&#x2019;Reilly Media.  The code itself is
freely redistributable, and you are encouraged to transplant, fold,
spindle, and mutilate any of the examples in this manpage however you please
for inclusion into your own programs without any encumbrance whatsoever.
Acknowledgement via code comment is polite but not required.</p>
<a name="REVISION-HISTORY"></a><h1>REVISION HISTORY</h1>
<p>v1.0.0 &#x2013; first public release, 2012-02-27</p>




  <div id="page_index" class="hud_container">
    <div id="page_index_header" class="hud_header">
      <div id="page_index_close" class="hud_close"><a href="#" onClick="pageIndex.hide();return false;"></a></div>
      <div id="page_index_title" class="hud_title"><span class="hud_span_top">Page index</span></div>
      <div id="page_index_topright" class="hud_topright"></div>
    </div>
    <div id="page_index_content" class="hud_content">
      <ul><li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a><li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a><li><a href="#EXAMPLES">EXAMPLES</a><ul><li><a href="#%211e-0%3a-Standard-preamble">℞ 0: Standard preamble</a><li><a href="#%211e-1%3a-Generic-Unicode-savvy-filter">℞ 1: Generic Unicode-savvy filter</a><li><a href="#%211e-2%3a-Fine-tuning-Unicode-warnings">℞ 2: Fine-tuning Unicode warnings</a><li><a href="#%211e-3%3a-Declare-source-in-utf8-for-identifiers-and-literals">℞ 3: Declare source in utf8 for identifiers and literals</a><li><a href="#%211e-4%3a-Characters-and-their-numbers">℞ 4: Characters and their numbers</a><li><a href="#%211e-5%3a-Unicode-literals-by-character-number">℞ 5: Unicode literals by character number</a><li><a href="#%211e-6%3a-Get-character-name-by-number">℞ 6: Get character name by number</a><li><a href="#%211e-7%3a-Get-character-number-by-name">℞ 7: Get character number by name</a><li><a href="#%211e-8%3a-Unicode-named-characters">℞ 8: Unicode named characters</a><li><a href="#%211e-9%3a-Unicode-named-sequences">℞ 9: Unicode named sequences</a><li><a href="#%211e-10%3a-Custom-named-characters">℞ 10: Custom named characters</a><li><a href="#%211e-11%3a-Names-of-CJK-codepoints">℞ 11: Names of CJK codepoints</a><li><a href="#%211e-12%3a-Explicit-encode%2fdecode">℞ 12: Explicit encode/decode</a><li><a href="#%211e-13%3a-Decode-program-arguments-as-utf8">℞ 13: Decode program arguments as utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-14%3a-Decode-program-arguments-as-locale-encoding">℞ 14: Decode program arguments as locale encoding</a><li><a href="#%211e-15%3a-Declare-STD%7bIN%2cOUT%2cERR%7d-to-be-utf8">℞ 15: Declare STD{IN,OUT,ERR} to be utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-16%3a-Declare-STD%7bIN%2cOUT%2cERR%7d-to-be-in-locale-encoding">℞ 16: Declare STD{IN,OUT,ERR} to be in locale encoding</a><li><a href="#%211e-17%3a-Make-file-I%2fO-default-to-utf8">℞ 17: Make file I/O default to utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-18%3a-Make-all-I%2fO-and-args-default-to-utf8">℞ 18: Make all I/O and args default to utf8</a><li><a href="#%211e-19%3a-Open-file-with-specific-encoding">℞ 19: Open file with specific encoding</a><li><a href="#%211e-20%3a-Unicode-casing">℞ 20: Unicode casing</a><li><a href="#%211e-21%3a-Unicode-case-insensitive-comparisons">℞ 21: Unicode case-insensitive comparisons</a><li><a href="#%211e-22%3a-Match-Unicode-linebreak-sequence-in-regex">℞ 22: Match Unicode linebreak sequence in regex</a><li><a href="#%211e-23%3a-Get-character-category">℞ 23: Get character category</a><li><a href="#%211e-24%3a-Disabling-Unicode-awareness-in-builtin-charclasses">℞ 24: Disabling Unicode-awareness in builtin charclasses</a><li><a href="#%211e-25%3a-Match-Unicode-properties-in-regex-with-%5cp%2c-%5cP">℞ 25: Match Unicode properties in regex with \p, \P</a><li><a href="#%211e-26%3a-Custom-character-properties">℞ 26: Custom character properties</a><li><a href="#%211e-27%3a-Unicode-normalization">℞ 27: Unicode normalization</a><li><a href="#%211e-28%3a-Convert-non-ASCII-Unicode-numerics">℞ 28: Convert non-ASCII Unicode numerics</a><li><a href="#%211e-29%3a-Match-Unicode-grapheme-cluster-in-regex">℞ 29: Match Unicode grapheme cluster in regex</a><li><a href="#%211e-30%3a-Extract-by-grapheme-instead-of-by-codepoint-(regex)">℞ 30: Extract by grapheme instead of by codepoint (regex)</a><li><a href="#%211e-31%3a-Extract-by-grapheme-instead-of-by-codepoint-(substr)">℞ 31: Extract by grapheme instead of by codepoint (substr)</a><li><a href="#%211e-32%3a-Reverse-string-by-grapheme">℞ 32: Reverse string by grapheme</a><li><a href="#%211e-33%3a-String-length-in-graphemes">℞ 33: String length in graphemes</a><li><a href="#%211e-34%3a-Unicode-column-width-for-printing">℞ 34: Unicode column-width for printing</a><li><a href="#%211e-35%3a-Unicode-collation">℞ 35: Unicode collation</a><li><a href="#%211e-36%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-Unicode-sort">℞ 36: Case- _and_ accent-insensitive Unicode sort</a><li><a href="#%211e-37%3a-Unicode-locale-collation">℞ 37: Unicode locale collation</a><li><a href="#%211e-38%3a-Making-cmp-work-on-text-instead-of-codepoints">℞ 38: Making cmp work on text instead of codepoints</a><li><a href="#%211e-39%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-comparisons">℞ 39: Case- _and_ accent-insensitive comparisons</a><li><a href="#%211e-40%3a-Case--_and_-accent-insensitive-locale-comparisons">℞ 40: Case- _and_ accent-insensitive locale comparisons</a><li><a href="#%211e-41%3a-Unicode-linebreaking">℞ 41: Unicode linebreaking</a><li><a href="#%211e-42%3a-Unicode-text-in-DBM-hashes%2c-the-tedious-way">℞ 42: Unicode text in DBM hashes, the tedious way</a><li><a href="#%211e-43%3a-Unicode-text-in-DBM-hashes%2c-the-easy-way">℞ 43: Unicode text in DBM hashes, the easy way</a><li><a href="#%211e-44%3a-PROGRAM%3a-Demo-of-Unicode-collation-and-printing">℞ 44: PROGRAM: Demo of Unicode collation and printing</a></ul><li><a href="#SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a><li><a href="#AUTHOR">AUTHOR</a><li><a href="#COPYRIGHT-AND-LICENCE">COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE</a><li><a href="#REVISION-HISTORY">REVISION HISTORY</a></ul>
    </div>
    <div id="page_index_footer" class="hud_footer">
      <div id="page_index_bottomleft" class="hud_bottomleft"></div>
      <div id="page_index_bottom" class="hud_bottom"><span class="hud_span_bottom"></span></div>
      <div id="page_index_resize" class="hud_resize"></div>
    </div>
  </div>


	    &nbsp;
          </div>
          <div id="content_footer">
          </div>
        </div>
        <div class="clear"></div>
      </div>
      
    <div id="footer">
      <div id="footer_content">
        <div id="footer_strapline">
          perldoc.perl.org - Official documentation for the Perl programming language
        </div>
        <div id="footer_links">
          <div id="address">
            <p class="name">Contact details</p>
            <p class="address">
	      Site maintained by <a href="mailto:jj@jonallen.info">Jon Allen (JJ)</a><br>
	    </p>
            <p class="contact">
              Documentation maintained by the <a href="http://lists.cpan.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl5-porters">Perl 5 Porters</a>
            </p>
          </div>
          <ul class="f1">
            <li>Manual
              <ul class="f2">
                <li><a href="index-overview.html">Overview</a>
                <li><a href="index-tutorials.html">Tutorials</a>
                <li><a href="index-faq.html">FAQs</a>
                <li><a href="index-history.html">Changes</a>
              </ul>
            <li>Reference
              <ul class="f2">
                <li><a href="index-language.html">Language</a>
                <li><a href="index-functions.html">Functions</a>
                <li><a href="perlop.html">Operators</a>
                <li><a href="perlvar.html">Variables</a>
              </ul>
            <li>Modules
              <ul class="f2">
                <li><a href="index-modules-A.html">Modules</a>
                <li><a href="index-pragmas.html">Pragmas</a>
                <li><a href="index-utilities.html">Utilities</a>
              </ul>
            <li>Misc
              <ul class="f2">
                <li><a href="index-licence.html">License</a>
                <li><a href="index-internals.html">Internals</a>
                <li><a href="index-platforms.html">Platforms</a>
              </ul>          </ul>
          <div class="clear"></div>
        </div>
      </div>
      <div id="footer_end">
      </div>
    </div>
      
    </div>
      <script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="static/exploreperl.js"></script>
      <script language="JavaScript" src="static/combined-20100403.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript">
  perldoc.setPath(0);
  perldoc.pageName    = 'perlunicook';
  perldoc.pageAddress = 'perlunicook.html';
  perldoc.contentPage = 1;
  explorePerl.render();
  explorePerl.addEvents('explore_anchor');
</script>
    
  </body>
</html>