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# itemadapter
[![version](https://img.shields.io/pypi/v/itemadapter.svg)](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/itemadapter)
[![pyversions](https://img.shields.io/pypi/pyversions/itemadapter.svg)](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/itemadapter)
[![actions](https://github.com/scrapy/itemadapter/workflows/Build/badge.svg)](https://github.com/scrapy/itemadapter/actions)
[![codecov](https://codecov.io/gh/scrapy/itemadapter/branch/master/graph/badge.svg)](https://codecov.io/gh/scrapy/itemadapter)


The `ItemAdapter` class is a wrapper for data container objects, providing a
common interface to handle objects of different types in an uniform manner,
regardless of their underlying implementation.

Currently supported types are:

* [`dict`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#dict)
* [`scrapy.item.Item`](https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html#scrapy.item.Item)
* [`dataclass`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/dataclasses.html)-based classes
* [`attrs`](https://www.attrs.org)-based classes


## Requirements

* Python 3.6+
* [`scrapy`](https://scrapy.org/): optional, needed to interact with `scrapy` items
* `dataclasses` ([stdlib](https://docs.python.org/3/library/dataclasses.html) in Python 3.7+,
  or its [backport](https://pypi.org/project/dataclasses/) in Python 3.6): optional, needed
  to interact with `dataclass`-based items
* [`attrs`](https://pypi.org/project/attrs/): optional, needed to interact with `attrs`-based items


## Installation

`itemadapter` is available on [`PyPI`](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/itemadapter), it can be installed with `pip`:

```
pip install itemadapter
```


## License

`itemadapter` is distributed under a [BSD-3](https://opensource.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause) license.


## Basic usage

The following is a simple example using a `dataclass` object.
Consider the following type definition:

```python
>>> from dataclasses import dataclass
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter, is_item
>>> @dataclass
... class InventoryItem:
...     name: str
...     price: float
...     stock: int
>>>
```

The `ItemAdapter` object can be treated much like a dictionary:

```python
>>> obj = InventoryItem(name='foo', price=20.5, stock=10)
>>> is_item(obj)
True
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(obj)
>>> len(adapter)
3
>>> adapter["name"]
'foo'
>>> adapter.get("price")
20.5
>>>
```

The wrapped object is modified in-place:
```python
>>> adapter["name"] = "bar"
>>> adapter.update({"price": 12.7, "stock": 9})
>>> adapter.item
InventoryItem(name='bar', price=12.7, stock=9)
>>> adapter.item is obj
True
>>>
```

### Converting to dict

The `ItemAdapter` class provides the `asdict` method, which converts
nested items recursively. Consider the following example:

```python
>>> from dataclasses import dataclass
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter
>>> @dataclass
... class Price:
...     value: int
...     currency: str
>>> @dataclass
... class Product:
...     name: str
...     price: Price
>>>
```

```python
>>> item = Product("Stuff", Price(42, "UYU"))
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(item)
>>> adapter.asdict()
{'name': 'Stuff', 'price': {'value': 42, 'currency': 'UYU'}}
>>>
```

Note that just passing an adapter object to the `dict` built-in also works,
but it doesn't traverse the object recursively converting nested items:

```python
>>> dict(adapter)
{'name': 'Stuff', 'price': Price(value=42, currency='UYU')}
>>>
```


## API

### Built-in adapters

The following adapters are included by default:

* `itemadapter.adapter.ScrapyItemAdapter`: handles `Scrapy` items
* `itemadapter.adapter.DictAdapter`: handles `Python` dictionaries
* `itemadapter.adapter.DataclassAdapter`: handles `dataclass` objects
* `itemadapter.adapter.AttrsAdapter`: handles `attrs` objects

### `ItemAdapter` class

_class `itemadapter.adapter.ItemAdapter(item: Any)`_

This is the main entrypoint for the package. Tipically, user code
wraps an item using this class, and proceeds to handle it with the provided interface.
`ItemAdapter` implements the
[`MutableMapping`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/collections.abc.html#collections.abc.MutableMapping)
interface, providing a `dict`-like API to manipulate data for the object it wraps
(which is modified in-place).

Some additional methods are available:

`get_field_meta(field_name: str) -> MappingProxyType`

Return a [`types.MappingProxyType`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/types.html#types.MappingProxyType)
object, which is a read-only mapping with metadata about the given field. If the item class does not
support field metadata, or there is no metadata for the given field, an empty object is returned.

The returned value is taken from the following sources, depending on the item type:

* [`scrapy.item.Field`](https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html#item-fields)
for `scrapy.item.Item`s
* [`dataclasses.field.metadata`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/dataclasses.html#dataclasses.field)
  for `dataclass`-based items
* [`attr.Attribute.metadata`](https://www.attrs.org/en/stable/examples.html#metadata)
  for `attrs`-based items

`field_names() -> collections.abc.KeysView`

Return a [keys view](https://docs.python.org/3/library/collections.abc.html#collections.abc.KeysView)
with the names of all the defined fields for the item.

`asdict() -> dict`

Return a `dict` object with the contents of the adapter. This works slightly different than
calling `dict(adapter)`, because it's applied recursively to nested items (if there are any).

### `is_item` function

_`itemadapter.utils.is_item(obj: Any) -> bool`_

Return `True` if the given object belongs to (at least) one of the supported types,
`False` otherwise.

### `get_field_meta_from_class` function

_`itemadapter.utils.get_field_meta_from_class(item_class: type, field_name: str) -> types.MappingProxyType`_

Given an item class and a field name, return a
[`MappingProxyType`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/types.html#types.MappingProxyType)
object, which is a read-only mapping with metadata about the given field. If the item class does not
support field metadata, or there is no metadata for the given field, an empty object is returned.


## Metadata support

`scrapy.item.Item`, `dataclass` and `attrs` objects allow the definition of
arbitrary field metadata. This can be accessed through a
[`MappingProxyType`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/types.html#types.MappingProxyType)
object, which can be retrieved from an item instance with the
`itemadapter.adapter.ItemAdapter.get_field_meta` method, or from an item class
with the `itemadapter.utils.get_field_meta_from_class` function.
The definition procedure depends on the underlying type.

#### `scrapy.item.Item` objects

```python
>>> from scrapy.item import Item, Field
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter
>>> class InventoryItem(Item):
...     name = Field(serializer=str)
...     value = Field(serializer=int, limit=100)
...
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(InventoryItem(name="foo", value=10))
>>> adapter.get_field_meta("name")
mappingproxy({'serializer': <class 'str'>})
>>> adapter.get_field_meta("value")
mappingproxy({'serializer': <class 'int'>, 'limit': 100})
>>>
```

#### `dataclass` objects

```python
>>> from dataclasses import dataclass, field
>>> @dataclass
... class InventoryItem:
...     name: str = field(metadata={"serializer": str})
...     value: int = field(metadata={"serializer": int, "limit": 100})
...
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(InventoryItem(name="foo", value=10))
>>> adapter.get_field_meta("name")
mappingproxy({'serializer': <class 'str'>})
>>> adapter.get_field_meta("value")
mappingproxy({'serializer': <class 'int'>, 'limit': 100})
>>>
```

#### `attrs` objects

```python
>>> import attr
>>> @attr.s
... class InventoryItem:
...     name = attr.ib(metadata={"serializer": str})
...     value = attr.ib(metadata={"serializer": int, "limit": 100})
...
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(InventoryItem(name="foo", value=10))
>>> adapter.get_field_meta("name")
mappingproxy({'serializer': <class 'str'>})
>>> adapter.get_field_meta("value")
mappingproxy({'serializer': <class 'int'>, 'limit': 100})
>>>
```


## Extending `itemadapter`

This package allows to handle arbitrary item classes, by implementing an adapter interface:

_class `itemadapter.adapter.AdapterInterface(item: Any)`_

Abstract Base Class for adapters. An adapter that handles a specific type of item must
inherit from this class and implement the abstract methods defined on it. `AdapterInterface`
inherits from [`collections.abc.MutableMapping`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/collections.abc.html#collections.abc.MutableMapping),
so all methods from the `MutableMapping` class must be implemented as well.

* _class method `is_item(cls, item: Any) -> bool`_

    Return `True` if the adapter can handle the given item, `False` otherwise. Abstract (mandatory).

* _method `get_field_meta(self, field_name: str) -> types.MappingProxyType`_

    Return metadata for the given field name, if available.
    By default, this method returns an empty `MappingProxyType` object. Please supply your
    own method definition if you want to handle field metadata based on custom logic.
    See the [section on metadata support](#metadata-support) for additional information.

* _method `field_names(self) -> collections.abc.KeysView`_:

    Return a [dynamic view](https://docs.python.org/3/library/collections.abc.html#collections.abc.KeysView)
    of the item's field names. By default, this method returns the result of calling `keys()` on
    the current adapter, i.e., its return value depends on the implementation of the methods from the
    `MutableMapping` interface (more specifically, it depends on the return value of `__iter__`).

    You might want to override this method if you want a way to get all fields for an item, whether or not
    they are populated. For instance, Scrapy uses this method to define column names when exporting items to CSV.

### Registering an adapter

The `itemadapter.adapter.ItemAdapter` class keeps the registered adapters in its `ADAPTER_CLASSES`
class attribute. This is a
[`collections.deque`](https://docs.python.org/3/library/collections.html#collections.deque)
object, allowing to efficiently add new adapters elements to both ends.

The order in which the adapters are registered is important. When an `ItemAdapter` object is
created for a specific item, the registered adapters are traversed in order and the first class
to return `True` for the `is_item` class method is used for all subsequent operations.

**Example**
```python
>>> from itemadapter.adapter import AdapterInterface, ItemAdapter
>>> from tests.test_interface import BaseFakeItemAdapter, FakeItemClass
>>>
>>> ItemAdapter.ADAPTER_CLASSES.appendleft(BaseFakeItemAdapter)
>>> item = FakeItemClass()
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(item)
>>> adapter
<ItemAdapter for FakeItemClass()>
>>>
```


## More examples

### `scrapy.item.Item` objects

```python
>>> from scrapy.item import Item, Field
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter
>>> class InventoryItem(Item):
...     name = Field()
...     price = Field()
...
>>> item = InventoryItem(name="foo", price=10)
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(item)
>>> adapter.item is item
True
>>> adapter["name"]
'foo'
>>> adapter["name"] = "bar"
>>> adapter["price"] = 5
>>> item
{'name': 'bar', 'price': 5}
>>>
```

### `dict`

```python
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter
>>> item = dict(name="foo", price=10)
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(item)
>>> adapter.item is item
True
>>> adapter["name"]
'foo'
>>> adapter["name"] = "bar"
>>> adapter["price"] = 5
>>> item
{'name': 'bar', 'price': 5}
>>>
```

### `dataclass` objects

```python
>>> from dataclasses import dataclass
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter
>>> @dataclass
... class InventoryItem:
...     name: str
...     price: int
...
>>> item = InventoryItem(name="foo", price=10)
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(item)
>>> adapter.item is item
True
>>> adapter["name"]
'foo'
>>> adapter["name"] = "bar"
>>> adapter["price"] = 5
>>> item
InventoryItem(name='bar', price=5)
>>>
```

### `attrs` objects

```python
>>> import attr
>>> from itemadapter import ItemAdapter
>>> @attr.s
... class InventoryItem:
...     name = attr.ib()
...     price = attr.ib()
...
>>> item = InventoryItem(name="foo", price=10)
>>> adapter = ItemAdapter(item)
>>> adapter.item is item
True
>>> adapter["name"]
'foo'
>>> adapter["name"] = "bar"
>>> adapter["price"] = 5
>>> item
InventoryItem(name='bar', price=5)
>>>
```


## Changelog

See the [full changelog](Changelog.md)