File: improve.txt

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   The actual ephemeris computation,  done in 'jpleph.c',  has been
greatly revised relative to the original JPL code.  The revisions
were done to allow use of "wrong-byte-order" ephemerides;  to help me
understand the source code better;  and to improve the speed of
computation.  The improvements are mostly C/C++ programming tricks,
rather than any basic improvement in the mathematics.

   First,  what I did to improve/optimize speed of computation:

   (1) I found that many arguments to functions could be passed as type
'const'.  For example,  the 'interp' function changed from

void interp(double buf[],double t[],int ncf,int ncm,int na,int ifl,
            double pv[]);

   to

void interp( const double coef[], const double t[2], const int ncf,
                 const int ncm, const int na, const int ifl, double posvel[]);

   thus indicating that,  out of all the arguments passed into interp,
only the posvel[] data will get altered.

   Exactly how much this is going to help depends a lot on your compiler.
In some cases,  if you tell a compiler that it can count on a particular
value to be a constant,  it can do an amazing job of optimizing the code.
That happened for me (using a Microsoft C/C++ compiler).  It certainly
doesn't hurt.  I also did this because it helps in figuring out the code:
it can be useful to know that a given value isn't going to change.

   (2) Profiling showed that most of the time is spent in computing
the Chebyshev polynomials and in summing up the series (in the interp()
function),  so most of my efforts were directed to improving the speed
of this.  For example,  I converted the loop to evaluate Chebyshev
polynomials from

      for(i=np;i<ncf;++i)  pc[i]=twot*pc[i-1]-pc[i-2];

   to

    double *pc_ptr = pc + np;

    for(i=ncf - np; i; i--, pc_ptr++)
       *pc_ptr = twot * pc_ptr[-1] - pc_ptr[-2];

   But I think what really helped was converting loops such as

       posvel[i]=0.0;
       for(j=ncf-1;j>=0;--j)
          posvel[i]=posvel[i]+pc[j]*coef[j+i*ncf+l*ncf*ncm];

   to

     const double *coeff_ptr = coef + ncf * (i + l * ncm + 1);
     const double *pc_ptr = pc + ncf;

     posvel[i]=0.0;
     for( j = ncf; j; j--)
        posvel[i] += (*--pc_ptr) * (*--coeff_ptr);

   The first loop involves three integer multiplies per iteration,
plus assorted pointer additions.  You will see that I modified a total
of four loops in interp().  Here,  too,  the speedup you get will be
compiler-dependent.  But it ought to be significant.

   (Incidentally,  if one is computing positions for dates that are
spread out enough,  then file I/O becomes a problem:  the code will
spend more time than you'd really want in reading in widely separated
parts of the ephemeris.  You can see this effect in the 'testeph'
program.  Run it twice in a row,  and the second run will be a lot
faster,  because the data has been read from hard drive into RAM.)

   (3) The interp() function has some code to see if the current
Chebyshev polynomial time has been changed;  if it hasn't,  it doesn't
bother re-computing everything.  This can really speed things up if
you're computing several planets for the same Ephemeris Time instant.
One problem is that,  if the number of sub-intervals changes ('na' in
in the interp() function),  so does the Chebyshev polynomial time.

   There's no way to keep that from happening,  of course.  'na' can be 1,
2, 4,  or 8.  But I added some code to the state() function,  starting at

   for( n_intervals = 1; n_intervals <= 8; n_intervals *= 2)

   that minimizes the problem.  First,  all objects with na=1 are
computed;  then those with na=2;  and so on.

   (4) The position of the sun (stored in 'pvsun') is computed with
great regularity.  The problem is that if you ask for,  say,  the
heliocentric position of Jupiter at a given time,  and then those of
Mars and Neptune for the same time,  the position of the Sun would be
computed all three times.  This has (as of December 2011) been fixed:
'pvsun_t' contains the most recent time for which 'pvsun' was
computed,  so that the Sun's position would only be computed on the
first call.

   (5) (Really small improvements)  If the KM flag is set,  you don't
have to multiply everything by aufac.  If the BARY flag is set,  you
don't have to subtract PVSUN from everything (and eventually,  I want
to rig the code such that,  in such a case,  PVSUN isn't even computed;
right now,  it is _always_ computed,  whether you need it or not.  At
the very least,  if you want only positions and no velocities,  there
is no need to compute the velocity part of PVSUN.)

   (6) Byte order is determined when the ephemeris is opened,  along with
"constants" such as kernel size that can vary between ephemerides.  (The
original version of the source code had to be edited and recompiled to
accommodate changes in ephemerides.)