File: README.md

package info (click to toggle)
puppet-module-puppetlabs-stdlib 5.0.0-1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: bullseye, sid
  • size: 2,804 kB
  • sloc: ruby: 16,417; sh: 46; makefile: 2
file content (3108 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 99,797 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
# stdlib

#### Table of Contents

1. [Module Description - What the module does and why it is useful](#module-description)
1. [Setup - The basics of getting started with stdlib](#setup)
1. [Usage - Configuration options and additional functionality](#usage)
1. [Reference - An under-the-hood peek at what the module is doing and how](#reference)
    1. [Classes](#classes)
    1. [Defined Types](#defined-types)
    1. [Data Types](#data-types)
    1. [Facts](#facts)
    1. [Functions](#functions)
1. [Limitations - OS compatibility, etc.](#limitations)
1. [Development - Guide for contributing to the module](#development)
1. [Contributors](#contributors)


## Module Description

This module provides a standard library of resources for Puppet modules. Puppet modules make heavy use of this standard library. The stdlib module adds the following resources to Puppet:

 * Stages
 * Facts
 * Functions
 * Defined types
 * Data types
 * Providers

> *Note:* As of version 3.7, Puppet Enterprise no longer includes the stdlib module. If you're running Puppet Enterprise, you should install the most recent release of stdlib for compatibility with Puppet modules.

## Setup

[Install](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/modules_installing.html) the stdlib module to add the functions, facts, and resources of this standard library to Puppet.

If you are authoring a module that depends on stdlib, be sure to [specify dependencies](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/modules_metadata.html#specifying-dependencies-in-modules) in your metadata.json.

## Usage

Most of stdlib's features are automatically loaded by Puppet. To use standardized run stages in Puppet, declare this class in your manifest with `include stdlib`.

When declared, stdlib declares all other classes in the module. The only other class currently included in the module is `stdlib::stages`.

The `stdlib::stages` class declares various run stages for deploying infrastructure, language runtimes, and application layers. The high level stages are (in order):

  * setup
  * main
  * runtime
  * setup_infra
  * deploy_infra
  * setup_app
  * deploy_app
  * deploy

Sample usage:

```puppet
node default {
  include stdlib
  class { java: stage => 'runtime' }
}
```

## Reference

* [Public classes](#public-classes)
* [Private classes](#private-classes)
* [Defined types](#defined-types)
* [Data types](#data-types)
* [Facts](#facts)
* [Functions](#functions)

### Classes

#### Public classes

The `stdlib` class has no parameters.

#### Private classes

* `stdlib::stages`: Manages a standard set of run stages for Puppet.

### Defined types

#### `file_line`

Ensures that a given line is contained within a file. The implementation matches the full line, including whitespace at the beginning and end. If the line is not contained in the given file, Puppet appends the line to the end of the file to ensure the desired state. Multiple resources can be declared to manage multiple lines in the same file.

Example:

```puppet
file_line { 'sudo_rule':
  path => '/etc/sudoers',
  line => '%sudo ALL=(ALL) ALL',
}

file_line { 'sudo_rule_nopw':
  path => '/etc/sudoers',
  line => '%sudonopw ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL',
}
```

In the example above, Puppet ensures that both of the specified lines are contained in the file `/etc/sudoers`.

Match Example:

```puppet
file_line { 'bashrc_proxy':
  ensure => present,
  path   => '/etc/bashrc',
  line   => 'export HTTP_PROXY=http://squid.puppetlabs.vm:3128',
  match  => '^export\ HTTP_PROXY\=',
}
```

In the example above, `match` looks for a line beginning with 'export' followed by 'HTTP_PROXY' and replaces it with the value in line.

Match Example:

```puppet
file_line { 'bashrc_proxy':
  ensure             => present,
  path               => '/etc/bashrc',
  line               => 'export HTTP_PROXY=http://squid.puppetlabs.vm:3128',
  match              => '^export\ HTTP_PROXY\=',
  append_on_no_match => false,
}
```

In this code example, `match` looks for a line beginning with export followed by 'HTTP_PROXY' and replaces it with the value in line. If a match is not found, then no changes are made to the file.

Examples of `ensure => absent`:

This type has two behaviors when `ensure => absent` is set.

The first is to set `match => ...` and `match_for_absence => true`. Match looks for a line beginning with 'export', followed by 'HTTP_PROXY', and then deletes it. If multiple lines match, an error is raised unless the `multiple => true` parameter is set.

The `line => ...` parameter in this example would be accepted but ignored.

For example:

```puppet
file_line { 'bashrc_proxy':
  ensure            => absent,
  path              => '/etc/bashrc',
  match             => '^export\ HTTP_PROXY\=',
  match_for_absence => true,
}
```

The second way of using `ensure => absent` is to specify a `line => ...` and no match. When ensuring lines are absent, the default behavior is to remove all lines matching. This behavior can't be disabled.

For example:

```puppet
file_line { 'bashrc_proxy':
  ensure => absent,
  path   => '/etc/bashrc',
  line   => 'export HTTP_PROXY=http://squid.puppetlabs.vm:3128',
}
```


Encoding example:

```puppet
file_line { "XScreenSaver":
  ensure   => present,
  path     => '/root/XScreenSaver'
  line     => "*lock: 10:00:00",
  match    => '^*lock:',
  encoding => "iso-8859-1",
}
```

Files with special characters that are not valid UTF-8 give the error message "Invalid byte sequence in UTF-8". In this case, determine the correct file encoding and specify it with the `encoding` attribute.

**Autorequires:** If Puppet is managing the file that contains the line being managed, the `file_line` resource autorequires that file.

**Parameters**

All parameters are optional, unless otherwise noted.

##### `after`

Specifies the line after which Puppet adds any new lines using a regular expression. (Existing lines are added in place.)

Values: String containing a regex.

Default value: `undef`.

##### `encoding`

Specifies the correct file encoding.

Values: String specifying a valid Ruby character encoding.

Default: 'UTF-8'.

##### `ensure`: Specifies whether the resource is present.

Values: 'present', 'absent'.

Default value: 'present'.

##### `line`

**Required.**

Sets the line to be added to the file located by the `path` parameter.

Values: String.

##### `match`

Specifies a regular expression to compare against existing lines in the file; if a match is found, it is replaced rather than adding a new line.

Values: String containing a regex.

Default value: `undef`.


##### `match_for_absence`

Specifies whether a match should be applied when `ensure => absent`. If set to `true` and match is set, the line that matches is deleted. If set to `false` (the default), match is ignored when `ensure => absent` and the value of `line` is used instead. Ignored when `ensure => present`.

Boolean.

Default value: `false`.

##### `multiple`

Specifies whether `match` and `after` can change multiple lines. If set to `false`, allows file_line to replace only one line and raises an error if more than one will be replaced. If set to `true`, allows file_line to replace one or more lines.

Values: `true`, `false`.

Default value: `false`.


##### `name`

Specifies the name to use as the identity of the resource. If you want the resource namevar to differ from the supplied `title` of the resource, specify it with `name`.

Values: String.

Default value: The value of the title.

##### `path`

**Required.**

Specifies the file in which Puppet ensures the line specified by `line`.

Value: String specifying an absolute path to the file.

##### `replace`

Specifies whether the resource overwrites an existing line that matches the `match` parameter when `line` does not otherwise exist.

If set to `false` and a line is found matching the `match` parameter, the line is not placed in the file.

Boolean.

Default value: `true`.

##### `replace_all_matches_not_matching_line`

Replaces all lines matched by `match` parameter, even if `line` already exists in the file.

Default value: `false`.

### Data types

#### `Stdlib::Absolutepath`

A strict absolute path type. Uses a variant of Unixpath and Windowspath types.

Acceptable input examples:

```shell
/var/log
```

```shell
/usr2/username/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:.
```

```shell
C:\\WINDOWS\\System32
```

Unacceptable input example:

```shell
../relative_path
```

#### `Stdlib::Ensure::Service`

Matches acceptable ensure values for service resources.

Acceptable input examples:

```shell
stopped
running
```

Unacceptable input example:

```shell
true
false
```

#### `Stdlib::Httpsurl`

Matches HTTPS URLs. It is a case insensitive match.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
https://hello.com

HTTPS://HELLO.COM
```

Unacceptable input example:

```shell
httds://notquiteright.org`
```

#### `Stdlib::Httpurl`

Matches both HTTPS and HTTP URLs. It is a case insensitive match.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
https://hello.com

http://hello.com

HTTP://HELLO.COM
```

Unacceptable input example:

```shell
httds://notquiteright.org
```

#### `Stdlib::MAC`

Matches MAC addresses defined in [RFC5342](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5342).

#### `Stdlib::Unixpath`

Matches absolute paths on Unix operating systems.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
/usr2/username/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:

/var/tmp
```

Unacceptable input example:

```shell
C:/whatever

some/path

../some/other/path
```

#### `Stdlib::Filemode`

Matches octal file modes consisting of one to four numbers and symbolic file modes.

Acceptable input examples:

```shell
0644
```

```shell
1777
```

```shell
a=Xr,g=w
```

Unacceptable input examples:

```shell
x=r,a=wx
```

```shell
0999
```

#### `Stdlib::Windowspath`

Matches paths on Windows operating systems.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
C:\\WINDOWS\\System32

C:\\

\\\\host\\windows
```

Valid values: A windows filepath.

#### `Stdlib::Filesource`

Matches paths valid values for the source parameter of the Puppet file type.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
http://example.com

https://example.com

file:///hello/bla
```

Valid values: A filepath.

#### `Stdlib::Fqdn`

Matches paths on fully qualified domain name.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
localhost

example.com

www.example.com
```
Valid values: Domain name of a server.

#### `Stdlib::Host`

Matches a valid host which could be a valid ipv4, ipv6 or fqdn.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
localhost

www.example.com

192.0.2.1
```

Valid values: An IP address or domain name.

#### `Stdlib::Port`

Matches a valid TCP/UDP Port number.

Acceptable input examples:

```shell
80

443

65000
```

Valid values: An Integer.

#### `Stdlib::Port::Privileged`

Matches a valid TCP/UDP Privileged port i.e. < 1024.

Acceptable input examples:

```shell
80

443

1023
```

Valid values: A number less than 1024.

#### `Stdlib::Port::Unprivileged`

Matches a valid TCP/UDP Privileged port i.e. >= 1024.

Acceptable input examples:

```shell
1024

1337

65000

```

Valid values: A number more than or equal to 1024.

#### `Stdlib::Base32`

Matches paths a valid base32 string.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
ASDASDDASD3453453

asdasddasd3453453=

ASDASDDASD3453453==
```

Valid values: A base32 string.

#### `Stdlib::Base64`

Matches paths a valid base64 string.

Acceptable input example:

```shell
asdasdASDSADA342386832/746+=

asdasdASDSADA34238683274/6+

asdasdASDSADA3423868327/46+==
```

Valid values: A base64 string.

#### `Stdlib::Ipv4`

This type is no longer available. To make use of this functionality, use [Stdlib::IP::Address::V4](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib#stdlibipaddressv4).

#### `Stdlib::Ipv6`

This type is no longer available. To make use of this functionality, use  [Stdlib::IP::Address::V6](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib#stdlibipaddressv6).

#### `Stdlib::Ip_address`

This type is no longer available. To make use of this functionality, use  [Stdlib::IP::Address](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib#stdlibipaddress)

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address`

Matches any IP address, including both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. It will match them either with or without an address prefix as used in CIDR format IPv4 addresses.

Examples:

```
'127.0.0.1' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address                                # true
'10.1.240.4/24' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address                            # true
'52.10.10.141' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address                             # true
'192.168.1' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address                                # false
'FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address  # true
'FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address                     # true
```

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V4`

Match any string consisting of an IPv4 address in the quad-dotted decimal format, with or without a CIDR prefix. It will not match any abbreviated form (for example, 192.168.1) because these are poorly documented and inconsistently supported.

Examples:

```
'127.0.0.1' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V4                                # true
'10.1.240.4/24' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V4                            # true
'192.168.1' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V4                                # false
'FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V4  # false
'12AB::CD30:192.168.0.1' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V4                   # false
```

Valid values: An IPv4 address.

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6`

Match any string consistenting of an IPv6 address in any of the documented formats in RFC 2373, with or without an address prefix.

Examples:

```
'127.0.0.1' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V6                                # false
'10.1.240.4/24' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V6                            # false
'FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V6  # true
'FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V6                     # true
'FF01::101' =~ Stdlib::IP::Address::V6                                # true
```

Valid values: An IPv6 address.

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::Nosubnet`

Match the same things as the `Stdlib::IP::Address` alias, except it will not match an address that includes an address prefix (for example, it will match '192.168.0.6' but not '192.168.0.6/24').

Valid values: An IP address with no subnet.

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V4::CIDR`

Match an IPv4 address in the CIDR format. It will only match if the address contains an address prefix (for example, it will match '192.168.0.6/24'
but not '192.168.0.6').

Valid values: An IPv4 address with a CIDR provided eg: '192.186.8.101/105'. This will match anything inclusive of '192.186.8.101' to '192.168.8.105'.

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V4::Nosubnet`

Match an IPv4 address only if the address does not contain an address prefix (for example, it will match '192.168.0.6' but not '192.168.0.6/24').

Valid values: An IPv4 address with no subnet.

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Full`

Match an IPv6 address formatted in the "preferred form" as documented in section 2.2 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt), with or without an address prefix as documented in section 2.3 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt).

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Alternate`

Match an IPv6 address formatted in the "alternative form" allowing for representing the last two 16-bit pieces of the address with a quad-dotted decimal, as documented in section 2.2.1 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt). It will match addresses with or without an address prefix as documented in section 2.3 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt).

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Compressed`

Match an IPv6 address which may contain `::` used to compress zeros as documented in section 2.2.2 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt). It will match addresses with or without an address prefix as documented in section 2.3 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt).

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet`

Alias to allow `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet::Full`, `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet::Alternate` and `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet::Compressed`.

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet::Full`

Match an IPv6 address formatted in the "preferred form" as documented in section 2.2 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt). It will not match addresses with address prefix as documented in section 2.3 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt).

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet::Alternate`

Match an IPv6 address formatted in the "alternative form" allowing for representing the last two 16-bit pieces of the address with a quad-dotted decimal, as documented in section 2.2.1 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt). It will only match addresses without an address prefix as documented in section 2.3 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt).

#### `Stdlib::IP::Address::V6::Nosubnet::Compressed`

Match an IPv6 address which may contain `::` used to compress zeros as documented in section 2.2.2 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt). It will only match addresses without an address prefix as documented in section 2.3 of [RFC 2373](https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt).

### Facts

#### `package_provider`

Returns the default provider Puppet uses to manage packages on this system.

#### `is_pe`

Returns whether Puppet Enterprise is installed. Does not report anything on platforms newer than PE 3.x.

#### `pe_version`

Returns the version of Puppet Enterprise installed. Does not report anything on platforms newer than PE 3.x.

#### `pe_major_version`

Returns the major version Puppet Enterprise that is installed. Does not report anything on platforms newer than PE 3.x.

#### `pe_minor_version`

Returns the minor version of Puppet Enterprise that is installed. Does not report anything on platforms newer than PE 3.x.

#### `pe_patch_version`

Returns the patch version of Puppet Enterprise that is installed.

#### `puppet_vardir`

Returns the value of the Puppet vardir setting for the node running Puppet or Puppet agent.

#### `puppet_environmentpath`

Returns the value of the Puppet environment path settings for the node running Puppet or Puppet agent.

#### `puppet_server`

Returns the Puppet agent's `server` value, which is the hostname of the Puppet master with which the agent should communicate.

#### `root_home`

Determines the root home directory.

Determines the root home directory, which depends on your operating system. Generally this is '/root'.

#### `service_provider`

Returns the default provider Puppet uses to manage services on this system

### Functions

#### `abs`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`abs`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#abs) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Returns the absolute value of a number. For example, '-34.56' becomes '34.56'.

Argument: A single argument of either an integer or float value.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `any2array`

Converts any object to an array containing that object. Converts empty argument lists are to empty arrays. Hashes are converted to arrays of alternating keys and values. Arrays are not touched.

Since Puppet 5.0.0, you can create new values of almost any datatype using the type system — you can use the built-in [`Array.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-array-and-tuple) function to create a new array:

    $hsh = {'key' => 42, 'another-key' => 100}
    notice(Array($hsh))

Would notice `[['key', 42], ['another-key', 100]]`

The array data type also has a special mode to "create an array if not already an array":

    notice(Array({'key' => 42, 'another-key' => 100}, true))

Would notice `[{'key' => 42, 'another-key' => 100}]`, as the `true` flag prevents the hash from being transformed into an array.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `any2bool`

Converts any object to a Boolean:

* Strings such as 'Y', 'y', '1', 'T', 't', 'TRUE', 'yes', 'true' return `true`.
* Strings such as '0', 'F', 'f', 'N', 'n', 'FALSE', 'no', 'false' return `false`.
* Booleans return their original value.
* A number (or a string representation of a number) greater than 0 returns `true`, otherwise `false`.
* An undef value returns `false`.
* Anything else returns `true`.

See the built-in [`Boolean.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-boolean)

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `assert_private`

Sets the current class or definition as private. Calling the class or defined type from outside the current module fails.

For example, `assert_private()` called in class `foo::bar` outputs the following message if class is called from outside module `foo`: `Class foo::bar is private.`

To specify the error message you want to use:

```puppet
assert_private("You're not supposed to do that!")
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `base64`

Converts a string to and from base64 encoding. Requires an `action` ('encode', 'decode') and either a plain or base64-encoded `string`, and an optional `method` ('default', 'strict', 'urlsafe').

For backward compatibility, `method` is set as `default` if not specified.

> **Note**: This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

Since Puppet 4.8.0, the `Binary` data type can be used to produce base 64 encoded strings.

See the built-in [`String.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#binary-value-to-string) and [`Binary.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#creating-a-binary) functions.

See the built-in [`binary_file`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#binary_file) function for reading a file with binary (non UTF-8) content.

    # encode a string as if it was binary
    $encodestring = String(Binary('thestring', '%s'))
    # decode a Binary assuming it is an UTF-8 String
    $decodestring = String(Binary("dGhlc3RyaW5n"), "%s")

**Examples:**

```puppet
base64('encode', 'hello')
base64('encode', 'hello', 'default')
# return: "aGVsbG8=\n"

base64('encode', 'hello', 'strict')
# return: "aGVsbG8="

base64('decode', 'aGVsbG8=')
base64('decode', 'aGVsbG8=\n')
base64('decode', 'aGVsbG8=', 'default')
base64('decode', 'aGVsbG8=\n', 'default')
base64('decode', 'aGVsbG8=', 'strict')
# return: "hello"

base64('encode', 'https://puppetlabs.com', 'urlsafe')
# return: "aHR0cHM6Ly9wdXBwZXRsYWJzLmNvbQ=="

base64('decode', 'aHR0cHM6Ly9wdXBwZXRsYWJzLmNvbQ==', 'urlsafe')
# return: "https://puppetlabs.com"
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `basename`

Returns the `basename` of a path. An optional argument strips the extension. For example:

```puppet
basename('/path/to/a/file.ext')            => 'file.ext'
basename('relative/path/file.ext')         => 'file.ext'
basename('/path/to/a/file.ext', '.ext')    => 'file'
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `bool2num`

Converts a Boolean to a number. Converts values:

* `false`, 'f', '0', 'n', and 'no' to 0.
* `true`, 't', '1', 'y', and 'yes' to 1.

Argument: a single Boolean or string as an input.

Since Puppet 5.0.0, you can create values for almost any data type using the type system — you can use the built-in [`Numeric.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-numeric), [`Integer.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-integer), and [`Float.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-float)
functions to convert to numeric values:

    notice(Integer(false)) # Notices 0
    notice(Float(true))    # Notices 1.0

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `bool2str`

Converts a Boolean to a string using optionally supplied arguments. The optional second and third arguments represent what true and false are converted to respectively. If only one argument is given, it is converted from a Boolean to a string containing `true` or `false`.

*Examples:*

```puppet
bool2str(true)                    => `true`
bool2str(true, 'yes', 'no')       => 'yes'
bool2str(false, 't', 'f')         => 'f'
```

Arguments: Boolean.

Since Puppet 5.0.0, you can create new values for almost any
data type using the type system — you can use the built-in
[`String.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#boolean-to-string)
function to convert to String, with many different format options:

    notice(String(false))         # Notices 'false'
    notice(String(true))          # Notices 'true'
    notice(String(false, '%y'))   # Notices 'yes'
    notice(String(true, '%y'))    # Notices 'no'

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `camelcase`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`camelcase`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#camelcase) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Converts the case of a string or all strings in an array to CamelCase (mixed case).

Arguments: Either an array or string. Returns the same type of argument as it received, but in CamelCase form.

*Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

 *Type*: rvalue.

#### `capitalize`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`capitalize`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#capitalize) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Capitalizes the first character of a string or array of strings and lowercases the remaining characters of each string.

Arguments: either a single string or an array as an input. *Type*: rvalue.

*Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `ceiling`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`ceiling`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#ceiling) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to the argument.

Arguments: A single numeric value.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `chomp`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`chomp`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#chomp) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Removes the record separator from the end of a string or an array of strings; for example, 'hello\n' becomes 'hello'.

Arguments: a single string or array.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `chop`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`chop`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#chop) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Returns a new string with the last character removed. If the string ends with '\r\n', both characters are removed. Applying `chop` to an empty string returns an empty string. To only remove record separators, use the `chomp` function.

Arguments: A string or an array of strings as input.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `clamp`

Keeps value within the range [Min, X, Max] by sort based on integer value (parameter order doesn't matter). Strings are converted and compared numerically. Arrays of values are flattened into a list for further handling. For example:

  * `clamp('24', [575, 187])` returns 187.
  * `clamp(16, 88, 661)` returns 88.
  * `clamp([4, 3, '99'])` returns 4.

Arguments: strings, arrays, or numerics.

Since Puppet 6.0.0, you can use built-in functions to get the same result:

    [$minval, $maxval, $value_to_clamp].sort[1]

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `concat`

Appends the contents of multiple arrays onto the first array given. For example:

  * `concat(['1','2','3'],'4')` returns ['1','2','3','4'].
  * `concat(['1','2','3'],'4',['5','6','7'])` returns ['1','2','3','4','5','6','7'].

Since Puppet 4.0, you can use the `+` operator for concatenation of arrays and merge of hashes, and the `<<` operator for appending:

    ['1','2','3'] + ['4','5','6'] + ['7','8','9'] # returns ['1','2','3','4','5','6','7']
    [1, 2, 3] << 4 # returns [1, 2, 3, 4]
    [1, 2, 3] << [4, 5] # returns [1, 2, 3, [4, 5]]

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `convert_base`

Converts a given integer or base 10 string representing an integer to a specified base, as a string. For example:

  * `convert_base(5, 2)` results in: '101'
  * `convert_base('254', '16')` results in: 'fe'

Since Puppet 4.5.0, you can do this with the built-in [`String.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#integer-to-string) function, with various formatting options:

    $binary_repr = String(5, '%b') # results in "101"
    $hex_repr = String(254, '%x')  # results in "fe"
    $hex_repr = String(254, '%#x') # results in "0xfe"

#### `count`

Takes an array as the first argument and an optional second argument.
It counts the number of elements in an array that is equal to the second argument.
If called with only an array, it counts the number of elements that are not nil/undef/empty-string.

> **Note**: Equality is tested with a Ruby method. It is subject to what Ruby considers
to be equal. For strings, equality is case sensitive.

In Puppet core, counting is done using a combination of the built-in functions
[`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) (since Puppet 4.0.0) and
[`length`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#length) (since Puppet 5.5.0, before that in stdlib).

This example shows counting values that are not `undef`:

    notice([42, "hello", undef].filter |$x| { $x =~ NotUndef }.length)

Would notice 2.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `deep_merge`

Recursively merges two or more hashes together and returns the resulting hash.

```puppet
$hash1 = {'one' => 1, 'two' => 2, 'three' => { 'four' => 4 } }
$hash2 = {'two' => 'dos', 'three' => { 'five' => 5 } }
$merged_hash = deep_merge($hash1, $hash2)
```

The resulting hash is equivalent to:

```puppet
$merged_hash = { 'one' => 1, 'two' => 'dos', 'three' => { 'four' => 4, 'five' => 5 } }
```

If there is a duplicate key that is a hash, they are recursively merged. If there is a duplicate key that is not a hash, the key in the rightmost hash takes precedence.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `defined_with_params`

Takes a resource reference and an optional hash of attributes. Returns `true` if a resource with the specified attributes has already been added to the catalog. Returns `false` otherwise.

```puppet
user { 'dan':
  ensure => present,
}

if ! defined_with_params(User[dan], {'ensure' => 'present' }) {
  user { 'dan': ensure => present, }
}
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `delete`

Deletes all instances of a given element from an array, substring from a string, or key from a hash.

For example:

* `delete(['a','b','c','b'], 'b')` returns ['a','c'].
* `delete('abracadabra', 'bra')` returns 'acada'.
* `delete({'a' => 1,'b' => 2,'c' => 3},['b','c'])` returns {'a'=> 1}.
* `delete(['ab', 'b'], 'b')` returns ['ab'].

Since Puppet 4.0.0, the minus (`-`) operator deletes values from arrays and deletes keys from a hash:

    ['a', 'b', 'c', 'b'] - 'b'
    # would return ['a', 'c']

    {'a'=>1,'b'=>2,'c'=>3} - ['b','c'])
    # would return {'a' => '1'}

You can perform a global delete from a string with the built-in
[`regsubst`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#regsubst) function.

    'abracadabra'.regsubst(/bra/, '', 'G')
    # would return 'acada'

In general, the built-in
[`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function
can filter out entries from arrays and hashes based on a combination of keys and values.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `delete_at`

Deletes a determined indexed value from an array.

For example: `delete_at(['a','b','c'], 1)` returns ['a','c'].

Since Puppet 4, this can be done with the built-in
[`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function:

    ['a', 'b', 'c'].filter |$pos, $val | { $pos != 1 } # returns ['a', 'c']
    ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'].filter |$pos, $val | { $pos % 2 != 0 } # returns ['b', 'd']

Or, if you want to delete from the beginning or the end of the array — or from both ends at the same time — use the slice operator `[ ]`:

    $array[0, -1] # the same as all the values
    $array[2, -1] # all but the first 2 elements
    $array[0, -3] # all but the last 2 elements
    $array[1, -2] # all but the first and last element

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `delete_regex`

Deletes all instances of a given element from an array or hash that match a provided regular expression. A string is treated as a one-item array.

*Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.


For example

* `delete_regex(['a','b','c','b'], 'b')` returns ['a','c'].
* `delete_regex({'a' => 1,'b' => 2,'c' => 3},['b','c'])` returns {'a'=> 1}.
* `delete_regex(['abf', 'ab', 'ac'], '^ab.*')` returns ['ac'].
* `delete_regex(['ab', 'b'], 'b')` returns ['ab'].

Since Puppet 4.0.0, do the equivalent with the built-in
[`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function:

    ["aaa", "aba", "aca"].filter |$val| { $val !~ /b/ }
    # Would return: ['aaa', 'aca']

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `delete_values`

Deletes all instances of a given value from a hash.

For example:

* `delete_values({'a'=>'A','b'=>'B','c'=>'C','B'=>'D'}, 'B')` returns {'a'=>'A','c'=>'C','B'=>'D'}

Since Puppet 4.0.0, do the equivalent with the built-in
[`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function:

    $array.filter |$val| { $val != 'B' }
    $hash.filter |$key, $val| { $val != 'B' }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `delete_undef_values`

Deletes all instances of the `undef` value from an array or hash.

For example:

* `$hash = delete_undef_values({a=>'A', b=>'', c=>`undef`, d => false})` returns {a => 'A', b => '', d => false}.

Since Puppet 4.0.0, do the equivalent with the built-in
[`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function:

    $array.filter |$val| { $val =~ NotUndef }
    $hash.filter |$key, $val| { $val =~ NotUndef }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `deprecation`

Prints deprecation warnings and logs a warning once for a given key:

```puppet
deprecation(key, message)
```

Arguments:

* A string specifying the key: To keep the number of messages low during the lifetime of a Puppet process, only one message per key is logged.
* A string specifying the message: the text to be logged.

*Type*: Statement.

**Settings that affect `deprecation`**

Other settings in Puppet affect the stdlib `deprecation` function:

* [`disable_warnings`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/configuration.html#disablewarnings)
* [`max_deprecations`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/configuration.html#maxdeprecations)
* [`strict`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/configuration.html#strict):

    * `error`: Fails immediately with the deprecation message
    * `off`: Output emits no messages.
    * `warning`: Logs all warnings. This is the default setting.

* The environment variable `STDLIB_LOG_DEPRECATIONS`

  Specifies whether or not to log deprecation warnings. This is especially useful for automated tests to avoid flooding your logs before you are ready to migrate.

  This variable is Boolean, with the following effects:

  * `true`: Functions log a warning.
  * `false`: No warnings are logged.
  * No value set: Puppet 4 emits warnings, but Puppet 3 does not.

#### `difference`

Returns the difference between two arrays. The returned array is a copy of the original array, removing any items that also appear in the second array.

For example:

* `difference(["a","b","c"],["b","c","d"])` returns ["a"].

Since Puppet 4, the minus (`-`) operator in the Puppet language does the same:

    ['a', 'b', 'c'] - ['b', 'c', 'd']
    # would return ['a']

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `dig`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`dig`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#dig) function as of Puppet 4.5.0. Use [`dig44()`](#dig44) for backwards compatibility or use the new version.

Retrieves a value within multiple layers of hashes and arrays via an array of keys containing a path. The function goes through the structure by each path component and tries to return the value at the end of the path.

In addition to the required path argument, the function accepts the default argument. It is returned if the path is not correct, if no value was found, or if any other error has occurred.

```ruby
$data = {
  'a' => {
    'b' => [
      'b1',
      'b2',
      'b3',
    ]
  }
}

$value = dig($data, ['a', 'b', 2])
# $value = 'b3'

# with all possible options
$value = dig($data, ['a', 'b', 2], 'not_found')
# $value = 'b3'

# using the default value
$value = dig($data, ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], 'not_found')
# $value = 'not_found'
```

1. **$data** The data structure we are working with.
2. **['a', 'b', 2]** The path array.
3. **'not_found'** The default value. It is returned if nothing is found.

Default value: `undef`.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `dig44`

Retrieves a value within multiple layers of hashes and arrays via an array of keys containing a path. The function goes through the structure by each path component and tries to return the value at the end of the path.

In addition to the required path argument, the function accepts the default argument. It is returned if the path is incorrect, if no value was found, or if any other error has occurred.

```ruby
$data = {
  'a' => {
    'b' => [
      'b1',
      'b2',
      'b3',
    ]
  }
}

$value = dig44($data, ['a', 'b', 2])
# $value = 'b3'

# with all possible options
$value = dig44($data, ['a', 'b', 2], 'not_found')
# $value = 'b3'

# using the default value
$value = dig44($data, ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], 'not_found')
# $value = 'not_found'
```

*Type*: rvalue.

1. **$data** The data structure we are working with.
2. **['a', 'b', 2]** The path array.
3. **'not_found'** The default value. It will be returned if nothing is found.
   (optional, defaults to `undef`)

#### `dirname`

Returns the `dirname` of a path. For example, `dirname('/path/to/a/file.ext')` returns '/path/to/a'.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `dos2unix`

Returns the Unix version of the given string. Very useful when using a File resource with a cross-platform template.

```puppet
file { $config_file:
  ensure  => file,
  content => dos2unix(template('my_module/settings.conf.erb')),
}
```

See also [unix2dos](#unix2dos).

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `downcase`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`downcase`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#downcase) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Converts the case of a string or of all strings in an array to lowercase.

*Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `empty`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`empty`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#empty) function as of Puppet 5.5.0.

Returns `true` if the argument is an array or hash that contains no elements, or an empty string. Returns `false` when the argument is a numerical value.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `enclose_ipv6`

Takes an array of IP addresses and encloses the ipv6 addresses with square brackets.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `ensure_packages`

Takes a list of packages in an array or hash and installs them only if they don't already exist. Optionally takes a hash as a second parameter to be passed as the third argument to the `ensure_resource()` or `ensure_resources()` function.

*Type*: statement.

For an array:

```puppet
ensure_packages(['ksh','openssl'], {'ensure' => 'present'})
```

For a hash:

```puppet
ensure_packages({'ksh' => { ensure => '20120801-1' } ,  'mypackage' => { source => '/tmp/myrpm-1.0.0.x86_64.rpm', provider => "rpm" }}, {'ensure' => 'present'})
```

#### `ensure_resource`

Takes a resource type, title, and a hash of attributes that describe the resource(s).

```
user { 'dan':
  ensure => present,
}
```

This example only creates the resource if it does not already exist:

  `ensure_resource('user', 'dan', {'ensure' => 'present' })`

If the resource already exists, but does not match the specified parameters, this function attempts to recreate the resource, leading to a duplicate resource definition error.

An array of resources can also be passed in, and each will be created with the type and parameters specified if it doesn't already exist.

`ensure_resource('user', ['dan','alex'], {'ensure' => 'present'})`

*Type*: statement.

#### `ensure_resources`

Creates resource declarations from a hash, but doesn't conflict with resources that are already declared.

Specify a resource type and title and a hash of attributes that describe the resource(s).

```puppet
user { 'dan':
  gid => 'mygroup',
  ensure => present,
}

ensure_resources($user)
```

Pass in a hash of resources. Any listed resources that don't already exist will be created with the type and parameters specified:

    ensure_resources('user', {'dan' => { gid => 'mygroup', uid => '600' } ,  'alex' => { gid => 'mygroup' }}, {'ensure' => 'present'})

From Hiera backend:

```yaml
userlist:
  dan:
    gid: 'mygroup'
    uid: '600'
  alex:
    gid: 'mygroup'
```

```puppet
ensure_resources('user', hiera_hash('userlist'), {'ensure' => 'present'})
```

#### `fact`

Return the value of a given fact. Supports the use of dot-notation for referring to structured facts. If a fact requested does not exist, returns Undef.

Example usage:

```puppet
fact('kernel')
fact('osfamily')
fact('os.architecture')
```

Array indexing:

```puppet
$first_processor  = fact('processors.models.0')
$second_processor = fact('processors.models.1')
```

Fact containing a "." in the fact name:

```puppet
fact('vmware."VRA.version"')
```

#### `flatten`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`flatten`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#flatten) function as of Puppet 5.5.0.

Flattens deeply nested arrays and returns a single flat array as a result.

For example, `flatten(['a', ['b', ['c']]])` returns ['a','b','c'].

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `floor`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`floor`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#floor) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Returns the largest integer less than or equal to the argument.

Arguments: A single numeric value.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `fqdn_rand_string`

Generates a random alphanumeric string, combining the `$fqdn` fact and an optional seed for repeatable randomness. Optionally, you can specify a character set for the function (defaults to alphanumeric).

*Usage:*

```puppet
fqdn_rand_string(LENGTH, [CHARSET], [SEED])
```

*Examples:*

```puppet
fqdn_rand_string(10)
fqdn_rand_string(10, 'ABCDEF!@#$%^')
fqdn_rand_string(10, '', 'custom seed')
```

Arguments:

* An integer, specifying the length of the resulting string.
* Optionally, a string specifying the character set.
* Optionally, a string specifying the seed for repeatable randomness.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `fqdn_rotate`

Rotates an array or string a random number of times, combining the `$fqdn` fact and an optional seed for repeatable randomness.

*Usage:*

```puppet
fqdn_rotate(VALUE, [SEED])
```

*Examples:*

```puppet
fqdn_rotate(['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'])
fqdn_rotate('abcd')
fqdn_rotate([1, 2, 3], 'custom seed')
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `fqdn_uuid`

Returns a [RFC 4122](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122) valid version 5 UUID based on an FQDN string under the DNS namespace:

  * fqdn_uuid('puppetlabs.com') returns '9c70320f-6815-5fc5-ab0f-debe68bf764c'
  * fqdn_uuid('google.com') returns '64ee70a4-8cc1-5d25-abf2-dea6c79a09c8'

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `get_module_path`

Returns the absolute path of the specified module for the current environment.

```puppet
$module_path = get_module_path('stdlib')
```

Since Puppet 5.4.0, the built-in [`module_directory`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#module_directory) function does the same thing and will return the path to the first module found, if given multiple values or an array.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `getparam`
Returns the value of a resource's parameter.

Arguments: A resource reference and the name of the parameter.

> Note: User defined resource types are evaluated lazily.

*Examples:*

```puppet
# define a resource type with a parameter
define example_resource($param) {
}

# declare an instance of that type
example_resource { "example_resource_instance":
    param => "'the value we are getting in this example''"
}

# Because of order of evaluation, a second definition is needed
# that will be evaluated after the first resource has been declared
#
define example_get_param {
  # This will notice the value of the parameter
  notice(getparam(Example_resource["example_resource_instance"], "param"))
}

# Declare an instance of the second resource type - this will call notice
example_get_param { 'show_notify': }
```

Would notice: 'the value we are getting in this example'

Since Puppet 4.0.0, you can get a parameter value by using its data type
and the [ ] operator. The example below is equivalent to a call to getparam():

```puppet
Example_resource['example_resource_instance']['param']
```

#### `getvar`
**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`getvar`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#getvar)
function as of Puppet 6.0.0. The new version also supports digging into a structured value.

Looks up a variable in a remote namespace.

For example:

```puppet
$foo = getvar('site::data::foo')
# Equivalent to $foo = $site::data::foo
```

This is useful if the namespace itself is stored in a string:

```puppet
$datalocation = 'site::data'
$bar = getvar("${datalocation}::bar")
# Equivalent to $bar = $site::data::bar
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `glob`

Returns an array of strings of paths matching path patterns.

Arguments: A string or an array of strings specifying path patterns.

```puppet
$confs = glob(['/etc/**/*.conf', '/opt/**/*.conf'])
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `grep`

Searches through an array and returns any elements that match the provided regular expression.

For example, `grep(['aaa','bbb','ccc','aaaddd'], 'aaa')` returns ['aaa','aaaddd'].

Since Puppet 4.0.0, the built-in [`filter`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function does the "same" — as any logic can be used to filter, as opposed to just regular expressions:

    ['aaa', 'bbb', 'ccc', 'aaaddd']. filter |$x| { $x =~ 'aaa' }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `has_interface_with`

Returns a Boolean based on kind and value:

  * macaddress
  * netmask
  * ipaddress
  * network

*Examples:*

```puppet
has_interface_with("macaddress", "x:x:x:x:x:x")
has_interface_with("ipaddress", "127.0.0.1")    => true
```

If no kind is given, then the presence of the interface is checked:

```puppet
has_interface_with("lo")                        => true
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `has_ip_address`

Returns `true` if the client has the requested IP address on some interface. This function iterates through the `interfaces` fact and checks the `ipaddress_IFACE` facts, performing a simple string comparison.

Arguments: A string specifying an IP address.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `has_ip_network`

Returns `true` if the client has an IP address within the requested network. This function iterates through the `interfaces` fact and checks the `network_IFACE` facts, performing a simple string comparision.

Arguments: A string specifying an IP address.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `has_key`
**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with the built-in operator `in`.

Determines if a hash has a certain key value.

*Example*:

```
$my_hash = {'key_one' => 'value_one'}
if has_key($my_hash, 'key_two') {
  notice('we will not reach here')
}
if has_key($my_hash, 'key_one') {
  notice('this will be printed')
}
```

Since Puppet 4.0.0, this can be achieved in the Puppet language with the following equivalent expression:

    $my_hash = {'key_one' => 'value_one'}
    if 'key_one' in $my_hash {
      notice('this will be printed')
    }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `hash`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with the built-in ability to create a new value of almost any
data type - see the built-in [`Hash.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-hash-and-struct) function
in Puppet.

Converts an array into a hash.

For example (deprecated), `hash(['a',1,'b',2,'c',3])` returns {'a'=>1,'b'=>2,'c'=>3}.

For example (built-in), `Hash(['a',1,'b',2,'c',3])` returns {'a'=>1,'b'=>2,'c'=>3}.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `intersection`

Returns an array an intersection of two.

For example, `intersection(["a","b","c"],["b","c","d"])` returns ["b","c"].

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_a`

Boolean check to determine whether a variable is of a given data type. This is equivalent to the `=~` type checks. This function is available only in Puppet 4, or in Puppet 3 with the "future" parser.

```
foo = 3
$bar = [1,2,3]
$baz = 'A string!'

if $foo.is_a(Integer) {
  notify  { 'foo!': }
}
if $bar.is_a(Array) {
  notify { 'bar!': }
}
if $baz.is_a(String) {
  notify { 'baz!': }
}
```

* See the [the Puppet type system](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/lang_data.html) for more information about types.
* See the [`assert_type()`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#asserttype) function for flexible ways to assert the type of a value.

#### `is_absolute_path`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the given path is absolute.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_array`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable passed to this function is an array.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_bool`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable passed to this function is a Boolean.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_domain_name`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the string passed to this function is a syntactically correct domain name.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_email_address`

Returns true if the string passed to this function is a valid email address.

*Type*: rvalue.


#### `is_float`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable passed to this function is a float.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_function_available`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Accepts a string as an argument and determines whether the Puppet runtime has access to a function by that name. It returns `true` if the function exists, `false` if not.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_hash`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable passed to this function is a hash.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_integer`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable returned to this string is an integer.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_ip_address`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the string passed to this function is a valid IP address.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_ipv6_address`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the string passed to this function is a valid IPv6 address.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_ipv4_address`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the string passed to this function is a valid IPv4 address.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_mac_address`

Returns `true` if the string passed to this function is a valid MAC address.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_numeric`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable passed to this function is a number.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `is_string`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Returns `true` if the variable passed to this function is a string.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `join`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`join`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#join) function as of Puppet 5.5.0.

Joins an array into a string using a separator. For example, `join(['a','b','c'], ",")` results in: "a,b,c".

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `join_keys_to_values`

Joins each key of a hash to that key's corresponding value with a separator, returning the result as strings.

If a value is an array, the key is prefixed to each element. The return value is a flattened array.

For example, `join_keys_to_values({'a'=>1,'b'=>[2,3]}, " is ")` results in ["a is 1","b is 2","b is 3"].

Since Puppet 5.0.0, there is more control over the formatting (including indentations and line breaks, delimiters around arrays and hash entries, between key/values in hash entries, and individual
formatting of values in the array) - see the
built-in [`String.new`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-string) function and its formatting options for `Array` and `Hash`.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `keys`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`keys`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#keys) function as of Puppet 5.5.0.

Returns the keys of a hash as an array.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `length`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`length`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#length) function as of Puppet 5.5.0.

Returns the length of a given string, array or hash. Replaces the deprecated `size()` function.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `loadyaml`

Loads a YAML file containing an array, string, or hash, and returns the data in the corresponding native data type.

For example:

```puppet
$myhash = loadyaml('/etc/puppet/data/myhash.yaml')
```

The second parameter is returned if the file was not found or could not be parsed.

For example:

```puppet
$myhash = loadyaml('no-file.yaml', {'default'=>'value'})
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `loadjson`

Loads a JSON file containing an array, string, or hash, and returns the data in the corresponding native data type.

For example:

The first parameter can be an absolute file path, or a URL.

```puppet
$myhash = loadjson('/etc/puppet/data/myhash.json')
```

The second parameter is returned if the file was not found or could not be parsed.

For example:

```puppet
  $myhash = loadjson('no-file.json', {'default'=>'value'})
  ```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `load_module_metadata`

Loads the metadata.json of a target module. Can be used to determine module version and authorship for dynamic support of modules.

```puppet
$metadata = load_module_metadata('archive')
notify { $metadata['author']: }
```

When a module's metadata file is absent, the catalog compilation fails. To avoid this failure:

```
$metadata = load_module_metadata('mysql', true)
if empty($metadata) {
  notify { "This module does not have a metadata.json file.": }
}
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `lstrip`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`lstrip`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#lstrip) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Strips spaces to the left of a string.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `max`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`max`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#max) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Returns the highest value of all arguments. Requires at least one argument.

Arguments: A numeric or a string representing a number.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `member`

This function determines if a variable is a member of an array. The variable can be a string, an array, or a fixnum.

For example, `member(['a','b'], 'b')` and `member(['a','b','c'], ['b','c'])` return `true`, while `member(['a','b'], 'c')` and `member(['a','b','c'], ['c','d'])` return `false`.

*Note*: This function does not support nested arrays. If the first argument contains nested arrays, it will not recurse through them.

Since Puppet 4.0.0, you can perform the same in the Puppet language. For single values,
use the operator `in`:

    'a' in ['a', 'b']  # true

And for arrays, use the operator `-` to compute a diff:

    ['d', 'b'] - ['a', 'b', 'c'] == []  # false because 'd' is not subtracted
    ['a', 'b'] - ['a', 'b', 'c'] == []  # true because both 'a' and 'b' are subtracted

Also note that since Puppet 5.2.0, the general form to test the content of an array or hash is to use the built-in [`any`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#any) and [`all`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#all) functions.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `merge`

Merges two or more hashes together and returns the resulting hash.

*Example*:

```puppet
$hash1 = {'one' => 1, 'two' => 2}
$hash2 = {'two' => 'dos', 'three' => 'tres'}
$merged_hash = merge($hash1, $hash2)
# The resulting hash is equivalent to:
# $merged_hash =  {'one' => 1, 'two' => 'dos', 'three' => 'tres'}
```

When there is a duplicate key, the key in the rightmost hash takes precedence.

Since Puppet 4.0.0, you can use the + operator to achieve the same merge.

    $merged_hash = $hash1 + $hash2

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `min`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`min`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#min) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Returns the lowest value of all arguments. Requires at least one argument.

Arguments: A numeric or a string representing a number.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `num2bool`

Converts a number, or a string representation of a number, into a true Boolean. 
Zero or anything non-numeric becomes `false`.
Numbers greater than zero become `true`.

Since Puppet 5.0.0, the same can be achieved with the Puppet type system.
See the [`Boolean.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-boolean) 
function in Puppet for the many available type conversions.

    Boolean(0) # false
    Boolean(1) # true

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `parsejson`

Converts a string of JSON into the correct Puppet structure (as a hash, array, string, integer, or a combination of such).

Arguments:
* The JSON string to convert, as a first argument.
* Optionally, the result to return if conversion fails, as a second error.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `parseyaml`

Converts a string of YAML into the correct Puppet structure.

Arguments:
* The YAML string to convert, as a first argument.
* Optionally, the result to return if conversion fails, as a second error.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `pick`

From a list of values, returns the first value that is not undefined or an empty string. Takes any number of arguments, and raises an error if all values are undefined or empty.

```puppet
$real_jenkins_version = pick($::jenkins_version, '1.449')
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `pick_default`

Returns the first value in a list of values. Unlike the `pick()` function, `pick_default()` does not fail if all arguments are empty. This allows it to use an empty value as default.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `prefix`

Applies a prefix to all elements in an array, or to the keys in a hash.

For example:

* `prefix(['a','b','c'], 'p')` returns ['pa','pb','pc'].
* `prefix({'a'=>'b','b'=>'c','c'=>'d'}, 'p')` returns {'pa'=>'b','pb'=>'c','pc'=>'d'}.

Since Puppet 4.0.0, modify values in array by using the built-in [`map`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#map) function.
This example does the same as the first example above:

        ['a', 'b', 'c'].map |$x| { "p${x}" }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `pry`

Invokes a pry debugging session in the current scope object. Useful for debugging manifest code at specific points during a compilation. Should be used only when running `puppet apply` or running a Puppet master in the foreground. Requires the `pry` gem to be installed in Puppet's rubygems.

*Examples:*

```puppet
pry()
```

In a pry session, useful commands include:

* Run `catalog` to see the contents currently compiling catalog.
* Run `cd catalog` and `ls` to see catalog methods and instance variables.
* Run `@resource_table` to see the current catalog resource table.

#### `pw_hash`

Hashes a password using the crypt function. Provides a hash usable on most POSIX systems.

The first argument to this function is the password to hash. If it is `undef` or an empty string, this function returns `undef`.

The second argument to this function is which type of hash to use. It will be converted into the appropriate crypt(3) hash specifier. Valid hash types are:

|Hash type            |Specifier|
|---------------------|---------|
|MD5                  |1        |
|SHA-256              |5        |
|SHA-512 (recommended)|6        |

The third argument to this function is the salt to use.

This function uses the Puppet master's implementation of crypt(3). If your environment contains several different operating systems, ensure that they are compatible before using this function.

*Type*: rvalue.

*Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `range`

Extrapolates a range as an array when given in the form of '(start, stop)'. For example, `range("0", "9")` returns [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. Zero-padded strings are converted to integers automatically, so `range("00", "09")` returns [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9].

Non-integer strings are accepted:

* `range("a", "c")` returns ["a","b","c"].
* `range("host01", "host10")` returns ["host01", "host02", ..., "host09", "host10"].

You must explicitly include trailing zeros, or the underlying Ruby function fails.

Passing a third argument causes the generated range to step by that interval. For example:

* `range("0", "9", "2")` returns ["0","2","4","6","8"].

> Note: The Puppet language supports `Integer` and `Float` ranges by using the type system. They are suitable for iterating a given number of times.

See the built-in [`step`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#step) function in Puppet for skipping values.

    Integer[0, 9].each |$x| { notice($x) } # notices 0, 1, 2, ... 9

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `regexpescape`

Regexp escape a string or array of strings. Requires either a single string or an array as an input.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `reject`

Searches through an array and rejects all elements that match the provided regular expression.

For example, `reject(['aaa','bbb','ccc','aaaddd'], 'aaa')` returns ['bbb','ccc'].

Since Puppet 4.0.0, the same is true with the built-in [`filter`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#filter) function in Puppet.
The equivalent of the stdlib `reject` function:

    ['aaa','bbb','ccc','aaaddd'].filter |$x| { $x !~ /aaa/ }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `reverse`

Reverses the order of a string or array.

> *Note*: The same can be done with the built-in [`reverse_each`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#reverse_each) function in Puppet.


#### `round`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`round`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#round) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Rounds a number to the nearest integer.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `rstrip`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`rstrip`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#rstrip) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Strips spaces to the right of the string.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `seeded_rand`

Takes an integer max value and a string seed value and returns a repeatable random integer smaller than max. Similar to `fqdn_rand`, but does not add node specific data to the seed.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `seeded_rand_string`

Generates a consistent (based on seed value) random string. Useful for generating matching passwords for different hosts.

#### `shell_escape`

Escapes a string so that it can be safely used in a Bourne shell command line. Note that the resulting string should be used unquoted and is not intended for use in either double or single quotes. This function behaves the same as Ruby's `Shellwords.shellescape()` function; see the [Ruby documentation](http://ruby-doc.org/stdlib-2.3.0/libdoc/shellwords/rdoc/Shellwords.html#method-c-shellescape).

For example:

```puppet
shell_escape('foo b"ar') => 'foo\ b\"ar'
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `shell_join`

Builds a command line string from a given array of strings. Each array item is escaped for Bourne shell. All items are then joined together, with a single space in between. This function behaves the same as Ruby's `Shellwords.shelljoin()` function; see the [Ruby documentation](http://ruby-doc.org/stdlib-2.3.0/libdoc/shellwords/rdoc/Shellwords.html#method-c-shelljoin).

For example:

```puppet
shell_join(['foo bar', 'ba"z']) => 'foo\ bar ba\"z'
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `shell_split`

Splits a string into an array of tokens. This function behaves the same as Ruby's `Shellwords.shellsplit()` function; see the [ruby documentation](http://ruby-doc.org/stdlib-2.3.0/libdoc/shellwords/rdoc/Shellwords.html#method-c-shellsplit).

*Example:*

```puppet
shell_split('foo\ bar ba\"z') => ['foo bar', 'ba"z']
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `shuffle`

Randomizes the order of a string or array elements.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `size`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`size`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#size) function as of Puppet 6.0.0 (`size` is now an alias for `length`).

Returns the number of elements in a string, an array or a hash. This function will be deprecated in a future release. For Puppet 4, use the `length` function.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `sprintf_hash`

**Deprecated:** The same functionality can be achieved with the built-in [`sprintf`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#sprintf) function as of Puppet 4.10.10 and 5.3.4. This function will be removed in a future release.

Performs printf-style formatting with named references of text.

The first parameter is a format string describing how to format the rest of the parameters in the hash. See Ruby documentation for [`Kernel::sprintf`](https://ruby-doc.org/core-2.4.2/Kernel.html#method-i-sprintf) for details about this function.

For example:

```puppet
$output = sprintf_hash('String: %<foo>s / number converted to binary: %<number>b',
                       { 'foo' => 'a string', 'number' => 5 })
# $output = 'String: a string / number converted to binary: 101'
```

*Type*: rvalue

#### `sort`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`sort`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#sort) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Sorts strings and arrays lexically.

*Type*: rvalue.

> *Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `squeeze`

Replaces consecutive repeats (such as 'aaaa') in a string with a single character. Returns a new string.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `str2bool`

Converts certain strings to a Boolean. This attempts to convert strings that contain the values '1', 'true', 't', 'y', or 'yes' to `true`. Strings that contain values '0', 'false', 'f', 'n', or 'no', or that are an empty string or undefined are converted to `false`. Any other value causes an error. These checks are case insensitive.

Since Puppet 5.0.0, the same can be achieved with the Puppet type system.
See the [`Boolean.new`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#conversion-to-boolean) 
function in Puppet for the many available type conversions.

    Boolean('false'), Boolean('n'), Boolean('no') # all false
    Boolean('true'), Boolean('y'), Boolean('yes') # all true

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `str2saltedsha512`

Converts a string to a salted-SHA512 password hash, used for OS X versions 10.7 or greater. Returns a hex version of a salted-SHA512 password hash, which can be inserted into Puppet manifests as a valid password attribute.

*Type*: rvalue.

> *Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `strftime`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`strftime`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#strftime) function as of Puppet 4.8.0.

Returns formatted time.

For example, `strftime("%s")` returns the time since Unix epoch, and `strftime("%Y-%m-%d")` returns the date.

Arguments: A string specifying the time in `strftime` format. See the Ruby [strftime](https://ruby-doc.org/core-2.1.9/Time.html#method-i-strftime) documentation for details.

*Type*: rvalue.

> *Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

*Format:*

* `%a`: The abbreviated weekday name ('Sun')
* `%A`: The full weekday name ('Sunday')
* `%b`: The abbreviated month name ('Jan')
* `%B`: The full month name ('January')
* `%c`: The preferred local date and time representation
* `%C`: Century (20 in 2009)
* `%d`: Day of the month (01..31)
* `%D`: Date (%m/%d/%y)
* `%e`: Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)
* `%F`: Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d (the ISO 8601 date format)
* `%h`: Equivalent to %b
* `%H`: Hour of the day, 24-hour clock (00..23)
* `%I`: Hour of the day, 12-hour clock (01..12)
* `%j`: Day of the year (001..366)
* `%k`: Hour, 24-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..23)
* `%l`: Hour, 12-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..12)
* `%L`: Millisecond of the second (000..999)
* `%m`: Month of the year (01..12)
* `%M`: Minute of the hour (00..59)
* `%n`: Newline (\n)
* `%N`: Fractional seconds digits, default is 9 digits (nanosecond)
  * `%3N`: Millisecond (3 digits)
  * `%6N`: Microsecond (6 digits)
  * `%9N`: Nanosecond (9 digits)
* `%p`: Meridian indicator ('AM' or 'PM')
* `%P`: Meridian indicator ('am' or 'pm')
* `%r`: Time, 12-hour (same as %I:%M:%S %p)
* `%R`: Time, 24-hour (%H:%M)
* `%s`: Number of seconds since the Unix epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.
* `%S`: Second of the minute (00..60)
* `%t`: Tab character (	)
* `%T`: Time, 24-hour (%H:%M:%S)
* `%u`: Day of the week as a decimal, Monday being 1. (1..7)
* `%U`: Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of the first week (00..53)
* `%v`: VMS date (%e-%b-%Y)
* `%V`: Week number of year according to ISO 8601 (01..53)
* `%W`: Week number of the current year, starting with the first Monday as the first day of the first week (00..53)
* `%w`: Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)
* `%x`: Preferred representation for the date alone, no time
* `%X`: Preferred representation for the time alone, no date
* `%y`: Year without a century (00..99)
* `%Y`: Year with century
* `%z`: Time zone as hour offset from UTC (for example +0900)
* `%Z`: Time zone name
* `%%`: Literal '%' character

#### `strip`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`strip`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#strip) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Removes leading and trailing whitespace from a string or from every string inside an array. For example, `strip("    aaa   ")` results in "aaa".

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `suffix`

Applies a suffix to all elements in an array or to all keys in a hash.

For example:

* `suffix(['a','b','c'], 'p')` returns ['ap','bp','cp'].
* `suffix({'a'=>'b','b'=>'c','c'=>'d'}, 'p')` returns {'ap'=>'b','bp'=>'c','cp'=>'d'}.

Note that since Puppet 4.0.0, you can modify values in an array using the built-in [`map`](https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/function.html#map) function. This example does the same as the first example above:

    ['a', 'b', 'c'].map |$x| { "${x}p" }

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `swapcase`

Swaps the existing case of a string. For example, `swapcase("aBcD")` results in "AbCd".

*Type*: rvalue.

> *Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `time`

Returns the current Unix epoch time as an integer.

For example, `time()` returns something like '1311972653'.

Since Puppet 4.8.0, the Puppet language has the data types `Timestamp` (a point in time) and `Timespan` (a duration). The following example is equivalent to calling `time()` without any arguments:

    Timestamp()

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `to_bytes`

Converts the argument into bytes.

For example, "4 kB" becomes "4096".

Arguments: A single string.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `to_json`

Converts input into a JSON String.

For example, `{ "key" => "value" }` becomes `{"key":"value"}`.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `to_json_pretty`

Converts input into a pretty JSON String.

For example, `{ "key" => "value" }` becomes `{\n  \"key\": \"value\"\n}`.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `to_yaml`

Converts input into a YAML String.

For example, `{ "key" => "value" }` becomes `"---\nkey: value\n"`.

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `try_get_value`

**Deprecated:** Replaced by `dig()`.

Retrieves a value within multiple layers of hashes and arrays.

Arguments:

* A string containing a path, as the first argument. Provide this argument as a string of hash keys or array indexes starting with zero and separated by the path separator character (default "/"). This function goes through the structure by each path component and tries to return the value at the end of the path.

* A default argument as a second argument. This argument is returned if the path is not correct, if no value was found, or if any other error has occurred.
* The path separator character as a last argument.

```ruby
$data = {
  'a' => {
    'b' => [
      'b1',
      'b2',
      'b3',
    ]
  }
}

$value = try_get_value($data, 'a/b/2')
# $value = 'b3'

# with all possible options
$value = try_get_value($data, 'a/b/2', 'not_found', '/')
# $value = 'b3'

# using the default value
$value = try_get_value($data, 'a/b/c/d', 'not_found')
# $value = 'not_found'

# using custom separator
$value = try_get_value($data, 'a|b', [], '|')
# $value = ['b1','b2','b3']
```

1. **$data** The data structure we are working with.
2. **'a/b/2'** The path string.
3. **'not_found'** The default value. It will be returned if nothing is found.
   (optional, defaults to *`undef`*)
4. **'/'** The path separator character.
   (optional, defaults to *'/'*)

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `type3x`

**Deprecated:** This function will be removed in a future release.

Returns a string description of the type of a given value. The type can be a string, array, hash, float, integer, or Boolean. For Puppet 4, use the new type system instead.

Arguments:

* string
* array
* hash
* float
* integer
* Boolean

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `type_of`

This function is provided for backwards compatibility, but the built-in [type() function](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#type) provided by Puppet is preferred.

Returns the literal type of a given value. Requires Puppet 4. Useful for comparison of types with `<=` such as in `if type_of($some_value) <= Array[String] { ... }` (which is equivalent to `if $some_value =~ Array[String] { ... }`).

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `union`

Returns a union of two or more arrays, without duplicates.

For example, `union(["a","b","c"],["b","c","d"])` returns ["a","b","c","d"].

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `unique`

Removes duplicates from strings and arrays.

For example, `unique("aabbcc")` returns 'abc', and `unique(["a","a","b","b","c","c"])` returns ["a","b","c"].

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `unix2dos`

Returns the DOS version of a given string. Useful when using a File resource with a cross-platform template.

*Type*: rvalue.

```puppet
file { $config_file:
  ensure  => file,
  content => unix2dos(template('my_module/settings.conf.erb')),
}
```

See also [dos2unix](#dos2unix).

#### `upcase`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`upcase`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#upcase) function as of Puppet 6.0.0.

Converts an object, array, or hash of objects to uppercase. Objects to be converted must respond to upcase.

For example, `upcase('abcd')` returns 'ABCD'.

*Type*: rvalue.

*Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `uriescape`

URLEncodes a string or array of strings.

Arguments: Either a single string or an array of strings.

*Type*: rvalue.

> *Note:* This function is an implementation of a Ruby class and might not be UTF8 compatible. To ensure compatibility, use this function with Ruby 2.4.0 or greater.

#### `validate_absolute_path`

Validates that a given string represents an absolute path in the filesystem. Works for Windows and Unix style paths.

The following values pass:

```puppet
$my_path = 'C:/Program Files (x86)/Puppet Labs/Puppet'
validate_absolute_path($my_path)
$my_path2 = '/var/lib/puppet'
validate_absolute_path($my_path2)
$my_path3 = ['C:/Program Files (x86)/Puppet Labs/Puppet','C:/Program Files/Puppet Labs/Puppet']
validate_absolute_path($my_path3)
$my_path4 = ['/var/lib/puppet','/usr/share/puppet']
validate_absolute_path($my_path4)
```

The following values fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_absolute_path(true)
validate_absolute_path('../var/lib/puppet')
validate_absolute_path('var/lib/puppet')
validate_absolute_path([ 'var/lib/puppet', '/var/foo' ])
validate_absolute_path([ '/var/lib/puppet', 'var/foo' ])
$undefined = `undef`
validate_absolute_path($undefined)
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_array`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates that all passed values are array data structures. Terminates catalog compilation if any value fails this check.

The following values pass:

```puppet
$my_array = [ 'one', 'two' ]
validate_array($my_array)
```

The following values fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_array(true)
validate_array('some_string')
$undefined = `undef`
validate_array($undefined)
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_augeas`

Validates a string using an Augeas lens.

Arguments:

* The string to test, as the first argument.
* The name of the Augeas lens to use, as the second argument.
* Optionally, a list of paths which should **not** be found in the file, as a third argument.
* Optionally, an error message to raise and show to the user, as a fourth argument.

If Augeas fails to parse the string with the lens, the compilation terminates with a parse error.

The `$file` variable points to the location of the temporary file being tested in the Augeas tree.

For example, to make sure your $passwdcontent never contains user `foo`, include the third argument:

```puppet
validate_augeas($passwdcontent, 'Passwd.lns', ['$file/foo'])
```

To raise and display an error message, include the fourth argument:

```puppet
validate_augeas($sudoerscontent, 'Sudoers.lns', [], 'Failed to validate sudoers content with Augeas')
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_bool`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates that all passed values are either `true` or `false`.
Terminates catalog compilation if any value fails this check.

The following values pass:

```puppet
$iamtrue = true
validate_bool(true)
validate_bool(true, true, false, $iamtrue)
```

The following values fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
$some_array = [ true ]
validate_bool("false")
validate_bool("true")
validate_bool($some_array)
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_cmd`

Validates a string with an external command.

Arguments:
* The string to test, as the first argument.
* The path to a test command, as the second argument. This argument takes a % as a placeholder for the file path (if no % placeholder is given, defaults to the end of the command). If the command is launched against a tempfile containing the passed string, or returns a non-null value, compilation will terminate with a parse error.
* Optionally, an error message to raise and show to the user, as a third argument.

```puppet
# Defaults to end of path
validate_cmd($sudoerscontent, '/usr/sbin/visudo -c -f', 'Visudo failed to validate sudoers content')
```

```puppet
# % as file location
validate_cmd($haproxycontent, '/usr/sbin/haproxy -f % -c', 'Haproxy failed to validate config content')
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_domain_name`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validate that all values passed are syntactically correct domain names. Aborts catalog compilation if any value fails this check.

The following values pass:

~~~
$my_domain_name = 'server.domain.tld'
validate_domain_name($my_domain_name)
validate_domain_name('domain.tld', 'puppet.com', $my_domain_name)
~~~

The following values fail, causing compilation to abort:

~~~
validate_domain_name(1)
validate_domain_name(true)
validate_domain_name('invalid domain')
validate_domain_name('-foo.example.com')
validate_domain_name('www.example.2com')
~~~

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_email_address`

Validate that all values passed are valid email addresses. Fail compilation if any value fails this check.

The following values will pass:

~~~
$my_email = "waldo@gmail.com"
validate_email_address($my_email)
validate_email_address("bob@gmail.com", "alice@gmail.com", $my_email)
~~~

The following values will fail, causing compilation to abort:

~~~
$some_array = [ 'bad_email@/d/efdf.com' ]
validate_email_address($some_array)
~~~

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_hash`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates that all passed values are hash data structures. Terminates catalog compilation if any value fails this check.

The following values will pass:

```puppet
$my_hash = { 'one' => 'two' }
validate_hash($my_hash)
```

The following values will fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_hash(true)
validate_hash('some_string')
$undefined = `undef`
validate_hash($undefined)
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_integer`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates an integer or an array of integers. Terminates catalog compilation if any of the checks fail.

Arguments:

* An integer or an array of integers, as the first argument.
* Optionally, a maximum, as the second argument. (All elements of) the first argument must be equal to or less than this maximum.
* Optionally, a minimum, as the third argument. (All elements of) the first argument must be equal to or greater than than this maximum.

This function fails if the first argument is not an integer or array of integers, or if the second or third arguments are not convertable to an integer. However, if (and only if) a minimum is given, the second argument may be an empty string or `undef`, which serves as a placeholder to ensure the minimum check.

The following values pass:

```puppet
validate_integer(1)
validate_integer(1, 2)
validate_integer(1, 1)
validate_integer(1, 2, 0)
validate_integer(2, 2, 2)
validate_integer(2, '', 0)
validate_integer(2, `undef`, 0)
$foo = `undef`
validate_integer(2, $foo, 0)
validate_integer([1,2,3,4,5], 6)
validate_integer([1,2,3,4,5], 6, 0)
```

* Plus all of the above, but any combination of values passed as strings ('1' or "1").
* Plus all of the above, but with (correct) combinations of negative integer values.

The following values fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_integer(true)
validate_integer(false)
validate_integer(7.0)
validate_integer({ 1 => 2 })
$foo = `undef`
validate_integer($foo)
validate_integer($foobaridontexist)

validate_integer(1, 0)
validate_integer(1, true)
validate_integer(1, '')
validate_integer(1, `undef`)
validate_integer(1, , 0)
validate_integer(1, 2, 3)
validate_integer(1, 3, 2)
validate_integer(1, 3, true)
```

* Plus all of the above, but any combination of values passed as strings (`false` or "false").
* Plus all of the above, but with incorrect combinations of negative integer values.
* Plus all of the above, but with non-integer items in arrays or maximum / minimum argument.

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_ip_address`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates that the argument is an IP address, regardless of whether it is an IPv4 or an IPv6 address. It also validates IP address with netmask.

Arguments: A string specifying an IP address.

The following values will pass:

```puppet
validate_ip_address('0.0.0.0')
validate_ip_address('8.8.8.8')
validate_ip_address('127.0.0.1')
validate_ip_address('194.232.104.150')
validate_ip_address('3ffe:0505:0002::')
validate_ip_address('::1/64')
validate_ip_address('fe80::a00:27ff:fe94:44d6/64')
validate_ip_address('8.8.8.8/32')
```

The following values will fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_ip_address(1)
validate_ip_address(true)
validate_ip_address(0.0.0.256)
validate_ip_address('::1', {})
validate_ip_address('0.0.0.0.0')
validate_ip_address('3.3.3')
validate_ip_address('23.43.9.22/64')
validate_ip_address('260.2.32.43')
```


#### `validate_legacy`

Validates a value against both a specified type and a deprecated validation function. Silently passes if both pass, errors if only one validation passes, and fails if both validations return false.

Arguments:

* The type to check the value against,
* The full name of the previous validation function,
* The value to be checked,
* An unspecified number of arguments needed for the previous validation function.

Example:

```puppet
validate_legacy('Optional[String]', 'validate_re', 'Value to be validated', ["."])
```

This function supports updating modules from Puppet 3-style argument validation (using the stdlib `validate_*` functions) to Puppet 4 data types, without breaking functionality for those depending on Puppet 3-style validation.

> Note: This function is compatible only with Puppet 4.4.0 (PE 2016.1) and later.

##### For module users

If you are running Puppet 4, the `validate_legacy` function can help you find and resolve deprecated Puppet 3 `validate_*` functions. These functions are deprecated as of stdlib version 4.13 and will be removed in a future version of stdlib.

Puppet 4 allows improved defined type checking using [data types](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/lang_data.html). Data types avoid some of the problems with Puppet 3's `validate_*` functions, which were sometimes inconsistent. For example, [validate_numeric](#validate_numeric) unintentionally allowed not only numbers, but also arrays of numbers or strings that looked like numbers.

If you run Puppet 4 and use modules with deprecated `validate_*` functions, you might encounter deprecation messages. The `validate_legacy` function makes these differences visible and makes it easier to move to the clearer Puppet 4 syntax.

The deprecation messages you get can vary, depending on the modules and data that you use. These deprecation messages appear by default only in Puppet 4:

* `Notice: Accepting previously invalid value for target type '<type>'`: This message is informational only. You're using values that are allowed by the new type, but would have been invalid by the old validation function.
* `Warning: This method is deprecated, please use the stdlib validate_legacy function`: The module has not yet upgraded to `validate_legacy`. Use the [deprecation](#deprecation) options to silence warnings for now, or submit a fix with the module's developer. See the information [for module developers](#for-module-developers) below for how to fix the issue.
* `Warning: validate_legacy(<function>) expected <type> value, got <actual type>_`: Your code passes a value that was accepted by the Puppet 3-style validation, but will not be accepted by the next version of the module. Most often, you can fix this by removing quotes from numbers or booleans.
* `Error: Evaluation Error: Error while evaluating a Resource Statement, Evaluation Error: Error while evaluating a Function Call, validate_legacy(<function>) expected <type> value, got <actual type>`: Your code passes a value that is not acceptable to either the new or the old style validation.

##### For module developers

The `validate_legacy` function helps you move from Puppet 3 style validation to Puppet 4 validation without breaking functionality your module's users depend on.

Moving to Puppet 4 type validation allows much better defined type checking using [data types](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/lang_data.html). Many of Puppet 3's `validate_*` functions have surprising holes in their validation. For example, [validate_numeric](#validate_numeric) allows not only numbers, but also arrays of numbers or strings that look like numbers, without giving you any control over the specifics.

For each parameter of your classes and defined types, choose a new Puppet 4 data type to use. In most cases, the new data type allows a different set of values than the original `validate_*` function. The situation then looks like this:

|              | `validate_` pass | `validate_` fail |
| ------------ | ---------------- | ---------------- |
| matches type | pass             | pass, notice     |
| fails type   | pass, deprecated | fail             |

The code after the validation still has to handle all possible values for now, but users of your code can change their manifests to pass only values that match the new type.

For each `validate_*` function in stdlib, there is a matching `Stdlib::Compat::*` type that allows the appropriate set of values. See the documentation in the `types/` directory in the stdlib source code for caveats.

For example, given a class that should accept only numbers, like this:

```puppet
class example($value) {
  validate_numeric($value)
```

the resulting validation code looks like this:

```puppet
class example(
  Variant[Stdlib::Compat::Numeric, Numeric] $value
) {
  validate_legacy(Numeric, 'validate_numeric', $value)
```

Here, the type of `$value` is defined as `Variant[Stdlib::Compat::Numeric, Numeric]`, which allows any `Numeric` (the new type), as well as all values previously accepted by `validate_numeric` (through `Stdlib::Compat::Numeric`).

The call to `validate_legacy` takes care of triggering the correct log or fail message for you. It requires the new type, the previous validation function name, and all arguments to that function.

If your module still supported Puppet 3, this is a breaking change. Update your `metadata.json` requirements section to indicate that your module no longer supports Puppet 3, and bump the major version of your module. With this change, all existing tests for your module should still pass. Create additional tests for the new possible values.

As a breaking change, this is also a good time to call [`deprecation`](#deprecation) for any parameters you want to get rid of, or to add additional constraints on your parameters.

After releasing this version, you can release another breaking change release where you remove all compat types and all calls to `validate_legacy`. At that time, you can also go through your code and remove any leftovers dealing with the previously possible values.

Always note such changes in your CHANGELOG and README.

#### `validate_numeric`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates a numeric value, or an array or string of numeric values. Terminates catalog compilation if any of the checks fail.

Arguments:

* A numeric value, or an array or string of numeric values.
* Optionally, a maximum value. (All elements of) the first argument has to be less or equal to this max.
* Optionally, a minimum value. (All elements of) the first argument has to be greater or equal to this min.

This function fails if the first argument is not a numeric (Integer or Float) or an array or string of numerics, or if the second and third arguments are not convertable to a numeric. If, and only if, a minimum is given, the second argument can be an empty string or `undef`, which serves as a placeholder to ensure the minimum check.

For passing and failing usage, see [`validate_integer`](#validate-integer). The same values pass and fail, except that `validate_numeric` also allows floating point values.

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_re`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Performs simple validation of a string against one or more regular expressions.

Arguments:

* The string to test, as the first argument. If this argument is not a string, compilation terminates. Use quotes to force stringification.
* A stringified regular expression (without the // delimiters) or an array of regular expressions, as the second argument.
* Optionally, the error message raised and shown to the user, as a third argument.

If none of the regular expressions in the second argument match the string passed in the first argument, compilation terminates with a parse error.

The following strings validate against the regular expressions:

```puppet
validate_re('one', '^one$')
validate_re('one', [ '^one', '^two' ])
```

The following string fails to validate, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_re('one', [ '^two', '^three' ])
```

To set the error message:

```puppet
validate_re($::puppetversion, '^2.7', 'The $puppetversion fact value does not match 2.7')
```

To force stringification, use quotes:

  ```
  validate_re("${::operatingsystemmajrelease}", '^[57]$')
  ```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_slength`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates that a string (or an array of strings) is less than or equal to a specified length

Arguments:

* A string or an array of strings, as a first argument.
* A numeric value for maximum length, as a second argument.
* Optionally, a numeric value for minimum length, as a third argument.

  The following values pass:

```puppet
validate_slength("discombobulate",17)
validate_slength(["discombobulate","moo"],17)
validate_slength(["discombobulate","moo"],17,3)
```

The following values fail:

```puppet
validate_slength("discombobulate",1)
validate_slength(["discombobulate","thermometer"],5)
validate_slength(["discombobulate","moo"],17,10)
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_string`

**Deprecated:** Will be removed in a future version of stdlib. See [`validate_legacy`](#validate_legacy).

Validates that all passed values are string data structures. Aborts catalog compilation if any value fails this check.

The following values pass:

```puppet
$my_string = "one two"
validate_string($my_string, 'three')
```

The following values fail, causing compilation to terminate:

```puppet
validate_string(true)
validate_string([ 'some', 'array' ])
```

> *Note:* validate_string(`undef`) will not fail in this version of the functions API.

Instead, use:

  ```
  if $var == `undef` {
    fail('...')
  }
  ```

*Type*: statement.

#### `validate_x509_rsa_key_pair`

Validates a PEM-formatted X.509 certificate and private key using OpenSSL.
Verifies that the certificate's signature was created from the supplied key.

Fails catalog compilation if any value fails this check.

Arguments:

* An X.509 certificate as the first argument.
* An RSA private key, as the second argument.

```puppet
validate_x509_rsa_key_pair($cert, $key)
```

*Type*: statement.

#### `values`

**Deprecated:** This function has been replaced with a built-in [`values`](https://puppet.com/docs/puppet/latest/function.html#values) function as of Puppet 5.5.0.

Returns the values of a given hash.

For example, given `$hash = {'a'=1, 'b'=2, 'c'=3} values($hash)` returns [1,2,3].

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `values_at`

Finds values inside an array based on location.

Arguments:

* The array you want to analyze, as the first argument.
* Any combination of the following values, as the second argument:
  * A single numeric index
  * A range in the form of 'start-stop' (eg. 4-9)
  * An array combining the above

For example:

* `values_at(['a','b','c'], 2)` returns ['c'].
* `values_at(['a','b','c'], ["0-1"])` returns ['a','b'].
* `values_at(['a','b','c','d','e'], [0, "2-3"])` returns ['a','c','d'].

Since Puppet 4.0.0, you can slice an array with index and count directly in the language.
A negative value is taken to be "from the end" of the array, for example:

```puppet
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'][1, 2]   # results in ['b', 'c']
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'][2, -1]  # results in ['c', 'd']
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'][1, -2]  # results in ['b', 'c']
```

*Type*: rvalue.

#### `zip`

Takes one element from first array given and merges corresponding elements from second array given. This generates a sequence of n-element arrays, where *n* is one more than the count of arguments. For example, `zip(['1','2','3'],['4','5','6'])` results in ["1", "4"], ["2", "5"], ["3", "6"]. *Type*: rvalue.

## Limitations

As of Puppet Enterprise 3.7, the stdlib module is no longer included in PE. PE users should install the most recent release of stdlib for compatibility with Puppet modules.

For an extensive list of supported operating systems, see [metadata.json](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib/blob/master/metadata.json)

### Version Compatibility

Versions | Puppet 2.6 | Puppet 2.7 | Puppet 3.x | Puppet 4.x |
:---------------|:-----:|:---:|:---:|:----:
**stdlib 2.x**  | **yes** | **yes** | no | no
**stdlib 3.x**  | no    | **yes**  | **yes** | no
**stdlib 4.x**  | no    | **yes**  | **yes** | no
**stdlib 4.6+**  | no    | **yes**  | **yes** | **yes**
**stdlib 5.x**  | no    | no  | **yes**  | **yes**

**stdlib 5.x**: When released, stdlib 5.x will drop support for Puppet 2.7.x. Please see [this discussion](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib/pull/176#issuecomment-30251414).

## Development

Puppet modules on the Puppet Forge are open projects, and community contributions are essential for keeping them great. We can’t access the huge number of platforms and myriad hardware, software, and deployment configurations that Puppet is intended to serve. We want to keep it as easy as possible to contribute changes so that our modules work in your environment. There are a few guidelines that we need contributors to follow so that we can have a chance of keeping on top of things. For more information, see our [module contribution guide](https://docs.puppet.com/forge/contributing.html).

To report or research a bug with any part of this module, please go to
[http://tickets.puppetlabs.com/browse/MODULES](http://tickets.puppetlabs.com/browse/MODULES).

## Contributors

The list of contributors can be found at: [https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib/graphs/contributors](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-stdlib/graphs/contributors).