File: pyoptical.py

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pyoptical 0.4-1
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#!/usr/bin/env python
#coding=utf-8

# Copyright (c) 2009-2012 Valentin Haenel <valentin.haenel@gmx.de>
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
# of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
# in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
# to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
# copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
# furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
# all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
# IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
# AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
# LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
# THE SOFTWARE.

""" Python interface to the CRS 'OptiCAL' photometer.

    Overview
    ========

    The 'OptiCAL' is a photometer that is produced by Cambridge Research
    Systems (CRS). This device is a standard tool for gamma-calibration of
    display devices in vision research. This package provides a free-software
    replacement for the Windows-software distributed by the manufacturer that
    allows querying an OptiCAL via a serial connection. `pyoptical` can be used
    as a library in third-party applications or as a standalone command line
    tool.

    This module provides the `OptiCAL` class and some supporting code. The
    command line wrapper for this module can be found in the 'pyoptical'
    script.

    Examples
    --------

    Command line:
        ``pyoptical --number=15 --interval=750 /dev/ttyUSB0``

        Make 15 measurements with an interval of 750 ms between them.

        usage:
            ``pyoptical [-i interval] [-n number ] [-r] com-port``

        For more information try, ``pyoptical --help``. For more information
        about the ``com-port`` argument see: `Notes about the com-port`_.

    Library:
        >>> import pyoptical
        >>> op = pyoptical.OptiCAL('dev/dev/ttyUSB0')
        >>> try:
        >>>     op.read_luminance()
        >>> except pyoptical.NACKException, e:
        >>>     print e

    Notes about the com-port
    ------------------------

    The com_port argument for the constructor may vary depending on both
    your operating system and how you connect to the OptiCAL. This code
    was developed using a usb-to-serial adapter that contains a PL2303
    chipset manufactured by Prolific:
    http://www.prolific.com.tw/eng/Products.asp?ID=59. The following
    sections outline how to access the OptiCAL using pyoptical and a
    usb-to-serial adapter containing the prolific chipset. We have not
    tried this code using a raw serial port, but would be very
    interested to hear from you if you do.

    Linux (Ubuntu Hardy / Debian Lenny):
        Support for the PL2303 chipset is compiled into the kernel, and
        the device is automatically recognised. You could check 'dmesg'
        for the following output::

            usb 2-1: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 4
            usb 2-1: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice
            pl2303 2-1:1.0: pl2303 converter detected
            usb 2-1: pl2303 converter now attached to ttyUSB0

        In this case the com_port string is simply ``/dev/ttyUSB0``

    Mac OSX (10.5.8 Leopard)
        Support for the PL2303 chipset is provided by the following
        open source driver: http://osx-pl2303.sourceforge.net/

        In this case the com-port string would be something along the
        lines of ``/dev/tty.PL2303-xxx``, for example:
        ``/dev/tty.PL2303-000031FD``

    Windows (XP)
        The manufacturer of your usb-to-serial adapter should provide
        you with drivers.

        In this case the com-port string would be something like:
        ``COM2``, check the device manager for the number of the COM port.

    Other Operating Systems and Adapters:
        This code has two limitations, most importantly pyserial must
        support your platform. Secondly, if you wish to use a
        usb-to-serial adapter a driver for your target operating system
        must be available from the manufacturer or possibly a third
        party (for example and open source driver).

    Notes about possible exceptions
    -------------------------------

    There are three types of exceptions that can happen:

    - `OptiCALException`
    - `NACKException`
    - `TimeoutException`

    The `OptiCALException` is the base class for all exceptions in this
    module, and it is used as a general purpose exception to signify
    errors on the part of the programmer, do not quietly except these.

    The `NACKException` is raised when the OptiCAL responds with a ``NACK``
    byte. It does this either if the command was not understood or if
    the command failed. If this happens during initialization, you may
    have to re-initialise the device. If this happens during readout it
    should be safe to try again instead of terminating the program.

    The `TimeoutException` is raised when no answer is received within the
    default timeout length. This might be caused by a number of issues,
    but essentially means that somehow the communication with the
    OptiCAL might be interrupted, for example because it is no longer
    connected to the computer.

    Implementation details
    ----------------------

    The interface is implemented according to the protocol specification in the
    OptiCAL-User-Guide Version 4, 1995 including the following amendments:

    1. To read out the ADC value, an 'L' must be sent instead of an 'R'
    2. The equations to convert from ADC to meaningful units had changed. See
       the source code of ``read_luminance()`` for details.

    The full errata is available from the CSR website:

    http://support.crsltd.com/FileManagement/Download/9f5f62bcb3e64eb8934fe72afb937cb6

    The corrected versions of the conversion formulas can also be found
    in the OptiCAL.py python interface available from the CRS website,
    written by Walter F. Bischof in 2007. However note that this code may
    contain a bug, see
    http://groups.google.com/group/psychopy-users/msg/9cb35590daf3a29b
    for detail.

    The constructor will first perform the initial calibration of the
    device as required by the protocol specification. Next it will read
    out all parameters from the eeprom and store them as private
    variables. And lastly it will put the device into the default mode.

    The initial version of the OptiCAL hardware supported two readout
    modes 'current' and 'voltage'. The device could be used to read
    luminance when in 'current' mode and 'voltage' when in voltage mode.
    Over the years there have been two revisions of the OptiCAL
    hardware, both no longer supported usage as a voltmeter, and thus
    the 'voltage' mode has become redundant. Since version 0.2 this
    interface no longer supports the 'voltage' mode, and the device will
    be put into 'current' mode at startup.

"""
__version__ = "0.4"
__author__ = "Valentin Haenel <valentin.haenel@gmx.de>"
__docformat__ = "restructuredtext en"

import serial


class OptiCAL(object):
    """ Object to access the OptiCAL """

    _ACK = '\x06'
    _NACK = '\x15'

    def __init__(self, com_port, timeout=5):
        """ initialise OptiCAL

            :Parameters:
                com_port : string
                    name of the com-port
                timeout : float
                    time in seconds to wait for a response

            For more information about the ``com_port`` argument see:
            the '``Notes about the com-port``' section in the module docstring.
        """
        self._phot = serial.Serial(com_port, timeout=timeout)
        self._calibrate()
        self._read_ref_defs()
        self._read_other_defs()
        self._set_current_mode()

    def __str__(self):
        return "Optical found at : " + self._phot.port + "\n" + \
               "Product Type :     " + str(self._product_type) + "\n" + \
               "Optical S/N  :     " + str(self._optical_serial_number) + "\n"\
               "Firmware version : " + str(self._firmware_version) + "\n" \
               "V_ref:             " + str(self._V_ref) + "\n" + \
               "Z_count:           " + str(self._Z_count) + "\n" + \
               "R_feed:            " + str(self._R_feed) + "\n" + \
               "R_gain:            " + str(self._R_gain) + "\n" + \
               "Probe S/N          " + str(self._probe_serial_number) + "\n" +\
               "K_cal:             " + str(self._K_cal) + "\n"

    def _send_command(self, command, description):
        """ send a single command character and read a single response (ACK/NACK)

            :Parameters:
                command : chr
                    the command character
                description : string
                    a string describing the command

        """
        self._phot.write(command)
        ret = self._phot.read()
        _check_return(ret, description)

    def _calibrate(self):
        """ perform initial calibration

            As stated in the OptiCAL user guide, this must be done after
            powering up the device, before any readouts are performed.

        """
        self._send_command('C', "calibrate")

    def _set_current_mode(self):
        """ put the device into 'current' mode """
        self._send_command('I', "set current mode")

    def _read_eeprom_single(self, address):
        """ read contents of eeprom at single address

            note: the ACK byte is truncated

            :Parameters:
                address : int
                    address in the range 0<i<100

            :Return:
                (string) - a byte in the range 0<i<256

        """
        self._phot.write(chr(128 + address))
        ret = self._phot.read(2)
        _check_return(ret, "reading eeprom at address %d" % address)
        # if _check_return does not raise an exception
        return ret[0]

    def _read_eeprom(self, start, stop):
        """ read contents of eeprom between start and stop inclusive

            :Parameters:
                start : int
                    address in the range 0<i<100
                stop : int
                    address in the range 0<i<100

            :Returns:
                (string of bytes) - each character in the range 0<i<255
        """
        return "".join([self._read_eeprom_single(i)
            for i in range(start, stop + 1)])

    def _read_product_type(self):
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(0, 1))

    def _read_optical_serial_number(self):
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(2, 5))

    def _read_firmware_version(self):
        return float(_to_int(self._read_eeprom(6, 7))) / 100

    def _read_probe_serial_number(self):
        return int(self._read_eeprom(80, 95))

    def _read_other_defs(self):
        """ read all parameters that do not have a ref definition """
        self._product_type = self._read_product_type()
        self._optical_serial_number = self._read_optical_serial_number()
        self._firmware_version = self._read_firmware_version()
        self._probe_serial_number = self._read_probe_serial_number()

    def _read_V_ref(self):
        """ reference voltage in microV """
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(16, 19))

    def _read_Z_count(self):
        """ zero error in ADC counts """
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(32, 35))

    def _read_R_feed(self):
        """ feedback resistor in Ohm """
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(48, 51))

    def _read_R_gain(self):
        """ voltage gain resistor in Ohm """
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(64, 67))

    def _read_K_cal(self):
        """ probe calibration in fA/cd/m**2 """
        return _to_int(self._read_eeprom(96, 99))

    def _read_ref_defs(self):
        """ read all parameters with a ref definition """
        self._V_ref = self._read_V_ref()
        self._Z_count = self._read_Z_count()
        self._R_feed = self._read_R_feed()
        self._R_gain = self._read_R_gain()
        self._K_cal = self._read_K_cal()

    def _read_adc(self):
        """ read and adjust the ADC value """
        self._phot.write('L')
        ret = self._phot.read(4)
        _check_return(ret, "reading adc value")
        # truncate the ACK
        ret = ret[:-1]
        # obtain an integer value from the bytes
        adc = _to_int(ret)
        return adc - self._Z_count - 524288

    def read_luminance(self):
        """ the luminance in cd/m**2 """
        ADC_adjust = self._read_adc()
        numerator = (float(ADC_adjust) / 524288) * self._V_ref * 1.e-6
        denominator = self._R_feed * self._K_cal * 1.e-15
        return max(0.0, numerator / denominator)


def _to_int(byte_string):
    """ convert a string of bytes(in least significant byte order) to int """
    return int(byte_string[::-1].encode('hex'), 16)


def _check_return(ret, description):
    """ check the return value of a read, raise exception if its not OK """
    if ret == "":
        raise TimeoutException(description)
    # check the last byte only
    elif ret[-1] == OptiCAL._NACK:
        raise NACKException(description)


class OptiCALException(Exception):
    """ base exception for all OptiCAL exceptions """


class NACKException(OptiCALException):
    """ raised when the OptiCAL sends a NACK byte to signify an error"""
    def __str__(self):
        return "OptiCAL sent a NACK while trying to: %s" % self.message


class TimeoutException(OptiCALException):
    """ raised when the OptiCAL does not respond within the timeout limit """
    def __str__(self):
        return "OptiCAL timeout while trying to: %s" % self.message