File: control.py

package info (click to toggle)
python-stem 1.7.1-1.1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: bullseye, sid
  • size: 5,768 kB
  • sloc: python: 29,441; java: 312; makefile: 125; sh: 17
file content (4104 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 147,140 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (3)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
# Copyright 2011-2018, Damian Johnson and The Tor Project
# See LICENSE for licensing information

"""
Module for interacting with the Tor control socket. The
:class:`~stem.control.Controller` is a wrapper around a
:class:`~stem.socket.ControlSocket`, retaining many of its methods (connect,
close, is_alive, etc) in addition to providing its own for working with the
socket at a higher level.

Stem has `several ways <../faq.html#how-do-i-connect-to-tor>`_ of getting a
:class:`~stem.control.Controller`, but the most flexible are
:func:`~stem.control.Controller.from_port` and
:func:`~stem.control.Controller.from_socket_file`. These static
:class:`~stem.control.Controller` methods give you an **unauthenticated**
Controller you can then authenticate yourself using its
:func:`~stem.control.Controller.authenticate` method. For example...

::

  import getpass
  import sys

  import stem
  import stem.connection

  from stem.control import Controller

  if __name__ == '__main__':
    try:
      controller = Controller.from_port()
    except stem.SocketError as exc:
      print("Unable to connect to tor on port 9051: %s" % exc)
      sys.exit(1)

    try:
      controller.authenticate()
    except stem.connection.MissingPassword:
      pw = getpass.getpass("Controller password: ")

      try:
        controller.authenticate(password = pw)
      except stem.connection.PasswordAuthFailed:
        print("Unable to authenticate, password is incorrect")
        sys.exit(1)
    except stem.connection.AuthenticationFailure as exc:
      print("Unable to authenticate: %s" % exc)
      sys.exit(1)

    print("Tor is running version %s" % controller.get_version())
    controller.close()

If you're fine with allowing your script to raise exceptions then this can be more nicely done as...

::

  from stem.control import Controller

  if __name__ == '__main__':
    with Controller.from_port() as controller:
      controller.authenticate()

      print("Tor is running version %s" % controller.get_version())

**Module Overview:**

::

  event_description - brief description of a tor event type

  Controller - General controller class intended for direct use
    | |- from_port - Provides a Controller based on a port connection.
    | +- from_socket_file - Provides a Controller based on a socket file connection.
    |
    |- authenticate - authenticates this controller with tor
    |- reconnect - reconnects and authenticates to socket
    |
    |- get_info - issues a GETINFO query for a parameter
    |- get_version - provides our tor version
    |- get_exit_policy - provides our exit policy
    |- get_ports - provides the local ports where tor is listening for connections
    |- get_listeners - provides the addresses and ports where tor is listening for connections
    |- get_accounting_stats - provides stats related to relaying limits
    |- get_protocolinfo - information about the controller interface
    |- get_user - provides the user tor is running as
    |- get_pid - provides the pid of our tor process
    |- is_user_traffic_allowed - checks if we send or receive direct user traffic
    |
    |- get_microdescriptor - querying the microdescriptor for a relay
    |- get_microdescriptors - provides all currently available microdescriptors
    |- get_server_descriptor - querying the server descriptor for a relay
    |- get_server_descriptors - provides all currently available server descriptors
    |- get_network_status - querying the router status entry for a relay
    |- get_network_statuses - provides all presently available router status entries
    |- get_hidden_service_descriptor - queries the given hidden service descriptor
    |
    |- get_conf - gets the value of a configuration option
    |- get_conf_map - gets the values of multiple configuration options
    |- is_set - determines if an option differs from its default
    |- set_conf - sets the value of a configuration option
    |- reset_conf - reverts configuration options to their default values
    |- set_options - sets or resets the values of multiple configuration options
    |
    |- get_hidden_service_conf - provides our hidden service configuration
    |- set_hidden_service_conf - sets our hidden service configuration
    |- create_hidden_service - creates a new hidden service or adds a new port
    |- remove_hidden_service - removes a hidden service or drops a port
    |
    |- list_ephemeral_hidden_services - list ephemeral hidden serivces
    |- create_ephemeral_hidden_service - create a new ephemeral hidden service
    |- remove_ephemeral_hidden_service - removes an ephemeral hidden service
    |
    |- add_event_listener - attaches an event listener to be notified of tor events
    |- remove_event_listener - removes a listener so it isn't notified of further events
    |
    |- is_caching_enabled - true if the controller has enabled caching
    |- set_caching - enables or disables caching
    |- clear_cache - clears any cached results
    |
    |- load_conf - loads configuration information as if it was in the torrc
    |- save_conf - saves configuration information to the torrc
    |
    |- is_feature_enabled - checks if a given controller feature is enabled
    |- enable_feature - enables a controller feature that has been disabled by default
    |
    |- get_circuit - provides an active circuit
    |- get_circuits - provides a list of active circuits
    |- new_circuit - create new circuits
    |- extend_circuit - create new circuits and extend existing ones
    |- repurpose_circuit - change a circuit's purpose
    |- close_circuit - close a circuit
    |
    |- get_streams - provides a list of active streams
    |- attach_stream - attach a stream to a circuit
    |- close_stream - close a stream
    |
    |- signal - sends a signal to the tor client
    |- is_newnym_available - true if tor would currently accept a NEWNYM signal
    |- get_newnym_wait - seconds until tor would accept a NEWNYM signal
    |- get_effective_rate - provides our effective relaying rate limit
    |- is_geoip_unavailable - true if we've discovered our geoip db to be unavailable
    |- map_address - maps one address to another such that connections to the original are replaced with the other
    +- drop_guards - drops our set of guard relays and picks a new set

  BaseController - Base controller class asynchronous message handling
    |- msg - communicates with the tor process
    |- is_alive - reports if our connection to tor is open or closed
    |- is_localhost - returns if the connection is for the local system or not
    |- connection_time - time when we last connected or disconnected
    |- is_authenticated - checks if we're authenticated to tor
    |- connect - connects or reconnects to tor
    |- close - shuts down our connection to the tor process
    |- get_socket - provides the socket used for control communication
    |- get_latest_heartbeat - timestamp for when we last heard from tor
    |- add_status_listener - notifies a callback of changes in our status
    +- remove_status_listener - prevents further notification of status changes

.. data:: State (enum)

  Enumeration for states that a controller can have.

  ========== ===========
  State      Description
  ========== ===========
  **INIT**   new control connection
  **RESET**  received a reset/sighup signal
  **CLOSED** control connection closed
  ========== ===========

.. data:: EventType (enum)

  Known types of events that the
  :func:`~stem.control.Controller.add_event_listener` method of the
  :class:`~stem.control.Controller` can listen for.

  The most frequently listened for event types tend to be the logging events
  (**DEBUG**, **INFO**, **NOTICE**, **WARN**, and **ERR**), bandwidth usage
  (**BW**), and circuit or stream changes (**CIRC** and **STREAM**).

  Enums are mapped to :class:`~stem.response.events.Event` subclasses as
  follows...

  .. deprecated:: 1.6.0

     Tor dropped EventType.AUTHDIR_NEWDESCS as of version 0.3.2.1.
     (:spec:`6e887ba`)

  ======================= ===========
  EventType               Event Class
  ======================= ===========
  **ADDRMAP**             :class:`stem.response.events.AddrMapEvent`
  **AUTHDIR_NEWDESCS**    :class:`stem.response.events.AuthDirNewDescEvent`
  **BUILDTIMEOUT_SET**    :class:`stem.response.events.BuildTimeoutSetEvent`
  **BW**                  :class:`stem.response.events.BandwidthEvent`
  **CELL_STATS**          :class:`stem.response.events.CellStatsEvent`
  **CIRC**                :class:`stem.response.events.CircuitEvent`
  **CIRC_BW**             :class:`stem.response.events.CircuitBandwidthEvent`
  **CIRC_MINOR**          :class:`stem.response.events.CircMinorEvent`
  **CLIENTS_SEEN**        :class:`stem.response.events.ClientsSeenEvent`
  **CONF_CHANGED**        :class:`stem.response.events.ConfChangedEvent`
  **CONN_BW**             :class:`stem.response.events.ConnectionBandwidthEvent`
  **DEBUG**               :class:`stem.response.events.LogEvent`
  **DESCCHANGED**         :class:`stem.response.events.DescChangedEvent`
  **ERR**                 :class:`stem.response.events.LogEvent`
  **GUARD**               :class:`stem.response.events.GuardEvent`
  **HS_DESC**             :class:`stem.response.events.HSDescEvent`
  **HS_DESC_CONTENT**     :class:`stem.response.events.HSDescContentEvent`
  **INFO**                :class:`stem.response.events.LogEvent`
  **NETWORK_LIVENESS**    :class:`stem.response.events.NetworkLivenessEvent`
  **NEWCONSENSUS**        :class:`stem.response.events.NewConsensusEvent`
  **NEWDESC**             :class:`stem.response.events.NewDescEvent`
  **NOTICE**              :class:`stem.response.events.LogEvent`
  **NS**                  :class:`stem.response.events.NetworkStatusEvent`
  **ORCONN**              :class:`stem.response.events.ORConnEvent`
  **SIGNAL**              :class:`stem.response.events.SignalEvent`
  **STATUS_CLIENT**       :class:`stem.response.events.StatusEvent`
  **STATUS_GENERAL**      :class:`stem.response.events.StatusEvent`
  **STATUS_SERVER**       :class:`stem.response.events.StatusEvent`
  **STREAM**              :class:`stem.response.events.StreamEvent`
  **STREAM_BW**           :class:`stem.response.events.StreamBwEvent`
  **TB_EMPTY**            :class:`stem.response.events.TokenBucketEmptyEvent`
  **TRANSPORT_LAUNCHED**  :class:`stem.response.events.TransportLaunchedEvent`
  **WARN**                :class:`stem.response.events.LogEvent`
  ======================= ===========

.. data:: Listener (enum)

  Purposes for inbound connections that Tor handles.

  ============= ===========
  Listener      Description
  ============= ===========
  **OR**        traffic we're relaying as a member of the network (torrc's **ORPort** and **ORListenAddress**)
  **DIR**       mirroring for tor descriptor content (torrc's **DirPort** and **DirListenAddress**)
  **SOCKS**     client traffic we're sending over Tor (torrc's **SocksPort** and **SocksListenAddress**)
  **TRANS**     transparent proxy handling (torrc's **TransPort** and **TransListenAddress**)
  **NATD**      forwarding for ipfw NATD connections (torrc's **NatdPort** and **NatdListenAddress**)
  **DNS**       DNS lookups for our traffic (torrc's **DNSPort** and **DNSListenAddress**)
  **CONTROL**   controller applications (torrc's **ControlPort** and **ControlListenAddress**)
  ============= ===========
"""

import calendar
import collections
import functools
import inspect
import io
import os
import threading
import time

try:
  # Added in 2.7
  from collections import OrderedDict
except ImportError:
  from stem.util.ordereddict import OrderedDict

try:
  # Added in 3.x
  import queue
except ImportError:
  import Queue as queue

import stem.descriptor.microdescriptor
import stem.descriptor.reader
import stem.descriptor.router_status_entry
import stem.descriptor.server_descriptor
import stem.exit_policy
import stem.response
import stem.response.events
import stem.socket
import stem.util
import stem.util.conf
import stem.util.connection
import stem.util.enum
import stem.util.str_tools
import stem.util.system
import stem.util.tor_tools
import stem.version

from stem import UNDEFINED, CircStatus, Signal
from stem.util import log

# When closing the controller we attempt to finish processing enqueued events,
# but if it takes longer than this we terminate.

EVENTS_LISTENING_TIMEOUT = 0.1

MALFORMED_EVENTS = 'MALFORMED_EVENTS'

# state changes a control socket can have

State = stem.util.enum.Enum('INIT', 'RESET', 'CLOSED')

EventType = stem.util.enum.UppercaseEnum(
  'ADDRMAP',
  'AUTHDIR_NEWDESCS',
  'BUILDTIMEOUT_SET',
  'BW',
  'CELL_STATS',
  'CIRC',
  'CIRC_BW',
  'CIRC_MINOR',
  'CONF_CHANGED',
  'CONN_BW',
  'CLIENTS_SEEN',
  'DEBUG',
  'DESCCHANGED',
  'ERR',
  'GUARD',
  'HS_DESC',
  'HS_DESC_CONTENT',
  'INFO',
  'NETWORK_LIVENESS',
  'NEWCONSENSUS',
  'NEWDESC',
  'NOTICE',
  'NS',
  'ORCONN',
  'SIGNAL',
  'STATUS_CLIENT',
  'STATUS_GENERAL',
  'STATUS_SERVER',
  'STREAM',
  'STREAM_BW',
  'TB_EMPTY',
  'TRANSPORT_LAUNCHED',
  'WARN',
)

Listener = stem.util.enum.UppercaseEnum(
  'OR',
  'DIR',
  'SOCKS',
  'TRANS',
  'NATD',
  'DNS',
  'CONTROL',
)

# torrc options that cannot be changed once tor's running

IMMUTABLE_CONFIG_OPTIONS = set(map(stem.util.str_tools._to_unicode, map(str.lower, (
  'AccelDir',
  'AccelName',
  'DataDirectory',
  'DisableAllSwap',
  'DisableDebuggerAttachment',
  'HardwareAccel',
  'HiddenServiceNonAnonymousMode',
  'HiddenServiceSingleHopMode',
  'KeepBindCapabilities',
  'PidFile',
  'RunAsDaemon',
  'Sandbox',
  'SyslogIdentityTag',
  'TokenBucketRefillInterval',
  'User',
))))

LOG_CACHE_FETCHES = True  # provide trace level logging for cache hits

# Configuration options that are fetched by a special key. The keys are
# lowercase to make case insensitive lookups easier.

MAPPED_CONFIG_KEYS = {
  'hiddenservicedir': 'HiddenServiceOptions',
  'hiddenserviceport': 'HiddenServiceOptions',
  'hiddenserviceversion': 'HiddenServiceOptions',
  'hiddenserviceauthorizeclient': 'HiddenServiceOptions',
  'hiddenserviceoptions': 'HiddenServiceOptions',
}

# unchangeable GETINFO parameters

CACHEABLE_GETINFO_PARAMS = (
  'address',
  'version',
  'config-file',
  'exit-policy/default',
  'fingerprint',
  'config/names',
  'config/defaults',
  'info/names',
  'events/names',
  'features/names',
  'process/descriptor-limit',
  'status/version/current',
)

CACHEABLE_GETINFO_PARAMS_UNTIL_SETCONF = (
  'accounting/enabled',
)

# GETCONF parameters we shouldn't cache. This includes hidden service
# perameters due to the funky way they're set and retrieved (for instance,
# 'SETCONF HiddenServiceDir' effects 'GETCONF HiddenServiceOptions').

UNCACHEABLE_GETCONF_PARAMS = (
  'hiddenserviceoptions',
  'hiddenservicedir',
  'hiddenserviceport',
  'hiddenserviceversion',
  'hiddenserviceauthorizeclient',
)

SERVER_DESCRIPTORS_UNSUPPORTED = "Tor is currently not configured to retrieve \
server descriptors. As of Tor version 0.2.3.25 it downloads microdescriptors \
instead unless you set 'UseMicrodescriptors 0' in your torrc."

EVENT_DESCRIPTIONS = None


class AccountingStats(collections.namedtuple('AccountingStats', ['retrieved', 'status', 'interval_end', 'time_until_reset', 'read_bytes', 'read_bytes_left', 'read_limit', 'written_bytes', 'write_bytes_left', 'write_limit'])):
  """
  Accounting information, determining the limits where our relay suspends
  itself.

  :var float retrieved: unix timestamp for when this was fetched
  :var str status: hibernation status of 'awake', 'soft', or 'hard'
  :var datetime interval_end: time when our limits reset
  :var int time_until_reset: seconds until our limits reset
  :var int read_bytes: number of bytes we've read relaying
  :var int read_bytes_left: number of bytes we can read until we suspend
  :var int read_limit: reading threshold where we suspend
  :var int written_bytes: number of bytes we've written relaying
  :var int write_bytes_left: number of bytes we can write until we suspend
  :var int write_limit: writing threshold where we suspend
  """


class UserTrafficAllowed(collections.namedtuple('UserTrafficAllowed', ['inbound', 'outbound'])):
  """
  Indicates if we're likely to be servicing direct user traffic or not.

  :var bool inbound: if **True** we're likely providing guard or bridge connnections
  :var bool outbound: if **True** we're likely providng exit connections
  """


class CreateHiddenServiceOutput(collections.namedtuple('CreateHiddenServiceOutput', ['path', 'hostname', 'hostname_for_client', 'config'])):
  """
  Attributes of a hidden service we've created.

  Both the **hostnames** and **hostname_for_client** attributes can only be
  provided if we're able to read the hidden service directory. If the method
  was called with **client_names** then we may provide the
  **hostname_for_client**, and otherwise can provide the **hostnames**.

  :var str path: hidden service directory
  :var str hostname: content of the hostname file if available
  :var dict hostname_for_client: mapping of client names to their onion address
    if available
  :var dict config: tor's new hidden service configuration
  """


def with_default(yields = False):
  """
  Provides a decorator to support having a default value. This should be
  treated as private.
  """

  def decorator(func):
    def get_default(func, args, kwargs):
      arg_names = inspect.getargspec(func).args[1:]  # drop 'self'
      default_position = arg_names.index('default') if 'default' in arg_names else None

      if default_position is not None and default_position < len(args):
        return args[default_position]
      else:
        return kwargs.get('default', UNDEFINED)

    if not yields:
      @functools.wraps(func)
      def wrapped(self, *args, **kwargs):
        try:
          return func(self, *args, **kwargs)
        except:
          default = get_default(func, args, kwargs)

          if default == UNDEFINED:
            raise
          else:
            return default
    else:
      @functools.wraps(func)
      def wrapped(self, *args, **kwargs):
        try:
          for val in func(self, *args, **kwargs):
            yield val
        except:
          default = get_default(func, args, kwargs)

          if default == UNDEFINED:
            raise
          else:
            if default is not None:
              for val in default:
                yield val

    return wrapped

  return decorator


def event_description(event):
  """
  Provides a description for Tor events.

  :param str event: the event for which a description is needed

  :returns: **str** The event description or **None** if this is an event name
    we don't have a description for
  """

  global EVENT_DESCRIPTIONS

  if EVENT_DESCRIPTIONS is None:
    config = stem.util.conf.Config()
    config_path = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'settings.cfg')

    try:
      config.load(config_path)
      EVENT_DESCRIPTIONS = dict([(key.lower()[18:], config.get_value(key)) for key in config.keys() if key.startswith('event.description.')])
    except Exception as exc:
      log.warn("BUG: stem failed to load its internal manual information from '%s': %s" % (config_path, exc))
      return None

  return EVENT_DESCRIPTIONS.get(event.lower())


class BaseController(object):
  """
  Controller for the tor process. This is a minimal base class for other
  controllers, providing basic process communication and event listing. Don't
  use this directly - subclasses like the :class:`~stem.control.Controller`
  provide higher level functionality.

  It's highly suggested that you don't interact directly with the
  :class:`~stem.socket.ControlSocket` that we're constructed from - use our
  wrapper methods instead.

  If the **control_socket** is already authenticated to Tor then the caller
  should provide the **is_authenticated** flag. Otherwise, we will treat the
  socket as though it hasn't yet been authenticated.
  """

  def __init__(self, control_socket, is_authenticated = False):
    self._socket = control_socket
    self._msg_lock = threading.RLock()

    self._status_listeners = []  # tuples of the form (callback, spawn_thread)
    self._status_listeners_lock = threading.RLock()

    # queues where incoming messages are directed
    self._reply_queue = queue.Queue()
    self._event_queue = queue.Queue()

    # thread to continually pull from the control socket
    self._reader_thread = None

    # thread to pull from the _event_queue and call handle_event
    self._event_notice = threading.Event()
    self._event_thread = None

    # saves our socket's prior _connect() and _close() methods so they can be
    # called along with ours

    self._socket_connect = self._socket._connect
    self._socket_close = self._socket._close

    self._socket._connect = self._connect
    self._socket._close = self._close

    self._last_heartbeat = 0.0  # timestamp for when we last heard from tor
    self._is_authenticated = False

    self._state_change_threads = []  # threads we've spawned to notify of state changes

    if self._socket.is_alive():
      self._launch_threads()

    if is_authenticated:
      self._post_authentication()

  def msg(self, message):
    """
    Sends a message to our control socket and provides back its reply.

    :param str message: message to be formatted and sent to tor

    :returns: :class:`~stem.response.ControlMessage` with the response

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ProtocolError` the content from the socket is
        malformed
      * :class:`stem.SocketError` if a problem arises in using the
        socket
      * :class:`stem.SocketClosed` if the socket is shut down
    """

    with self._msg_lock:
      # If our _reply_queue isn't empty then one of a few things happened...
      #
      # - Our connection was closed and probably re-restablished. This was
      #   in reply to pulling for an asynchronous event and getting this is
      #   expected - ignore it.
      #
      # - Pulling for asynchronous events produced an error. If this was a
      #   ProtocolError then it's a tor bug, and if a non-closure SocketError
      #   then it was probably a socket glitch. Deserves an INFO level log
      #   message.
      #
      # - This is a leftover response for a msg() call. We can't tell who an
      #   exception was earmarked for, so we only know that this was the case
      #   if it's a ControlMessage.
      #
      #   This is the most concerning situation since it indicates that one of
      #   our callers didn't get their reply. However, this is still a
      #   perfectly viable use case. For instance...
      #
      #   1. We send a request.
      #   2. The reader thread encounters an exception, for instance a socket
      #      error. We enqueue the exception.
      #   3. The reader thread receives the reply.
      #   4. We raise the socket error, and have an undelivered message.
      #
      #   Thankfully this only seems to arise in edge cases around rapidly
      #   closing/reconnecting the socket.

      while not self._reply_queue.empty():
        try:
          response = self._reply_queue.get_nowait()

          if isinstance(response, stem.SocketClosed):
            pass  # this is fine
          elif isinstance(response, stem.ProtocolError):
            log.info('Tor provided a malformed message (%s)' % response)
          elif isinstance(response, stem.ControllerError):
            log.info('Socket experienced a problem (%s)' % response)
          elif isinstance(response, stem.response.ControlMessage):
            log.info('Failed to deliver a response: %s' % response)
        except queue.Empty:
          # the empty() method is documented to not be fully reliable so this
          # isn't entirely surprising

          break

      try:
        self._socket.send(message)
        response = self._reply_queue.get()

        # If the message we received back had an exception then re-raise it to the
        # caller. Otherwise return the response.

        if isinstance(response, stem.ControllerError):
          raise response
        else:
          return response
      except stem.SocketClosed:
        # If the recv() thread caused the SocketClosed then we could still be
        # in the process of closing. Calling close() here so that we can
        # provide an assurance to the caller that when we raise a SocketClosed
        # exception we are shut down afterward for realz.

        self.close()
        raise

  def is_alive(self):
    """
    Checks if our socket is currently connected. This is a pass-through for our
    socket's :func:`~stem.socket.BaseSocket.is_alive` method.

    :returns: **bool** that's **True** if our socket is connected and **False** otherwise
    """

    return self._socket.is_alive()

  def is_localhost(self):
    """
    Returns if the connection is for the local system or not.

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :returns: **bool** that's **True** if the connection is for the local host and **False** otherwise
    """

    return self._socket.is_localhost()

  def connection_time(self):
    """
    Provides the unix timestamp for when our socket was either connected or
    disconnected. That is to say, the time we connected if we're currently
    connected and the time we disconnected if we're not connected.

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :returns: **float** for when we last connected or disconnected, zero if
      we've never connected
    """

    return self._socket.connection_time()

  def is_authenticated(self):
    """
    Checks if our socket is both connected and authenticated.

    :returns: **bool** that's **True** if our socket is authenticated to tor
      and **False** otherwise
    """

    return self._is_authenticated if self.is_alive() else False

  def connect(self):
    """
    Reconnects our control socket. This is a pass-through for our socket's
    :func:`~stem.socket.ControlSocket.connect` method.

    :raises: :class:`stem.SocketError` if unable to make a socket
    """

    self._socket.connect()

  def close(self):
    """
    Closes our socket connection. This is a pass-through for our socket's
    :func:`~stem.socket.BaseSocket.close` method.
    """

    self._socket.close()

    # Join on any outstanding state change listeners. Closing is a state change
    # of its own, so if we have any listeners it's quite likely there's some
    # work in progress.
    #
    # It's important that we do this outside of our locks so those daemons have
    # access to us. This is why we're doing this here rather than _close().

    for t in self._state_change_threads:
      if t.is_alive() and threading.current_thread() != t:
        t.join()

  def get_socket(self):
    """
    Provides the socket used to speak with the tor process. Communicating with
    the socket directly isn't advised since it may confuse this controller.

    :returns: :class:`~stem.socket.ControlSocket` we're communicating with
    """

    return self._socket

  def get_latest_heartbeat(self):
    """
    Provides the unix timestamp for when we last heard from tor. This is zero
    if we've never received a message.

    :returns: float for the unix timestamp of when we last heard from tor
    """

    return self._last_heartbeat

  def add_status_listener(self, callback, spawn = True):
    """
    Notifies a given function when the state of our socket changes. Functions
    are expected to be of the form...

    ::

      my_function(controller, state, timestamp)

    The state is a value from the :data:`stem.control.State` enum. Functions
    **must** allow for new values. The timestamp is a float for the unix time
    when the change occurred.

    This class only provides **State.INIT** and **State.CLOSED** notifications.
    Subclasses may provide others.

    If spawn is **True** then the callback is notified via a new daemon thread.
    If **False** then the notice is under our locks, within the thread where
    the change occurred. In general this isn't advised, especially if your
    callback could block for a while. If still outstanding these threads are
    joined on as part of closing this controller.

    :param function callback: function to be notified when our state changes
    :param bool spawn: calls function via a new thread if **True**, otherwise
      it's part of the connect/close method call
    """

    with self._status_listeners_lock:
      self._status_listeners.append((callback, spawn))

  def remove_status_listener(self, callback):
    """
    Stops listener from being notified of further events.

    :param function callback: function to be removed from our listeners

    :returns: **bool** that's **True** if we removed one or more occurrences of
      the callback, **False** otherwise
    """

    with self._status_listeners_lock:
      new_listeners, is_changed = [], False

      for listener, spawn in self._status_listeners:
        if listener != callback:
          new_listeners.append((listener, spawn))
        else:
          is_changed = True

      self._status_listeners = new_listeners
      return is_changed

  def __enter__(self):
    return self

  def __exit__(self, exit_type, value, traceback):
    self.close()

  def _handle_event(self, event_message):
    """
    Callback to be overwritten by subclasses for event listening. This is
    notified whenever we receive an event from the control socket.

    :param stem.response.ControlMessage event_message: message received from
      the control socket
    """

    pass

  def _connect(self):
    self._launch_threads()
    self._notify_status_listeners(State.INIT)
    self._socket_connect()
    self._is_authenticated = False

  def _close(self):
    # Our is_alive() state is now false. Our reader thread should already be
    # awake from recv() raising a closure exception. Wake up the event thread
    # too so it can end.

    self._event_notice.set()
    self._is_authenticated = False

    # joins on our threads if it's safe to do so

    for t in (self._reader_thread, self._event_thread):
      if t and t.is_alive() and threading.current_thread() != t:
        t.join()

    self._notify_status_listeners(State.CLOSED)

    self._socket_close()

  def _post_authentication(self):
    # actions to be taken after we have a newly authenticated connection

    self._is_authenticated = True

  def _notify_status_listeners(self, state):
    """
    Informs our status listeners that a state change occurred.

    :param stem.control.State state: state change that has occurred
    """

    # Any changes to our is_alive() state happen under the send lock, so we
    # need to have it to ensure it doesn't change beneath us.

    with self._socket._get_send_lock():
      with self._status_listeners_lock:
        # States imply that our socket is either alive or not, which may not
        # hold true when multiple events occur in quick succession. For
        # instance, a sighup could cause two events (State.RESET for the sighup
        # and State.CLOSE if it causes tor to crash). However, there's no
        # guarantee of the order in which they occur, and it would be bad if
        # listeners got the State.RESET last, implying that we were alive.

        expect_alive = None

        if state in (State.INIT, State.RESET):
          expect_alive = True
        elif state == State.CLOSED:
          expect_alive = False

        change_timestamp = time.time()

        if expect_alive is not None and expect_alive != self.is_alive():
          return

        self._state_change_threads = list(filter(lambda t: t.is_alive(), self._state_change_threads))

        for listener, spawn in self._status_listeners:
          if spawn:
            args = (self, state, change_timestamp)

            notice_thread = threading.Thread(target = listener, args = args, name = '%s notification' % state)
            notice_thread.setDaemon(True)
            notice_thread.start()
            self._state_change_threads.append(notice_thread)
          else:
            listener(self, state, change_timestamp)

  def _launch_threads(self):
    """
    Initializes daemon threads. Threads can't be reused so we need to recreate
    them if we're restarted.
    """

    # In theory concurrent calls could result in multiple start() calls on a
    # single thread, which would cause an unexpected exception. Best be safe.

    with self._socket._get_send_lock():
      if not self._reader_thread or not self._reader_thread.is_alive():
        self._reader_thread = threading.Thread(target = self._reader_loop, name = 'Tor listener')
        self._reader_thread.setDaemon(True)
        self._reader_thread.start()

      if not self._event_thread or not self._event_thread.is_alive():
        self._event_thread = threading.Thread(target = self._event_loop, name = 'Event notifier')
        self._event_thread.setDaemon(True)
        self._event_thread.start()

  def _reader_loop(self):
    """
    Continually pulls from the control socket, directing the messages into
    queues based on their type. Controller messages come in two varieties...

    * Responses to messages we've sent (GETINFO, SETCONF, etc).
    * Asynchronous events, identified by a status code of 650.
    """

    while self.is_alive():
      try:
        control_message = self._socket.recv()
        self._last_heartbeat = time.time()

        if control_message.content()[-1][0] == '650':
          # asynchronous message, adds to the event queue and wakes up its handler
          self._event_queue.put(control_message)
          self._event_notice.set()
        else:
          # response to a msg() call
          self._reply_queue.put(control_message)
      except stem.ControllerError as exc:
        # Assume that all exceptions belong to the reader. This isn't always
        # true, but the msg() call can do a better job of sorting it out.
        #
        # Be aware that the msg() method relies on this to unblock callers.

        self._reply_queue.put(exc)

  def _event_loop(self):
    """
    Continually pulls messages from the _event_queue and sends them to our
    handle_event callback. This is done via its own thread so subclasses with a
    lengthy handle_event implementation don't block further reading from the
    socket.
    """

    socket_closed_at = None

    while True:
      try:
        event_message = self._event_queue.get_nowait()
        self._handle_event(event_message)

        # Attempt to finish processing enqueued events when our controller closes

        if not self.is_alive():
          if not socket_closed_at:
            socket_closed_at = time.time()
          elif time.time() - socket_closed_at > EVENTS_LISTENING_TIMEOUT:
            break
      except queue.Empty:
        if not self.is_alive():
          break

        self._event_notice.wait()
        self._event_notice.clear()


class Controller(BaseController):
  """
  Connection with Tor's control socket. This is built on top of the
  BaseController and provides a more user friendly API for library users.
  """

  @staticmethod
  def from_port(address = '127.0.0.1', port = 'default'):
    """
    Constructs a :class:`~stem.socket.ControlPort` based Controller.

    If the **port** is **'default'** then this checks on both 9051 (default
    for relays) and 9151 (default for the Tor Browser). This default may change
    in the future.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.5.0
       Use both port 9051 and 9151 by default.

    :param str address: ip address of the controller
    :param int port: port number of the controller

    :returns: :class:`~stem.control.Controller` attached to the given port

    :raises: :class:`stem.SocketError` if we're unable to establish a connection
    """

    import stem.connection

    if not stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv4_address(address):
      raise ValueError('Invalid IP address: %s' % address)
    elif port != 'default' and not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(port):
      raise ValueError('Invalid port: %s' % port)

    if port == 'default':
      control_port = stem.connection._connection_for_default_port(address)
    else:
      control_port = stem.socket.ControlPort(address, port)

    return Controller(control_port)

  @staticmethod
  def from_socket_file(path = '/var/run/tor/control'):
    """
    Constructs a :class:`~stem.socket.ControlSocketFile` based Controller.

    :param str path: path where the control socket is located

    :returns: :class:`~stem.control.Controller` attached to the given socket file

    :raises: :class:`stem.SocketError` if we're unable to establish a connection
    """

    control_socket = stem.socket.ControlSocketFile(path)
    return Controller(control_socket)

  def __init__(self, control_socket, is_authenticated = False):
    self._is_caching_enabled = True
    self._request_cache = {}
    self._last_newnym = 0.0

    self._cache_lock = threading.RLock()

    # mapping of event types to their listeners

    self._event_listeners = {}
    self._event_listeners_lock = threading.RLock()
    self._enabled_features = []
    self._is_geoip_unavailable = None

    self._last_address_exc = None
    self._last_fingerprint_exc = None

    super(Controller, self).__init__(control_socket, is_authenticated)

    def _sighup_listener(event):
      if event.signal == Signal.RELOAD:
        self.clear_cache()
        self._notify_status_listeners(State.RESET)

    self.add_event_listener(_sighup_listener, EventType.SIGNAL)

    def _confchanged_listener(event):
      if self.is_caching_enabled():
        to_cache_changed = dict((k.lower(), v) for k, v in event.changed.items())
        to_cache_unset = dict((k.lower(), []) for k in event.unset)  # [] represents None value in cache

        to_cache = {}
        to_cache.update(to_cache_changed)
        to_cache.update(to_cache_unset)

        self._set_cache(to_cache, 'getconf')

        self._confchanged_cache_invalidation(to_cache)

    self.add_event_listener(_confchanged_listener, EventType.CONF_CHANGED)

    def _address_changed_listener(event):
      if event.action in ('EXTERNAL_ADDRESS', 'DNS_USELESS'):
        self._set_cache({'exit_policy': None})
        self._set_cache({'address': None}, 'getinfo')
        self._last_address_exc = None

    self.add_event_listener(_address_changed_listener, EventType.STATUS_SERVER)

  def close(self):
    self.clear_cache()
    super(Controller, self).close()

  def authenticate(self, *args, **kwargs):
    """
    A convenience method to authenticate the controller. This is just a
    pass-through to :func:`stem.connection.authenticate`.
    """

    import stem.connection
    stem.connection.authenticate(self, *args, **kwargs)

  def reconnect(self, *args, **kwargs):
    """
    Reconnects and authenticates to our control socket.

    .. versionadded:: 1.5.0

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.SocketError` if unable to re-establish socket
      * :class:`stem.connection.AuthenticationFailure` if unable to authenticate
    """

    with self._msg_lock:
      self.connect()
      self.clear_cache()
      self.authenticate(*args, **kwargs)

  @with_default()
  def get_info(self, params, default = UNDEFINED, get_bytes = False):
    """
    get_info(params, default = UNDEFINED, get_bytes = False)

    Queries the control socket for the given GETINFO option. If provided a
    default then that's returned if the GETINFO option is undefined or the
    call fails for any reason (error response, control port closed, initiated,
    etc).

    .. versionchanged:: 1.1.0
       Added the get_bytes argument.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Errors commonly provided a :class:`stem.ProtocolError` when we should
       raise a :class:`stem.OperationFailed`.

    :param str,list params: GETINFO option or options to be queried
    :param object default: response if the query fails
    :param bool get_bytes: provides **bytes** values rather than a **str** under python 3.x

    :returns:
      Response depends upon how we were called as follows...

      * **str** with the response if our param was a **str**
      * **dict** with the 'param => response' mapping if our param was a **list**
      * default if one was provided and our call failed

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and we weren't
        provided a default response
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if the 'params' requested was
        invalid
      * :class:`stem.ProtocolError` if the geoip database is unavailable
    """

    start_time = time.time()
    reply = {}

    if stem.util._is_str(params):
      is_multiple = False
      params = set([params])
    else:
      if not params:
        return {}

      is_multiple = True
      params = set(params)

    for param in params:
      if param.startswith('ip-to-country/') and param != 'ip-to-country/0.0.0.0' and self.is_geoip_unavailable():
        raise stem.ProtocolError('Tor geoip database is unavailable')
      elif param == 'address' and self._last_address_exc:
        raise self._last_address_exc  # we already know we can't resolve an address
      elif param == 'fingerprint' and self._last_fingerprint_exc and self.get_conf('ORPort', None) is None:
        raise self._last_fingerprint_exc  # we already know we're not a relay

    # check for cached results

    from_cache = [param.lower() for param in params]
    cached_results = self._get_cache_map(from_cache, 'getinfo')

    for key in cached_results:
      user_expected_key = _case_insensitive_lookup(params, key)
      reply[user_expected_key] = cached_results[key]
      params.remove(user_expected_key)

    # if everything was cached then short circuit making the query
    if not params:
      if LOG_CACHE_FETCHES:
        log.trace('GETINFO %s (cache fetch)' % ' '.join(reply.keys()))

      if is_multiple:
        return reply
      else:
        return list(reply.values())[0]

    try:
      response = self.msg('GETINFO %s' % ' '.join(params))
      stem.response.convert('GETINFO', response)
      response._assert_matches(params)

      # usually we want unicode values under python 3.x

      if stem.prereq.is_python_3() and not get_bytes:
        response.entries = dict((k, stem.util.str_tools._to_unicode(v)) for (k, v) in response.entries.items())

      reply.update(response.entries)

      if self.is_caching_enabled():
        to_cache = {}

        for key, value in response.entries.items():
          key = key.lower()  # make case insensitive

          if key in CACHEABLE_GETINFO_PARAMS or key in CACHEABLE_GETINFO_PARAMS_UNTIL_SETCONF:
            to_cache[key] = value
          elif key.startswith('ip-to-country/'):
            to_cache[key] = value

        self._set_cache(to_cache, 'getinfo')

      if 'address' in params:
        self._last_address_exc = None

      if 'fingerprint' in params:
        self._last_fingerprint_exc = None

      log.debug('GETINFO %s (runtime: %0.4f)' % (' '.join(params), time.time() - start_time))

      if is_multiple:
        return reply
      else:
        return list(reply.values())[0]
    except stem.ControllerError as exc:
      if 'address' in params:
        self._last_address_exc = exc

      if 'fingerprint' in params:
        self._last_fingerprint_exc = exc

      log.debug('GETINFO %s (failed: %s)' % (' '.join(params), exc))
      raise

  @with_default()
  def get_version(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_version(default = UNDEFINED)

    A convenience method to get tor version that current controller is
    connected to.

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.version.Version` of the tor instance that we're
      connected to

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query the version
      * **ValueError** if unable to parse the version

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    version = self._get_cache('version')

    if not version:
      version_str = self.get_info('version')
      version = stem.version.Version(version_str[4:] if version_str.startswith('Tor ') else version_str)
      self._set_cache({'version': version})

    return version

  @with_default()
  def get_exit_policy(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_exit_policy(default = UNDEFINED)

    Effective ExitPolicy for our relay.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Policies retrieved through 'GETINFO exit-policy/full' rather than
       parsing the user's torrc entries. This should be more reliable for
       some edge cases. (:trac:`25739`)

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.exit_policy.ExitPolicy` of the tor instance that
      we're connected to

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query the policy
      * **ValueError** if unable to parse the policy

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    policy = self._get_cache('exit_policy')

    if not policy:
      try:
        policy = stem.exit_policy.ExitPolicy(*self.get_info('exit-policy/full').splitlines())
        self._set_cache({'exit_policy': policy})
      except stem.OperationFailed:
        # There's a few situations where 'GETINFO exit-policy/full' will fail,
        # most commonly...
        #
        #   * Error 551: Descriptor still rebuilding - not ready yet
        #
        #     Tor hasn't yet finished making our server descriptor. This often
        #     arises when tor has first started.
        #
        #   * Error 552: Not running in server mode
        #
        #     We're not configured to be a relay (no ORPort), or haven't yet
        #     been able to determine our externally facing IP address.
        #
        # When these arise best we can do is infer our policy from the torrc.
        # Skipping caching so we'll retry GETINFO policy resolution next time
        # we're called.

        rules = []

        if self.get_conf('ExitRelay') == '0':
          rules.append('reject *:*')

        if self.get_conf('ExitPolicyRejectPrivate') == '1':
          rules.append('reject private:*')

        for policy_line in self.get_conf('ExitPolicy', multiple = True):
          rules += policy_line.split(',')

        rules += self.get_info('exit-policy/default').split(',')

        policy = stem.exit_policy.get_config_policy(rules, self.get_info('address', None))

    return policy

  @with_default()
  def get_ports(self, listener_type, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_ports(listener_type, default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the local ports where tor is listening for the given type of
    connections. This is similar to
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_listeners`, but doesn't provide
    addresses nor include non-local endpoints.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2.0

    :param stem.control.Listener listener_type: connection type being handled
      by the ports we return
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: **list** of **ints** for the local ports where tor handles
      connections of the given type

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to determine the ports
      and no default was provided
    """

    def is_localhost(address):
      if stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv4_address(address):
        return address == '0.0.0.0' or address.startswith('127.')
      elif stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv6_address(address):
        return stem.util.connection.expand_ipv6_address(address) in (
          '0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000',
          '0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001',
        )
      else:
        log.info("Request for %s ports got an address that's neither IPv4 or IPv6: %s" % (listener_type, address))
        return False

    return [port for (addr, port) in self.get_listeners(listener_type) if is_localhost(addr)]

  @with_default()
  def get_listeners(self, listener_type, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_listeners(listener_type, default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the addresses and ports where tor is listening for connections of
    the given type. This is similar to
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_ports` but includes listener addresses
    and non-local endpoints.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2.0

    .. versionchanged:: 1.5.0
       Recognize listeners with IPv6 addresses.

    :param stem.control.Listener listener_type: connection type being handled
      by the listeners we return
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: **list** of **(address, port)** tuples for the available
      listeners

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to determine the listeners
      and no default was provided
    """

    listeners = self._get_cache(listener_type, 'listeners')

    if listeners is None:
      proxy_addrs = []
      query = 'net/listeners/%s' % listener_type.lower()

      try:
        for listener in self.get_info(query).split():
          if not (listener.startswith('"') and listener.endswith('"')):
            raise stem.ProtocolError("'GETINFO %s' responses are expected to be quoted: %s" % (query, listener))
          elif ':' not in listener:
            raise stem.ProtocolError("'GETINFO %s' had a listener without a colon: %s" % (query, listener))

          listener = listener[1:-1]  # strip quotes
          addr, port = listener.rsplit(':', 1)

          # Skip unix sockets, for instance...
          #
          # GETINFO net/listeners/control
          # 250-net/listeners/control="unix:/tmp/tor/socket"
          # 250 OK

          if addr == 'unix':
            continue

          if addr.startswith('[') and addr.endswith(']'):
            addr = addr[1:-1]  # unbracket ipv6 address

          proxy_addrs.append((addr, port))
      except stem.InvalidArguments:
        # Tor version is old (pre-tor-0.2.2.26-beta), use get_conf() instead.
        # Some options (like the ORPort) can have optional attributes after the
        # actual port number.

        port_option = {
          Listener.OR: 'ORPort',
          Listener.DIR: 'DirPort',
          Listener.SOCKS: 'SocksPort',
          Listener.TRANS: 'TransPort',
          Listener.NATD: 'NatdPort',
          Listener.DNS: 'DNSPort',
          Listener.CONTROL: 'ControlPort',
        }[listener_type]

        listener_option = {
          Listener.OR: 'ORListenAddress',
          Listener.DIR: 'DirListenAddress',
          Listener.SOCKS: 'SocksListenAddress',
          Listener.TRANS: 'TransListenAddress',
          Listener.NATD: 'NatdListenAddress',
          Listener.DNS: 'DNSListenAddress',
          Listener.CONTROL: 'ControlListenAddress',
        }[listener_type]

        port_value = self.get_conf(port_option).split()[0]

        for listener in self.get_conf(listener_option, multiple = True):
          if ':' in listener:
            addr, port = listener.rsplit(':', 1)

            if addr.startswith('[') and addr.endswith(']'):
              addr = addr[1:-1]  # unbracket ipv6 address

            proxy_addrs.append((addr, port))
          else:
            proxy_addrs.append((listener, port_value))

      # validate that address/ports are valid, and convert ports to ints

      for addr, port in proxy_addrs:
        if not stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv4_address(addr) and not stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv6_address(addr):
          raise stem.ProtocolError('Invalid address for a %s listener: %s' % (listener_type, addr))
        elif not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(port):
          raise stem.ProtocolError('Invalid port for a %s listener: %s' % (listener_type, port))

      listeners = [(addr, int(port)) for (addr, port) in proxy_addrs]
      self._set_cache({listener_type: listeners}, 'listeners')

    return listeners

  @with_default()
  def get_accounting_stats(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_accounting_stats(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides stats related to our relaying limitations if AccountingMax was set
    in our torrc.

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.control.AccountingStats` with our accounting stats

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to determine the listeners
      and no default was provided
    """

    if self.get_info('accounting/enabled') != '1':
      raise stem.ControllerError("Accounting isn't enabled")

    retrieved = time.time()
    status = self.get_info('accounting/hibernating')
    interval_end = self.get_info('accounting/interval-end')
    used = self.get_info('accounting/bytes')
    left = self.get_info('accounting/bytes-left')

    interval_end = stem.util.str_tools._parse_timestamp(interval_end)
    used_read, used_written = [int(val) for val in used.split(' ', 1)]
    left_read, left_written = [int(val) for val in left.split(' ', 1)]

    return AccountingStats(
      retrieved = retrieved,
      status = status,
      interval_end = interval_end,
      time_until_reset = calendar.timegm(interval_end.timetuple()) - int(retrieved),
      read_bytes = used_read,
      read_bytes_left = left_read,
      read_limit = used_read + left_read,
      written_bytes = used_written,
      write_bytes_left = left_written,
      write_limit = used_written + left_written,
    )

  def get_socks_listeners(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    Provides the SOCKS **(address, port)** tuples that tor has open.

    .. deprecated:: 1.2.0
       Use :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_listeners` with
       **Listener.SOCKS** instead.

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: list of **(address, port)** tuples for the available SOCKS
      listeners

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to determine the listeners
      and no default was provided
    """

    return self.get_listeners(Listener.SOCKS, default)

  @with_default()
  def get_protocolinfo(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_protocolinfo(default = UNDEFINED)

    A convenience method to get the protocol info of the controller.

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.response.protocolinfo.ProtocolInfoResponse` provided by tor

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ProtocolError` if the PROTOCOLINFO response is
        malformed
      * :class:`stem.SocketError` if problems arise in establishing or
        using the socket

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    import stem.connection
    return stem.connection.get_protocolinfo(self)

  @with_default()
  def get_user(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_user(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the user tor is running as. This often only works if tor is
    running locally. Also, most of its checks are platform dependent, and hence
    are not entirely reliable.

    .. versionadded:: 1.1.0

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: str with the username tor is running as
    """

    user = self._get_cache('user')

    if not user:
      user = self.get_info('process/user', None)

    if not user and self.is_localhost():
      pid = self.get_pid(None)

      if pid:
        user = stem.util.system.user(pid)

    if user:
      self._set_cache({'user': user})
      return user
    else:
      raise ValueError("Unable to resolve tor's user" if self.is_localhost() else "Tor isn't running locally")

  @with_default()
  def get_pid(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_pid(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the process id of tor. This often only works if tor is running
    locally. Also, most of its checks are platform dependent, and hence are not
    entirely reliable.

    .. versionadded:: 1.1.0

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: **int** for tor's pid

    :raises: **ValueError** if unable to determine the pid and no default was
      provided
    """

    pid = self._get_cache('pid')

    if not pid:
      getinfo_pid = self.get_info('process/pid', None)

      if getinfo_pid and getinfo_pid.isdigit():
        pid = int(getinfo_pid)

    if not pid and self.is_localhost():
      pid_file_path = self.get_conf('PidFile', None)

      if pid_file_path is not None:
        with open(pid_file_path) as pid_file:
          pid_file_contents = pid_file.read().strip()

          if pid_file_contents.isdigit():
            pid = int(pid_file_contents)

      if not pid:
        pid = stem.util.system.pid_by_name('tor')

      if not pid:
        control_socket = self.get_socket()

        if isinstance(control_socket, stem.socket.ControlPort):
          pid = stem.util.system.pid_by_port(control_socket.port)
        elif isinstance(control_socket, stem.socket.ControlSocketFile):
          pid = stem.util.system.pid_by_open_file(control_socket.path)

    if pid:
      self._set_cache({'pid': pid})
      return pid
    else:
      raise ValueError("Unable to resolve tor's pid" if self.is_localhost() else "Tor isn't running locally")

  def is_user_traffic_allowed(self):
    """
    Checks if we're likely to service direct user traffic. This essentially
    boils down to...

      * If we're a bridge or guard relay, inbound connections are possibly from
        users.

      * If our exit policy allows traffic then output connections are possibly
        from users.

    Note the word 'likely'. These is a decent guess in practice, but not always
    correct. For instance, information about which flags we have are only
    fetched periodically.

    This method is intended to help you avoid eavesdropping on user traffic.
    Monitoring user connections is not only unethical, but likely a violation
    of wiretapping laws.

    .. versionadded:: 1.5.0

    :returns: :class:`~stem.cotroller.UserTrafficAllowed` with **inbound** and
      **outbound** boolean attributes to indicate if we're likely servicing
      direct user traffic
    """

    inbound_allowed, outbound_allowed = False, False

    if self.get_conf('BridgeRelay', None) == '1':
      inbound_allowed = True

    if self.get_conf('ORPort', None):
      if not inbound_allowed:
        consensus_entry = self.get_network_status(default = None)
        inbound_allowed = consensus_entry and 'Guard' in consensus_entry.flags

      exit_policy = self.get_exit_policy(None)
      outbound_allowed = exit_policy and exit_policy.is_exiting_allowed()

    return UserTrafficAllowed(inbound_allowed, outbound_allowed)

  @with_default()
  def get_microdescriptor(self, relay = None, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_microdescriptor(relay = None, default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the microdescriptor for the relay with the given fingerprint or
    nickname. If the relay identifier could be either a fingerprint *or*
    nickname then it's queried as a fingerprint.

    If no **relay** is provided then this defaults to ourselves. Remember that
    this requires that we've retrieved our own descriptor from remote
    authorities so this both won't be available for newly started relays and
    may be up to around an hour out of date.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.3.0
       Changed so we'd fetch our own descriptor if no 'relay' is provided.

    :param str relay: fingerprint or nickname of the relay to be queried
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.descriptor.microdescriptor.Microdescriptor` for the given relay

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.DescriptorUnavailable` if unable to provide a descriptor
        for the given relay
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query the descriptor
      * **ValueError** if **relay** doesn't conform with the pattern for being
        a fingerprint or nickname

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    if relay is None:
      try:
        relay = self.get_info('fingerprint')
      except stem.ControllerError as exc:
        raise stem.ControllerError('Unable to determine our own fingerprint: %s' % exc)

    if stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_fingerprint(relay):
      query = 'md/id/%s' % relay
    elif stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_nickname(relay):
      query = 'md/name/%s' % relay
    else:
      raise ValueError("'%s' isn't a valid fingerprint or nickname" % relay)

    try:
      desc_content = self.get_info(query, get_bytes = True)
    except stem.InvalidArguments as exc:
      if str(exc).startswith('GETINFO request contained unrecognized keywords:'):
        raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable("Tor was unable to provide the descriptor for '%s'" % relay)
      else:
        raise

    if not desc_content:
      raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Descriptor information is unavailable, tor might still be downloading it')

    return stem.descriptor.microdescriptor.Microdescriptor(desc_content)

  @with_default(yields = True)
  def get_microdescriptors(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_microdescriptors(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides an iterator for all of the microdescriptors that tor currently
    knows about.

    Prior to Tor 0.3.5.1 this information was not available via the control
    protocol. When connected to prior versions we read the microdescriptors
    directly from disk instead, which will not work remotely or if our process
    lacks read permissions.

    :param list default: items to provide if the query fails

    :returns: iterates over
      :class:`~stem.descriptor.microdescriptor.Microdescriptor` for relays in
      the tor network

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query tor and no
      default was provided
    """

    if self.get_version() >= stem.version.Requirement.GETINFO_MICRODESCRIPTORS:
      desc_content = self.get_info('md/all', get_bytes = True)

      if not desc_content:
        raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Descriptor information is unavailable, tor might still be downloading it')

      for desc in stem.descriptor.microdescriptor._parse_file(io.BytesIO(desc_content)):
        yield desc
    else:
      # TODO: remove when tor versions that require this are obsolete

      try:
        data_directory = self.get_conf('DataDirectory')
      except stem.ControllerError as exc:
        raise stem.OperationFailed(message = 'Unable to determine the data directory (%s)' % exc)

      cached_descriptor_path = os.path.join(data_directory, 'cached-microdescs')

      if not os.path.exists(data_directory):
        raise stem.OperationFailed(message = "Data directory reported by tor doesn't exist (%s)" % data_directory)
      elif not os.path.exists(cached_descriptor_path):
        raise stem.OperationFailed(message = "Data directory doesn't contain cached microdescriptors (%s)" % cached_descriptor_path)

      with stem.descriptor.reader.DescriptorReader([cached_descriptor_path]) as reader:
        for desc in reader:
          # It shouldn't be possible for these to be something other than
          # microdescriptors but as the saying goes: trust but verify.

          if not isinstance(desc, stem.descriptor.microdescriptor.Microdescriptor):
            raise stem.OperationFailed(message = 'BUG: Descriptor reader provided non-microdescriptor content (%s)' % type(desc))

          yield desc

  @with_default()
  def get_server_descriptor(self, relay = None, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_server_descriptor(relay = None, default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the server descriptor for the relay with the given fingerprint or
    nickname. If the relay identifier could be either a fingerprint *or*
    nickname then it's queried as a fingerprint.

    If no **relay** is provided then this defaults to ourselves. Remember that
    this requires that we've retrieved our own descriptor from remote
    authorities so this both won't be available for newly started relays and
    may be up to around an hour out of date.

    **As of Tor version 0.2.3.25 relays no longer get server descriptors by
    default.** It's advised that you use microdescriptors instead, but if you
    really need server descriptors then you can get them by setting
    'UseMicrodescriptors 0'.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.3.0
       Changed so we'd fetch our own descriptor if no 'relay' is provided.

    :param str relay: fingerprint or nickname of the relay to be queried
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.descriptor.server_descriptor.RelayDescriptor` for the given relay

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.DescriptorUnavailable` if unable to provide a descriptor
        for the given relay
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query the descriptor
      * **ValueError** if **relay** doesn't conform with the pattern for being
        a fingerprint or nickname

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    try:
      if relay is None:
        try:
          relay = self.get_info('fingerprint')
        except stem.ControllerError as exc:
          raise stem.ControllerError('Unable to determine our own fingerprint: %s' % exc)

      if stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_fingerprint(relay):
        query = 'desc/id/%s' % relay
      elif stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_nickname(relay):
        query = 'desc/name/%s' % relay
      else:
        raise ValueError("'%s' isn't a valid fingerprint or nickname" % relay)

      try:
        desc_content = self.get_info(query, get_bytes = True)
      except stem.InvalidArguments as exc:
        if str(exc).startswith('GETINFO request contained unrecognized keywords:'):
          raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable("Tor was unable to provide the descriptor for '%s'" % relay)
        else:
          raise

      if not desc_content:
        raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Descriptor information is unavailable, tor might still be downloading it')

      return stem.descriptor.server_descriptor.RelayDescriptor(desc_content)
    except:
      if not self._is_server_descriptors_available():
        raise ValueError(SERVER_DESCRIPTORS_UNSUPPORTED)

      raise

  @with_default(yields = True)
  def get_server_descriptors(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_server_descriptors(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides an iterator for all of the server descriptors that tor currently
    knows about.

    **As of Tor version 0.2.3.25 relays no longer get server descriptors by
    default.** It's advised that you use microdescriptors instead, but if you
    really need server descriptors then you can get them by setting
    'UseMicrodescriptors 0'.

    :param list default: items to provide if the query fails

    :returns: iterates over
      :class:`~stem.descriptor.server_descriptor.RelayDescriptor` for relays in
      the tor network

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query tor and no
      default was provided
    """

    # TODO: We should iterate over the descriptors as they're read from the
    # socket rather than reading the whole thing into memory.
    #
    # https://trac.torproject.org/8248

    desc_content = self.get_info('desc/all-recent', get_bytes = True)

    if not desc_content:
      if not self._is_server_descriptors_available():
        raise stem.ControllerError(SERVER_DESCRIPTORS_UNSUPPORTED)
      else:
        raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Descriptor information is unavailable, tor might still be downloading it')

    for desc in stem.descriptor.server_descriptor._parse_file(io.BytesIO(desc_content)):
      yield desc

  def _is_server_descriptors_available(self):
    """
    Checks to see if tor server descriptors should be available or not.
    """

    # TODO: Replace with a 'GETINFO desc/download-enabled' request when they're
    # widely available...
    #
    #   https://gitweb.torproject.org/torspec.git/commit/?id=378699c

    return self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.MICRODESCRIPTOR_IS_DEFAULT or \
           self.get_conf('UseMicrodescriptors', None) == '0'

  @with_default()
  def get_network_status(self, relay = None, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_network_status(relay = None, default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the router status entry for the relay with the given fingerprint
    or nickname. If the relay identifier could be either a fingerprint *or*
    nickname then it's queried as a fingerprint.

    If no **relay** is provided then this defaults to ourselves. Remember that
    this requires that we've retrieved our own descriptor from remote
    authorities so this both won't be available for newly started relays and
    may be up to around an hour out of date.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.3.0
       Changed so we'd fetch our own descriptor if no 'relay' is provided.

    :param str relay: fingerprint or nickname of the relay to be queried
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`~stem.descriptor.router_status_entry.RouterStatusEntryV3`
      for the given relay

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.DescriptorUnavailable` if unable to provide a descriptor
        for the given relay
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query the descriptor
      * **ValueError** if **relay** doesn't conform with the pattern for being
        a fingerprint or nickname

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    if relay is None:
      try:
        relay = self.get_info('fingerprint')
      except stem.ControllerError as exc:
        raise stem.ControllerError('Unable to determine our own fingerprint: %s' % exc)

    if stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_fingerprint(relay):
      query = 'ns/id/%s' % relay
    elif stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_nickname(relay):
      query = 'ns/name/%s' % relay
    else:
      raise ValueError("'%s' isn't a valid fingerprint or nickname" % relay)

    try:
      desc_content = self.get_info(query, get_bytes = True)
    except stem.InvalidArguments as exc:
      if str(exc).startswith('GETINFO request contained unrecognized keywords:'):
        raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable("Tor was unable to provide the descriptor for '%s'" % relay)
      else:
        raise

    if not desc_content:
      raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Descriptor information is unavailable, tor might still be downloading it')

    return stem.descriptor.router_status_entry.RouterStatusEntryV3(desc_content)

  @with_default(yields = True)
  def get_network_statuses(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_network_statuses(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides an iterator for all of the router status entries that tor
    currently knows about.

    :param list default: items to provide if the query fails

    :returns: iterates over
      :class:`~stem.descriptor.router_status_entry.RouterStatusEntryV3` for
      relays in the tor network

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query tor and no
      default was provided
    """

    # TODO: We should iterate over the descriptors as they're read from the
    # socket rather than reading the whole thing into memory.
    #
    # https://trac.torproject.org/8248

    desc_content = self.get_info('ns/all', get_bytes = True)

    if not desc_content:
      raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Descriptor information is unavailable, tor might still be downloading it')

    desc_iterator = stem.descriptor.router_status_entry._parse_file(
      io.BytesIO(desc_content),
      False,
      entry_class = stem.descriptor.router_status_entry.RouterStatusEntryV3,
    )

    for desc in desc_iterator:
      yield desc

  @with_default()
  def get_hidden_service_descriptor(self, address, default = UNDEFINED, servers = None, await_result = True, timeout = None):
    """
    get_hidden_service_descriptor(address, default = UNDEFINED, servers = None, await_result = True)

    Provides the descriptor for a hidden service. The **address** is the
    '.onion' address of the hidden service (for instance 3g2upl4pq6kufc4m.onion
    for DuckDuckGo).

    If **await_result** is **True** then this blocks until we either receive
    the descriptor or the request fails. If **False** this returns right away.

    **This method only supports v2 hidden services, not v3.** (:trac:`25417`)

    .. versionadded:: 1.4.0

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Added the timeout argument.

    :param str address: address of the hidden service descriptor, the '.onion' suffix is optional
    :param object default: response if the query fails
    :param list servers: requrest the descriptor from these specific servers
    :param float timeout: seconds to wait when **await_result** is **True**

    :returns: :class:`~stem.descriptor.hidden_service_descriptor.HiddenServiceDescriptor`
      for the given service if **await_result** is **True**, or **None** otherwise

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.DescriptorUnavailable` if **await_result** is **True** and
        unable to provide a descriptor for the given service
      * :class:`stem.Timeout` if **timeout** was reached
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to query the descriptor
      * **ValueError** if **address** doesn't conform with the pattern of a
        hidden service address

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    if address.endswith('.onion'):
      address = address[:-6]

    if not stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_hidden_service_address(address):
      raise ValueError("'%s.onion' isn't a valid hidden service address" % address)

    if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.HSFETCH:
      raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'HSFETCH was added in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.HSFETCH)

    hs_desc_queue, hs_desc_listener = queue.Queue(), None
    hs_desc_content_queue, hs_desc_content_listener = queue.Queue(), None
    start_time = time.time()

    if await_result:
      def hs_desc_listener(event):
        hs_desc_queue.put(event)

      def hs_desc_content_listener(event):
        hs_desc_content_queue.put(event)

      self.add_event_listener(hs_desc_listener, EventType.HS_DESC)
      self.add_event_listener(hs_desc_content_listener, EventType.HS_DESC_CONTENT)

    try:
      request = 'HSFETCH %s' % address

      if servers:
        request += ' ' + ' '.join(['SERVER=%s' % s for s in servers])

      response = self.msg(request)
      stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

      if not response.is_ok():
        raise stem.ProtocolError('HSFETCH returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

      if not await_result:
        return None  # not waiting, so nothing to provide back
      else:
        while True:
          event = _get_with_timeout(hs_desc_content_queue, timeout, start_time)

          if event.address == address:
            if event.descriptor:
              return event.descriptor
            else:
              # no descriptor, looking through HS_DESC to figure out why

              while True:
                event = _get_with_timeout(hs_desc_queue, timeout, start_time)

                if event.address == address and event.action == stem.HSDescAction.FAILED:
                  if event.reason == stem.HSDescReason.NOT_FOUND:
                    raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('No running hidden service at %s.onion' % address)
                  else:
                    raise stem.DescriptorUnavailable('Unable to retrieve the descriptor for %s.onion (retrieved from %s): %s' % (address, event.directory_fingerprint, event.reason))
    finally:
      if hs_desc_listener:
        self.remove_event_listener(hs_desc_listener)

      if hs_desc_content_listener:
        self.remove_event_listener(hs_desc_content_listener)

  def get_conf(self, param, default = UNDEFINED, multiple = False):
    """
    get_conf(param, default = UNDEFINED, multiple = False)

    Queries the current value for a configuration option. Some configuration
    options (like the ExitPolicy) can have multiple values. This provides a
    **list** with all of the values if **multiple** is **True**. Otherwise this
    will be a **str** with the first value.

    If provided with a **default** then that is provided if the configuration
    option was unset or the query fails (invalid configuration option, error
    response, control port closed, initiated, etc).

    If the configuration value is unset and no **default** was given then this
    provides **None** if **multiple** was **False** and an empty list if it was
    **True**.

    :param str param: configuration option to be queried
    :param object default: response if the option is unset or the query fails
    :param bool multiple: if **True** then provides a list with all of the
      present values (this is an empty list if the config option is unset)

    :returns:
      Response depends upon how we were called as follows...

      * **str** with the configuration value if **multiple** was **False**,
        **None** if it was unset
      * **list** with the response strings if multiple was **True**
      * default if one was provided and the configuration option was either
        unset or our call failed

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and we weren't
        provided a default response
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if the configuration option
        requested was invalid
    """

    # Config options are case insensitive and don't contain whitespace. Using
    # strip so the following check will catch whitespace-only params.

    param = param.lower().strip()

    if not param:
      return default if default != UNDEFINED else None

    entries = self.get_conf_map(param, default, multiple)
    return _case_insensitive_lookup(entries, param, default)

  def get_conf_map(self, params, default = UNDEFINED, multiple = True):
    """
    get_conf_map(params, default = UNDEFINED, multiple = True)

    Similar to :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_conf` but queries multiple
    configuration options, providing back a mapping of those options to their
    values.

    There are three use cases for GETCONF:

      1. a single value is provided (e.g. **ControlPort**)
      2. multiple values are provided for the option (e.g. **ExitPolicy**)
      3. a set of options that weren't necessarily requested are returned (for
         instance querying **HiddenServiceOptions** gives **HiddenServiceDir**,
         **HiddenServicePort**, etc)

    The vast majority of the options fall into the first two categories, in
    which case calling :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_conf` is sufficient.
    However, for batch queries or the special options that give a set of values
    this provides back the full response. As of tor version 0.2.1.25
    **HiddenServiceOptions** was the only option that falls into the third
    category.

    **Note:** HiddenServiceOptions are best retrieved via the
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_hidden_service_conf` method instead.

    :param str,list params: configuration option(s) to be queried
    :param object default: value for the mappings if the configuration option
      is either undefined or the query fails
    :param bool multiple: if **True** then the values provided are lists with
      all of the present values

    :returns:
      **dict** of the 'config key => value' mappings. The value is a...

      * **str** if **multiple** is **False**, **None** if the configuration
        option is unset
      * **list** if **multiple** is **True**
      * the **default** if it was set and the value was either undefined or our
        lookup failed

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and we weren't provided
        a default response
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if the configuration option requested
        was invalid
    """

    start_time = time.time()
    reply = {}

    if stem.util._is_str(params):
      params = [params]

    # remove strings which contain only whitespace
    params = [entry for entry in params if entry.strip()]

    if params == []:
      return {}

    # translate context sensitive options
    lookup_params = set([MAPPED_CONFIG_KEYS.get(entry, entry) for entry in params])

    # check for cached results

    from_cache = [param.lower() for param in lookup_params]
    cached_results = self._get_cache_map(from_cache, 'getconf')

    for key in cached_results:
      user_expected_key = _case_insensitive_lookup(lookup_params, key)
      reply[user_expected_key] = cached_results[key]
      lookup_params.remove(user_expected_key)

    # if everything was cached then short circuit making the query
    if not lookup_params:
      if LOG_CACHE_FETCHES:
        log.trace('GETCONF %s (cache fetch)' % ' '.join(reply.keys()))

      return self._get_conf_dict_to_response(reply, default, multiple)

    try:
      response = self.msg('GETCONF %s' % ' '.join(lookup_params))
      stem.response.convert('GETCONF', response)
      reply.update(response.entries)

      if self.is_caching_enabled():
        to_cache = dict((k.lower(), v) for k, v in response.entries.items())

        self._set_cache(to_cache, 'getconf')

      # Maps the entries back to the parameters that the user requested so the
      # capitalization matches (ie, if they request "exitpolicy" then that
      # should be the key rather than "ExitPolicy"). When the same
      # configuration key is provided multiple times this determines the case
      # based on the first and ignores the rest.
      #
      # This retains the tor provided camel casing of MAPPED_CONFIG_KEYS
      # entries since the user didn't request those by their key, so we can't
      # be sure what they wanted.

      for key in reply:
        if not key.lower() in MAPPED_CONFIG_KEYS.values():
          user_expected_key = _case_insensitive_lookup(params, key, key)

          if key != user_expected_key:
            reply[user_expected_key] = reply[key]
            del reply[key]

      log.debug('GETCONF %s (runtime: %0.4f)' % (' '.join(lookup_params), time.time() - start_time))
      return self._get_conf_dict_to_response(reply, default, multiple)
    except stem.ControllerError as exc:
      log.debug('GETCONF %s (failed: %s)' % (' '.join(lookup_params), exc))

      if default != UNDEFINED:
        return dict((param, default) for param in params)
      else:
        raise

  def _get_conf_dict_to_response(self, config_dict, default, multiple):
    """
    Translates a dictionary of 'config key => [value1, value2...]' into the
    return value of :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_conf_map`, taking into
    account what the caller requested.
    """

    return_dict = {}

    for key, values in list(config_dict.items()):
      if values == []:
        # config option was unset
        if default != UNDEFINED:
          return_dict[key] = default
        else:
          return_dict[key] = [] if multiple else None
      else:
        return_dict[key] = values if multiple else values[0]

    return return_dict

  @with_default()
  def is_set(self, param, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    is_set(param, default = UNDEFINED)

    Checks if a configuration option differs from its default or not.

    .. versionadded:: 1.5.0

    :param str param: configuration option to check
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: **True** if option differs from its default and **False**
      otherwise

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and we weren't
      provided a default response
    """

    return param in self._get_custom_options()

  def _get_custom_options(self):
    result = self._get_cache('get_custom_options')

    if not result:
      config_lines = self.get_info('config-text').splitlines()

      # Tor provides some config options even if they haven't been set...
      #
      # https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/2362
      # https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/17909

      default_lines = (
        'Log notice stdout',
        'Log notice file /var/log/tor/log',
        'DataDirectory /home/%s/.tor' % self.get_user('undefined'),
        'HiddenServiceStatistics 0',
      )

      for line in default_lines:
        if line in config_lines:
          config_lines.remove(line)

      result = dict([line.split(' ', 1) for line in config_lines])
      self._set_cache({'get_custom_options': result})

    return result

  def set_conf(self, param, value):
    """
    Changes the value of a tor configuration option. Our value can be any of
    the following...

    * a string to set a single value
    * a list of strings to set a series of values (for instance the ExitPolicy)
    * None to either set the value to 0/NULL

    :param str param: configuration option to be set
    :param str,list value: value to set the parameter to

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if configuration options
        requested was invalid
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the configuration setting is
        impossible or if there's a syntax error in the configuration values
    """

    self.set_options({param: value}, False)

  def reset_conf(self, *params):
    """
    Reverts one or more parameters to their default values.

    :param str params: configuration option to be reset

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if configuration options requested was invalid
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the configuration setting is
        impossible or if there's a syntax error in the configuration values
    """

    self.set_options(dict([(entry, None) for entry in params]), True)

  def set_options(self, params, reset = False):
    """
    Changes multiple tor configuration options via either a SETCONF or
    RESETCONF query. Both behave identically unless our value is None, in which
    case SETCONF sets the value to 0 or NULL, and RESETCONF returns it to its
    default value. This accepts str, list, or None values in a similar fashion
    to :func:`~stem.control.Controller.set_conf`. For example...

    ::

      my_controller.set_options({
        'Nickname': 'caerSidi',
        'ExitPolicy': ['accept *:80', 'accept *:443', 'reject *:*'],
        'ContactInfo': 'caerSidi-exit@someplace.com',
        'Log': None,
      })

    The params can optionally be a list of key/value tuples, though the only
    reason this type of argument would be useful is for hidden service
    configuration (those options are order dependent).

    :param dict,list params: mapping of configuration options to the values
      we're setting it to
    :param bool reset: issues a RESETCONF, returning **None** values to their
      defaults if **True**

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if configuration options
        requested was invalid
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the configuration setting is
        impossible or if there's a syntax error in the configuration values
    """

    start_time = time.time()

    # constructs the SETCONF or RESETCONF query
    query_comp = ['RESETCONF' if reset else 'SETCONF']

    if isinstance(params, dict):
      params = list(params.items())

    for param, value in params:
      if isinstance(value, str):
        query_comp.append('%s="%s"' % (param, value.strip()))
      elif isinstance(value, collections.Iterable):
        query_comp.extend(['%s="%s"' % (param, val.strip()) for val in value])
      elif not value:
        query_comp.append(param)
      else:
        raise ValueError('Cannot set %s to %s since the value was a %s but we only accept strings' % (param, value, type(value).__name__))

    query = ' '.join(query_comp)
    response = self.msg(query)
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if response.is_ok():
      log.debug('%s (runtime: %0.4f)' % (query, time.time() - start_time))

      if self.is_caching_enabled():
        # clear cache for params; the CONF_CHANGED event will set cache for changes
        to_cache = dict((k.lower(), None) for k, v in params)
        self._set_cache(to_cache, 'getconf')
        self._confchanged_cache_invalidation(dict(params))
    else:
      log.debug('%s (failed, code: %s, message: %s)' % (query, response.code, response.message))
      immutable_params = [k for k, v in params if stem.util.str_tools._to_unicode(k).lower() in IMMUTABLE_CONFIG_OPTIONS]

      if immutable_params:
        raise stem.InvalidArguments(message = "%s cannot be changed while tor's running" % ', '.join(sorted(immutable_params)), arguments = immutable_params)

      if response.code == '552':
        if response.message.startswith("Unrecognized option: Unknown option '"):
          key = response.message[37:response.message.find("'", 37)]
          raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, [key])
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      elif response.code in ('513', '553'):
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      else:
        raise stem.ProtocolError('Returned unexpected status code: %s' % response.code)

  @with_default()
  def get_hidden_service_conf(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_hidden_service_conf(default = UNDEFINED)

    This provides a mapping of hidden service directories to their
    attribute's key/value pairs. All hidden services are assured to have a
    'HiddenServicePort', but other entries may or may not exist.

    ::

      {
        "/var/lib/tor/hidden_service_empty/": {
          "HiddenServicePort": [
          ]
        },
        "/var/lib/tor/hidden_service_with_two_ports/": {
          "HiddenServiceAuthorizeClient": "stealth a, b",
          "HiddenServicePort": [
            (8020, "127.0.0.1", 8020),  # the ports order is kept
            (8021, "127.0.0.1", 8021)
          ],
          "HiddenServiceVersion": "2"
        },
      }

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: **dict** with the hidden service configuration

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and we weren't
      provided a default response
    """

    service_dir_map = self._get_cache('hidden_service_conf')

    if service_dir_map is not None:
      if LOG_CACHE_FETCHES:
        log.trace('GETCONF HiddenServiceOptions (cache fetch)')

      return service_dir_map

    start_time = time.time()

    try:
      response = self.msg('GETCONF HiddenServiceOptions')
      stem.response.convert('GETCONF', response)
      log.debug('GETCONF HiddenServiceOptions (runtime: %0.4f)' %
                (time.time() - start_time))
    except stem.ControllerError as exc:
      log.debug('GETCONF HiddenServiceOptions (failed: %s)' % exc)
      raise

    service_dir_map = OrderedDict()
    directory = None

    for status_code, divider, content in response.content():
      if content == 'HiddenServiceOptions':
        continue

      if '=' not in content:
        continue

      k, v = content.split('=', 1)

      if k == 'HiddenServiceDir':
        directory = v
        service_dir_map[directory] = {'HiddenServicePort': []}
      elif k == 'HiddenServicePort':
        port = target_port = v
        target_address = '127.0.0.1'

        if not v.isdigit():
          port, target = v.split()

          if target.isdigit():
            target_port = target
          else:
            target_address, target_port = target.rsplit(':', 1)

        if not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(port):
          raise stem.ProtocolError('GETCONF provided an invalid HiddenServicePort port (%s): %s' % (port, content))
        elif not stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv4_address(target_address):
          raise stem.ProtocolError('GETCONF provided an invalid HiddenServicePort target address (%s): %s' % (target_address, content))
        elif not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(target_port):
          raise stem.ProtocolError('GETCONF provided an invalid HiddenServicePort target port (%s): %s' % (target_port, content))

        service_dir_map[directory]['HiddenServicePort'].append((int(port), target_address, int(target_port)))
      else:
        service_dir_map[directory][k] = v

    self._set_cache({'hidden_service_conf': service_dir_map})
    return service_dir_map

  def set_hidden_service_conf(self, conf):
    """
    Update all the configured hidden services from a dictionary having
    the same format as
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_hidden_service_conf`.

    For convenience the HiddenServicePort entries can be an integer, string, or
    tuple. If an **int** then we treat it as just a port. If a **str** we pass
    that directly as the HiddenServicePort. And finally, if a **tuple** then
    it's expected to be the **(port, target_address, target_port)** as provided
    by :func:`~stem.control.Controller.get_hidden_service_conf`.

    This is to say the following three are equivalent...

    ::

      "HiddenServicePort": [
        80,
        '80 127.0.0.1:80',
        (80, '127.0.0.1', 80),
      ]

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :param dict conf: configuration dictionary

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if configuration options
        requested was invalid
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the configuration setting is
        impossible or if there's a syntax error in the configuration values
    """

    # If we're not adding or updating any hidden services then call RESETCONF
    # so we drop existing values. Otherwise calling SETCONF is a no-op.

    if not conf:
      self.reset_conf('HiddenServiceDir')
      return

    # Convert conf dictionary into a list of ordered config tuples

    hidden_service_options = []

    for directory in conf:
      hidden_service_options.append(('HiddenServiceDir', directory))

      for k, v in list(conf[directory].items()):
        if k == 'HiddenServicePort':
          for entry in v:
            if isinstance(entry, int):
              entry = '%s 127.0.0.1:%s' % (entry, entry)
            elif isinstance(entry, str):
              pass  # just pass along what the user gave us
            elif isinstance(entry, tuple):
              port, target_address, target_port = entry
              entry = '%s %s:%s' % (port, target_address, target_port)

            hidden_service_options.append(('HiddenServicePort', entry))
        else:
          hidden_service_options.append((k, str(v)))

    self.set_options(hidden_service_options)

  def create_hidden_service(self, path, port, target_address = None, target_port = None, auth_type = None, client_names = None):
    """
    Create a new hidden service. If the directory is already present, a
    new port is added.

    Our *.onion address is fetched by reading the hidden service directory.
    However, this directory is only readable by the tor user, so if unavailable
    the **hostname** will be **None**.

    **As of Tor 0.2.7.1 there's two ways for creating hidden services, and this
    method is no longer recommended.** Rather, try using
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.create_ephemeral_hidden_service` instead.

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    .. versionchanged:: 1.4.0
       Added the auth_type and client_names arguments.

    :param str path: path for the hidden service's data directory
    :param int port: hidden service port
    :param str target_address: address of the service, by default 127.0.0.1
    :param int target_port: port of the service, by default this is the same as
      **port**
    :param str auth_type: authentication type: basic, stealth or None to disable auth
    :param list client_names: client names (1-16 characters "A-Za-z0-9+-_")

    :returns: :class:`~stem.cotroller.CreateHiddenServiceOutput` if we create
      or update a hidden service, **None** otherwise

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
    """

    if not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(port):
      raise ValueError("%s isn't a valid port number" % port)
    elif target_address and not stem.util.connection.is_valid_ipv4_address(target_address):
      raise ValueError("%s isn't a valid IPv4 address" % target_address)
    elif target_port is not None and not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(target_port):
      raise ValueError("%s isn't a valid port number" % target_port)
    elif auth_type not in (None, 'basic', 'stealth'):
      raise ValueError("%s isn't a recognized type of authentication" % auth_type)

    port = int(port)
    target_address = target_address if target_address else '127.0.0.1'
    target_port = port if target_port is None else int(target_port)

    conf = self.get_hidden_service_conf()

    if path in conf and (port, target_address, target_port) in conf[path]['HiddenServicePort']:
      return None

    conf.setdefault(path, OrderedDict()).setdefault('HiddenServicePort', []).append((port, target_address, target_port))

    if auth_type and client_names:
      hsac = "%s %s" % (auth_type, ','.join(client_names))
      conf[path]['HiddenServiceAuthorizeClient'] = hsac

    # Tor 0.3.5 changes its default for HS creation from v2 to v3. This is
    # fine, but there's a couple options that are incompatible with v3. If
    # creating a service with one of those we should explicitly create a v2
    # service instead.
    #
    #   https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/27446

    for path in conf:
      if 'HiddenServiceAuthorizeClient' in conf[path] or 'RendPostPeriod' in conf[path]:
        conf[path]['HiddenServiceVersion'] = '2'

    self.set_hidden_service_conf(conf)

    hostname, hostname_for_client = None, {}

    if self.is_localhost():
      hostname_path = os.path.join(path, 'hostname')

      if not os.path.isabs(hostname_path):
        cwd = stem.util.system.cwd(self.get_pid(None))

        if cwd:
          hostname_path = stem.util.system.expand_path(hostname_path, cwd)

      if os.path.isabs(hostname_path):
        start_time = time.time()

        while not os.path.exists(hostname_path):
          wait_time = time.time() - start_time

          if wait_time >= 3:
            break
          else:
            time.sleep(0.05)

        try:
          with open(hostname_path) as hostname_file:
            hostname = hostname_file.read().strip()

            if client_names and '\n' in hostname:
              # When there's multiple clients this looks like...
              #
              # ndisjxzkgcdhrwqf.onion sjUwjTSPznqWLdOPuwRUzg # client: c1
              # ndisjxzkgcdhrwqf.onion sUu92axuL5bKnA76s2KRfw # client: c2

              for line in hostname.splitlines():
                if ' # client: ' in line:
                  address = line.split()[0]
                  client = line.split(' # client: ', 1)[1]

                  if len(address) == 22 and address.endswith('.onion'):
                    hostname_for_client[client] = address
        except:
          pass

    return CreateHiddenServiceOutput(
      path = path,
      hostname = hostname,
      hostname_for_client = hostname_for_client,
      config = conf,
    )

  def remove_hidden_service(self, path, port = None):
    """
    Discontinues a given hidden service.

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :param str path: path for the hidden service's data directory
    :param int port: hidden service port

    :returns: **True** if the hidden service is discontinued, **False** if it
      wasn't running in the first place

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
    """

    if port and not stem.util.connection.is_valid_port(port):
      raise ValueError("%s isn't a valid port number" % port)

    port = int(port) if port else None
    conf = self.get_hidden_service_conf()

    if path not in conf:
      return False

    if not port:
      del conf[path]
    else:
      to_remove = [entry for entry in conf[path]['HiddenServicePort'] if entry[0] == port]

      if not to_remove:
        return False

      for entry in to_remove:
        conf[path]['HiddenServicePort'].remove(entry)

      if not conf[path]['HiddenServicePort']:
        del conf[path]  # no ports left

    self.set_hidden_service_conf(conf)
    return True

  @with_default()
  def list_ephemeral_hidden_services(self, default = UNDEFINED, our_services = True, detached = False):
    """
    list_ephemeral_hidden_services(default = UNDEFINED, our_services = True, detached = False)

    Lists hidden service addresses created by
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.create_ephemeral_hidden_service`.

    .. versionadded:: 1.4.0

    .. versionchanged:: 1.6.0
       Tor change caused this to start providing empty strings if unset
       (:trac:`21329`).

    :param object default: response if the query fails
    :param bool our_services: include services created with this controller
      that weren't flagged as 'detached'
    :param bool detached: include services whos contiuation isn't tied to a
      controller

    :returns: **list** of hidden service addresses without their '.onion'
      suffix

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and we weren't
      provided a default response
    """

    if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION:
      raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'Ephemeral hidden services were added in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION)

    result = []

    if our_services:
      try:
        result += self.get_info('onions/current').split('\n')
      except stem.ProtocolError as exc:
        # TODO: Tor's behavior around this was changed in Feb 2017, we should
        # drop it when all versions that did this are deprecated...
        #
        #   https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/21329

        if 'No onion services of the specified type.' not in str(exc):
          raise

    if detached:
      try:
        result += self.get_info('onions/detached').split('\n')
      except stem.ProtocolError as exc:
        if 'No onion services of the specified type.' not in str(exc):
          raise

    return [r for r in result if r]  # drop any empty responses (GETINFO is blank if unset)

  def create_ephemeral_hidden_service(self, ports, key_type = 'NEW', key_content = 'BEST', discard_key = False, detached = False, await_publication = False, timeout = None, basic_auth = None, max_streams = None):
    """
    Creates a new hidden service. Unlike
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.create_hidden_service` this style of
    hidden service doesn't touch disk, carrying with it a lot of advantages.
    This is the suggested method for making hidden services.

    Our **ports** argument can be a single port...

    ::

      create_ephemeral_hidden_service(80)

    ... list of ports the service is available on...

    ::

      create_ephemeral_hidden_service([80, 443])

    ... or a mapping of hidden service ports to their targets...

    ::

      create_ephemeral_hidden_service({80: 80, 443: '173.194.33.133:443'})

    If **basic_auth** is provided this service will require basic
    authentication to access. This means users must set HidServAuth in their
    torrc with credentials to access it.

    **basic_auth** is a mapping of usernames to their credentials. If the
    credential is **None** one is generated and returned as part of the
    response. For instance, only bob can access using the given newly generated
    credentials...

    ::

      >>> response = controller.create_ephemeral_hidden_service(80, basic_auth = {'bob': None})
      >>> print(response.client_auth)
      {'bob': 'nKwfvVPmTNr2k2pG0pzV4g'}

    ... while both alice and bob can access with existing credentials in the
    following...

    ::

      controller.create_ephemeral_hidden_service(80, basic_auth = {
        'alice': 'l4BT016McqV2Oail+Bwe6w',
        'bob': 'vGnNRpWYiMBFTWD2gbBlcA',
      })

    To create a **version 3** service simply specify **ED25519-V3** as the
    our key type, and to create a **version 2** service use **RSA1024**. The
    default version of newly created hidden services is based on the
    **HiddenServiceVersion** value in your torrc...

    ::

      response = controller.create_ephemeral_hidden_service(
        80,
        key_content = 'ED25519-V3',
        await_publication = True,
      )

      print('service established at %s.onion' % response.service_id)

    .. versionadded:: 1.4.0

    .. versionchanged:: 1.5.0
       Added the basic_auth argument.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.5.0
       Added support for non-anonymous services. To do so set
       'HiddenServiceSingleHopMode 1' and 'HiddenServiceNonAnonymousMode 1' in
       your torrc.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Added the timeout and max_streams arguments.

    :param int,list,dict ports: hidden service port(s) or mapping of hidden
      service ports to their targets
    :param str key_type: type of key being provided, generates a new key if
      'NEW' (options are: **NEW**, **RSA1024**, and **ED25519-V3**)
    :param str key_content: key for the service to use or type of key to be
      generated (options when **key_type** is **NEW** are **BEST**,
      **RSA1024**, and **ED25519-V3**)
    :param bool discard_key: avoid providing the key back in our response
    :param bool detached: continue this hidden service even after this control
      connection is closed if **True**
    :param bool await_publication: blocks until our descriptor is successfully
      published if **True**
    :param float timeout: seconds to wait when **await_result** is **True**
    :param dict basic_auth: required user credentials to access this service
    :param int max_streams: maximum number of streams the hidden service will
      accept, unlimited if zero or not set

    :returns: :class:`~stem.response.add_onion.AddOnionResponse` with the response

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.Timeout` if **timeout** was reached
    """

    if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION:
      raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'Ephemeral hidden services were added in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION)

    hs_desc_queue, hs_desc_listener = queue.Queue(), None
    start_time = time.time()

    if await_publication:
      def hs_desc_listener(event):
        hs_desc_queue.put(event)

      self.add_event_listener(hs_desc_listener, EventType.HS_DESC)

    request = 'ADD_ONION %s:%s' % (key_type, key_content)

    flags = []

    if discard_key:
      flags.append('DiscardPK')

    if detached:
      flags.append('Detach')

    if basic_auth is not None:
      if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION_BASIC_AUTH:
        raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'Basic authentication support was added to ADD_ONION in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION_BASIC_AUTH)

      flags.append('BasicAuth')

    if max_streams is not None:
      if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION_MAX_STREAMS:
        raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'Limitation of the maximum number of streams to accept was added to ADD_ONION in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION_MAX_STREAMS)

      flags.append('MaxStreamsCloseCircuit')

    if self.get_version() >= stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION_NON_ANONYMOUS:
      if self.get_conf('HiddenServiceSingleHopMode', None) == '1' and self.get_conf('HiddenServiceNonAnonymousMode', None) == '1':
        flags.append('NonAnonymous')

    if flags:
      request += ' Flags=%s' % ','.join(flags)

    if max_streams is not None:
      request += ' MaxStreams=%s' % max_streams

    if isinstance(ports, int):
      request += ' Port=%s' % ports
    elif isinstance(ports, list):
      for port in ports:
        request += ' Port=%s' % port
    elif isinstance(ports, dict):
      for port, target in ports.items():
        request += ' Port=%s,%s' % (port, target)
    else:
      raise ValueError("The 'ports' argument of create_ephemeral_hidden_service() needs to be an int, list, or dict")

    if basic_auth is not None:
      for client_name, client_blob in basic_auth.items():
        if client_blob:
          request += ' ClientAuth=%s:%s' % (client_name, client_blob)
        else:
          request += ' ClientAuth=%s' % client_name

    response = self.msg(request)
    stem.response.convert('ADD_ONION', response)

    if await_publication:
      # We should receive five UPLOAD events, followed by up to another five
      # UPLOADED to indicate they've finished. Presently tor seems to have an
      # issue where the address is provided for UPLOAD but not UPLOADED so need
      # to just guess that if it's for the same hidden service authority then
      # it's what we're looking for.

      directories_uploaded_to, failures = [], []

      try:
        while True:
          event = _get_with_timeout(hs_desc_queue, timeout, start_time)

          if event.action == stem.HSDescAction.UPLOAD and event.address == response.service_id:
            directories_uploaded_to.append(event.directory_fingerprint)
          elif event.action == stem.HSDescAction.UPLOADED and event.directory_fingerprint in directories_uploaded_to:
            break  # successfully uploaded to a HS authority... maybe
          elif event.action == stem.HSDescAction.FAILED and event.directory_fingerprint in directories_uploaded_to:
            failures.append('%s (%s)' % (event.directory_fingerprint, event.reason))

            if len(directories_uploaded_to) == len(failures):
              raise stem.OperationFailed(message = 'Failed to upload our hidden service descriptor to %s' % ', '.join(failures))
      finally:
        self.remove_event_listener(hs_desc_listener)

    return response

  def remove_ephemeral_hidden_service(self, service_id):
    """
    Discontinues a given hidden service that was created with
    :func:`~stem.control.Controller.create_ephemeral_hidden_service`.

    .. versionadded:: 1.4.0

    :param str service_id: hidden service address without the '.onion' suffix

    :returns: **True** if the hidden service is discontinued, **False** if it
      wasn't running in the first place

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
    """

    if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION:
      raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'Ephemeral hidden services were added in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.ADD_ONION)

    response = self.msg('DEL_ONION %s' % service_id)
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if response.is_ok():
      return True
    elif response.code == '552':
      return False  # no hidden service to discontinue
    else:
      raise stem.ProtocolError('DEL_ONION returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

  def add_event_listener(self, listener, *events):
    """
    Directs further tor controller events to a given function. The function is
    expected to take a single argument, which is a
    :class:`~stem.response.events.Event` subclass. For instance the following
    would print the bytes sent and received by tor over five seconds...

    ::

      import time
      from stem.control import Controller, EventType

      def print_bw(event):
        print('sent: %i, received: %i' % (event.written, event.read))

      with Controller.from_port(port = 9051) as controller:
        controller.authenticate()
        controller.add_event_listener(print_bw, EventType.BW)
        time.sleep(5)

    If a new control connection is initialized then this listener will be
    reattached.

    If tor emits a malformed event it can be received by listening for the
    stem.control.MALFORMED_EVENTS constant.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Listener exceptions and malformed events no longer break further event
       processing. Added the **MALFORMED_EVENTS** constant.

    :param functor listener: function to be called when an event is received
    :param stem.control.EventType events: event types to be listened for

    :raises: :class:`stem.ProtocolError` if unable to set the events
    """

    # first checking that tor supports these event types

    with self._event_listeners_lock:
      if self.is_authenticated():
        for event_type in events:
          event_type = stem.response.events.EVENT_TYPE_TO_CLASS.get(event_type)

          if event_type and (self.get_version() < event_type._VERSION_ADDED):
            raise stem.InvalidRequest(552, '%s event requires Tor version %s or later' % (event_type, event_type._VERSION_ADDED))

      for event_type in events:
        self._event_listeners.setdefault(event_type, []).append(listener)

      failed_events = self._attach_listeners()[1]

      # restricted the failures to just things we requested

      failed_events = set(failed_events).intersection(set(events))

      if failed_events:
        raise stem.ProtocolError('SETEVENTS rejected %s' % ', '.join(failed_events))

  def remove_event_listener(self, listener):
    """
    Stops a listener from being notified of further tor events.

    :param stem.control.EventListener listener: listener to be removed

    :raises: :class:`stem.ProtocolError` if unable to set the events
    """

    with self._event_listeners_lock:
      event_types_changed = False

      for event_type, event_listeners in list(self._event_listeners.items()):
        if listener in event_listeners:
          event_listeners.remove(listener)

          if len(event_listeners) == 0:
            event_types_changed = True
            del self._event_listeners[event_type]

      if event_types_changed:
        response = self.msg('SETEVENTS %s' % ' '.join(self._event_listeners.keys()))

        if not response.is_ok():
          raise stem.ProtocolError('SETEVENTS received unexpected response\n%s' % response)

  def _get_cache(self, param, namespace = None):
    """
    Queries our request cache for the given key.

    :param str param: key to be queried
    :param str namespace: namespace in which to check for the key

    :returns: cached value corresponding to key or **None** if the key wasn't found
    """

    with self._cache_lock:
      if not self.is_caching_enabled():
        return None

      cache_key = '%s.%s' % (namespace, param) if namespace else param
      return self._request_cache.get(cache_key, None)

  def _get_cache_map(self, params, namespace = None):
    """
    Queries our request cache for multiple entries.

    :param list params: keys to be queried
    :param str namespace: namespace in which to check for the keys

    :returns: **dict** of 'param => cached value' pairs of keys present in cache
    """

    with self._cache_lock:
      cached_values = {}

      if self.is_caching_enabled():
        for param in params:
          cache_key = '%s.%s' % (namespace, param) if namespace else param

          if cache_key in self._request_cache:
            cached_values[param] = self._request_cache[cache_key]

      return cached_values

  def _set_cache(self, params, namespace = None):
    """
    Sets the given request cache entries. If the new cache value is **None**
    then it is removed from our cache.

    :param dict params: **dict** of 'cache_key => value' pairs to be cached
    :param str namespace: namespace for the keys
    """

    with self._cache_lock:
      if not self.is_caching_enabled():
        return

      # if params is None then clear the namespace

      if params is None and namespace:
        for cache_key in list(self._request_cache.keys()):
          if cache_key.startswith('%s.' % namespace):
            del self._request_cache[cache_key]

        return

      # remove uncacheable items
      if namespace == 'getconf':
        # shallow copy before edit so as not to change it for the caller
        params = params.copy()
        for key in UNCACHEABLE_GETCONF_PARAMS:
          if key in params:
            del params[key]

      for key, value in list(params.items()):
        if namespace:
          cache_key = '%s.%s' % (namespace, key)
        else:
          cache_key = key

        if value is None:
          if cache_key in list(self._request_cache.keys()):
            del self._request_cache[cache_key]
        else:
          self._request_cache[cache_key] = value

  def _confchanged_cache_invalidation(self, params):
    """
    Drops dependent portions of the cache when configuration changes.

    :param dict params: **dict** of 'config_key => value' pairs for configs
      that changed. The entries' values are currently unused.
    """

    with self._cache_lock:
      if not self.is_caching_enabled():
        return

      if any('hidden' in param.lower() for param in params.keys()):
        self._set_cache({'hidden_service_conf': None})

      # reset any getinfo parameters that can be changed by a SETCONF

      self._set_cache(dict([(k.lower(), None) for k in CACHEABLE_GETINFO_PARAMS_UNTIL_SETCONF]), 'getinfo')
      self._set_cache(None, 'listeners')

      self._set_cache({'get_custom_options': None})

      self._set_cache({'exit_policy': None})  # numerous options can change our policy

  def is_caching_enabled(self):
    """
    **True** if caching has been enabled, **False** otherwise.

    :returns: bool to indicate if caching is enabled
    """

    return self._is_caching_enabled

  def set_caching(self, enabled):
    """
    Enables or disables caching of information retrieved from tor.

    :param bool enabled: **True** to enable caching, **False** to disable it
    """

    self._is_caching_enabled = enabled

    if not self._is_caching_enabled:
      self.clear_cache()

  def clear_cache(self):
    """
    Drops any cached results.
    """

    with self._cache_lock:
      self._request_cache = {}
      self._last_newnym = 0.0
      self._is_geoip_unavailable = None

  def load_conf(self, configtext):
    """
    Sends the configuration text to Tor and loads it as if it has been read from
    the torrc.

    :param str configtext: the configuration text

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
    """

    response = self.msg('LOADCONF\n%s' % configtext)
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if response.code in ('552', '553'):
      if response.code == '552' and response.message.startswith('Invalid config file: Failed to parse/validate config: Unknown option'):
        raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, [response.message[70:response.message.find('.', 70) - 1]])
      raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
    elif not response.is_ok():
      raise stem.ProtocolError('+LOADCONF Received unexpected response\n%s' % str(response))

  def save_conf(self, force = False):
    """
    Saves the current configuration options into the active torrc file.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.6.0
       Added the force argument.

    :param bool force: overwrite the configuration even if it includes a
      '%include' clause, this is ignored if tor doesn't support it

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.OperationFailed` if the client is unable to save
        the configuration file
    """

    if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.SAVECONF_FORCE:
      force = False

    response = self.msg('SAVECONF FORCE' if force else 'SAVECONF')
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if response.is_ok():
      return True
    elif response.code == '551':
      raise stem.OperationFailed(response.code, response.message)
    else:
      raise stem.ProtocolError('SAVECONF returned unexpected response code')

  def is_feature_enabled(self, feature):
    """
    Checks if a control connection feature is enabled. These features can be
    enabled using :func:`~stem.control.Controller.enable_feature`.

    :param str feature: feature to be checked

    :returns: **True** if feature is enabled, **False** otherwise
    """

    feature = feature.upper()

    if feature in self._enabled_features:
      return True
    else:
      # check if this feature is on by default
      defaulted_version = None

      if feature == 'EXTENDED_EVENTS':
        defaulted_version = stem.version.Requirement.FEATURE_EXTENDED_EVENTS
      elif feature == 'VERBOSE_NAMES':
        defaulted_version = stem.version.Requirement.FEATURE_VERBOSE_NAMES

      if defaulted_version:
        our_version = self.get_version(None)

        if our_version and our_version >= defaulted_version:
          self._enabled_features.append(feature)

      return feature in self._enabled_features

  def enable_feature(self, features):
    """
    Enables features that are disabled by default to maintain backward
    compatibility. Once enabled, a feature cannot be disabled and a new
    control connection must be opened to get a connection with the feature
    disabled. Feature names are case-insensitive.

    The following features are currently accepted:

      * EXTENDED_EVENTS - Requests the extended event syntax
      * VERBOSE_NAMES - Replaces ServerID with LongName in events and GETINFO results

    :param str,list features: a single feature or a list of features to be enabled

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if features passed were invalid
    """

    if stem.util._is_str(features):
      features = [features]

    response = self.msg('USEFEATURE %s' % ' '.join(features))
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if not response.is_ok():
      if response.code == '552':
        invalid_feature = []

        if response.message.startswith('Unrecognized feature "'):
          invalid_feature = [response.message[22:response.message.find('"', 22)]]

        raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, invalid_feature)

      raise stem.ProtocolError('USEFEATURE provided an invalid response code: %s' % response.code)

    self._enabled_features += [entry.upper() for entry in features]

  @with_default()
  def get_circuit(self, circuit_id, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_circuit(circuit_id, default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides a circuit currently available from tor.

    :param int circuit_id: circuit to be fetched
    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: :class:`stem.response.events.CircuitEvent` for the given circuit

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * **ValueError** if the circuit doesn't exist

      An exception is only raised if we weren't provided a default response.
    """

    for circ in self.get_circuits():
      if circ.id == circuit_id:
        return circ

    raise ValueError("Tor currently does not have a circuit with the id of '%s'" % circuit_id)

  @with_default()
  def get_circuits(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_circuits(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides tor's currently available circuits.

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: **list** of :class:`stem.response.events.CircuitEvent` for our circuits

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and no default was provided
    """

    circuits = []
    response = self.get_info('circuit-status')

    for circ in response.splitlines():
      circ_message = stem.socket.recv_message(io.BytesIO(stem.util.str_tools._to_bytes('650 CIRC %s\r\n' % circ)))
      stem.response.convert('EVENT', circ_message, arrived_at = 0)
      circuits.append(circ_message)

    return circuits

  def new_circuit(self, path = None, purpose = 'general', await_build = False, timeout = None):
    """
    Requests a new circuit. If the path isn't provided, one is automatically
    selected.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Added the timeout argument.

    :param list,str path: one or more relays to make a circuit through
    :param str purpose: 'general' or 'controller'
    :param bool await_build: blocks until the circuit is built if **True**
    :param float timeout: seconds to wait when **await_build** is **True**

    :returns: str of the circuit id of the newly created circuit

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
      * :class:`stem.Timeout` if **timeout** was reached
    """

    return self.extend_circuit('0', path, purpose, await_build, timeout)

  def extend_circuit(self, circuit_id = '0', path = None, purpose = 'general', await_build = False, timeout = None):
    """
    Either requests the creation of a new circuit or extends an existing one.

    When called with a circuit value of zero (the default) a new circuit is
    created, and when non-zero the circuit with that id is extended. If the
    path isn't provided, one is automatically selected.

    A python interpreter session used to create circuits could look like this...

    ::

      >>> controller.extend_circuit('0', ['718BCEA286B531757ACAFF93AE04910EA73DE617', '30BAB8EE7606CBD12F3CC269AE976E0153E7A58D', '2765D8A8C4BBA3F89585A9FFE0E8575615880BEB'])
      19
      >>> controller.extend_circuit('0')
      20
      >>> print(controller.get_info('circuit-status'))
      20 EXTENDED $718BCEA286B531757ACAFF93AE04910EA73DE617=KsmoinOK,$649F2D0ACF418F7CFC6539AB2257EB2D5297BAFA=Eskimo BUILD_FLAGS=NEED_CAPACITY PURPOSE=GENERAL TIME_CREATED=2012-12-06T13:51:11.433755
      19 BUILT $718BCEA286B531757ACAFF93AE04910EA73DE617=KsmoinOK,$30BAB8EE7606CBD12F3CC269AE976E0153E7A58D=Pascal1,$2765D8A8C4BBA3F89585A9FFE0E8575615880BEB=Anthracite PURPOSE=GENERAL TIME_CREATED=2012-12-06T13:50:56.969938

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7.0
       Added the timeout argument.

    :param str circuit_id: id of a circuit to be extended
    :param list,str path: one or more relays to make a circuit through, this is
      required if the circuit id is non-zero
    :param str purpose: 'general' or 'controller'
    :param bool await_build: blocks until the circuit is built if **True**
    :param float timeout: seconds to wait when **await_build** is **True**

    :returns: str of the circuit id of the created or extended circuit

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if one of the parameters were invalid
      * :class:`stem.CircuitExtensionFailed` if we were waiting for the circuit
        to build but it failed
      * :class:`stem.Timeout` if **timeout** was reached
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails
    """

    # Attaches a temporary listener for CIRC events if we'll be waiting for it
    # to build. This is icky, but we can't reliably do this via polling since
    # we then can't get the failure if it can't be created.

    circ_queue, circ_listener = queue.Queue(), None
    start_time = time.time()

    if await_build:
      def circ_listener(event):
        circ_queue.put(event)

      self.add_event_listener(circ_listener, EventType.CIRC)

    try:
      # we might accidently get integer circuit ids
      circuit_id = str(circuit_id)

      if path is None and circuit_id == '0':
        path_opt_version = stem.version.Requirement.EXTENDCIRCUIT_PATH_OPTIONAL

        if not self.get_version() >= path_opt_version:
          raise stem.InvalidRequest(512, 'EXTENDCIRCUIT requires the path prior to version %s' % path_opt_version)

      args = [circuit_id]

      if stem.util._is_str(path):
        path = [path]

      if path:
        args.append(','.join(path))

      if purpose:
        args.append('purpose=%s' % purpose)

      response = self.msg('EXTENDCIRCUIT %s' % ' '.join(args))
      stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

      if response.code in ('512', '552'):
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      elif not response.is_ok():
        raise stem.ProtocolError('EXTENDCIRCUIT returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

      if not response.message.startswith('EXTENDED '):
        raise stem.ProtocolError('EXTENDCIRCUIT response invalid:\n%s', response)

      new_circuit = response.message.split(' ', 1)[1]

      if await_build:
        while True:
          circ = _get_with_timeout(circ_queue, timeout, start_time)

          if circ.id == new_circuit:
            if circ.status == CircStatus.BUILT:
              break
            elif circ.status == CircStatus.FAILED:
              raise stem.CircuitExtensionFailed('Circuit failed to be created: %s' % circ.reason, circ)
            elif circ.status == CircStatus.CLOSED:
              raise stem.CircuitExtensionFailed('Circuit was closed prior to build', circ)

      return new_circuit
    finally:
      if circ_listener:
        self.remove_event_listener(circ_listener)

  def repurpose_circuit(self, circuit_id, purpose):
    """
    Changes a circuit's purpose. Currently, two purposes are recognized...
      * general
      * controller

    :param str circuit_id: id of the circuit whose purpose is to be changed
    :param str purpose: purpose (either 'general' or 'controller')

    :raises: :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if the circuit doesn't exist or if the purpose was invalid
    """

    response = self.msg('SETCIRCUITPURPOSE %s purpose=%s' % (circuit_id, purpose))
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if not response.is_ok():
      if response.code == '552':
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      else:
        raise stem.ProtocolError('SETCIRCUITPURPOSE returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

  def close_circuit(self, circuit_id, flag = ''):
    """
    Closes the specified circuit.

    :param str circuit_id: id of the circuit to be closed
    :param str flag: optional value to modify closing, the only flag available
      is 'IfUnused' which will not close the circuit unless it is unused

    :raises: :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if the circuit is unknown
    :raises: :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if not enough information is provided
    """

    response = self.msg('CLOSECIRCUIT %s %s' % (circuit_id, flag))
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if not response.is_ok():
      if response.code in ('512', '552'):
        if response.message.startswith('Unknown circuit '):
          raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, [circuit_id])
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      else:
        raise stem.ProtocolError('CLOSECIRCUIT returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

  @with_default()
  def get_streams(self, default = UNDEFINED):
    """
    get_streams(default = UNDEFINED)

    Provides the list of streams tor is currently handling.

    :param object default: response if the query fails

    :returns: list of :class:`stem.response.events.StreamEvent` objects

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and no default was
      provided
    """

    streams = []
    response = self.get_info('stream-status')

    for stream in response.splitlines():
      message = stem.socket.recv_message(io.BytesIO(stem.util.str_tools._to_bytes('650 STREAM %s\r\n' % stream)))
      stem.response.convert('EVENT', message, arrived_at = 0)
      streams.append(message)

    return streams

  def attach_stream(self, stream_id, circuit_id, exiting_hop = None):
    """
    Attaches a stream to a circuit.

    Note: Tor attaches streams to circuits automatically unless the
    __LeaveStreamsUnattached configuration variable is set to '1'

    :param str stream_id: id of the stream that must be attached
    :param str circuit_id: id of the circuit to which it must be attached
    :param int exiting_hop: hop in the circuit where traffic should exit

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the stream or circuit id were unrecognized
      * :class:`stem.UnsatisfiableRequest` if the stream isn't in a state where it can be attached
      * :class:`stem.OperationFailed` if the stream couldn't be attached for any other reason
    """

    query = 'ATTACHSTREAM %s %s' % (stream_id, circuit_id)

    if exiting_hop:
      query += ' HOP=%s' % exiting_hop

    response = self.msg(query)
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if not response.is_ok():
      if response.code == '552':
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      elif response.code == '551':
        raise stem.OperationFailed(response.code, response.message)
      elif response.code == '555':
        raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(response.code, response.message)
      else:
        raise stem.ProtocolError('ATTACHSTREAM returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

  def close_stream(self, stream_id, reason = stem.RelayEndReason.MISC, flag = ''):
    """
    Closes the specified stream.

    :param str stream_id: id of the stream to be closed
    :param stem.RelayEndReason reason: reason the stream is closing
    :param str flag: not currently used

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if the stream or reason are not recognized
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the stream and/or reason are missing
    """

    # there's a single value offset between RelayEndReason.index_of() and the
    # value that tor expects since tor's value starts with the index of one

    response = self.msg('CLOSESTREAM %s %s %s' % (stream_id, stem.RelayEndReason.index_of(reason) + 1, flag))
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if not response.is_ok():
      if response.code in ('512', '552'):
        if response.message.startswith('Unknown stream '):
          raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, [stream_id])
        elif response.message.startswith('Unrecognized reason '):
          raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, [reason])
        raise stem.InvalidRequest(response.code, response.message)
      else:
        raise stem.ProtocolError('CLOSESTREAM returned unexpected response code: %s' % response.code)

  def signal(self, signal):
    """
    Sends a signal to the Tor client.

    :param stem.Signal signal: type of signal to be sent

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.ControllerError` if sending the signal failed
      * :class:`stem.InvalidArguments` if signal provided wasn't recognized
    """

    response = self.msg('SIGNAL %s' % signal)
    stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

    if response.is_ok():
      if signal == stem.Signal.NEWNYM:
        self._last_newnym = time.time()
    else:
      if response.code == '552':
        raise stem.InvalidArguments(response.code, response.message, [signal])

      raise stem.ProtocolError('SIGNAL response contained unrecognized status code: %s' % response.code)

  def is_newnym_available(self):
    """
    Indicates if tor would currently accept a NEWNYM signal. This can only
    account for signals sent via this controller.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2.0

    :returns: **True** if tor would currently accept a NEWNYM signal, **False**
      otherwise
    """

    if self.is_alive():
      return self.get_newnym_wait() == 0.0
    else:
      return False

  def get_newnym_wait(self):
    """
    Provides the number of seconds until a NEWNYM signal would be respected.
    This can only account for signals sent via this controller.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2.0

    :returns: **float** for the number of seconds until tor would respect
      another NEWNYM signal
    """

    return max(0.0, self._last_newnym + 10 - time.time())

  @with_default()
  def get_effective_rate(self, default = UNDEFINED, burst = False):
    """
    get_effective_rate(default = UNDEFINED, burst = False)

    Provides the maximum rate this relay is configured to relay in bytes per
    second. This is based on multiple torrc parameters if they're set...

    * Effective Rate = min(BandwidthRate, RelayBandwidthRate, MaxAdvertisedBandwidth)
    * Effective Burst = min(BandwidthBurst, RelayBandwidthBurst)

    .. versionadded:: 1.3.0

    :param object default: response if the query fails
    :param bool burst: provides the burst bandwidth, otherwise this provides
      the standard rate

    :returns: **int** with the effective bandwidth rate in bytes per second

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if the call fails and no default was
      provided
    """

    if not burst:
      attributes = ('BandwidthRate', 'RelayBandwidthRate', 'MaxAdvertisedBandwidth')
    else:
      attributes = ('BandwidthBurst', 'RelayBandwidthBurst')

    value = None

    for attr in attributes:
      attr_value = int(self.get_conf(attr))

      if attr_value == 0 and attr.startswith('Relay'):
        continue  # RelayBandwidthRate and RelayBandwidthBurst default to zero

      value = min(value, attr_value) if value else attr_value

    return value

  def is_geoip_unavailable(self):
    """
    Provides **True** if tor's geoip database is unavailable, **False**
    otherwise.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.6.0
       No longer requires previously failed GETINFO requests to determine this.

    .. deprecated:: 1.6.0
       This is available as of Tor 0.3.2.1 through the following instead...

       ::

         controller.get_info('ip-to-country/ipv4-available', 0) == '1'

    :returns: **bool** indicating if we've determined tor's geoip database to
      be unavailable or not
    """

    if self._is_geoip_unavailable is None:
      try:
        self.get_info('ip-to-country/0.0.0.0')
        self._is_geoip_unavailable = False
      except stem.ControllerError as exc:
        if 'GeoIP data not loaded' in str(exc):
          self._is_geoip_unavailable = True
        else:
          return False  # unexpected issue, fail open and don't cache

    return self._is_geoip_unavailable

  def map_address(self, mapping):
    """
    Map addresses to replacement addresses. Tor replaces subseqent connections
    to the original addresses with the replacement addresses.

    If the original address is a null address, i.e., one of '0.0.0.0', '::0', or
    '.' Tor picks an original address itself and returns it in the reply. If the
    original address is already mapped to a different address the mapping is
    removed.

    :param dict mapping: mapping of original addresses to replacement addresses

    :raises:
      * :class:`stem.InvalidRequest` if the addresses are malformed
      * :class:`stem.OperationFailed` if Tor couldn't fulfill the request

    :returns: **dict** with 'original -> replacement' address mappings
    """

    mapaddress_arg = ' '.join(['%s=%s' % (k, v) for (k, v) in list(mapping.items())])
    response = self.msg('MAPADDRESS %s' % mapaddress_arg)
    stem.response.convert('MAPADDRESS', response)

    return response.entries

  def drop_guards(self):
    """
    Drops our present guard nodes and picks a new set.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2.0

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if Tor couldn't fulfill the request
    """

    if self.get_version() < stem.version.Requirement.DROPGUARDS:
      raise stem.UnsatisfiableRequest(message = 'DROPGUARDS was added in tor version %s' % stem.version.Requirement.DROPGUARDS)

    self.msg('DROPGUARDS')

  def _post_authentication(self):
    super(Controller, self)._post_authentication()

    # try to re-attach event listeners to the new instance

    with self._event_listeners_lock:
      try:
        failed_events = self._attach_listeners()[1]

        if failed_events:
          # remove our listeners for these so we don't keep failing
          for event_type in failed_events:
            del self._event_listeners[event_type]

          logging_id = 'stem.controller.event_reattach-%s' % '-'.join(failed_events)
          log.log_once(logging_id, log.WARN, 'We were unable to re-attach our event listeners to the new tor instance for: %s' % ', '.join(failed_events))
      except stem.ProtocolError as exc:
        log.warn('Unable to issue the SETEVENTS request to re-attach our listeners (%s)' % exc)

    # issue TAKEOWNERSHIP if we're the owning process for this tor instance

    owning_pid = self.get_conf('__OwningControllerProcess', None)

    if owning_pid == str(os.getpid()) and self.is_localhost():
      response = self.msg('TAKEOWNERSHIP')
      stem.response.convert('SINGLELINE', response)

      if response.is_ok():
        # Now that tor is tracking our ownership of the process via the control
        # connection, we can stop having it check for us via our pid.

        try:
          self.reset_conf('__OwningControllerProcess')
        except stem.ControllerError as exc:
          log.warn("We were unable to reset tor's __OwningControllerProcess configuration. It will continue to periodically check if our pid exists. (%s)" % exc)
      else:
        log.warn('We were unable assert ownership of tor through TAKEOWNERSHIP, despite being configured to be the owning process through __OwningControllerProcess. (%s)' % response)

  def _handle_event(self, event_message):
    try:
      stem.response.convert('EVENT', event_message, arrived_at = time.time())
      event_type = event_message.type
    except stem.ProtocolError as exc:
      log.error('Tor sent a malformed event (%s): %s' % (exc, event_message))
      event_type = MALFORMED_EVENTS

    with self._event_listeners_lock:
      for listener_type, event_listeners in list(self._event_listeners.items()):
        if listener_type == event_type:
          for listener in event_listeners:
            try:
              listener(event_message)
            except Exception as exc:
              log.warn('Event listener raised an uncaught exception (%s): %s' % (exc, event_message))

  def _attach_listeners(self):
    """
    Attempts to subscribe to the self._event_listeners events from tor. This is
    a no-op if we're not currently authenticated.

    :returns: tuple of the form (set_events, failed_events)

    :raises: :class:`stem.ControllerError` if unable to make our request to tor
    """

    set_events, failed_events = [], []

    with self._event_listeners_lock:
      if self.is_authenticated():
        # try to set them all
        response = self.msg('SETEVENTS %s' % ' '.join(self._event_listeners.keys()))

        if response.is_ok():
          set_events = list(self._event_listeners.keys())
        else:
          # One of the following likely happened...
          #
          # * Our user attached listeners before having an authenticated
          #   connection, so we couldn't check if we met the version
          #   requirement.
          #
          # * User attached listeners to one tor instance, then connected us to
          #   an older tor instancce.
          #
          # * Some other controller hiccup (far less likely).
          #
          # See if we can set some subset of our events.

          for event in list(self._event_listeners.keys()):
            response = self.msg('SETEVENTS %s' % ' '.join(set_events + [event]))

            if response.is_ok():
              set_events.append(event)
            else:
              failed_events.append(event)

    return (set_events, failed_events)


def _parse_circ_path(path):
  """
  Parses a circuit path as a list of **(fingerprint, nickname)** tuples. Tor
  circuit paths are defined as being of the form...

  ::

    Path = LongName *("," LongName)
    LongName = Fingerprint [ ( "=" / "~" ) Nickname ]

    example:
    $999A226EBED397F331B612FE1E4CFAE5C1F201BA=piyaz

  ... *unless* this is prior to tor version 0.2.2.1 with the VERBOSE_NAMES
  feature turned off (or before version 0.1.2.2 where the feature was
  introduced). In that case either the fingerprint or nickname in the tuple
  will be **None**, depending on which is missing.

  ::

    Path = ServerID *("," ServerID)
    ServerID = Nickname / Fingerprint

    example:
    $E57A476CD4DFBD99B4EE52A100A58610AD6E80B9,hamburgerphone,PrivacyRepublic14

  :param str path: circuit path to be parsed

  :returns: list of **(fingerprint, nickname)** tuples, fingerprints do not have a proceeding '$'

  :raises: :class:`stem.ProtocolError` if the path is malformed
  """

  if path:
    try:
      return [_parse_circ_entry(entry) for entry in path.split(',')]
    except stem.ProtocolError as exc:
      # include the path with the exception
      raise stem.ProtocolError('%s: %s' % (exc, path))
  else:
    return []


def _parse_circ_entry(entry):
  """
  Parses a single relay's 'LongName' or 'ServerID'. See the
  :func:`~stem.control._parse_circ_path` function for more information.

  :param str entry: relay information to be parsed

  :returns: **(fingerprint, nickname)** tuple

  :raises: :class:`stem.ProtocolError` if the entry is malformed
  """

  if '=' in entry:
    # common case
    fingerprint, nickname = entry.split('=')
  elif '~' in entry:
    # this is allowed for by the spec, but I've never seen it used
    fingerprint, nickname = entry.split('~')
  elif entry[0] == '$':
    # old style, fingerprint only
    fingerprint, nickname = entry, None
  else:
    # old style, nickname only
    fingerprint, nickname = None, entry

  if fingerprint is not None:
    if not stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_fingerprint(fingerprint, True):
      raise stem.ProtocolError('Fingerprint in the circuit path is malformed (%s)' % fingerprint)

    fingerprint = fingerprint[1:]  # strip off the leading '$'

  if nickname is not None and not stem.util.tor_tools.is_valid_nickname(nickname):
    raise stem.ProtocolError('Nickname in the circuit path is malformed (%s)' % nickname)

  return (fingerprint, nickname)


@with_default()
def _case_insensitive_lookup(entries, key, default = UNDEFINED):
  """
  Makes a case insensitive lookup within a list or dictionary, providing the
  first matching entry that we come across.

  :param list,dict entries: list or dictionary to be searched
  :param str key: entry or key value to look up
  :param object default: value to be returned if the key doesn't exist

  :returns: case insensitive match or default if one was provided and key wasn't found

  :raises: **ValueError** if no such value exists
  """

  if entries is not None:
    if isinstance(entries, dict):
      for k, v in list(entries.items()):
        if k.lower() == key.lower():
          return v
    else:
      for entry in entries:
        if entry.lower() == key.lower():
          return entry

  raise ValueError("key '%s' doesn't exist in dict: %s" % (key, entries))


def _get_with_timeout(event_queue, timeout, start_time):
  """
  Pulls an item from a queue with a given timeout.
  """

  if timeout:
    time_left = timeout - (time.time() - start_time)

    if time_left <= 0:
      raise stem.Timeout('Reached our %0.1f second timeout' % timeout)

    try:
      return event_queue.get(True, time_left)
    except queue.Empty:
      raise stem.Timeout('Reached our %0.1f second timeout' % timeout)
  else:
    return event_queue.get()