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===========
djangosaml2
===========

.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/knaperek/djangosaml2.svg?branch=master
    :target: https://travis-ci.org/knaperek/djangosaml2
    :align: left


djangosaml2 is a Django application that integrates the PySAML2 library
into your project. This mean that you can protect your Django based project
with a service provider based on PySAML. This way it will talk SAML2 with
your Identity Provider allowing you to use this authentication mechanism.
This document will guide you through a few simple steps to accomplish
such goal.

.. contents::

Installation
============

PySAML2 uses xmlsec1_ binary to sign SAML assertions so you need to install
it either through your operating system package or by compiling the source
code. It doesn't matter where the final executable is installed because
you will need to set the full path to it in the configuration stage.

.. _xmlsec1: http://www.aleksey.com/xmlsec/

Now you can install the djangosaml2 package using easy_install or pip. This
will also install PySAML2 and its dependencies automatically.


Configuration
=============

There are three things you need to setup to make djangosaml2 work in your
Django project:

1. **settings.py** as you may already know, it is the main Django
   configuration file.
2. **urls.py** is the file where you will include djangosaml2 urls.
3. **pysaml2** specific files such as an attribute map directory and a
   certificate.


Changes in the settings.py file
-------------------------------
The first thing you need to do is add ``djangosaml2`` to the list of
installed apps::

  INSTALLED_APPS = (
      'django.contrib.auth',
      'django.contrib.contenttypes',
      'django.contrib.sessions',
      'django.contrib.sites',
      'django.contrib.messages',
      'django.contrib.admin',
      'djangosaml2',  # new application
  )

Actually this is not really required since djangosaml2 does not include
any data model. The only reason we include it is to be able to run
djangosaml2 test suite from our project, something you should always
do to make sure it is compatible with your Django version and environment.

.. note::

  When you finish the configuration you can run the djangosaml2 test suite as
  you run any other Django application test suite. Just type ``python manage.py
  test djangosaml2``.

  Python 2 users need to ``pip install djangosaml2[test]`` in order to run the
  tests.

Then you have to add the ``djangosaml2.backends.Saml2Backend``
authentication backend to the list of authentications backends.
By default only the ModelBackend included in Django is configured.
A typical configuration would look like this::

  AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS = (
      'django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend',
      'djangosaml2.backends.Saml2Backend',
  )

.. note::

  Before djangosaml2 0.5.0 this authentication backend was
  automatically added by djangosaml2. This turned out to be
  a bad idea since some applications want to use their own
  custom policies for authorization and the authentication
  backend is a good place to define that. Starting from
  djangosaml2 0.5.0 it is now possible to define such
  backends.

Finally we have to tell Django what the new login url we want to use is::

  LOGIN_URL = '/saml2/login/'
  SESSION_EXPIRE_AT_BROWSER_CLOSE = True

Here we are telling Django that any view that requires an authenticated
user should redirect the user browser to that url if the user has not
been authenticated before. We are also telling that when the user closes
his browser, the session should be terminated. This is useful in SAML2
federations where the logout protocol is not always available.

.. note::

  The login url starts with ``/saml2/`` as an example but you can change that
  if you want. Check the section about changes in the ``urls.py``
  file for more information.

If you want to allow several authentication mechanisms in your project
you should set the LOGIN_URL option to another view and put a link in such
view to the ``/saml2/login/`` view.

Preferred Logout binding
------------------------
Use the following setting to choose your preferred binding for SP initiated logout requests::

  SAML_LOGOUT_REQUEST_PREFERRED_BINDING

For example::

  import saml2
  SAML_LOGOUT_REQUEST_PREFERRED_BINDING = saml2.BINDING_HTTP_POST

Changes in the urls.py file
---------------------------

The next thing you need to do is to include ``djangosaml2.urls`` module in your
main ``urls.py`` module::

  urlpatterns = patterns(
      '',
      #  lots of url definitions here

      (r'^saml2/', include('djangosaml2.urls')),

      #  more url definitions
  )

As you can see we are including ``djangosaml2.urls`` under the *saml2*
prefix. Feel free to use your own prefix but be consistent with what
you have put in the ``settings.py`` file in the LOGIN_URL parameter.


PySAML2 specific files and configuration
----------------------------------------
Once you have finished configuring your Django project you have to
start configuring PySAML. If you use just that library you have to
put your configuration options in a file and initialize PySAML2 with
the path to that file.

In djangosaml2 you just put the same information in the Django
settings.py file under the SAML_CONFIG option.

We will see a typical configuration for protecting a Django project::

  from os import path
  import saml2
  import saml2.saml
  BASEDIR = path.dirname(path.abspath(__file__))
  SAML_CONFIG = {
    # full path to the xmlsec1 binary programm
    'xmlsec_binary': '/usr/bin/xmlsec1',

    # your entity id, usually your subdomain plus the url to the metadata view
    'entityid': 'http://localhost:8000/saml2/metadata/',

    # directory with attribute mapping
    'attribute_map_dir': path.join(BASEDIR, 'attribute-maps'),

    # this block states what services we provide
    'service': {
        # we are just a lonely SP
        'sp' : {
            'name': 'Federated Django sample SP',
            'name_id_format': saml2.saml.NAMEID_FORMAT_PERSISTENT,
            'endpoints': {
                # url and binding to the assetion consumer service view
                # do not change the binding or service name
                'assertion_consumer_service': [
                    ('http://localhost:8000/saml2/acs/',
                     saml2.BINDING_HTTP_POST),
                    ],
                # url and binding to the single logout service view
                # do not change the binding or service name
                'single_logout_service': [
                    ('http://localhost:8000/saml2/ls/',
                     saml2.BINDING_HTTP_REDIRECT),
                    ('http://localhost:8000/saml2/ls/post',
                     saml2.BINDING_HTTP_POST),
                    ],
                },

             # attributes that this project need to identify a user
            'required_attributes': ['uid'],

             # attributes that may be useful to have but not required
            'optional_attributes': ['eduPersonAffiliation'],

            # in this section the list of IdPs we talk to are defined
            'idp': {
                # we do not need a WAYF service since there is
                # only an IdP defined here. This IdP should be
                # present in our metadata

                # the keys of this dictionary are entity ids
                'https://localhost/simplesaml/saml2/idp/metadata.php': {
                    'single_sign_on_service': {
                        saml2.BINDING_HTTP_REDIRECT: 'https://localhost/simplesaml/saml2/idp/SSOService.php',
                        },
                    'single_logout_service': {
                        saml2.BINDING_HTTP_REDIRECT: 'https://localhost/simplesaml/saml2/idp/SingleLogoutService.php',
                        },
                    },
                },
            },
        },

    # where the remote metadata is stored
    'metadata': {
        'local': [path.join(BASEDIR, 'remote_metadata.xml')],
        },

    # set to 1 to output debugging information
    'debug': 1,

    # Signing
    'key_file': path.join(BASEDIR, 'mycert.key'),  # private part
    'cert_file': path.join(BASEDIR, 'mycert.pem'),  # public part

    # Encryption
    'encryption_keypairs': [{
        'key_file': path.join(BASEDIR, 'my_encryption_key.key'),  # private part
        'cert_file': path.join(BASEDIR, 'my_encryption_cert.pem'),  # public part
    }],

    # own metadata settings
    'contact_person': [
        {'given_name': 'Lorenzo',
         'sur_name': 'Gil',
         'company': 'Yaco Sistemas',
         'email_address': 'lgs@yaco.es',
         'contact_type': 'technical'},
        {'given_name': 'Angel',
         'sur_name': 'Fernandez',
         'company': 'Yaco Sistemas',
         'email_address': 'angel@yaco.es',
         'contact_type': 'administrative'},
        ],
    # you can set multilanguage information here
    'organization': {
        'name': [('Yaco Sistemas', 'es'), ('Yaco Systems', 'en')],
        'display_name': [('Yaco', 'es'), ('Yaco', 'en')],
        'url': [('http://www.yaco.es', 'es'), ('http://www.yaco.com', 'en')],
        },
    'valid_for': 24,  # how long is our metadata valid
    }

.. note::

  Please check the `PySAML2 documentation`_ for more information about
  these and other configuration options.

.. _`PySAML2 documentation`: http://pysaml2.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

There are several external files and directories you have to create according
to this configuration.

The xmlsec1 binary was mentioned in the installation section. Here, in the
configuration part you just need to put the full path to xmlsec1 so PySAML2
can call it as it needs.

The ``attribute_map_dir`` points to a directory with attribute mappings that
are used to translate user attribute names from several standards. It's usually
safe to just copy the default PySAML2 attribute maps that you can find in the
``tests/attributemaps`` directory of the source distribution.

The ``metadata`` option is a dictionary where you can define several types of
metadata for remote entities. Usually the easiest type is the ``local`` where
you just put the name of a local XML file with the contents of the remote
entities metadata. This XML file should be in the SAML2 metadata format.

The ``key_file`` and ``cert_file`` options reference the two parts of a
standard x509 certificate. You need it to sign your metadata. For assertion
encryption/decryption support please configure another set of ``key_file`` and
``cert_file``, but as inner attributes of ``encryption_keypairs`` option.

.. note::

  Check your openssl documentation to generate a test certificate but don't
  forget to order a real one when you go into production.


Custom and dynamic configuration loading
........................................

By default, djangosaml2 reads the pysaml2 configuration options from the
SAML_CONFIG setting but sometimes you want to read this information from
another place, like a file or a database. Sometimes you even want this
configuration to be different depending on the request.

Starting from djangosaml2 0.5.0 you can define your own configuration
loader which is a callable that accepts a request parameter and returns
a saml2.config.SPConfig object. In order to do so you set the following
setting::

  SAML_CONFIG_LOADER = 'python.path.to.your.callable'


User attributes
---------------

In the SAML 2.0 authentication process the Identity Provider (IdP) will
send a security assertion to the Service Provider (SP) upon a successful
authentication. This assertion contains attributes about the user that
was authenticated. It depends on the IdP configuration what exact
attributes are sent to each SP it can talk to.

When such assertion is received on the Django side it is used to find a Django
user and create a session for it. By default djangosaml2 will do a query on the
User model with the USERNAME_FIELD_ attribute but you can change it to any
other attribute of the User model. For example, you can do this lookup using
the 'email' attribute. In order to do so you should set the following setting::

  SAML_DJANGO_USER_MAIN_ATTRIBUTE = 'email'

.. _USERNAME_FIELD: https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/topics/auth/customizing/#django.contrib.auth.models.CustomUser.USERNAME_FIELD

Please, use an unique attribute when setting this option. Otherwise
the authentication process may fail because djangosaml2 will not know
which Django user it should pick.

If your main attribute is something inherently case-insensitive (such as
an email address), you may set::

  SAML_DJANGO_USER_MAIN_ATTRIBUTE_LOOKUP = '__iexact'

(This is simply appended to the main attribute name to form a Django
query. Your main attribute must be unique even given this lookup.)

Another option is to use the SAML2 name id as the username by setting::

  SAML_USE_NAME_ID_AS_USERNAME = True

You can configure djangosaml2 to create such user if it is not already in
the Django database or maybe you don't want to allow users that are not
in your database already. For this purpose there is another option you
can set in the settings.py file::

  SAML_CREATE_UNKNOWN_USER = True

This setting is True by default.

  ACS_DEFAULT_REDIRECT_URL = reverse_lazy('some_url_name')

This setting lets you specify a URL for redirection after a successful
authentication. Particularly useful when you only plan to use
IdP initiated login and the IdP does not have a configured RelayState
parameter. The default is ``/``.

The other thing you will probably want to configure is the mapping of
SAML2 user attributes to Django user attributes. By default only the
User.username attribute is mapped but you can add more attributes or
change that one. In order to do so you need to change the
SAML_ATTRIBUTE_MAPPING option in your settings.py::

  SAML_ATTRIBUTE_MAPPING = {
      'uid': ('username', ),
      'mail': ('email', ),
      'cn': ('first_name', ),
      'sn': ('last_name', ),
  }

where the keys of this dictionary are SAML user attributes and the values
are Django User attributes.

If you are using Django user profile objects to store extra attributes
about your user you can add those attributes to the SAML_ATTRIBUTE_MAPPING
dictionary. For each (key, value) pair, djangosaml2 will try to store the
attribute in the User model if there is a matching field in that model.
Otherwise it will try to do the same with your profile custom model. For
multi-valued attributes only the first value is assigned to the destination field.

Alternatively, custom processing of attributes can be achieved by setting the
value(s) in the SAML_ATTRIBUTE_MAPPING, to name(s) of method(s) defined on a
custom django User object. In this case, each method is called by djangosaml2,
passing the full list of attribute values extracted from the <saml:AttributeValue>
elements of the <saml:Attribute>. Among other uses, this is a useful way to process
multi-valued attributes such as lists of user group names.

For example:

Saml assertion snippet::

  <saml:Attribute Name="groups" NameFormat="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:attrname-format:basic">
        <saml:AttributeValue>group1</saml:AttributeValue>
        <saml:AttributeValue>group2</saml:AttributeValue>
        <saml:AttributeValue>group3</saml:AttributeValue>
  </saml:Attribute>

Custom User object::

  from django.contrib.auth.models import AbstractUser

  class User(AbstractUser):

    def process_groups(self, groups):
      // process list of group names in argument 'groups'
      pass;

settings.py::

  SAML_ATTRIBUTE_MAPPING = {
      'groups': ('process_groups', ),
  }


Learn more about Django profile models at:

https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/topics/auth/customizing/#substituting-a-custom-user-model


Sometimes you need to use special logic to update the user object
depending on the SAML2 attributes and the mapping described above
is simply not enough. For these cases djangosaml2 provides a Django
signal that you can listen to. In order to do so you can add the
following code to your app::

  from djangosaml2.signals import pre_user_save

  def custom_update_user(sender=User, instance, attributes, user_modified, **kargs)
     ...
     return True  # I modified the user object


Your handler will receive the user object, the list of SAML attributes
and a flag telling you if the user is already modified and need
to be saved after your handler is executed. If your handler
modifies the user object it should return True. Otherwise it should
return False. This way djangosaml2 will know if it should save
the user object so you don't need to do it and no more calls to
the save method are issued.


IdP setup
=========
Congratulations, you have finished configuring the SP side of the federation.
Now you need to send the entity id and the metadata of this new SP to the
IdP administrators so they can add it to their list of trusted services.

You can get this information starting your Django development server and
going to the http://localhost:8000/saml2/metadata url. If you have included
the djangosaml2 urls under a different url prefix you need to correct this
url.

SimpleSAMLphp issues
--------------------
As of SimpleSAMLphp 1.8.2 there is a problem if you specify attributes in
the SP configuration. When the SimpleSAMLphp metadata parser converts the
XML into its custom php format it puts the following option::

  'attributes.NameFormat' => 'urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:attrname-format:uri'

But it need to be replaced by this one::

  'AttributeNameFormat' => 'urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:attrname-format:uri'

Otherwise the Assertions sent from the IdP to the SP will have a wrong
Attribute Name Format and pysaml2 will be confused.

Furthermore if you have a AttributeLimit filter in your SimpleSAMLphp
configuration  you will need to enable another attribute filter just
before to make sure that the AttributeLimit does not remove the attributes
from the authentication source. The filter you need to add is an AttributeMap
filter like this::

  10 => array(
             'class' => 'core:AttributeMap', 'name2oid'
        ),

Testing
=======

One way to check if everything is working as expected is to enable the
following url::

  urlpatterns = patterns(
      '',
      #  lots of url definitions here

      (r'^saml2/', include('djangosaml2.urls')),
      (r'^test/', 'djangosaml2.views.echo_attributes'),

      #  more url definitions
  )


Now if you go to the /test/ url you will see your SAML attributes and also
a link to do a global logout.

You can also run the unit tests with the following command::

  python tests/run_tests.py

If you have `tox`_ installed you can simply call tox inside the root directory
and it will run the tests in multiple versions of Python.

.. _`tox`: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/tox

FAQ
===

**Why can't SAML be implemented as an Django Authentication Backend?**

well SAML authentication is not that simple as a set of credentials you can
put on a login form and get a response back. Actually the user password is
not given to the service provider at all. This is by design. You have to
delegate the task of authentication to the IdP and then get an asynchronous
response from it.

Given said that, djangosaml2 does use a Django Authentication Backend to
transform the SAML assertion about the user into a Django user object.

**Why not put everything in a Django middleware class and make our lifes
easier?**

Yes, that was an option I did evaluate but at the end the current design
won. In my opinion putting this logic into a middleware has the advantage
of making it easier to configure but has a couple of disadvantages: first,
the middleware would need to check if the request path is one of the
SAML endpoints for every request. Second, it would be too magical and in
case of a problem, much harder to debug.

**Why not call this package django-saml as many other Django applications?**

Following that pattern then I should import the application with
import saml but unfortunately that module name is already used in pysaml2.