File: pg_filedump.c

package info (click to toggle)
postgresql-filedump 9.3.0-2
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: jessie, jessie-kfreebsd
  • size: 224 kB
  • ctags: 154
  • sloc: ansic: 2,628; makefile: 45; sh: 15
file content (1593 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 49,583 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
/*
 * pg_filedump.c - PostgreSQL file dump utility for dumping and
 *                 formatting heap (data), index and control files.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2002-2010 Red Hat, Inc.
 * Copyright (c) 2011-2014, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 *
 * Original Author: Patrick Macdonald <patrickm@redhat.com>
 */

#include "pg_filedump.h"

#include "utils/pg_crc_tables.h"

// checksum_impl.h uses Assert, which doesn't work outside the server
#undef Assert
#define Assert(X)

#include "storage/checksum.h"
#include "storage/checksum_impl.h"

// Global variables for ease of use mostly
static FILE *fp = NULL;		// File to dump or format
static char *fileName = NULL;	// File name for display
static char *buffer = NULL;	// Cache for current block
static unsigned int blockSize = 0;	// Current block size
static unsigned int currentBlock = 0;	// Current block in file
static unsigned int pageOffset = 0;	// Offset of current block
static unsigned int bytesToFormat = 0;	// Number of bytes to format
static unsigned int blockVersion = 0;	// Block version number

// Function Prototypes
static void DisplayOptions (unsigned int validOptions);
static unsigned int ConsumeOptions (int numOptions, char **options);
static int GetOptionValue (char *optionString);
static void FormatBlock (BlockNumber blkno);
static unsigned int GetBlockSize ();
static unsigned int GetSpecialSectionType (Page page);
static bool IsBtreeMetaPage(Page page);
static void CreateDumpFileHeader (int numOptions, char **options);
static int FormatHeader (Page page, BlockNumber blkno);
static void FormatItemBlock (Page page);
static void FormatItem (unsigned int numBytes, unsigned int startIndex,
			unsigned int formatAs);
static void FormatSpecial ();
static void FormatControl ();
static void FormatBinary (unsigned int numBytes, unsigned int startIndex);
static void DumpBinaryBlock ();
static void DumpFileContents ();


// Send properly formed usage information to the user.
static void
DisplayOptions (unsigned int validOptions)
{
  if (validOptions == OPT_RC_COPYRIGHT)
    printf
      ("\nVersion %s (for %s)"
       "\nCopyright (c) 2002-2010 Red Hat, Inc."
       "\nCopyright (c) 2011-2014, PostgreSQL Global Development Group\n",
       FD_VERSION, FD_PG_VERSION);

  printf
    ("\nUsage: pg_filedump [-abcdfhikxy] [-R startblock [endblock]] [-S blocksize] file\n\n"
     "Display formatted contents of a PostgreSQL heap/index/control file\n"
     "Defaults are: relative addressing, range of the entire file, block\n"
     "               size as listed on block 0 in the file\n\n"
     "The following options are valid for heap and index files:\n"
     "  -a  Display absolute addresses when formatting (Block header\n"
     "      information is always block relative)\n"
     "  -b  Display binary block images within a range (Option will turn\n"
     "      off all formatting options)\n"
     "  -d  Display formatted block content dump (Option will turn off\n"
     "      all other formatting options)\n"
     "  -f  Display formatted block content dump along with interpretation\n"
     "  -h  Display this information\n"
     "  -i  Display interpreted item details\n"
     "  -k  Verify block checksums\n"
     "  -R  Display specific block ranges within the file (Blocks are\n"
     "      indexed from 0)\n" "        [startblock]: block to start at\n"
     "        [endblock]: block to end at\n"
     "      A startblock without an endblock will format the single block\n"
     "  -S  Force block size to [blocksize]\n"
     "  -x  Force interpreted formatting of block items as index items\n"
     "  -y  Force interpreted formatting of block items as heap items\n\n"
     "The following options are valid for control files:\n"
     "  -c  Interpret the file listed as a control file\n"
     "  -f  Display formatted content dump along with interpretation\n"
     "  -S  Force block size to [blocksize]\n"
     "\nReport bugs to <pgsql-bugs@postgresql.org>\n");
}

// Iterate through the provided options and set the option flags.
// An error will result in a positive rc and will force a display
// of the usage information.  This routine returns enum
// optionReturnCode values.
static unsigned int
ConsumeOptions (int numOptions, char **options)
{
  unsigned int rc = OPT_RC_VALID;
  unsigned int x;
  unsigned int optionStringLength;
  char *optionString;
  char duplicateSwitch = 0x00;

  for (x = 1; x < numOptions; x++)
    {
      optionString = options[x];
      optionStringLength = strlen (optionString);

      // Range is a special case where we have to consume the next 1 or 2
      // parameters to mark the range start and end
      if ((optionStringLength == 2) && (strcmp (optionString, "-R") == 0))
	{
	  int range = 0;

	  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_RANGE, 'R');
	  // Only accept the range option once
	  if (rc == OPT_RC_DUPLICATE)
	    break;

	  // Make sure there are options after the range identifier
	  if (x >= (numOptions - 2))
	    {
	      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
	      printf ("Error: Missing range start identifier.\n");
	      break;
	    }

	  // Mark that we have the range and advance the option to what should
	  // be the range start. Check the value of the next parameter
	  optionString = options[++x];
	  if ((range = GetOptionValue (optionString)) < 0)
	    {
	      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
	      printf ("Error: Invalid range start identifier <%s>.\n",
		      optionString);
	      break;
	    }

	  // The default is to dump only one block
	  blockStart = blockEnd = (unsigned int) range;

	  // We have our range start marker, check if there is an end
	  // marker on the option line.  Assume that the last option
	  // is the file we are dumping, so check if there are options
	  // range start marker and the file
	  if (x <= (numOptions - 3))
	    {
	      if ((range = GetOptionValue (options[x + 1])) >= 0)
		{
		  // End range must be => start range
		  if (blockStart <= range)
		    {
		      blockEnd = (unsigned int) range;
		      x++;
		    }
		  else
		    {
		      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
		      printf ("Error: Requested block range start <%d> is "
			      "greater than end <%d>.\n", blockStart, range);
		      break;
		    }
		}
	    }
	}
      // Check for the special case where the user forces a block size
      // instead of having the tool determine it.  This is useful if
      // the header of block 0 is corrupt and gives a garbage block size
      else if ((optionStringLength == 2)
	       && (strcmp (optionString, "-S") == 0))
	{
	  int localBlockSize;

	  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_FORCED, 'S');
	  // Only accept the forced size option once
	  if (rc == OPT_RC_DUPLICATE)
	    break;

	  // The token immediately following -S is the block size
	  if (x >= (numOptions - 2))
	    {
	      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
	      printf ("Error: Missing block size identifier.\n");
	      break;
	    }

	  // Next option encountered must be forced block size
	  optionString = options[++x];
	  if ((localBlockSize = GetOptionValue (optionString)) > 0)
	    blockSize = (unsigned int) localBlockSize;
	  else
	    {
	      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
	      printf ("Error: Invalid block size requested <%s>.\n",
		      optionString);
	      break;
	    }
	}
      // The last option MUST be the file name
      else if (x == (numOptions - 1))
	{
	  // Check to see if this looks like an option string before opening
	  if (optionString[0] != '-')
	    {
	      fp = fopen (optionString, "rb");
	      if (fp)
		fileName = options[x];
	      else
		{
		  rc = OPT_RC_FILE;
		  printf ("Error: Could not open file <%s>.\n", optionString);
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      // Could be the case where the help flag is used without a
	      // filename. Otherwise, the last option isn't a file
	      if (strcmp (optionString, "-h") == 0)
		rc = OPT_RC_COPYRIGHT;
	      else
		{
		  rc = OPT_RC_FILE;
		  printf ("Error: Missing file name to dump.\n");
		}
	      break;
	    }
	}
      else
	{
	  unsigned int y;

	  // Option strings must start with '-' and contain switches
	  if (optionString[0] != '-')
	    {
	      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
	      printf ("Error: Invalid option string <%s>.\n", optionString);
	      break;
	    }

	  // Iterate through the singular option string, throw out
	  // garbage, duplicates and set flags to be used in formatting
	  for (y = 1; y < optionStringLength; y++)
	    {
	      switch (optionString[y])
		{
		  // Use absolute addressing
		case 'a':
		  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_ABSOLUTE, 'a');
		  break;

		  // Dump the binary contents of the page
		case 'b':
		  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_BINARY, 'b');
		  break;

		  // Dump the listed file as a control file
		case 'c':
		  SET_OPTION (controlOptions, CONTROL_DUMP, 'c');
		  break;

		  // Do not interpret the data. Format to hex and ascii.
		case 'd':
		  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_NO_INTR, 'd');
		  break;

		  // Format the contents of the block with interpretation
		  // of the headers
		case 'f':
		  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_FORMAT, 'f');
		  break;

		  // Display the usage screen
		case 'h':
		  rc = OPT_RC_COPYRIGHT;
		  break;

		  // Format the items in detail
		case 'i':
		  SET_OPTION (itemOptions, ITEM_DETAIL, 'i');
		  break;

		  // Verify block checksums
		case 'k':
		  SET_OPTION (blockOptions, BLOCK_CHECKSUMS, 'k');
		  break;

		  // Interpret items as standard index values
		case 'x':
		  SET_OPTION (itemOptions, ITEM_INDEX, 'x');
		  if (itemOptions & ITEM_HEAP)
		    {
		      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
		      printf ("Error: Options <y> and <x> are "
			      "mutually exclusive.\n");
		    }
		  break;

		  // Interpret items as heap values
		case 'y':
		  SET_OPTION (itemOptions, ITEM_HEAP, 'y');
		  if (itemOptions & ITEM_INDEX)
		    {
		      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
		      printf ("Error: Options <x> and <y> are "
			      "mutually exclusive.\n");
		    }
		  break;

		default:
		  rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
		  printf ("Error: Unknown option <%c>.\n", optionString[y]);
		  break;
		}

	      if (rc)
		break;
	    }
	}
    }

  if (rc == OPT_RC_DUPLICATE)
    printf ("Error: Duplicate option listed <%c>.\n", duplicateSwitch);

  // If the user requested a control file dump, a pure binary
  // block dump or a non-interpreted formatted dump, mask off
  // all other block level options (with a few exceptions)
  if (rc == OPT_RC_VALID)
    {
      // The user has requested a control file dump, only -f and
      // -S are valid... turn off all other formatting
      if (controlOptions & CONTROL_DUMP)
	{
	  if ((blockOptions & ~(BLOCK_FORMAT | BLOCK_FORCED))
	      || (itemOptions))
	    {
	      rc = OPT_RC_INVALID;
	      printf ("Error: Invalid options used for Control File dump.\n"
		      "       Only options <Sf> may be used with <c>.\n");
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      controlOptions |=
		(blockOptions & (BLOCK_FORMAT | BLOCK_FORCED));
	      blockOptions = itemOptions = 0;
	    }
	}
      // The user has requested a binary block dump... only -R and
      // -f are honoured
      else if (blockOptions & BLOCK_BINARY)
	{
	  blockOptions &= (BLOCK_BINARY | BLOCK_RANGE | BLOCK_FORCED);
	  itemOptions = 0;
	}
      // The user has requested a non-interpreted dump... only -a,
      // -R and -f are honoured
      else if (blockOptions & BLOCK_NO_INTR)
	{
	  blockOptions &=
	    (BLOCK_NO_INTR | BLOCK_ABSOLUTE | BLOCK_RANGE | BLOCK_FORCED);
	  itemOptions = 0;
	}
    }

  return (rc);
}

// Given the index into the parameter list, convert and return the
// current string to a number if possible
static int
GetOptionValue (char *optionString)
{
  unsigned int x;
  int value = -1;
  int optionStringLength = strlen (optionString);

  // Verify the next option looks like a number
  for (x = 0; x < optionStringLength; x++)
    if (!isdigit ((int) optionString[x]))
      break;

  // Convert the string to a number if it looks good
  if (x == optionStringLength)
    value = atoi (optionString);

  return (value);
}

// Read the page header off of block 0 to determine the block size
// used in this file.  Can be overridden using the -S option.  The
// returned value is the block size of block 0 on disk
static unsigned int
GetBlockSize ()
{
  unsigned int pageHeaderSize = sizeof (PageHeaderData);
  unsigned int localSize = 0;
  int bytesRead = 0;
  char localCache[pageHeaderSize];

  // Read the first header off of block 0 to determine the block size
  bytesRead = fread (&localCache, 1, pageHeaderSize, fp);
  rewind (fp);

  if (bytesRead == pageHeaderSize)
    localSize = (unsigned int) PageGetPageSize (&localCache);
  else
    printf ("Error: Unable to read full page header from block 0.\n"
	    "  ===> Read %u bytes", bytesRead);
  return (localSize);
}

// Determine the contents of the special section on the block and
// return this enum value
static unsigned int
GetSpecialSectionType (Page page)
{
  unsigned int rc;
  unsigned int specialOffset;
  unsigned int specialSize;
  unsigned int specialValue;
  PageHeader pageHeader = (PageHeader) page;

  // If this is not a partial header, check the validity of the
  // special section offset and contents
  if (bytesToFormat > sizeof (PageHeaderData))
    {
      specialOffset = (unsigned int) pageHeader->pd_special;

      // Check that the special offset can remain on the block or
      // the partial block
      if ((specialOffset == 0) ||
	  (specialOffset > blockSize) || (specialOffset > bytesToFormat))
	rc = SPEC_SECT_ERROR_BOUNDARY;
      else
	{
	  // we may need to examine last 2 bytes of page to identify index
	  uint16 *ptype = (uint16 *) (buffer + blockSize - sizeof(uint16));

	  specialSize = blockSize - specialOffset;

	  // If there is a special section, use its size to guess its
	  // contents, checking the last 2 bytes of the page in cases
	  // that are ambiguous.  Note we don't attempt to dereference
	  // the pointers without checking bytesToFormat == blockSize.
	  if (specialSize == 0)
	    rc = SPEC_SECT_NONE;
	  else if (specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (uint32)))
	    {
	      // If MAXALIGN is 8, this could be either a sequence or
	      // SP-GiST or GIN.
	      if (bytesToFormat == blockSize)
		{
		  specialValue = *((int *) (buffer + specialOffset));
		  if (specialValue == SEQUENCE_MAGIC)
		    rc = SPEC_SECT_SEQUENCE;
		  else if (specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (SpGistPageOpaqueData)) &&
			   *ptype == SPGIST_PAGE_ID)
		      rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_SPGIST;
		  else if (specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (GinPageOpaqueData)))
		    rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIN;
		  else
		    rc = SPEC_SECT_ERROR_UNKNOWN;
		}
	      else
		rc = SPEC_SECT_ERROR_UNKNOWN;
	    }
	  // SP-GiST and GIN have same size special section, so check
	  // the page ID bytes first.
	  else if (specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (SpGistPageOpaqueData)) &&
		   bytesToFormat == blockSize &&
		   *ptype == SPGIST_PAGE_ID)
	      rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_SPGIST;
	  else if (specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (GinPageOpaqueData)))
	      rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIN;
	  else if (specialSize > 2 && bytesToFormat == blockSize)
	    {
	      // As of 8.3, BTree, Hash, and GIST all have the same size
	      // special section, but the last two bytes of the section
	      // can be checked to determine what's what.
	      if (*ptype <= MAX_BT_CYCLE_ID &&
		  specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (BTPageOpaqueData)))
		rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_BTREE;
	      else if (*ptype == HASHO_PAGE_ID &&
		  specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (HashPageOpaqueData)))
		rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_HASH;
	      else if (*ptype == GIST_PAGE_ID &&
		       specialSize == MAXALIGN (sizeof (GISTPageOpaqueData)))
		rc = SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIST;
	      else
		rc = SPEC_SECT_ERROR_UNKNOWN;
	    }
	  else
	    rc = SPEC_SECT_ERROR_UNKNOWN;
	}
    }
  else
    rc = SPEC_SECT_ERROR_UNKNOWN;

  return (rc);
}

// Check whether page is a btree meta page
static bool
IsBtreeMetaPage(Page page)
{
  PageHeader pageHeader = (PageHeader) page;

  if ((PageGetSpecialSize (page) == (MAXALIGN (sizeof (BTPageOpaqueData))))
      && (bytesToFormat == blockSize))
    {
      BTPageOpaque btpo =
	(BTPageOpaque) ((char *) page + pageHeader->pd_special);

      // Must check the cycleid to be sure it's really btree.
      if ((btpo->btpo_cycleid <= MAX_BT_CYCLE_ID) &&
	  (btpo->btpo_flags & BTP_META))
	return true;
    }
  return false;
}

// Display a header for the dump so we know the file name, the options
// used and the time the dump was taken
static void
CreateDumpFileHeader (int numOptions, char **options)
{
  unsigned int x;
  char optionBuffer[52] = "\0";
  time_t rightNow = time (NULL);

  // Iterate through the options and cache them.
  // The maximum we can display is 50 option characters + spaces.
  for (x = 1; x < (numOptions - 1); x++)
    {
      if ((strlen (optionBuffer) + strlen (options[x])) > 50)
	break;
      strcat (optionBuffer, options[x]);
      strcat (optionBuffer, " ");
    }

  printf
    ("\n*******************************************************************\n"
     "* PostgreSQL File/Block Formatted Dump Utility - Version %s\n"
     "*\n"
     "* File: %s\n"
     "* Options used: %s\n*\n"
     "* Dump created on: %s"
     "*******************************************************************\n",
     FD_VERSION, fileName, (strlen (optionBuffer)) ? optionBuffer : "None",
     ctime (&rightNow));
}

// Dump out a formatted block header for the requested block
static int
FormatHeader (Page page, BlockNumber blkno)
{
  int rc = 0;
  unsigned int headerBytes;
  PageHeader pageHeader = (PageHeader) page;

  printf ("<Header> -----\n");

  // Only attempt to format the header if the entire header (minus the item
  // array) is available
  if (bytesToFormat < offsetof (PageHeaderData, pd_linp[0]))
    {
      headerBytes = bytesToFormat;
      rc = EOF_ENCOUNTERED;
    }
  else
    {
      XLogRecPtr pageLSN = PageGetLSN (page);
      int maxOffset = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber (page);
      char flagString[100];

      headerBytes = offsetof (PageHeaderData, pd_linp[0]);
      blockVersion = (unsigned int) PageGetPageLayoutVersion (page);

      // The full header exists but we have to check that the item array
      // is available or how far we can index into it
      if (maxOffset > 0)
	{
	  unsigned int itemsLength = maxOffset * sizeof (ItemIdData);
	  if (bytesToFormat < (headerBytes + itemsLength))
	    {
	      headerBytes = bytesToFormat;
	      rc = EOF_ENCOUNTERED;
	    }
	  else
	    headerBytes += itemsLength;
	}

      flagString[0] = '\0';
      if (pageHeader->pd_flags & PD_HAS_FREE_LINES)
	  strcat (flagString, "HAS_FREE_LINES|");
      if (pageHeader->pd_flags & PD_PAGE_FULL)
	  strcat (flagString, "PAGE_FULL|");
      if (pageHeader->pd_flags & PD_ALL_VISIBLE)
	  strcat (flagString, "ALL_VISIBLE|");
      if (strlen (flagString))
	  flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';

      // Interpret the content of the header
      printf
	(" Block Offset: 0x%08x         Offsets: Lower    %4u (0x%04hx)\n"
	 " Block: Size %4d  Version %4u            Upper    %4u (0x%04hx)\n"
	 " LSN:  logid %6d recoff 0x%08x      Special  %4u (0x%04hx)\n"
	 " Items: %4d                      Free Space: %4u\n"
	 " Checksum: 0x%04x  Prune XID: 0x%08x  Flags: 0x%04x (%s)\n"
	 " Length (including item array): %u\n\n",
	 pageOffset, pageHeader->pd_lower, pageHeader->pd_lower,
	 (int) PageGetPageSize (page), blockVersion,
	 pageHeader->pd_upper, pageHeader->pd_upper,
	 (uint32) (pageLSN >> 32), (uint32) pageLSN,
	 pageHeader->pd_special, pageHeader->pd_special,
	 maxOffset, pageHeader->pd_upper - pageHeader->pd_lower,
	 pageHeader->pd_checksum, pageHeader->pd_prune_xid,
	 pageHeader->pd_flags, flagString,
	 headerBytes);

      // If it's a btree meta page, print the contents of the meta block.
      if (IsBtreeMetaPage(page))
	{
	  BTMetaPageData *btpMeta = BTPageGetMeta (buffer);
	  printf (" BTree Meta Data:  Magic (0x%08x)   Version (%u)\n"
		  "                   Root:     Block (%u)  Level (%u)\n"
		  "                   FastRoot: Block (%u)  Level (%u)\n\n",
		  btpMeta->btm_magic, btpMeta->btm_version,
		  btpMeta->btm_root, btpMeta->btm_level,
		  btpMeta->btm_fastroot, btpMeta->btm_fastlevel);
	  headerBytes += sizeof (BTMetaPageData);
	}

      // Eye the contents of the header and alert the user to possible
      // problems.
      if ((maxOffset < 0) ||
	  (maxOffset > blockSize) ||
	  (blockVersion != PG_PAGE_LAYOUT_VERSION) || /* only one we support */
	  (pageHeader->pd_upper > blockSize) ||
	  (pageHeader->pd_upper > pageHeader->pd_special) ||
	  (pageHeader->pd_lower <
	   (sizeof (PageHeaderData) - sizeof (ItemIdData)))
	  || (pageHeader->pd_lower > blockSize)
	  || (pageHeader->pd_upper < pageHeader->pd_lower)
	  || (pageHeader->pd_special > blockSize))
	printf (" Error: Invalid header information.\n\n");

      if (blockOptions & BLOCK_CHECKSUMS)
   {
     uint16 calc_checksum = pg_checksum_page(page, blkno);
     if (calc_checksum != pageHeader->pd_checksum)
       printf(" Error: checksum failure: calculated 0x%04x.\n\n",
          calc_checksum);
   }
    }

  // If we have reached the end of file while interpreting the header, let
  // the user know about it
  if (rc == EOF_ENCOUNTERED)
    printf
      (" Error: End of block encountered within the header."
       " Bytes read: %4u.\n\n", bytesToFormat);

  // A request to dump the formatted binary of the block (header,
  // items and special section).  It's best to dump even on an error
  // so the user can see the raw image.
  if (blockOptions & BLOCK_FORMAT)
    FormatBinary (headerBytes, 0);

  return (rc);
}

// Dump out formatted items that reside on this block
static void
FormatItemBlock (Page page)
{
  unsigned int x;
  unsigned int itemSize;
  unsigned int itemOffset;
  unsigned int itemFlags;
  ItemId itemId;
  int maxOffset = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber (page);

  // If it's a btree meta page, the meta block is where items would normally
  // be; don't print garbage.
  if (IsBtreeMetaPage(page))
    return;

  printf ("<Data> ------ \n");

  // Loop through the items on the block.  Check if the block is
  // empty and has a sensible item array listed before running
  // through each item
  if (maxOffset == 0)
    printf (" Empty block - no items listed \n\n");
  else if ((maxOffset < 0) || (maxOffset > blockSize))
    printf (" Error: Item index corrupt on block. Offset: <%d>.\n\n",
	    maxOffset);
  else
    {
      int formatAs;
      char textFlags[16];

      // First, honour requests to format items a special way, then
      // use the special section to determine the format style
      if (itemOptions & ITEM_INDEX)
	formatAs = ITEM_INDEX;
      else if (itemOptions & ITEM_HEAP)
	formatAs = ITEM_HEAP;
      else
	  switch (specialType)
	  {
	      case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_BTREE:
	      case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_HASH:
	      case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIST:
	      case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIN:
		  formatAs = ITEM_INDEX;
		  break;
	      case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_SPGIST:
		  {
		      SpGistPageOpaque spgpo =
			  (SpGistPageOpaque) ((char *) page +
					      ((PageHeader) page)->pd_special);
		      if (spgpo->flags & SPGIST_LEAF)
			  formatAs = ITEM_SPG_LEAF;
		      else
			  formatAs = ITEM_SPG_INNER;
		  }
		  break;
	      default:
		  formatAs = ITEM_HEAP;
		  break;
	  }

      for (x = 1; x < (maxOffset + 1); x++)
	{
	  itemId = PageGetItemId (page, x);
	  itemFlags = (unsigned int) ItemIdGetFlags (itemId);
	  itemSize = (unsigned int) ItemIdGetLength (itemId);
	  itemOffset = (unsigned int) ItemIdGetOffset (itemId);

	  switch (itemFlags)
	  {
	    case LP_UNUSED:
	      strcpy (textFlags, "UNUSED");
	      break;
	    case LP_NORMAL:
	      strcpy (textFlags, "NORMAL");
	      break;
	    case LP_REDIRECT:
	      strcpy (textFlags, "REDIRECT");
	      break;
	    case LP_DEAD:
	      strcpy (textFlags, "DEAD");
	      break;
	    default:
	      // shouldn't be possible
	      sprintf (textFlags, "0x%02x", itemFlags);
	      break;
	  }

	  printf (" Item %3u -- Length: %4u  Offset: %4u (0x%04x)"
		  "  Flags: %s\n", x, itemSize, itemOffset, itemOffset,
		  textFlags);

	  // Make sure the item can physically fit on this block before
	  // formatting
	  if ((itemOffset + itemSize > blockSize) ||
	      (itemOffset + itemSize > bytesToFormat))
	    printf ("  Error: Item contents extend beyond block.\n"
		    "         BlockSize<%d> Bytes Read<%d> Item Start<%d>.\n",
		    blockSize, bytesToFormat, itemOffset + itemSize);
	  else
	    {
	      // If the user requests that the items be interpreted as
	      // heap or index items...
	      if (itemOptions & ITEM_DETAIL)
		FormatItem (itemSize, itemOffset, formatAs);

	      // Dump the items contents in hex and ascii
	      if (blockOptions & BLOCK_FORMAT)
		FormatBinary (itemSize, itemOffset);

	      if (x == maxOffset)
		printf ("\n");
	    }
	}
    }
}

// Interpret the contents of the item based on whether it has a special
// section and/or the user has hinted
static void
FormatItem (unsigned int numBytes, unsigned int startIndex,
	    unsigned int formatAs)
{
  static const char * const spgist_tupstates[4] = {
      "LIVE",
      "REDIRECT",
      "DEAD",
      "PLACEHOLDER"
  };

  if (formatAs == ITEM_INDEX)
    {
      // It is an IndexTuple item, so dump the index header
      if (numBytes < SizeOfIptrData)
	{
	  if (numBytes)
	    printf ("  Error: This item does not look like an index item.\n");
	}
      else
	{
	  IndexTuple itup = (IndexTuple) (&(buffer[startIndex]));
	  printf ("  Block Id: %u  linp Index: %u  Size: %d\n"
		  "  Has Nulls: %u  Has Varwidths: %u\n\n",
		  ((uint32) ((itup->t_tid.ip_blkid.bi_hi << 16) |
			     (uint16) itup->t_tid.ip_blkid.bi_lo)),
		  itup->t_tid.ip_posid,
		  (int) IndexTupleSize(itup),
		  IndexTupleHasNulls(itup) ? 1 : 0,
		  IndexTupleHasVarwidths(itup) ? 1 : 0);

	  if (numBytes != IndexTupleSize (itup))
	    printf ("  Error: Item size difference. Given <%u>, "
		    "Internal <%d>.\n", numBytes, (int) IndexTupleSize (itup));
	}
    }
  else if (formatAs == ITEM_SPG_INNER)
    {
      // It is an SpGistInnerTuple item, so dump the index header
      if (numBytes < SGITHDRSZ)
	{
	  if (numBytes)
	    printf ("  Error: This item does not look like an SPGiST item.\n");
	}
      else
	{
	  SpGistInnerTuple itup = (SpGistInnerTuple) (&(buffer[startIndex]));
	  printf ("  State: %s  allTheSame: %d nNodes: %u prefixSize: %u\n\n",
		  spgist_tupstates[itup->tupstate],
		  itup->allTheSame,
		  itup->nNodes,
		  itup->prefixSize);

	  if (numBytes != itup->size)
	    printf ("  Error: Item size difference. Given <%u>, "
		    "Internal <%d>.\n", numBytes, (int) itup->size);
	  else if (itup->prefixSize == MAXALIGN(itup->prefixSize))
	  {
	      int i;
	      SpGistNodeTuple node;

	      // Dump the prefix contents in hex and ascii
	      if ((blockOptions & BLOCK_FORMAT) &&
		  SGITHDRSZ + itup->prefixSize <= numBytes)
		  FormatBinary (SGITHDRSZ + itup->prefixSize, startIndex);

	      // Try to print the nodes, but only while pointer is sane
	      SGITITERATE(itup, i, node)
	      {
		  int off = (char *) node - (char *) itup;
		  if (off + SGNTHDRSZ > numBytes)
		      break;
		  printf ("  Node %2u:  Downlink: %u/%u  Size: %d  Null: %u\n",
			  i,
			  ((uint32) ((node->t_tid.ip_blkid.bi_hi << 16) |
				     (uint16) node->t_tid.ip_blkid.bi_lo)),
			  node->t_tid.ip_posid,
			  (int) IndexTupleSize(node),
			  IndexTupleHasNulls(node) ? 1 : 0);
		  // Dump the node's contents in hex and ascii
		  if ((blockOptions & BLOCK_FORMAT) &&
		      off + IndexTupleSize(node) <= numBytes)
		      FormatBinary (IndexTupleSize(node), startIndex + off);
		  if (IndexTupleSize(node) != MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(node)))
		      break;
	      }
	  }
	  printf ("\n");
	}
    }
  else if (formatAs == ITEM_SPG_LEAF)
    {
      // It is an SpGistLeafTuple item, so dump the index header
      if (numBytes < SGLTHDRSZ)
	{
	  if (numBytes)
	    printf ("  Error: This item does not look like an SPGiST item.\n");
	}
      else
	{
	  SpGistLeafTuple itup = (SpGistLeafTuple) (&(buffer[startIndex]));
	  printf ("  State: %s  nextOffset: %u  Block Id: %u  linp Index: %u\n\n",
		  spgist_tupstates[itup->tupstate],
		  itup->nextOffset,
		  ((uint32) ((itup->heapPtr.ip_blkid.bi_hi << 16) |
			     (uint16) itup->heapPtr.ip_blkid.bi_lo)),
		  itup->heapPtr.ip_posid);

	  if (numBytes != itup->size)
	    printf ("  Error: Item size difference. Given <%u>, "
		    "Internal <%d>.\n", numBytes, (int) itup->size);
	}
    }
  else
    {
      // It is a HeapTuple item, so dump the heap header
      int alignedSize = MAXALIGN (sizeof (HeapTupleHeaderData));

      if (numBytes < alignedSize)
	{
	  if (numBytes)
	    printf ("  Error: This item does not look like a heap item.\n");
	}
      else
	{
	  char flagString[256];
	  unsigned int x;
	  unsigned int bitmapLength = 0;
	  unsigned int oidLength = 0;
	  unsigned int computedLength;
	  unsigned int infoMask;
	  unsigned int infoMask2;
	  int localNatts;
	  unsigned int localHoff;
	  bits8 *localBits;
	  unsigned int localBitOffset;

	  HeapTupleHeader htup = (HeapTupleHeader) (&buffer[startIndex]);

	  infoMask = htup->t_infomask;
	  infoMask2 = htup->t_infomask2;
	  localBits = &(htup->t_bits[0]);
	  localNatts = HeapTupleHeaderGetNatts(htup);
	  localHoff = htup->t_hoff;
	  localBitOffset = offsetof (HeapTupleHeaderData, t_bits);

	  printf ("  XMIN: %u  XMAX: %u  CID|XVAC: %u",
		  HeapTupleHeaderGetXmin(htup),
		  HeapTupleHeaderGetRawXmax(htup),
		  HeapTupleHeaderGetRawCommandId(htup));

	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASOID)
	    printf ("  OID: %u",
		    HeapTupleHeaderGetOid(htup));

	  printf ("\n"
		  "  Block Id: %u  linp Index: %u   Attributes: %d   Size: %d\n",
		  ((uint32)
		   ((htup->t_ctid.ip_blkid.bi_hi << 16) | (uint16) htup->
		    t_ctid.ip_blkid.bi_lo)), htup->t_ctid.ip_posid,
		  localNatts, htup->t_hoff);

	  // Place readable versions of the tuple info mask into a buffer.
	  // Assume that the string can not expand beyond 256.
	  flagString[0] = '\0';
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASNULL)
	    strcat (flagString, "HASNULL|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASVARWIDTH)
	    strcat (flagString, "HASVARWIDTH|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASEXTERNAL)
	    strcat (flagString, "HASEXTERNAL|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASOID)
	    strcat (flagString, "HASOID|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMAX_KEYSHR_LOCK)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMAX_KEYSHR_LOCK|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_COMBOCID)
	    strcat (flagString, "COMBOCID|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMAX_EXCL_LOCK)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMAX_EXCL_LOCK|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMAX_LOCK_ONLY)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMAX_LOCK_ONLY|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMIN_COMMITTED)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMIN_COMMITTED|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMIN_INVALID)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMIN_INVALID|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMAX_COMMITTED)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMAX_COMMITTED|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMAX_INVALID)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMAX_INVALID|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_XMAX_IS_MULTI)
	    strcat (flagString, "XMAX_IS_MULTI|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_UPDATED)
	    strcat (flagString, "UPDATED|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_MOVED_OFF)
	    strcat (flagString, "MOVED_OFF|");
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_MOVED_IN)
	    strcat (flagString, "MOVED_IN|");

	  if (infoMask2 & HEAP_KEYS_UPDATED)
	    strcat (flagString, "KEYS_UPDATED|");
	  if (infoMask2 & HEAP_HOT_UPDATED)
	    strcat (flagString, "HOT_UPDATED|");
	  if (infoMask2 & HEAP_ONLY_TUPLE)
	    strcat (flagString, "HEAP_ONLY|");

	  if (strlen (flagString))
	    flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';

	  printf ("  infomask: 0x%04x (%s) \n", infoMask, flagString);

	  // As t_bits is a variable length array, determine the length of
	  // the header proper
	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASNULL)
	    bitmapLength = BITMAPLEN (localNatts);
	  else
	    bitmapLength = 0;

	  if (infoMask & HEAP_HASOID)
	    oidLength += sizeof (Oid);

	  computedLength =
	    MAXALIGN (localBitOffset + bitmapLength + oidLength);

	  // Inform the user of a header size mismatch or dump the t_bits array
	  if (computedLength != localHoff)
	    printf
	      ("  Error: Computed header length not equal to header size.\n"
	       "         Computed <%u>  Header: <%d>\n", computedLength,
	       localHoff);
	  else if ((infoMask & HEAP_HASNULL) && bitmapLength)
	    {
	      printf ("  t_bits: ");
	      for (x = 0; x < bitmapLength; x++)
		{
		  printf ("[%u]: 0x%02x ", x, localBits[x]);
		  if (((x & 0x03) == 0x03) && (x < bitmapLength - 1))
		    printf ("\n          ");
		}
	      printf ("\n");
	    }
	  printf ("\n");
	}
    }
}


// On blocks that have special sections, print the contents
// according to previously determined special section type
static void
FormatSpecial ()
{
  PageHeader pageHeader = (PageHeader) buffer;
  char flagString[100] = "\0";
  unsigned int specialOffset = pageHeader->pd_special;
  unsigned int specialSize =
    (blockSize >= specialOffset) ? (blockSize - specialOffset) : 0;

  printf ("<Special Section> -----\n");

  switch (specialType)
    {
    case SPEC_SECT_ERROR_UNKNOWN:
    case SPEC_SECT_ERROR_BOUNDARY:
      printf (" Error: Invalid special section encountered.\n");
      break;

    case SPEC_SECT_SEQUENCE:
      printf (" Sequence: 0x%08x\n", SEQUENCE_MAGIC);
      break;

      // Btree index section
    case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_BTREE:
      {
	BTPageOpaque btreeSection = (BTPageOpaque) (buffer + specialOffset);
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_LEAF)
	  strcat (flagString, "LEAF|");
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_ROOT)
	  strcat (flagString, "ROOT|");
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_DELETED)
	  strcat (flagString, "DELETED|");
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_META)
	  strcat (flagString, "META|");
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_HALF_DEAD)
	  strcat (flagString, "HALFDEAD|");
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_SPLIT_END)
	  strcat (flagString, "SPLITEND|");
	if (btreeSection->btpo_flags & BTP_HAS_GARBAGE)
	  strcat (flagString, "HASGARBAGE|");
	if (strlen (flagString))
	  flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';

	printf (" BTree Index Section:\n"
		"  Flags: 0x%04x (%s)\n"
		"  Blocks: Previous (%d)  Next (%d)  %s (%d)  CycleId (%d)\n\n",
		btreeSection->btpo_flags, flagString,
		btreeSection->btpo_prev, btreeSection->btpo_next,
		(btreeSection->
		 btpo_flags & BTP_DELETED) ? "Next XID" : "Level",
		btreeSection->btpo.level,
		btreeSection->btpo_cycleid);
      }
      break;

      // Hash index section
    case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_HASH:
      {
	HashPageOpaque hashSection = (HashPageOpaque) (buffer + specialOffset);
	if (hashSection->hasho_flag & LH_UNUSED_PAGE)
	  strcat (flagString, "UNUSED|");
	if (hashSection->hasho_flag & LH_OVERFLOW_PAGE)
	  strcat (flagString, "OVERFLOW|");
	if (hashSection->hasho_flag & LH_BUCKET_PAGE)
	  strcat (flagString, "BUCKET|");
	if (hashSection->hasho_flag & LH_BITMAP_PAGE)
	  strcat (flagString, "BITMAP|");
	if (hashSection->hasho_flag & LH_META_PAGE)
	  strcat (flagString, "META|");
	if (strlen (flagString))
	  flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';
	printf (" Hash Index Section:\n"
		"  Flags: 0x%04x (%s)\n"
		"  Bucket Number: 0x%04x\n"
		"  Blocks: Previous (%d)  Next (%d)\n\n",
		hashSection->hasho_flag, flagString,
		hashSection->hasho_bucket,
		hashSection->hasho_prevblkno, hashSection->hasho_nextblkno);
      }
      break;

      // GIST index section
    case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIST:
      {
	GISTPageOpaque gistSection = (GISTPageOpaque) (buffer + specialOffset);
	if (gistSection->flags & F_LEAF)
	  strcat (flagString, "LEAF|");
	if (gistSection->flags & F_DELETED)
	  strcat (flagString, "DELETED|");
	if (gistSection->flags & F_TUPLES_DELETED)
	  strcat (flagString, "TUPLES_DELETED|");
	if (gistSection->flags & F_FOLLOW_RIGHT)
	  strcat (flagString, "FOLLOW_RIGHT|");
	if (strlen (flagString))
	  flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';
	printf (" GIST Index Section:\n"
		"  NSN: 0x%08x/0x%08x\n"
		"  RightLink: %d\n"
		"  Flags: 0x%08x (%s)\n\n",
		gistSection->nsn.xlogid, gistSection->nsn.xrecoff,
		gistSection->rightlink,
		gistSection->flags, flagString);
      }
      break;

      // GIN index section
    case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_GIN:
      {
	GinPageOpaque ginSection = (GinPageOpaque) (buffer + specialOffset);
	if (ginSection->flags & GIN_DATA)
	  strcat (flagString, "DATA|");
	if (ginSection->flags & GIN_LEAF)
	  strcat (flagString, "LEAF|");
	if (ginSection->flags & GIN_DELETED)
	  strcat (flagString, "DELETED|");
	if (ginSection->flags & GIN_META)
	  strcat (flagString, "META|");
	if (ginSection->flags & GIN_LIST)
	  strcat (flagString, "LIST|");
	if (ginSection->flags & GIN_LIST_FULLROW)
	  strcat (flagString, "FULLROW|");
	if (strlen (flagString))
	  flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';
	printf (" GIN Index Section:\n"
		"  Flags: 0x%08x (%s)  Maxoff: %d\n"
		"  Blocks: RightLink (%d)\n\n",
		ginSection->flags, flagString,
		ginSection->maxoff,
		ginSection->rightlink);
      }
      break;

      // SP-GIST index section
    case SPEC_SECT_INDEX_SPGIST:
      {
	SpGistPageOpaque spgistSection = (SpGistPageOpaque) (buffer + specialOffset);
	if (spgistSection->flags & SPGIST_META)
	  strcat (flagString, "META|");
	if (spgistSection->flags & SPGIST_DELETED)
	  strcat (flagString, "DELETED|");
	if (spgistSection->flags & SPGIST_LEAF)
	  strcat (flagString, "LEAF|");
	if (spgistSection->flags & SPGIST_NULLS)
	  strcat (flagString, "NULLS|");
	if (strlen (flagString))
	  flagString[strlen (flagString) - 1] = '\0';
	printf (" SPGIST Index Section:\n"
		"  Flags: 0x%08x (%s)\n"
		"  nRedirection: %d\n"
		"  nPlaceholder: %d\n\n",
		spgistSection->flags, flagString,
		spgistSection->nRedirection,
		spgistSection->nPlaceholder);
      }
      break;

      // No idea what type of special section this is
    default:
      printf (" Unknown special section type. Type: <%u>.\n", specialType);
      break;
    }

  // Dump the formatted contents of the special section
  if (blockOptions & BLOCK_FORMAT)
    {
      if (specialType == SPEC_SECT_ERROR_BOUNDARY)
	printf (" Error: Special section points off page."
		" Unable to dump contents.\n");
      else
	FormatBinary (specialSize, specialOffset);
    }
}

// For each block, dump out formatted header and content information
static void
FormatBlock (BlockNumber blkno)
{
  Page page = (Page) buffer;
  pageOffset = blockSize * currentBlock;
  specialType = GetSpecialSectionType (page);

  printf ("\nBlock %4u **%s***************************************\n",
	  currentBlock,
	  (bytesToFormat ==
	   blockSize) ? "***************" : " PARTIAL BLOCK ");

  // Either dump out the entire block in hex+acsii fashion or
  // interpret the data based on block structure
  if (blockOptions & BLOCK_NO_INTR)
    FormatBinary (bytesToFormat, 0);
  else
    {
      int rc;
      // Every block contains a header, items and possibly a special
      // section.  Beware of partial block reads though
      rc = FormatHeader (page, blkno);

      // If we didn't encounter a partial read in the header, carry on...
      if (rc != EOF_ENCOUNTERED)
	{
	  FormatItemBlock (page);

	  if (specialType != SPEC_SECT_NONE)
	    FormatSpecial ();
	}
    }
}

// Dump out the content of the PG control file
static void
FormatControl ()
{
  unsigned int localPgVersion = 0;
  unsigned int controlFileSize = 0;
  time_t cd_time;
  time_t cp_time;

  printf
    ("\n<pg_control Contents> *********************************************\n\n");

  // Check the version
  if (bytesToFormat >= offsetof (ControlFileData, catalog_version_no))
    localPgVersion = ((ControlFileData *) buffer)->pg_control_version;

  if (localPgVersion >= 72)
    controlFileSize = sizeof (ControlFileData);
  else
    {
      printf ("pg_filedump: pg_control version %u not supported.\n",
	      localPgVersion);
      return;
    }

  // Interpret the control file if it's all there
  if (bytesToFormat >= controlFileSize)
    {
      ControlFileData *controlData = (ControlFileData *) buffer;
      CheckPoint *checkPoint = &(controlData->checkPointCopy);
      pg_crc32 crcLocal;
      char *dbState;

      // Compute a local copy of the CRC to verify the one on disk
      INIT_CRC32 (crcLocal);
      COMP_CRC32 (crcLocal, buffer, offsetof(ControlFileData, crc));
      FIN_CRC32 (crcLocal);

      // Grab a readable version of the database state
      switch (controlData->state)
	{
	case DB_STARTUP:
	  dbState = "STARTUP";
	  break;
	case DB_SHUTDOWNED:
	  dbState = "SHUTDOWNED";
	  break;
	case DB_SHUTDOWNING:
	  dbState = "SHUTDOWNING";
	  break;
	case DB_IN_CRASH_RECOVERY:
	  dbState = "IN CRASH RECOVERY";
	  break;
	case DB_IN_ARCHIVE_RECOVERY:
	  dbState = "IN ARCHIVE RECOVERY";
	  break;
	case DB_IN_PRODUCTION:
	  dbState = "IN PRODUCTION";
	  break;
	default:
	  dbState = "UNKNOWN";
	  break;
	}

      /* convert timestamps to system's time_t width */
      cd_time = controlData->time;
      cp_time = checkPoint->time;

      printf ("                          CRC: %s\n"
	      "           pg_control Version: %u%s\n"
	      "              Catalog Version: %u\n"
	      "            System Identifier: " UINT64_FORMAT "\n"
	      "                        State: %s\n"
	      "                Last Mod Time: %s"
	      "       Last Checkpoint Record: Log File (%u) Offset (0x%08x)\n"
	      "   Previous Checkpoint Record: Log File (%u) Offset (0x%08x)\n"
	      "  Last Checkpoint Record Redo: Log File (%u) Offset (0x%08x)\n"
	      "             |-    TimeLineID: %u\n"
	      "             |-      Next XID: %u/%u\n"
	      "             |-      Next OID: %u\n"
	      "             |-    Next Multi: %u\n"
	      "             |- Next MultiOff: %u\n"
	      "             |-          Time: %s"
	      "       Minimum Recovery Point: Log File (%u) Offset (0x%08x)\n"
	      "       Maximum Data Alignment: %u\n"
	      "        Floating-Point Sample: %.7g%s\n"
	      "          Database Block Size: %u\n"
	      "           Blocks Per Segment: %u\n"
	      "              XLOG Block Size: %u\n"
	      "            XLOG Segment Size: %u\n"
	      "    Maximum Identifier Length: %u\n"
	      "           Maximum Index Keys: %u\n"
	      "             TOAST Chunk Size: %u\n"
	      "   Date and Time Type Storage: %s\n\n",
	      EQ_CRC32 (crcLocal,
			controlData->crc) ? "Correct" : "Not Correct",
	      controlData->pg_control_version,
	      (controlData->pg_control_version == PG_CONTROL_VERSION ?
	       "" : " (Not Correct!)"),
	      controlData->catalog_version_no,
	      controlData->system_identifier,
	      dbState,
	      ctime (&(cd_time)),
	      (uint32) (controlData->checkPoint >> 32), (uint32) controlData->checkPoint,
	      (uint32) (controlData->prevCheckPoint >> 32), (uint32) controlData->prevCheckPoint,
	      (uint32) (checkPoint->redo >> 32), (uint32) checkPoint->redo,
	      checkPoint->ThisTimeLineID,
	      checkPoint->nextXidEpoch, checkPoint->nextXid,
	      checkPoint->nextOid,
	      checkPoint->nextMulti, checkPoint->nextMultiOffset,
	      ctime (&cp_time),
	      (uint32) (controlData->minRecoveryPoint >> 32), (uint32) controlData->minRecoveryPoint,
	      controlData->maxAlign,
	      controlData->floatFormat,
	      (controlData->floatFormat == FLOATFORMAT_VALUE ?
	       "" : " (Not Correct!)"),
	      controlData->blcksz,
	      controlData->relseg_size,
	      controlData->xlog_blcksz,
	      controlData->xlog_seg_size,
	      controlData->nameDataLen,
	      controlData->indexMaxKeys,
	      controlData->toast_max_chunk_size,
	      (controlData->enableIntTimes ?
	       "64 bit Integers" : "Floating Point"));
    }
  else
    {
      printf (" Error: pg_control file size incorrect.\n"
	      "        Size: Correct <%u>  Received <%u>.\n\n",
	      controlFileSize, bytesToFormat);

      // If we have an error, force a formatted dump so we can see
      // where things are going wrong
      controlOptions |= CONTROL_FORMAT;
    }

  // Dump hex and ascii representation of data
  if (controlOptions & CONTROL_FORMAT)
    {
      printf ("<pg_control Formatted Dump> *****************"
	      "**********************\n\n");
      FormatBinary (bytesToFormat, 0);
    }
}

// Dump out the contents of the block in hex and ascii.
// BYTES_PER_LINE bytes are formatted in each line.
static void
FormatBinary (unsigned int numBytes, unsigned int startIndex)
{
  unsigned int index = 0;
  unsigned int stopIndex = 0;
  unsigned int x = 0;
  unsigned int lastByte = startIndex + numBytes;

  if (numBytes)
    {
      // Iterate through a printable row detailing the current
      // address, the hex and ascii values
      for (index = startIndex; index < lastByte; index += BYTES_PER_LINE)
	{
	  stopIndex = index + BYTES_PER_LINE;

	  // Print out the address
	  if (blockOptions & BLOCK_ABSOLUTE)
	    printf ("  %08x: ", (unsigned int) (pageOffset + index));
	  else
	    printf ("  %04x: ", (unsigned int) index);

	  // Print out the hex version of the data
	  for (x = index; x < stopIndex; x++)
	    {
	      if (x < lastByte)
		printf ("%02x", 0xff & ((unsigned) buffer[x]));
	      else
		printf ("  ");
	      if ((x & 0x03) == 0x03)
		printf (" ");
	    }
	  printf (" ");

	  // Print out the ascii version of the data
	  for (x = index; x < stopIndex; x++)
	    {
	      if (x < lastByte)
		printf ("%c", isprint (buffer[x]) ? buffer[x] : '.');
	      else
		printf (" ");
	    }
	  printf ("\n");
	}
      printf ("\n");
    }
}

// Dump the binary image of the block
static void
DumpBinaryBlock ()
{
  unsigned int x;
  for (x = 0; x < bytesToFormat; x++)
    putchar (buffer[x]);
}

// Control the dumping of the blocks within the file
static void
DumpFileContents ()
{
  unsigned int initialRead = 1;
  unsigned int contentsToDump = 1;

  // If the user requested a block range, seek to the correct position
  // within the file for the start block.
  if (blockOptions & BLOCK_RANGE)
    {
      unsigned int position = blockSize * blockStart;
      if (fseek (fp, position, SEEK_SET) != 0)
	{
	  printf ("Error: Seek error encountered before requested "
		  "start block <%d>.\n", blockStart);
	  contentsToDump = 0;
	}
      else
	currentBlock = blockStart;
    }

  // Iterate through the blocks in the file until you reach the end or
  // the requested range end
  while (contentsToDump)
    {
      bytesToFormat = fread (buffer, 1, blockSize, fp);

      if (bytesToFormat == 0)
	{
	  // fseek() won't pop an error if you seek passed eof.  The next
	  // subsequent read gets the error.
	  if (initialRead)
	    printf ("Error: Premature end of file encountered.\n");
	  else if (!(blockOptions & BLOCK_BINARY))
	    printf ("\n*** End of File Encountered. Last Block "
		    "Read: %d ***\n", currentBlock - 1);

	  contentsToDump = 0;
	}
      else
	{
	  if (blockOptions & BLOCK_BINARY)
	    DumpBinaryBlock ();
	  else
	    {
	      if (controlOptions & CONTROL_DUMP)
		{
		  FormatControl ();
		  contentsToDump = false;
		}
	      else
		FormatBlock (currentBlock);
	    }
	}

      // Check to see if we are at the end of the requested range.
      if ((blockOptions & BLOCK_RANGE) &&
	  (currentBlock >= blockEnd) && (contentsToDump))
	{
	  //Don't print out message if we're doing a binary dump
	  if (!(blockOptions & BLOCK_BINARY))
	    printf ("\n*** End of Requested Range Encountered. "
		    "Last Block Read: %d ***\n", currentBlock);
	  contentsToDump = 0;
	}
      else
	currentBlock++;

      initialRead = 0;
    }
}

// Consume the options and iterate through the given file, formatting as
// requested.
int
main (int argv, char **argc)
{
  // If there is a parameter list, validate the options
  unsigned int validOptions;
  validOptions = (argv < 2) ? OPT_RC_COPYRIGHT : ConsumeOptions (argv, argc);

  // Display valid options if no parameters are received or invalid options
  // where encountered
  if (validOptions != OPT_RC_VALID)
    DisplayOptions (validOptions);
  else
    {
      // Don't dump the header if we're dumping binary pages
      if (!(blockOptions & BLOCK_BINARY))
	CreateDumpFileHeader (argv, argc);

      // If the user has not forced a block size, use the size of the
      // control file data or the information from the block 0 header
      if (controlOptions)
	{
	  if (!(controlOptions & CONTROL_FORCED))
	    blockSize = sizeof (ControlFileData);
	}
      else if (!(blockOptions & BLOCK_FORCED))
	blockSize = GetBlockSize ();

      // On a positive block size, allocate a local buffer to store
      // the subsequent blocks
      if (blockSize > 0)
	{
	  buffer = (char *) malloc (blockSize);
	  if (buffer)
	    DumpFileContents ();
	  else
	    printf ("\nError: Unable to create buffer of size <%d>.\n",
		    blockSize);
	}
    }

  // Close out the file and get rid of the allocated block buffer
  if (fp)
    fclose (fp);

  if (buffer)
    free (buffer);

  exit (0);
}